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Sample records for radiological examination biomechanik

  1. Biomechanics of the arch of the foot. Pre- and postoperative radiological examination; Biomechanik des Fussgewoelbes. Prae- und postoperative Radiometrie

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    Kristen, K.H. [Fusszentrum Wien, Wien (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    The human foot is a complex biomechanical structure. The arch of the foot is formed by the bony and articular structure of the midfoot and supported by strong ligaments and tendons. The normal arch develops in childhood. Tendon and ligament rupture and degeneration often lead to flattening of the arch. Frequent painful conditions include hallux valgus deformity and rupture of the posterior tibial tendon both leading to flat feet. Radiological examination is necessary in a standardized, full weight bearing standing position. The standing dorsoplantar view shows hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal 1/2 angle. The side view shows Lisfranc joint instability and decrease of the talometatarsal angle. Talonavicular instability is a frequent secondary sign of spring ligament and posterior tibial tendon lesion. After failure of conservative therapy, corrective surgery with osteotomy and realignment procedure of the malpositioned bones in combination with tendon and ligament reconstruction is the state of the art procedure. In postoperative follow-up a standing X-ray of the foot is again the standard tool. Additional MRI and CT examinations help to detect bone and cartilage lesions and tendon/ligament ruptures. (orig.) [German] Der menschliche Fuss ist ein biomechanisch hoch komplexes System. Das Gewoelbe des Fusses ist durch Knochen und Gelenksstruktur vorgegeben und wird statisch durch straffe Baender sowie dynamisch durch kraeftige Sehnen in seiner Form gehalten. Das Fussgewoelbe entwickelt sich in der Kindheit. Sehnen- und Bandverletzungen sowie Degenerationen fuehren zu einer progredienten Abflachung des Fussgewoelbes. Haeufige schmerzhafte Erkrankungen sind die Hallux-valgus-Deformitaet und die Ruptur der Tibialis-posterior-Sehne. Beide Erkrankungen fuehren zu einem Plattfuss. Roentgenaufnahmen bei strukturellen Stoerungen des Fusses muessen als belastete stehende Aufnahmen erfolgen. Die stehende dorsoplantare Aufnahme zeigt einen Hallux-valgus-Winkel und den

  2. Lumbar disc arthroplasty: indications, biomechanics, types, and radiological criteria; Lumbale Bandscheibenendoprothesen: Indikationen, Biomechanik, Typen und radiologische Kriterien

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    Baur-Melnyk, A; Reiser, M F [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, Muenchen (Germany); Birkenmaier, C [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed to treat a painful degenerative lumbar motion segment while avoiding the disadvantages of fusion surgery, such as adjacent segment instabilities. Early clinical results with TDR have shown a significant reduction in low back pain and a significant improvement in disability scores. When compared to fusion, the results with TDR tend to be superior in the short-term follow-up and initial rehabilitation is faster. The radiological assessment is an integral part of the preoperative work-up. Plain X-rays of the lumbar spine should be complemented by flexion - extension views in order to assess residual segmental mobility. Computed tomography is used to exclude osteoarthritis of the zygapophyseal joints, Baastrup's disease (kissing spines) and other sources of low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful to exclude substantial disc protrusions; it allows for the detection of disc dehydration and bone marrow edema in the case of activated spondylochondrosis. If osteoporosis is suspected, an osteodensitometry of the lumbar spine should be performed. Postoperative plain X-rays should include antero-posterior and lateral views as well as flexion - extension views in the later postoperative course. Measurements should determine the disc space height in the lateral view, the segmental and total lumbar lordosis as well as the segmental mobility in the flexion - extension views. The ideal position of a TDR is exactly central in the ap-view and close to the dorsal border of the vertebral endplates in the lateral view. Malpositioning may cause segmental hyperlordosis and unbalanced loading of the endplates with the risk of implant subsidence and migration. (orig.) [German] Die lumbale Bandscheibenendoprothese (LBEP) wurde entwickelt, um ein schmerzhaftes lumbales Bewegungssegment unter Vermeidung der Nachteile einer Fusionsoperation zu behandeln. Erste klinische Ergebnisse der LBEP zeigen eine signifikante Reduktion der

  3. Lumbar disc arthroplasty: indications, biomechanics, types, and radiological criteria; Lumbale Bandscheibenendoprothesen: Indikationen, Biomechanik, Typen und radiologische Kriterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, A.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, Muenchen (Germany); Birkenmaier, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed to treat a painful degenerative lumbar motion segment while avoiding the disadvantages of fusion surgery, such as adjacent segment instabilities. Early clinical results with TDR have shown a significant reduction in low back pain and a significant improvement in disability scores. When compared to fusion, the results with TDR tend to be superior in the short-term follow-up and initial rehabilitation is faster. The radiological assessment is an integral part of the preoperative work-up. Plain X-rays of the lumbar spine should be complemented by flexion - extension views in order to assess residual segmental mobility. Computed tomography is used to exclude osteoarthritis of the zygapophyseal joints, Baastrup's disease (kissing spines) and other sources of low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful to exclude substantial disc protrusions; it allows for the detection of disc dehydration and bone marrow edema in the case of activated spondylochondrosis. If osteoporosis is suspected, an osteodensitometry of the lumbar spine should be performed. Postoperative plain X-rays should include antero-posterior and lateral views as well as flexion - extension views in the later postoperative course. Measurements should determine the disc space height in the lateral view, the segmental and total lumbar lordosis as well as the segmental mobility in the flexion - extension views. The ideal position of a TDR is exactly central in the ap-view and close to the dorsal border of the vertebral endplates in the lateral view. Malpositioning may cause segmental hyperlordosis and unbalanced loading of the endplates with the risk of implant subsidence and migration. (orig.) [German] Die lumbale Bandscheibenendoprothese (LBEP) wurde entwickelt, um ein schmerzhaftes lumbales Bewegungssegment unter Vermeidung der Nachteile einer Fusionsoperation zu behandeln. Erste klinische Ergebnisse der LBEP zeigen eine signifikante Reduktion der

  4. Radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The radiographic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract has been changed drastically by the introduction of endoscopic procedures that are now widely available. However, the diagnostic approach to the small bowel remains largely unchanged. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are occasionally employed but are not primary imaging modalities for small bowel disease. Even though small bowel endoscopes are available, they are infrequently used, and no scientific paper on their employment has been published. Barium studies are still the mainstay for evaluating patients with suspected small bowel abnormalities. This paper discusses the anatomy and physiology of the small bowel and lists the various types of barium and pharmacologic aids used for examining it. The different radiographic methods for examining the small bowel with barium, including SBFT, dedicated SBFT, enteroclysis, peroral pneumocolon (PPC), and retrograde small bowel examination, are described and put into perspective. To some degree such an undertaking must be a personal opinion, but certain conclusions can be made based on the available literature and practical experience. This analysis is based on the assumption that all the various barium techniques are performed with equal expertise by the individual radiologist, thus excluding bias from unfamiliarity with certain aspects of a procedure, such as intubation or skilled compression during fluoroscopy. Also, the use of water-soluble contrast material, CT, and MRI for evaluating suspected small bowel abnormalities is outlined

  5. Arthroplasty of the rheumatoid hand. Pre- and postoperative imaging with special consideration of biomechanical and pathobiomechanical aspects and its radiological evaluation; Arthroplastik der rheumatischen Hand. Prae- und postoperative Bildgebung mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Biomechanik und Pathobiomechanik und ihrer Evaluation am Roentgenbild

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    Sommer, O.J. [Krankenhaus Hietzing mit Neurologischem Zentrum Rosenhuegel, Zentralroentgeninstitut mit Schnittbildzentrum, Wien (Austria); Sekyra, K. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck/Oesterreich, Klinik fuer Orthopaedie (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    Radiology plays a key role when the indications for arthroplasties of the hand and finger joints are determined and for the postoperative follow-up. On the one hand, the degree of inflammatory changes in all affected compartments is to be evaluated and graded; on the other hand, conventional radiograms allow for a first assessment of possible joint instability and impaired biomechanics. Both aspects influence the choice of the proper surgical therapeutic strategy. Osteolysis, deformity, fracture, prosthesis loosening or failure, heterotopic ossification, and foreign body-associated formation of granulation tissue are complications which can be detected on follow-up radiographs early on. (orig.) [German] Bei der Indikationsstellung und Verlaufskontrolle von Arthroplastien der Hand kommt der Radiologie eine wesentliche Rolle zu. Einerseits ist das Ausmass der entzuendlichen Veraenderungen in allen Kompartimenten umfassend zu beurteilen und graduieren, andererseits lassen sich bereits im konventionellen Roentgenbild Rueckschluesse auf etwaige Instabilitaet oder gestoerte Biomechanik ziehen. Beide Aussagen wirken sich auf die operative Therapieentscheidung massgeblich aus. Osteolyse, Deformitaet, Fraktur, Implantatlockerung oder -versagen, heterotope Knochenneubildung und fremdkoerperassoziierte Granulationsgewebebildung sind Komplikationen, die in den postoperativen Verlaufskontrollen fruehzeitig erfasst werden koennen. (orig.)

  6. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  7. Radiation protection during radiological examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, D.; Gillet, R.; Wambersie, A.

    The dose delivered to children during radiological examinations were assessed and their variations compared with an experimental model. It is shown how to make good radiological examinations limiting the dose delivered to children and reducing the hazard to the medical staff [fr

  8. The radiologic examination in rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houli, J.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the radiologic examination in rheumatic diseases is discussed. The value of correct execution (incidence and appropriate method) and posterior interpretation in the radiographic proceeding is broached aiming at a clinic-radiologic association. The necessity of an analitic radiographic examination is emphasized and basic principles of its interpretation are described. The expressives aspects of main rheumatic diseases are presented (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Dosimetry in diagnosis examinations in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, Albert; Aubert, Bernard; Laffont, Sophie; Beaumont, Stephane; Catala, Alexandre; Cohard, Cecile; Cordoliani, Yves-Sebastien; Giraud, Jean-Yves; Lescrainier, Jacques; Noel, Alain; Verdun, Francis R.

    2003-01-01

    This document aims at helping the professionals involved in radiology when assessing the delivered doses to patients during conventional radiology examinations, in mammography and scanography. The first part recalls all the dosimetric data susceptible to characterize the X ray beam, the patient exposure and the radiological risk. The second part addresses the different types of sensors which can be used to obtain the different measurable dosimetric values. The third part presents the calculation, analytical and numerical methods. The fourth part proposes a set of sheets of data to be acquired on an installation to perform a measurement and/or a dose calculation

  10. Radiologic examination of orthopaedics. Methods and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, E.; Meuli, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    This volume describes in detail radiological examinations of the skeleton modern procedures in orthopaedic surgery. Special emphasis is given to functional examination techniques based upon the authors' extensive work on standardized radiological examinations best suited to the needs of orthopaedic surgeons. These techniques were developed at the Radiodiagnostic Department of the Central Radiological Clinic, Bern University, in cooperation with the University Clinic of Orthopaedics and Surgery of the Locomotor System. Exposure techniques are explained concisely, yet with extraordinary precision and attention to detail. They have proved highly successful in teaching programs for X-ray technicians and as standard examination techniques for many hospitals, X-ray departments, orthopaedic units, and private clinics. Recommended for orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists, general surgeons, and X-ray technicians, this definitive treatise, with its superb X-ray reproductions and complementary line drawings, explains how to achieve improved diagnoses and standardized control with the least possible radiation exposure to the patient

  11. Psychological examinations of radiological personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated

  12. Examinations in radiology with commented answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    This book is meant to be a help in the preparation for the examination in the subject of radiology. Original questions from the examinations of the past years and questions put by the author cover all subjects of the catalogue. All questions are answered, with additional comments in order to ensure the understanding of the subject, thus creating best preconditions for a successful examination. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Evaluation of radiological detriment from negative radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.; Jerez Vergueria, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The individul doses of radiation due to diagnostic radiology are usually low, though their contribution to the collective dose is very important given the large numbers of people exposed to these. This paper presents an analysis of the number of negative radiologiacl examinations in a major Cuban Hospital, and their contribution to the collective dose, and radiation organ and tissue, effective (expressed as severe hereditary effect and the occurrence of fatal and non fatal cancers) are all evaluated. The negative findings constitute 41 % of all examinations. The total contribution of negative examinations to the collective dose is very important given the large numbers of people exposed to these. This papaer presents an analysis of the number of negative radiological examinations in major Cuban Hospital, and their contribution to the collective dose of radiation. The absorbed dose by irradiation organ and tissue, effective dose equivalent, collective dose, and radiation risk (expressed as severe herditary effect and the occureence of fatal and non fatal cancers) are all evaluated. The negative findings constitute 41% of all examinations. The total contribution of negative examinations. The total contribution of negative examinations to the collective dose are found to make up 52.9 %: 11.35 Sv-man in the studied population

  14. General-purpose radiological examination device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, J

    1978-03-15

    Equipment is described suitable for all radiological examinations using x-ray and neuroradiological diagnostic machines. The equipment consists of a gimbal suspension supporting a base plate and an imaging system, a gantry on which a neurological seat is pivoted capable of isocentrically positioning the patient's head.

  15. Radiological and angiographic examination of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological examination of the heart provides detailed information regarding cardiac structure and function that cannot be duplicated by any other diagnostic method. The appearance of the heart and lungs on ordinary chest roentgenograms often indicates the presence of heart disease and, at times, is diagnostic of a specific cardiac abnormality. Correct interpretation of the cardiac shadow in the frontal view is particularly important, because a chest roentgenogram in this projection is included as part of most routine medical examinations and provides a convenient survey method for the detection of otherwise unsuspected heart disease. In those patients with a known cardiac condition, the chest roentgenogram is of use in assessing its severity, in documenting the progress of the disease, in evaluating the presence and severity of secondary complications, and as an indicator of the efficacy of treatment

  16. Radiological examination of the tarsus [in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschooten, F.; Schramme, M.

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy and radiography of the equine tarsus has been documented almost completely in many texts. Here we present a clinical classification of conditions of the hock and outline the technique and radiological interpretation of radiograms

  17. Radiological examinations of complications after total hip replacement Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzsa, Gyoergy; Reti, Peter; Lakatos, Jozsef

    1985-01-01

    The radiological findings of complications after total hip replacement are summarized by analizing the data of control examinations of the operated patients at the National Institute for Rheumatology and Physiotherapy. In this first part the types of total hip replacements and the radiological methods (native x-ray, fistulography, arthrography, needle biopsy and scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc isotope) are surveyed, and the radiological findings of the septic surgical complications are described. (author)

  18. Radiology examination as a diagnostic aid in presentations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiology examination as a diagnostic aid in presentations with wide differential diagnoses: Case report of new Hodgkin's lymphoma on a background of poorly controlled HIV. Rachel Hubbard, Jalpa Kotecha, Thomas Nash, Yu Jin Lee, Nasir Khan, Farhat Kazmi ...

  19. Radiologic examination of duodenum in celia disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomei, E.; Diacinti, D.; Gentile, F.; Picarelli, A.; Francone, A.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is the most common form of malabsorption in childhood when it presents with diarrhea and groeth failure, a jejunal biopsy is considered the first diagnostic investigation by some authors. In adulthood, clinical symptoms of CD may mimik several different disease, such as peptic ulcer and IBS, and the first diagnostic investigation is an upper GI series. Radiological features of duodenum and small bowel were evaluated in twenty patients with adult onset celiac disease. Sign of duodenitis such as thickened folds, mucosal nodules, dilatation of duodenum and erosions were observed in 19 out of 20 patients (95%); particulary, thickened folds in 71 (85%), nodularity in 16 (80%), duodenal dilatation in 12 (60%) and erosions in 4 (20%). In celiac disease the lesions are more severe in the upper part of small bowel, and duodenitis may be the unique sign of CD. Duodenitis may be part of a disease involving the entire small bowel; so, a duodenitis observed in the upper gastrointestinal tract requires the study of the entire small bowel - which seems to be very important in the case of celiac disease

  20. Radiologic examination of the small bowel: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C.; Maglinte, D.D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Effective clinical imaging of the small intestine is accomplished only with methods capable of accurately demonstrating bowel morphology. The two major approaches to barium enema examination of this segment of gut - orally and enteroclysis - will be described and illustrated with short videotape presentations. Pursued vigorously and with interest, both methods can yield excellent results in an efficient manner. Careful execution of the examination rather than use of a particular methodology is probably the most important factor in realizing such results. However, each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and these will be presented and discussed. A cursory small bowel examination has no role in modern medicine. Radiologists assume primary responsibility for the diagnostic evaluation of the small bowel and should strive to refine and advance the accuracy of the examination

  1. Protection of persons undergoing radiological examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection was in the form of gonad shields, lead apron to shield the unwanted parts during examinations and coning the X-ray field before exposure. The staff had Thermoluminscent Dosimeters (TLD) to monitor dose levels received by such staff every three months. They wore hand gloves, lead aprons and stayed behind ...

  2. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost structure of radiological procedures in the intermediary referral hospitals and general practice and to develop a cost accounting system for radiological examinations that takes into consideration all relevant cost factors and is suitable for management of radiology departments and regional planning of radiological resources. The material comprised 174,560 basic radiological examinations performed in 1991 at 5 intermediate referral hospitals and 13 public health centres in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Finland. All radiological departments in the hospitals were managed by a specialist in radiology. The radiology departments at the public health care centres operated on a self-referral basis by general practitioners. The data were extracted from examination lists, inventories and balance sheets; parts of the data were estimated or calculated. The radiological examinations were compiled according to the type of examination and equipment used: conventional, contrast medium, ultrasound, mammography and roentgen examinations with mobile equipment. The majority of the examinations (87%) comprised conventional radiography. For cost analysis the cost items were grouped into 5 cost factors: personnel, equipment, material, real estate and administration costs. The depreciation time used was 10 years for roentgen equipment, 5 years for ultrasound equipment and 5 to 10 years for other capital goods. An annual interest rate of 10% was applied. Standard average values based on a sample at 2 hospitals were used for the examination-specific radiologist time, radiographer time and material costs. Four cost accounting versions with varying allocation of the major cost items were designed. Two-way analysis of variance of the effect of different allocation methods on the costs and cost structure of the examination groups was performed. On the basis of the cost analysis a cost accounting program containing both monetary and

  3. Radiological examination of the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmundsen, T.E.; Vinje, B.; Bloerstad, Oe.; Pedersen, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for imaging the urinary tract have been recorded in six Norwegian hospitals for the last 24 years. For three of the hospitals, data were collected from 1965 to 1989, and for the other three from 1966, 1971 and 1975, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of intravenous pyelograms, voiding cystograms, and renal angiograms, but the number of retrograde pyelograms and plain radiographs of the urinary tract remained constant. Computed tomography of the urinary tract increased during the first years, but after the introduction of ultrasonography, the number of computed tomograms decreased. Ultrasonographic examinations of the urinary tract are still rapidly increasing, and seem to have replaced some of the other imaging techniques. The present results should be taken into consideration when planning the health care for the future. (au)

  4. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hakanen, A

    2002-01-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.

  5. Radiation dose evaluation in patients submitted to conventional radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the results of the evaluation of radiation dose delivered to the patients undergoing conventional radiological procedures. Based in the realized measurement some indicators are settled to quantitative appraisal of the radiological protection conditions offered to the population. Data assessment was done in the county of Curitiba, in Parana State, Brazil, from 12/95 to 04/96, in ten rooms of three different institutions, under 101 patients, adults with 70 ± 10 kg, during real examinations of chest PA, chest LAT and abdomen AP. (author)

  6. Quality control in the radiological examinations of paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiba, W.; Rossi, A.; Vos, C.V.; Giacomelli, G.; Galletti, S.; Rimondi, E.

    1985-01-01

    With a view to minimising the dose absorbed by the paediatric patient during radiological investigations, the most usual X-ray examinations performed in paediatrics were checked in order to standardise and optimise the techniques used. The present study deals with the quality control of the X-ray beam used in radiological diagnosis of young patients, particularly considering that hips and pelvis pathologies can be widespread and that very often it is not possible to shield the patient's gonads during the examination. The electrical and geometrical parameters which minimise the absorbed dose but are compatible with obtaining valid diagnostic information are selected. An anthromorphic phantom reproducing bone and lung inhomogeneities was constructed to the average size of a 12-month-old baby. Inside the phantom TLD 4F 100 dosimeters were located in order to evaluate the absorbed doses. The technique which proved more convenient is indicated and suggested for routine work. (author)

  7. Standard practice for radiological examination using digital detector arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice establishes the minimum requirements for radiological examination for metallic and nonmetallic material using a digital detector array (DDA) system. 1.2 The requirements in this practice are intended to control the quality of radiologic images and are not intended to establish acceptance criteria for parts or materials. 1.3 This practice covers the radiologic examination with DDAs including DDAs described in Practice E2597 such as a device that contains a photoconductor attached to a Thin Film Transistor (TFT) read out structure, a device that has a phosphor coupled directly to an amorphous silicon read-out structure, and devices where a phosphor is coupled to a CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) array, a Linear Detector Array (LDA) or a CCD (charge coupled device) crystalline silicon read-out structure. 1.4 The DDA shall be selected for an NDT application based on knowledge of the technology described in Guide , and of the selected DDA properties provided by the manufactu...

  8. Occupational exposure for workers in interventional radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An interventional radiological examination is a diagnostic or therapeutic in any organ or anatomical region using images acquired with ionizing radiation. Compared to other radiological acquisition, personnel who perform interventional procedures, which involve long fluoroscopy times and a high workload may receive radiation doses comparable to the dose limits. Therefore to ensure that no person be subjected to an unacceptable risk from radiation, that need for accurate individual monitoring has arisen. In this work, the doses received by physician in cardiac angiography were evaluated and the results of two months were presented. Only 7 physicians were monitored. Hence the data available is presented, and it is hoped to provide some information on the assessment of occupational exposure in interventional radiological examination. Measurements were done using Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and a calibrated Harshaw Reader. Two TLDs were used by each physician, one worn under a protective apron at the waist (H W ) and the other worn outside and above the apron at the neck (H N ). The effective dose E was estimated from the formula: E (estimated) = 0.5 H W + 0.025 H N . From the result obtained it was concluded that, the weak point of radiation protection philosophy in medical application is in the work of interventional physicians who have no full time decision like the radiologist physicians and therefore haven't enough knowledge about the radiation and radiation protection. So they are the highest risk group among physicians and to whom the efforts must be directed. (author)

  9. Analysis of factors correlating with medical radiological examination frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Jaervinen, H.; Bly, R.; Olerud, H.; Vassilieva, J.; Vogiatzi, S.; Shannoun, F.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) funded project Dose Datamed 2 (DDM2) had two objectives: to collect available data on patient doses from the radiodiagnostic procedures (X-ray and nuclear medicine) in Europe, and to facilitate the implementation of the Radiation Protection 154 Guidelines (RP154). Besides the collection of frequency and dose data, two questionnaires were issued to gather information about medical radiological imaging. This article analyses a possible correlation between the collected frequency data, selected variables from the results of the detailed questionnaire and national economic data. Based on a 35 countries dataset, there is no correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) and the total number of X-ray examinations in a country. However, there is a significant correlation ( p < 0.01) between the GDP and the overall CT examination frequency. High income countries perform more CT examinations per inhabitant. That suggests that planar X-ray examinations are replaced by CT examinations. (authors)

  10. Entrance surface dose measurements in pediatric radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, L.A.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of pediatric radiological examinations was carried out in a reference pediatric hospital of the city of Sao Paulo, in order to investigate the doses to children undergoing conventional X-ray examinations. The results showed that the majority of pediatric patients are below 4 years, and that about 80% of the examinations correspond to chest projections. Doses to typical radiological examinations were measured in vivo with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti and LiF: Mg, Cu, P) attached to the skin of the children to determine entrance surface dose (ESD). Also homogeneous phantoms were used to obtain ESD to younger children, because the technique uses a so small kVp that the dosimeters would produce an artifact image in the patient radiograph. Four kinds of pediatric examinations were investigated: three conventional examinations (chest, skull and abdomen) and a fluoroscopic procedure (barium swallow). Relevant information about kVp and mAs values used in the examinations was collected, and we discuss how these parameters can affect the ESD. The ESD values measured in this work are compared to reference levels published by the European Commission for pediatric patients. The results obtained (third-quartile of the ESD distribution) for chest AP examinations in three age groups were: 0.056 mGy (2-4 years old); 0.068 mGy (5-9 years old); 0.069 mGy (10-15 years old). All of them are below the European reference level (0.100 mGy). ESD values measured to the older age group in skull and abdomen AP radiographs (mean values 3.44 and 1.20 mGy, respectively) are above the European reference levels (1.5 mGy to skull and 1.0 mGy to abdomen). ESD values measured in the barium swallow examination reached 10 mGy in skin regions corresponding to thyroid and esophagus. It was noticed during this survey that some technicians use, improperly, X-ray fluoroscopy in conventional examinations to help them in positioning the patient. The results presented here are a

  11. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P.

    2010-06-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finlad) collected the number of radiological examinations classified to those made to adult and child patients in Finland in 2008. The work was based on the statute of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the medical use of radiation. In 2008, approximately 3.9 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. Earlier, the number of x-ray examinations has been investigated in 1984, 1995, 2000 and in 2005. During this time the total number of x-ray examinations has slightly diminished. During 2005 and 2008 the number of x-ray examinations has slightly increased, although the average number of examinations per inhabitant has still slightly decreased. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 90.2%, 8.3%, 0.8% and 0.8%, respectively. In proportion to the Finnish population about 717 x-ray examinations per 1000 inhabitants were performed in 2008. Dental examinations are excluded from this number, but CT examinations (ca. 60 per 1000 inhabitants) and interventional x-ray procedures (ca. 5 per 1000 inhabitants) are included. Slightly more than 0.5 million ultrasound examinations and 190 000 MRI examinations were reported. Of the all x-ray examinations made in 2008, ca 7.5% were made to child patients. 0-16-year-old were thought to be child patients in this study. 8% of conventional x-ray examinations and 2% of computed tomography examinations and angiographic examination were made to child patients. (orig.)

  12. Anonymity and Electronics: Adapting Preparation for Radiology Resident Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa; Reid, Janet R; O'Conner, Erin E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology resident assessment has evolved from a traditional oral examination to computerized testing. Teaching faculty struggle to reconcile the differences between traditional teaching methods and residents' new preferences for computerized testing models generated by new examination styles. We aim to summarize the collective experiences of senior residents at three different teaching hospitals who participated in case review sessions using a computer-based, interactive, anonymous teaching tool, rather than the Socratic method. Feedback was collected from radiology residents following participation in a senior resident case review session using Nearpod, which allows residents to anonymously respond to the teaching material. Subjective resident feedback was uniformly enthusiastic. Ninety percent of residents favor a case-based board review incorporating multiple-choice questions, and 94% favor an anonymous response system. Nearpod allows for inclusion of multiple-choice questions while also providing direct feedback to the teaching faculty, helping to direct the instruction and clarify residents' gaps in knowledge before the Core Examination. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus; Funktionelle Anatomie und Biomechanik des Karpus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    -/Extensionsbewegungen kann die Hand multiplanar auf einer kugelfoermigen Oberflaeche bewegt werden. Die karpale Funktion laesst sich funktionell am besten mit dem ''Modell eines unter Spannung stehenden Ringsystems'' erklaeren. Die Uebersichtsarbeit skizziert die Anatomie und Biomechanik der Handwurzel und stellt die systematische Bildanalyse unter Verwendung von Hilfslinien, karpalen Winkeln und Laengenindizes vor. (orig.)

  14. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  15. Patients’ perception of care during special radiological examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2009-08-01

    Method: A total of 200 self-completion questionnaires were delivered to four radiology departments within the north-eastern states of Nigeria (50 to each centre. The questionnaires included questions on patient demographics as well as ordinal scales for patients to rate their care on various indices and a 10 visual analogue scale to rate their overall satisfaction, while an open-ended question was used to assess patients’ expectation of radiology staff. 142 questionnaires (71% were returned. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were done. Tests were two-tailed with p smaller than 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: Patients’ perception of care correlated significantly with patients’ satisfaction. Conclusion: Good staff-patient interaction and proper organisational behaviour could improve patients’ perception of care.

  16. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  17. Radiology as part of an objective structured clinical examination on clinical skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, I.A.H. van den, E-mail: i.a.h.van_den_berk@lumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Postbus 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Ridder, J.M.M. van de, E-mail: J.M.M.vandeRidder@umcutrecht.nl [School of Medical Sciences, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, J.P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100 E01-132, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessess clinical competence in a standardised and context related manner. Compared with written tests, OSCE's are more susceptible to reliability errors because of the use of multiple cases and multiple examiners. In the pre-clinical phase of the medical curriculum of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, an OSCE is organised as a medical consult. We evaluated the radiology station. Method: Four questions were formulated: {center_dot}What is the internal consistency of the items of the radiology station? {center_dot}How do the scores on the radiology station compare with the scores on the test excluding radiology? {center_dot}How do different cases differ in scores? {center_dot}What are the differences in score between the examiners? We analysed the OSCE results of second year medical students in 2004. Results: Two hundred and sixty-five students were examined in the OSCE in 2004. Ninty-three Students were examined in the radiology station. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the radiology station was 0.92. The average score for the radiology station was 3.8 (0.87). The average score for the test without radiology was 3.9 (0.32). The range of the average scores for the six different cases was 0.5 (3.6-4.1). The range of the average scores for the five examiners was 1.0 (3.3-4.3). Conclusion: The internal consistency of the items in the radiology station is good. The average score for the radiology station is similar to that of the other stations. The range of the scores between the different cases was relatively small. The range of the scores between the different examiners was clearly larger.

  18. Radiology as part of an objective structured clinical examination on clinical skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, I.A.H. van den; Ridder, J.M.M. van de; Schaik, J.P.J. van

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessess clinical competence in a standardised and context related manner. Compared with written tests, OSCE's are more susceptible to reliability errors because of the use of multiple cases and multiple examiners. In the pre-clinical phase of the medical curriculum of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, an OSCE is organised as a medical consult. We evaluated the radiology station. Method: Four questions were formulated: ·What is the internal consistency of the items of the radiology station? ·How do the scores on the radiology station compare with the scores on the test excluding radiology? ·How do different cases differ in scores? ·What are the differences in score between the examiners? We analysed the OSCE results of second year medical students in 2004. Results: Two hundred and sixty-five students were examined in the OSCE in 2004. Ninty-three Students were examined in the radiology station. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the radiology station was 0.92. The average score for the radiology station was 3.8 (0.87). The average score for the test without radiology was 3.9 (0.32). The range of the average scores for the six different cases was 0.5 (3.6-4.1). The range of the average scores for the five examiners was 1.0 (3.3-4.3). Conclusion: The internal consistency of the items in the radiology station is good. The average score for the radiology station is similar to that of the other stations. The range of the scores between the different cases was relatively small. The range of the scores between the different examiners was clearly larger.

  19. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Karami; Zabihzadeh; Gholami

    2016-01-01

    Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological...

  20. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginai-Karamat, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium (CM) for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats. The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate (without any additives), commercial barium sulphate (Micropaque, with additives), Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque (in pleura Omnipaque) and Hexabrix. (Auth.)

  1. Informatics in radiology: evaluation of an e-learning platform for teaching medical students competency in ordering radiologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nina L; Spooner, Muirne; Galvin, P Leo; Ti, Joanna P; McElvaney, N Gerald; Lee, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary audit of orders for computed tomography was performed to evaluate the typical performance of interns ordering radiologic examinations. According to the audit, the interns showed only minimal improvement after 8 months of work experience. The online radiology ordering module (ROM) program included baseline assessment of student performance (part I), online learning with the ROM (part II), and follow-up assessment of performance with simulated ordering with the ROM (part III). A curriculum blueprint determined the content of the ROM program, with an emphasis on practical issues, including provision of logistic information, clinical details, and safety-related information. Appropriate standards were developed by a committee of experts, and detailed scoring systems were devised for assessment. The ROM program was successful in addressing practical issues in a simulated setting. In the part I assessment, the mean score for noting contraindications for contrast media was 24%; this score increased to 59% in the part III assessment (P = .004). Similarly, notification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus status and pregnancy status and provision of referring physician contact information improved significantly. The quality of the clinical notes was stable, with good initial scores. Part III testing showed overall improvement, with the mean score increasing from 61% to 76% (P radiology services, and the experience typically afforded to interns does not address this lack of knowledge. The ROM program was a successful intervention that resulted in statistically significant improvements in the quality of radiologic examination orders, particularly with regard to logistic and radiation safety issues.

  2. Radiation effects on clinical examination data in Japanese radiological technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Aoyama, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1992-01-01

    Health survey for 1014 radiological technologists was undertaken in 10 districts in Japan. Estimated radiation doses were based on work duration, the status of radiation protection, X-ray equipments to be used, and exposure conditions. Two hundred and eighty-three technologists aged between 45 and 59 were enrolled in this study. Exposure doses ranged from 2 cGy to 337 cGy. According to exposure doses of either 40 cGy, smoking habits, and drinking habits, the subjects were classified into 7 groups. Clinical laboratory data, in addition to systolic and diastolic blood pressures, were analyzed. In comparing the sole effect of irradiation with that of smoking or drinking, the degree of irradiation effect was less than the other two factors. Smoking had a higher synergistic action than irradiation and drinking. (N.K.)

  3. A comparative study on radiological and endoscopic examinations of the stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Sook; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Han Suk [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    An analysis was done for the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and endoscopic examinations in 132 cases of the histologically proved stomach cancer at the national Medical Center from Jan. 1975 to Jan. 1979. The problem in radiological misdiagnosis was especially discussed aimed to improve the further diagnostic accuracy. The following results were obtained: 1. The incidence of the stomach cancer was higher in male than that of female, and was most prevalent in 5th and 6th decades. 2. The misdiagnosis rate of radiological examination of the stomach cancer was 13.5% (18 cases), that of endoscopic examination was 8.3% (11 cases) and that of both examination was 4.6% (6 cases). 3. In most cases of misdiagnosis, the majority were diagnosed as benign gastric ulcer. 4. The causative factors of misdiagnosis in radiological examination were interpretation error in 8 cases and technically poor, unsatisfactory study in 10 cases. 5. In order to decrease the misdiagnosis rate, standardization of radiological examination and careful interpretation are necessary. 6. Complementary examinations of radiology and endoscopy can decrease the misdiagnosis rate.

  4. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations and the availability of gonad shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments. Materials and Methods A retrospective, observational cross-sectional study on the application of gonad shielding, the availability of gonad shields and the existence of gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments was performed in five different hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Results The highest application of gonad shielding was 6.6% for the pediatric hospital. The prevalence of gonad shielding was less than 0.2%. In 64.3% of the radiography rooms, at least one flat-contact gonad shield of a large size was available. Only large-sized gonad shields were available. Curved-contact and shadow gonad shields did not exist. Gonad shielding protocols were not existence in any of the fourteen radiography rooms investigated. Conclusions Comprehensive protection programs with on-the-job training courses for staff members are strongly recommended, as well as, the provision of radiological shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments to reduce the patient’s radiation dose during radiological examinations.

  5. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-10-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed.

  6. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Regarding solitary tumor on radiologic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Sumi, Minako; Kagami, Yashikazu; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Imai, Atsushi; Ando, Kou; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that appears as a solitary nodule on radiologic studies. We irradiated 17 patients with solitary HCC lesions (25-150 mm in diameter) with approximately 60 Gy (range 50-70 Gy). Patients underwent dynamic CT and/or ultrasound imaging at 3-month intervals after treatment. Patients were classified based on lesion size, degree of cirrhosis (Child A. 6; Child B, 6; Child C, 5), and whether they had received other therapy such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The responses were classified as complete, partial, no change, or progression. The median survival was 12.8 months for all 17 patients, with 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative survival rates of 59%, 35% and 24%, respectively. Patients classified as Child A showed significantly longer survival than those classified as either Child B (p<0.04) or C (p<0.01). Four of the five Child C patients died of liver failure within 6 months after RT despite the absence of tumor recurrence. The initial tumor diameter, concurrent treatment with TACE, and radiation dose showed no significant effect on survival. Survival in patients with solitary HCC lesions appears to be affected mainly by the degree of liver dysfunction, and not the initial tumor diameter, radiation dose, or concurrent use of TACE. (author)

  8. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  9. Informatics in radiology: evaluation of an e-learning platform for teaching medical students competency in ordering radiologic examinations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina L

    2011-09-01

    A preliminary audit of orders for computed tomography was performed to evaluate the typical performance of interns ordering radiologic examinations. According to the audit, the interns showed only minimal improvement after 8 months of work experience. The online radiology ordering module (ROM) program included baseline assessment of student performance (part I), online learning with the ROM (part II), and follow-up assessment of performance with simulated ordering with the ROM (part III). A curriculum blueprint determined the content of the ROM program, with an emphasis on practical issues, including provision of logistic information, clinical details, and safety-related information. Appropriate standards were developed by a committee of experts, and detailed scoring systems were devised for assessment. The ROM program was successful in addressing practical issues in a simulated setting. In the part I assessment, the mean score for noting contraindications for contrast media was 24%; this score increased to 59% in the part III assessment (P = .004). Similarly, notification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus status and pregnancy status and provision of referring physician contact information improved significantly. The quality of the clinical notes was stable, with good initial scores. Part III testing showed overall improvement, with the mean score increasing from 61% to 76% (P < .0001). In general, medical students lack the core knowledge that is needed for good-quality ordering of radiology services, and the experience typically afforded to interns does not address this lack of knowledge. The ROM program was a successful intervention that resulted in statistically significant improvements in the quality of radiologic examination orders, particularly with regard to logistic and radiation safety issues.

  10. Child's organism's burden in radiological examinations in stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanko, V.; Uhlikova, Z.; Babor, L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic holders were developed for fixing a photographic film in the patient's mouth in stomatological radiodiagnostic examinations of children. The holder serves to reduce the radiation burden of children. In addition, patient's gonads are protected with a shield, a lead apron or a cloth with a lead lining at least 1.5 mm thick. Also developed was a protective shield from a 2.0 mm lead sheet for intraoral examinations. The shield is to be installed in children stomatology offices. (H.S.)

  11. ABR Core examination preparation: results of a survey of fourth-year radiology residents who took the 2013 examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anup S; Grajo, Joseph R; Decker, Summer; Heitkamp, Darel E; DeStigter, Kristen K; Mezwa, Duane G; Deitte, Lori

    2015-01-01

    A survey was administered to fourth-year radiology residents after receiving their results from the first American Board of Radiology (ABR) Core examination in 2013. The purpose was to gather information regarding resources and study strategies to share with program directors and future resident classes. An online survey was distributed to examinees nationwide. The survey included free-response and multiple choice questions that covered examination results, perceived value of enumerated study resources, case-based and didactic teaching conferences, board reviews, study materials for noninterpretive skills, multidisciplinary conference attendance, and free-form comments. Two hundred sixty-six of 1186 residents who took the Core examination responded to the survey. Some resources demonstrated a significant difference in perceived value between residents who passed the examination and residents who failed, including internal board reviews (1.10, P multiple choice questions, audience response, and integration of clinical physics and patient safety topics compared to residents who failed. Radiology residents and residency programs have adapted their preparations for the ABR Core examination in a variety of ways. Certain practices and study tools, including daily conferences and internal board reviews, had greater perceived value by residents who passed the examination than by residents who failed. This survey provides insights that can be used to assess and modify current preparation strategies for the ABR Core examination. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bony injuries in trauma patients diagnosed by radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, G.; Gorleku, P. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the incidence of bony injuries in trauma patients who had plain radiographs done at the Central Regional Hospital in Cape Coast. This is a retrospective study based on plain radiographs taken by trauma patients who reported to the Central Regional Hospital. The case notes of all patients with a discharge diagnosis of Road Traffic Accident or trauma of all aetiologies that presented to the hospital between January 2005 and December 2011 were retrieved, and those patients that had skeletal radiographic examinations were included in this study. The total number of cases seen was 1,133. The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 72 years. Sixty-nine (6.1%) of the patients were between 1 and 4 years old, with the majority between 20 and 49 years old, constituting 52.3%, with patients 60 years and above at 9.2%. There was statistically significant difference between male and female patients (p=0.001). A total of 912 (80.5%) patients had radiographic examination done out of which only 324 (35.5%) radiographs could be retrieved. There were 106 (32.7%) radiographs with various bony injuries which was statistically significant (p=0.001). Rib fractures represented 19/106 (17.9%) of which 62.5% had multiple rib fractures. Fifty-eight (54.7%) had long bone fractures. Other anatomical sites included the pelvis and the skull. Conclusion: Trauma is a major public health problem in the country, involving mainly the productive age group. Unnecessary exposure to X-rays is common. Inadequate management of trauma patients negatively impacts on the outcome of trauma patients. Trauma prevention is the best way forward.(au)

  13. Improving Radiology Workflow with Automated Examination Tracking and Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianykh, Oleg S; Jaworsky, Christina; Shore, M T; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2017-07-01

    The modern radiology workflow is a production line where imaging examinations pass in sequence through many steps. In busy clinical environments, even a minor delay in any step can propagate through the system and significantly lengthen the examination process. This is particularly true for the tasks delegated to the human operators, who may be distracted or stressed. We have developed an application to track examinations through a critical part of the workflow, from the image-acquisition scanners to the PACS archive. Our application identifies outliers and actively alerts radiology managers about the need to resolve these problems as soon as they happen. In this study, we investigate how this real-time tracking and alerting affected the speed of examination delivery to the radiologist. We demonstrate that active alerting produced a 3-fold reduction of examination-to-PACS delays. Additionally, we discover an overall improvement in examination-to-PACS delivery, evidence that the tracking and alerts instill a culture where timely processing is essential. By providing supervisors with information about exactly where delays emerge in their workflow and alerting the correct staff to take action, applications like ours create more robust radiology workflow with predictable, timely outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of radiological examination request forms in conjunction with justification of X-ray exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Ch.; Tsalafoutas, I.; Maniatis, P.; Papavdis, D.; Raios, G.; Siafas, I.; Velonakis, S.; Koulentianos, E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the adequacy of patient data and clinical information transmitted to the radiological departments by the referring clinicians in view of the justification demands concerning the radiological examinations, as those are described in the Radiation Protection Regulations of the European Union Nations. Materials and methods: Request forms for 1708 patients referred to radiology department and 410 referred to the CT department were evaluated concerning the proper completion of the form fields. Furthermore, for CT examinations a more detailed evaluation was carried out, to assess the rationalistic use of CT within the diagnostic algorithm. Results: Not properly completed request forms to both departments were observed, however, the omissions were more prominent for the referrals to the radiology department, where the age and the probable clinical diagnosis was not given in 81.5 and 46% of the forms, respectively. Furthermore, the emergency indication was less cautiously used compared to the CT requests. For the CT department 33.3% of requests were justified and the final diagnosis was included in the referring doctor's probable clinical diagnosis. U/S was the examination of choice in 51% of the cases where an examination should have been performed before CT and in 70.6% of the cases where an alternative examination was proposed. Conclusions: The inadequate transmission of clinical information and the large number of not fully justified CT requests observed in this study are typical examples of the various problems that radiologists have to face in order to apply the justification directives

  15. A pursuit of significance of the coarsened gastric rugae in radiologic examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Dong [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The radiologic upper G.I. series and gastroscopic examination with gastric biopsies of 230 cases were carried out in Korea General Hospital for the purpose of pursuit of significance of coarsened gastric rugae. Out of the above series the 26 cases showing mere radiologic finding of coarsening of the gastric mucosal rugae were selected, excluding the cases with definite evidence of ulceration, malignancies and others. The correlativity of the coarsened gastric rugae was investigated with clinical pictures, gastroscopic features and biopsy findings. The following results were obtained: 1. There were 24 cases of gastritis, 5 of stomach ulcer and 2 of stomach cancer in the 26 cases with mere finding of mucosal coarsening. 2. There was 5 cases of stomach ulcer disease revealing no radiologic evidence, but there were found tiny ulcers in 4 cases and a large ulcer crater of 1.0 cm by 1.5 cm in diameter in the other case under the gastroscopic study. 3. Two cases of stomach cancer were not detected in neither radiologic nor gastroscopic examination, however, they were found by gastric biopsy. 4. It should be strongly emphasized that the biopsy under the gastroscopic control must be followed when a radiologic evidence of coarsened gastric rugae is demonstrated.

  16. A pursuit of significance of the coarsened gastric rugae in radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Dong

    1979-01-01

    The radiologic upper G.I. series and gastroscopic examination with gastric biopsies of 230 cases were carried out in Korea General Hospital for the purpose of pursuit of significance of coarsened gastric rugae. Out of the above series the 26 cases showing mere radiologic finding of coarsening of the gastric mucosal rugae were selected, excluding the cases with definite evidence of ulceration, malignancies and others. The correlativity of the coarsened gastric rugae was investigated with clinical pictures, gastroscopic features and biopsy findings. The following results were obtained: 1. There were 24 cases of gastritis, 5 of stomach ulcer and 2 of stomach cancer in the 26 cases with mere finding of mucosal coarsening. 2. There was 5 cases of stomach ulcer disease revealing no radiologic evidence, but there were found tiny ulcers in 4 cases and a large ulcer crater of 1.0 cm by 1.5 cm in diameter in the other case under the gastroscopic study. 3. Two cases of stomach cancer were not detected in neither radiologic nor gastroscopic examination, however, they were found by gastric biopsy. 4. It should be strongly emphasized that the biopsy under the gastroscopic control must be followed when a radiologic evidence of coarsened gastric rugae is demonstrated.

  17. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  18. Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium (central nervous system) in diagnosis of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinska-Mika, M.

    1991-01-01

    Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs

  19. Referring physicians' experiences of outsourcing radiological examinations – A variety of views on the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, P.T.; Blomqvist, L.; Fridell, K.; Aspelin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There are strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges when outsourcing advanced radiological examinations such as magnetic resonance examinations from university hospitals to external private institutions. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of referring physicians when their referrals for radiological examinations are outsourced from a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: This qualitative study is a part of a larger study investigating the consequences of outsourcing referrals for radiological examinations from a university hospital to private external units. Ten referring physicians from orthopedic and oncology departments, representing clinics with large volumes of radiological referrals at a university hospital, were interviewed. Results: The results showed that the requirements for radiological services differ between these specialties. The overall opinion was that examinations performed by external radiology departments needed additional re-assessment work which causes higher costs for their clinics. This indicates that there is insufficient communication between referring physicians and the radiological department at the University Hospital. Conclusions: For better planning of radiological services, radiology departments must consider the referring physicians' needs and develop suitable contract when organizing the practice of outsourcing. The management structure in radiology departments and communication between referring physicians and radiologists in the radiology departments should be studied further, to promote better understanding and improve the efficiency of the outsourcing process. - Highlights: • The requirements for radiological services differ between specialties. • Outsourced examinations need more frequent re-assessment. • Outsourced examinations cause higher costs for referring departments. • Outsourcing radiological examinations entail more administrative work.

  20. Dosimetry in diagnosis examinations in radiology. S.F.P.M. Report No. 30, December 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defez, Didier; Dreuil, Serge; Hapdey, Sebastien; Leleu, Cyril; Demonchy, Mathilde; Jarrige, Valerie; Le Rouzic, Gilles; Dedieu, Veronique; Ferrrer, Ludovic; Guillhem, Marie-Therese; Meyer, Philippe; Simon, Luc

    2014-12-01

    This document is an update of the SFPM report No. 21 from 2004. It aims at helping the professionals involved in radiology when assessing the delivered doses to patients during conventional radiology examinations, in mammography and scanography. The first part recalls all the dosimetric data susceptible to characterize the X ray beam, the patient exposure and the radiological risk. The second part addresses the different types of sensors which can be used to obtain the different measurable dosimetric values. The third part presents the calculation, analytical and numerical methods. The fourth part proposes a set of sheets of data to be acquired on an installation to perform a measurement and/or a dose calculation

  1. Number of radiological examinations in Sweden 2005; Radiologiska undersoekningar i Sverige under 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Richter, Sven; Leitz, Wolfram

    2008-02-15

    An investigation of diagnostic radiology examinations performed in Swedish hospitals for the year 2005 was performed. The investigation revealed the following: - the number of reported investigations was 5,4 million; - conventional x-ray examinations are the most common investigations (approx. 70 %); - the number of computer tomography investigations has increased with 100 % during the last 10 years and is contributing to 55-60 % of the total radiation dose from all examinations; - county hospitals perform most of the examinations, approximately one third; - regional differences can be observed concerning both the number of examinations and how these are distributed amongst the different modalities

  2. Roentgeno-radiological examination for ruptures of the main bronchi and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Kudryavtseva, N.F.; Nersesova, L.I.; Kon'kov, Eh.G.

    1981-01-01

    The results of roentgeno-radiological examination of patients with the main bronchial ruptures show the great diagnostic value of this method of examination. There are 6 types of clinical and x-ray syndromes to be distinguished: gaseous, hemorrhagic, compression, aspiration, ventilatory, perfusive. Both direct and indirect radiomorphological and radiofunctional features of the bronchial ruptures are distinguished. Post-traumatic bronchial stenoses, as well as the results of reconstructive interventions in bronchial ruptures and their consequences are discussed [ru

  3. Standard guide for data fields for computerized transfer of digital radiological examination data

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a listing and description of the fields that are recommended for inclusion in a digital radiological examination data base to facilitate the transfer of such data. This guide sets guidelines for the format of data fields for computerized transfer of digital image files obtained from radiographic, radioscopic, computed radiographic, or other radiological examination systems. The field listing includes those fields regarded as necessary for inclusion in the data base: (1) regardless of the radiological examination method (as indicated by Footnote C in Table 1), (2) for radioscopic examination (as indicated by Footnote E in Table 1), and (3) for radiographic examination (as indicated by Footnote D in Table 1). In addition, other optional fields are listed as a reminder of the types of information that may be useful for additional understanding of the data or applicable to a limited number of applications. 1.2 It is recognized that organizations may have in place an internal format for the...

  4. Diagnostic efficacy of radiological examinations in clefts of the hard palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslinska-Wilk, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the work has been: 1) evaluating the efficiency of individual radiological methods in visualizing the bone structure of the hard palate; 2) elaboration of a method for skull examination, by means of which the hard palate region in patients would be best visible; 3) presentation of radiological symptomatology of hard palate clefts; 4) establishing algorithms of diagnostic procedure and determining the type of radiological examination most helpful in planning the treatment of this anomaly. Selected problems from normal anatomy of the hard palate are presented, and the technique of radiological examination in the form of occlusal radiograms, pantomography and computerized tomography (CT) are discussed. Clinical material encompassed the total of 312 patients. A total of 470 radiograms were performed, 150 occlusal ones of hard palate, 200 pantomograms (jointly with the control group) as well as 120 scannings during CT examination. It has been stated the greatest efficiency and effectiveness in planning the treatment are ascribed to computerized tomography, the second place goes to pantomography, on the third position are occlusal radiograms targeted at the region of the cleft. Algorithms have been provided for roentgen-diagnostic procedure in cases of the hard palate clefts, with an emphasis that the very first examination of a child should include the occlusal radiograms targeted at the cleft region and pantomogram; in the course of conservative treatment only pantomogram is proposed to be made, and in case of planned operative procedure - CT examination. For evaluating the calcification of the cleft, the best and with the least irradiation are the intraoral occlusal radiograms, targeted at the region of the cleft, performed 12 months after the operation. (author). 100 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs

  5. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on disease processes originating within the alimentary tract, may extend through the extraperitoneal spaces, and abnormalities primarily arising within other extraperitoneal sites may significantly affect the bowel. Symptoms and signs may be obscure, delayed, or nonspecific, and the area is generally not accessible to auscultation, palpation, or percussion. Radiologic evaluation thus plays a critical role

  6. American College of Radiology In-Training Examination for Residents in Radiation Oncology (2004-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Kurtz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review the results of the recent American College of Radiology (ACR) in-training examinations in radiation oncology and to provide information regarding the examination changes in recent years. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of the 2004 to 2007 ACR in-training examination was undertaken. Results: The number of residents taking the in-training examination increased from 2004 to 2007, compatible with the increase in the number of radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. The number of questions decreased from approximately 510 in 2004 and 2005, to 405 in 2006 and 360 in 2007, most of these changes were in the clinical oncology section. Although the in-training examination showed construct validity with resident performance improving with each year of additional clinical oncology training, it did so only until Level 3 for biology and physics. Several changes have been made to the examination process, including allowing residents to keep the examination booklet for self-study, posting of the answer key and rationales to questions on the ACR Website, and providing hard copies to residency training directors. In addition, all questions are now A type or multiple choice questions with one best answer, similar to the American Board of Radiology written examination for radiation oncology. Conclusion: Several efforts by the ACR have been made in recent years to make the examination an educational tool for radiation oncology residents and residency directors

  7. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  8. Absorbed dose to the skin in radiological examinations of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonca, G.; Brusa, A.; Somigliana, A.; Pasqualotto, C.; Sichirollo, A.E.; Bellomi, M.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.

    1995-01-01

    Absorbed doses to the skin in radiological examinations of the upper and lower gastronintestinal tract in conventional and digital radiology are evaluated and compared. Absorbed doses were measured with LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters placed on the lower pelvis, umbilicus and forehead of the patient to evaluate the absorbed dose in and outside the primary beam. On 10 patients a reduction in absorbed dose of about 34% for double contrast barium enema and of 66% for upper gastrointestinal tract examinations was revealed with digital radiography equipment. In our working conditions the lower dose requirement for digital radiography is mainly due to image intensifiers and television chains and also, due to our equipment settings, to the dose reduction with digital spot fluorography compared with conventional spot film radiography. (Author)

  9. Estimation of genetic risk and detriment in radiological vascular examinations in Malaga (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Fernandez Vazquez, M.I.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the population undergoing procedures of interventional vascular radiology. The values of genetically significant dose, somatically significant dose and damage are presented. The determinations refer to the population of Malaga and calculate the values of the dose-area product, dose in organs and effective doses. At first glance, these complex explorations seem to provide dose rates which are much higher than those for simple examinations. However, our values demonstrate the contrary. The numbers contrast with the values obtained from simple examinations by the population. Although the reasons are multifactorial, the root cause is the average age of the patients which undergo interventional vascular radiology: they are much older than patients who undergo simple explorations

  10. The ankle joint - value of different radiological examinations especially in external ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For a correct radiological positioning of the ankle joint the bimalleolar line is helpful as well for the A.P.-view as for the lateral view. For the examination of external ligament lacerations Radiography with functional test is not always sufficient. After critical comparison of functional radiographs, clinical symptoms and case history arthrography is necessary in certain cases to come to a final conclusion. Indications for arthrography are stated and explained. (orig.) [de

  11. Standard practice for radiologic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice is intended to be used as a supplement to Practices E 1742, E 1255, and E 2033. 1.2 This practice describes procedures for radiologic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials made entirely or in part from fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. Radiologic examination is: a) radiographic (RT) with film, b) Computed Radiography (CR) with Imaging Plate, c) Digital Radiology (DR) with Digital Detector Array’s (DDA), and d) Radioscopic (RTR) Real Time Radiology with a detection system such as an Image Intensifier. The composite materials under consideration typically contain continuous high modulus fibers (> 20 GPa), such as those listed in 1.4. 1.3 This practice describes established radiological examination methods that are currently used by industry that have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials during product process design and optimization, process control, after manufacture inspection, in service exami...

  12. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy; Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Khoury, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  13. Diagnosis of Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion: Clinical Presentation, Physical Examination, and Radiologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Jacquelyn R; Kitsko, Dennis J; Mehta, Deepak K; Georg, Matthew W; Simons, Jeffrey P

    2016-04-01

    (1) To describe clinical and radiologic findings in patients with esophageal foreign bodies. (2) To examine the sensitivity and specificity of history, physical examination, and radiologic studies in children with suspected foreign body ingestion. A retrospective cohort study was performed evaluating all children who underwent esophagoscopy for suspected foreign body ingestion at our institution from 2006 to 2013. Five hundred forty-three patients were included (54% male). Average age was 4.7 years (SD = 4.1 years). Foreign bodies were identified on esophagoscopy in 497 cases (92%). Ingestion was witnessed in 23% of cases. Most common presenting symptoms were choking/gagging (49%), vomiting (47%), and dysphagia/odynophagia (42%). Most patients with foreign bodies had a normal exam (76%). Most foreign bodies were radiopaque (83%). In 59% of patients with normal chest radiographs, a foreign body was present. Sensitivity and specificity of 1 or more findings on history, physical examination, and imaging were 99% and 0%, 21% and 76%, and 83% and 100%, respectively. Most patients with esophageal foreign bodies are symptomatic. Although many patients will have a normal physical examination, an abnormal exam should increase suspicion for a foreign body. Most esophageal foreign bodies are radiopaque, but a normal chest radiograph cannot rule out a foreign body. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is still the foremost of all innovative medical disciplines. This has many advantages but also some handicaps, e.g. the siting problem of medical equipment whose clinical potential is not fully known. This applies in particular to nuclear spin tomography, where the Laender governments and the Scientific Council seen to agree that all universities should have the appropriate equipment as soon as possible in order to intensify interdisciplinary research. Formerly, in the case of computerized tomography, there was less readiness. As a result, the siting of CT equipment is less organically structured. A special handicap of innovative fields is the problem of training and advanced training. The Chamber of Medicine and the Association of Doctors Participating in the Health Insurance Plan have issued regulations aimed at a better standardisation in this field. (orig.) [de

  15. Dosimetry measurements of X-Ray machine operating at ordinary radiology and fluoroscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.; Bakazi, A.; Elharby, H.

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of radiation dose levels inside diagnostic radiology rooms at King Khalid University Hospital was made. The measurements were taken using lithium Flouride detectors Also, an assessment of doses received by patients during some radiographic examinations especially at fluoroscopy has been measured. It has been noted that when rare-earth image intensifying screens were used the radiation dose received by the patient was reduced by 60%. It has been shown that a lead glass viewer caused a reduction of the radiation intensity by more than 50%. The variation of dose rate with the operating conditions of the X-ray tube has been studied, as well as the machine factor (P)

  16. Dose audit for patients undergoing two common radiography examinations with digital radiology systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Tolga; Ataç, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing general examinations using computed or digital radiography systems in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS Radiographs of 20 patients undergoing posteroanterior chest X-ray and of 20 patients undergoing anteroposterior kidney-ureter-bladder radiography were evaluated in five X-ray rooms at four local hospitals in the Ankara region. Currently, almost all radiology departments in Turkey have switched from conventional radiography systems to computed radiography or digital radiography systems. Patient dose was measured for both systems. The results were compared with published diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the European Union and International Atomic Energy Agency. RESULTS The average entrance surface doses (ESDs) for chest examinations exceeded established international DRLs at two of the X-ray rooms in a hospital with computed radiography. All of the other ESD measurements were approximately equal to or below the DRLs for both examinations in all of the remaining hospitals. Improper adjustment of the exposure parameters, uncalibrated automatic exposure control systems, and failure of the technologists to choose exposure parameters properly were problems we noticed during the study. CONCLUSION This study is an initial attempt at establishing local DRL values for digital radiography systems, and will provide a benchmark so that the authorities can establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Turkey. PMID:24317331

  17. Dose audit for patients undergoing two common radiography examinations with digital radiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Tolga; Ataç, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing general examinations using computed or digital radiography systems in Turkey. Radiographs of 20 patients undergoing posteroanterior chest X-ray and of 20 patients undergoing anteroposterior kidney-ureter-bladder radiography were evaluated in five X-ray rooms at four local hospitals in the Ankara region. Currently, almost all radiology departments in Turkey have switched from conventional radiography systems to computed radiography or digital radiography systems. Patient dose was measured for both systems. The results were compared with published diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the European Union and International Atomic Energy Agency. The average entrance surface doses (ESDs) for chest examinations exceeded established international DRLs at two of the X-ray rooms in a hospital with computed radiography. All of the other ESD measurements were approximately equal to or below the DRLs for both examinations in all of the remaining hospitals. Improper adjustment of the exposure parameters, uncalibrated automatic exposure control systems, and failure of the technologists to choose exposure parameters properly were problems we noticed during the study. This study is an initial attempt at establishing local DRL values for digital radiography systems, and will provide a benchmark so that the authorities can establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Turkey.

  18. Radiological, computertomographic, pathoanatomical and histological examination of the rib cartilage of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorber, B.

    2000-06-01

    This study was concerned with the representation and description of the rib cartilage of the dog and the abnormalities of such by means of radiological, computer tomographic, pathoanatomical and histological examinations and the comparison of the results of the various examination methods. The study material consisted of 100 ventral thorax walls of dogs of different ages and breeds. In 39 of the subjects, no abnormalities of rib cartilage other than unremarkable calcification were observed. Among the subjects, there were 11 puppies (0-3 months), whose rib cartilage appeared soft tissue dense due to the absence of calcification, 14 juvenile animals (4-18 months), the rib cartilage of which showed a typical finely granulated structure, and 14 adult dogs (over 18 months), whose rib cartilage exhibited a homogeneous to net-like calcified appearance. In the calcified rib cartilage, the histological section showed a centrally located spongiosa rod surrounded by a hyaline cartilage shell. The calcification tendency of the first pair of rib cartilage was remarkable: in 70 dogs, the first pair of rib cartilage remained uncalcified despite calcification of the other rib cartilage. Sixty-one dogs exhibited rib cartilage abnormalities. According to the radiological appearance of the abnormalities, they were divided into groups and their incidence was calculated. Abnormalities seen included interruption in the continuity of the calcified rib cartilage with and without callus formation, enlargement of rib cartilage, cuff formation, and abnormalities on the Articulationes sternocostales (projections in or around articulations, calcified and fractured joint surfaces). In addition, remarkable calcification patterns were observed. By means of CT examination the densities of the tissue forming the various abnormalities was determined. In the course of the pathoanatomical examination, it was shown that the interruptions in continuity with callus and the various enlarged areas of the

  19. Is the iPad suitable for image display at American Board of Radiology examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Rachel J; Rainford, Louise A; Leong, David L; Butler, Marie-Louise; Evanoff, Michael G; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Ryan, John T

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the acceptability of the iPad 3 as a display option for American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations. A set of 20 cases for each of nine specialties examined by the ABR was prepared. Each comprised between one and seven images and case information and had been used in previous ABR Initial Certification examinations. Examining radiologists (n = 119) at the ABR oral Initial Certification examinations reviewed sets from one or more specialties on both a 2 MP LED monitor and on the iPad 3 and rated the visibility of the salient image features for each case. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare ratings. In addition, a thematic analysis of participants' opinions was undertaken. When all specialties were pooled, the iPad 3 ratings were significantly higher than the monitor ratings (p = 0.0217). The breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and nuclear medicine specialties also returned significantly higher ratings for the visibility of relevant image features for the iPad 3. Monitor ratings were significantly higher for the vascular and interventional specialty, although no images were rated unacceptably poor on the iPad in this specialty. The relevant image features were rated more visible on the iPad 3 than on the monitors overall. The iPad 3 was well accepted by a large majority of examiners and can be considered adequate for image display for examination in most or all specialties.

  20. Patient dose during radiological examination in the follow-up of bariatric surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, L.; Cazzani, C.; Tomarchio, O.; Morone, G.; Catona, A.; Fantinato, D.

    2007-01-01

    A patient dose survey was carried out measuring the kerma-area product (KAP) values during radiological evaluation in the follow-up of bariatric surgery. The procedures were performed by three radiologists to adjust laparoscopic gastric bands and to detect postoperative complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures to treat morbid obesity. Total fluoroscopy time, exposure factors and the overall contribution of fluoroscopy to the accumulated KAP value were recorded. The median KAP values were used to estimate organ doses and effective dose to a standard patient; the radiation risk associated with the procedures was also evaluated. The doses were smaller for one of the three radiologists, owing to a more appropriate beam collimation and a reduction of the screening time. The KAP values ranged from 1.6 to 7.1 Gy cm 2 for the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding management, and from 3.0 and 8.3 Gy cm 2 for the radiological examinations after gastric bypass. As a whole, the effective doses associated to these procedures were between 0.5 and 2.7 mSv. The organs receiving the highest doses were not only breast, stomach, pancreas and liver, but also lungs, owing to of their high radiosensitivity, significantly contributed to the effective dose. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil; Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-01-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  2. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekce, Senem Divrik [I. Ikad Community Health Center, Health Directorate, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Gekce, Erkan [Samsun Maternity and Women' s Disease and Pediatrics Hospital, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Coskun, Melek [Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz May' s University, Samsun (Turkmenistan)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X{sup 2}-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  3. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divrik Gökçe, Senem; Coşkun, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Objective Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. Materials and Methods A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A χ2-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Results Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Conclusion Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period. PMID:22438688

  4. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekce, Senem Divrik; Gekce, Erkan; Coskun, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X 2 -test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  5. Analysis of skull asymmetry in different historical periods using radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlikowska, A.; Czerwinski, F.; Dzieciolowska, E.; Miklaszewska, D.; Adamiec, E.; Szczurowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetry is a very common phenomenon in nature. Occurrence of asymmetry and knowledge of correct structure, especially a range of variability which is not a pathology but only an individual variation, are the basis for interpretation of results of radiological examination of the skulls both in research work and in diagnostic examinations, which are widely performed in modern medicine. There are many methods of estimation of the asymmetry. The aim of this study was to estimate the symmetry of skulls from selected historic populations. The studied material consisted of two skull populations - contemporary consisting of 82 skulls and medieval - 77 skulls from Grodek. X-rays in P-A and skull-base projections were performed. The images were scanned and calibrated by means of MicroStation 95 Academic Edition software. Using tools for measurement of vector elements, distances between selected bilateral points of the skull were taken. All data were analyzed statistically. Asymmetry was observed in the skulls of both populations. Some diameters were higher on the left side, some on the right side. High levels of asymmetry index in the superior facial part and in the posterior part of the skull base were observed. The levels of the asymmetry indexes in both groups were similar. Radiological pictures in two projections should be taken for correct analysis of the skull asymmetry. The examination of the asymmetry of the landmarks should be based on the analysis of diameters from two different points of reference. The human skull does not demonstrate a clear domination of one side. The largest variations were observed in the shape and localization of the foramina of the skull . It is associated with the differences of the position of the neurovascular elements which pass through these foramina. (author)

  6. The Relationship between Method of Clinical Instruction in Radiography and Scores on the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists Certification Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Steven B.

    An examination was made of the relationship between clinical grade based on simulation and a subsequent outcome measurement, the national certification examination in radiography. Although the new "Essentials" developed by the Joint Review Committee in Education in Radiologic Technology discouraged use of simulation, the method had…

  7. Results of the study of entrance surface dose from conventional examinations in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Jova, L.; Carrazana, J.; Diaz, E.; Mora, R. de la; Guevara, C.; Fleitas, I.

    2001-01-01

    The wide diffusion of X-ray diagnostic together with the quick development and expansion that has come with experiencing the technology in this practice, has motivated the emission of recommendations in the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA for the establishment of guidance levels for different radiological examinations in each country that allow the optimization of the medical exposure. Considering the above-mentioned and the existence in Cuba in a great number of conventional X-ray equipment, with an average of over 10 years of use which influences directly on the patient dose, in 1999, an investigation began in the country on the patient exposure in this practice. This work shows the first results of measurements carried out in 9 major hospitals of several provinces of the country. The doses were evaluated in the examinations of lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT, thorax PA, skull AP and skull LAT. The determination of the doses in these examinations was carried out by 'in-vivo' measurements on the patients, placing in the center of the irradiation field TLD of LiF. The distributions obtained in the studies are compared with the guidance levels that is shown in the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. (author)

  8. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author)

  9. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1995-06-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author).

  10. Estimation of staff doses in complex radiological examinations using a Monte Carlo computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2007-01-01

    The protection of medical personnel in interventional radiology is an important issue of radiological protection. The irradiation of the worker is largely non-uniform, and a large part of his body is shielded by a lead apron. The estimation of effective dose (E) under these conditions is difficult and several approaches are used to estimate effective dose involving such a protective apron. This study presents a summary from an extensive series of simulations to determine scatter-dose distribution around the patient and staff effective dose from personal dosimeter readings. The influence of different parameters (like beam energy and size, patient size, irradiated region, worker position and orientation) on the staff doses has been determined. Published algorithms that combine readings of an unshielded and a shielded dosimeter to estimate effective dose have been applied and a new algorithm, that gives more accurate dose estimates for a wide range of situations was proposed. A computational approach was used to determine the dose distribution in the worker's body. The radiation transport and energy deposition was simulated using the MCNP4B code. The human bodies of the patient and radiologist were generated with the Body Builder anthropomorphic model-generating tool. The radiologist is protected with a lead apron (0.5 mm lead equivalent in the front and 0.25 mm lead equivalent in the back and sides) and a thyroid collar (0.35 mm lead equivalent). The lower-arms of the worker were folded to simulate the arms position during clinical examinations. This realistic situation of the folded arms affects the effective dose to the worker. Depending on the worker position and orientation (and of course the beam energy), the difference can go up to 25 percent. A total of 12 Hp(10) dosimeters were positioned above and under the lead apron at the neck, chest and waist levels. Extra dosimeters for the skin dose were positioned at the forehead, the forearms and the front surface of

  11. Dynamic statistics on radiology-related examinations of the department of dental radiology at the Kyushu Dental College Hospital during the past 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Nao; Oda, Masahumi; Okabe, Sachiko; Kitou, Shinji; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    We have reported dynamic statistics on radiology-related examinations and patients in our department every 10 years in order to clarify the role and characteristics of the Department of Dental Radiology at the Kyushu Dental College Hospital. In the last 10 years, the latest models of X-ray CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment have been used, as they were installed when the newly built Kyushu Dental College hospital was opened in September 1999. Therefore, we can now treat more types of disease in the soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions than before. In the present study, we examined the precise numbers of radiology-related examinations and patients, and analyzed the purpose of radiology-related examinations in each modality. Plain radiography, X-ray CT scanning, MRI and ultrasonography were performed at our department from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 2007, and were analyzed for examination number and purpose. The results were as follows. The number of patients visiting our hospital and our department increased markedly when the newly built hospital was opened 10 years ago. The annual number of imaging examinations during the same period also increased substantially. However, the annual number of patients has remained relatively constant since the initial increase. There is an apparent relationship between the number of outpatients and the number of imaging examinations. Because our department began to offer MRI examinations in September 1999, the frequency of these examinations has increased annually for the purpose of soft tissue-related diseases in the oral and maxillofacial regions. X-ray CT examination was mainly used for the detection of diseases occurring in the maxilla and mandible, or of calcification-related diseases such as sialolithiasis. On the other hand, the purpose of MRI examination was the precise detection of diseases occurring in the soft tissues, such as salivary glands. The results suggest that the dentists in our

  12. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C.; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  13. Biomechanics of the arch of the foot. Pre- and postoperative radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristen, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    The human foot is a complex biomechanical structure. The arch of the foot is formed by the bony and articular structure of the midfoot and supported by strong ligaments and tendons. The normal arch develops in childhood. Tendon and ligament rupture and degeneration often lead to flattening of the arch. Frequent painful conditions include hallux valgus deformity and rupture of the posterior tibial tendon both leading to flat feet. Radiological examination is necessary in a standardized, full weight bearing standing position. The standing dorsoplantar view shows hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal 1/2 angle. The side view shows Lisfranc joint instability and decrease of the talometatarsal angle. Talonavicular instability is a frequent secondary sign of spring ligament and posterior tibial tendon lesion. After failure of conservative therapy, corrective surgery with osteotomy and realignment procedure of the malpositioned bones in combination with tendon and ligament reconstruction is the state of the art procedure. In postoperative follow-up a standing X-ray of the foot is again the standard tool. Additional MRI and CT examinations help to detect bone and cartilage lesions and tendon/ligament ruptures. (orig.) [de

  14. Public competitive examination for radiology technologist: knowledge in radiation protection required in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.S.; Silva, K.R.; Gomes, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are used in areas such as health, industry and safety, not only in the private sector, but also in the public. Thus, it is necessary the radiological protection, a set of studies and practices that increases the safety in these applications, where the professional involved is the technologist in radiology. The objective was to analyze the contents effectively required by the Brazilian public agencies in their competitions for radiology technologist, regarding the area of radiological protection, identifying their profile of requirement. It consisted of three stages: first, a survey of all the public competitions already carried out in the country up to the end of 2016, that requested a diploma of graduation in Technology in Radiology; second, all the specific questions were collected and grouped in an electronic text file; third, issues involving radiological protection were segregated, using as reference the 2017 edition of the National Nuclear Energy Commission's General Proof of Radioprotection Supervision. The results showed that almost 40% of the competition questions were about radiation protection. From this sampling, the topics most covered were: radiological safety (36%), fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics (24%) and biological effects of radiation (16%). It is concluded that the competitions for radiologist technologist have the profile of concentration of exigency in radiological safety, fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics and biological effects of the radiations

  15. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulea, D.; Cosma, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  16. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  17. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D. [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several

  18. iPad-based patient briefing for radiological examinations-a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechtweg, Philipp M; Hammon, Matthias; Giese, David; Heberlein, Christian; Uder, Michael; Schwab, Siegfried A

    2014-08-01

    To analyze if an iPad-based patient briefing can serve as a digital alternative to conventional documentations prior to radiological examinations. One hundred one patients referred for routine MRI were randomized into two groups, who underwent iPad-based and classic written briefing in opposite order. For each briefing completion time, completeness and correctness were noted. Patient's knowledge about the content of either briefing modality was subsequently tested. The influence of patient-related factors on the performance of the electronic briefing (EB) was analyzed. Finally, the patient's subjective impression of the EB was assessed. The mean durations were 4.4 ± 2.2 min for EB and 1.7 ± 1.3 min for the classic briefing (p iPad briefings were returned entirely filled out, whereas 11 % of the classic forms were returned with missing data. No significant differences in memorization of the briefing's information were objectified. There was a positive correlation between the duration of EB and age (r = 0.53; p iPads transfers the information for the patients equally well compared to the classic written approach. Although iPad briefing took patients longer to perform, the majority would prefer it to written consent briefings in the future. Nevertheless, measures have to be undertaken to improve the overall acceptance and performance.

  19. The Application of Strength of Association Statistics to the Item Analysis of an In-Training Examination in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; McCormick, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Using item responses from an in-training examination in diagnostic radiology, the application of a strength of association statistic to the general problem of item analysis is illustrated. Criteria for item selection, general issues of reliability, and error of measurement are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  20. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of awareness on radiation protection and knowledge about radiological examinations in healthcare professionals who use ionized radiation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Ayşegül; Cavuşoğlu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work.

  2. An experimental study on radiological examination of obstructed small bowel with various contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kim, Sung Jin; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Jae Hyung

    1991-01-01

    For the evaluation of the level and cause of small bowel obstruction, an oral barium study is usually chosen. When perforation is whether barium or a water-soluble contrast agent should be used, because barium causes from foreign body reactions as well as adhesions in the extraluminal tissues. Water-soluble contrast agent, on the other hand, are less satisfactory but in general have no untoward effects in the extraluminal tissues. Because of hyperosomolarity, water-soluble contrast agents attract large amounts of fluid with subsequent dilution and loss of contrast and pose a risk of pulmonary edema if aspirated. The use of the newer non-ionic and low-osmolarity water-soluble contrast will likely avoid pulmonary complications due to aspiration. The author performed this experimental study to compare the radiological efficacy of different contrast media in enteric follow-through examinations of obstructed small bowel. Rate had a ligature applied to the distal ileum via laparotomy. Four contrast media were subjected to testing by instillation via oro-gastric tube immediately after laparotomy. Radiographs were exposed at 1, 4 and 8 hours and evaluated later. After 24 hours the animals were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowels, free from mesentery and omental tissue, were weighted with contrasts. The progression in the bowel was proportionate to the osmolarity of the contrast media. After 1 hour, the observations indicated sodium diatrizoate (Gastrografin, Schering) to be the least favorable medium with respect to sharpness of the mucosal border. After 8 hours, barium gave a poorer delineation compared to Ioxaglate (Hexabric, Guerbet) and Iopromide (Ultravist, Schering). Early deaths were noted in the sodium diatrizoate and ioxaglate groups. So we conclude that when using a rather high-volume bolus, low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media seem to have significant prospects for general diagnostic use in patients with suspected intestinal obstruction

  3. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from radiological examinations in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontar, Dejan; Zdesar, Urban; Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Pekarovic, Dean; Skrk, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate population exposure from diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures in Slovenia. Methods The study was conducted in scope of the “Dose Datamed 2” project. A standard methodology based on 20 selected radiological procedures was adopted. Frequencies of the procedures were determined via questionnaires that were sent to all providers of radiological procedures while data about patient exposure per procedure were collected from existing databases. Collective effective dose to the population and effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data (DLP for CT, MGD for mammography and DAP for other procedures) using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from radiological in 2011 was estimated to 1300 manSv and an effective dose per capita to 0.6 mSv of which approximately 2/3 are due to CT procedures. Conclusions The first systematic study of population exposure to ionising radiation from radiological procedures in Slovenia was performed. The results show that the exposure in Slovenia is under the European average. It confirmed large contributions of computed tomography and interventional procedures, identifying them as the areas that deserve special attention when it comes to justification and optimisation. PMID:25810709

  4. Diagnostic efficacy of radiological examinations in clefts of the hard palate; Skutecznosc diagnostyczna badan rentgenowskich w rozszczepach podniebienia twardego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslinska-Wilk, G. [Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The aim of the work has been: (1) evaluating the efficiency of individual radiological methods in visualizing the bone structure of the hard palate; (2) elaboration of a method for skull examination, by means of which the hard palate region in patients would be best visible; (3) presentation of radiological symptomatology of hard palate clefts; (4) establishing algorithms of diagnostic procedure and determining the type of radiological examination most helpful in planning the treatment of this anomaly. Selected problems from normal anatomy of the hard palate are presented, and the technique of radiological examination in the form of occlusal radiograms, pantomography and computerized tomography (CT) are discussed. Clinical material encompassed the total of 312 patients. A total of 470 radiograms were performed, 150 occlusal ones of hard palate, 200 pantomograms (jointly with the control group) as well as 120 scannings during CT examination. It has been stated the greatest efficiency and effectiveness in planning the treatment are ascribed to computerized tomography, the second place goes to pantomography, on the third position are occlusal radiograms targeted at the region of the cleft. Algorithms have been provided for roentgen-diagnostic procedure in cases of the hard palate clefts, with an emphasis that the very first examination of a child should include the occlusal radiograms targeted at the cleft region and pantomogram; in the course of conservative treatment only pantomogram is proposed to be made, and in case of planned operative procedure - CT examination. For evaluating the calcification of the cleft, the best and with the least irradiation are the intraoral occlusal radiograms, targeted at the region of the cleft, performed 12 months after the operation. (author). 100 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs.

  5. RSVP radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.R.; Chaffee, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a relative scale of value for pediatric radiology (RSVPR). Neither the HCFA/ACA Relative Value Scale nor the Workload Measurement System developed by Health and Welfare Canada specifically addressed pediatric radiologic examinations. Technical and professional charges for examinations at Children's Hospital Medical Center were reviewed and compared with time and cost analysis. A scale was developed with chest radiography (PA and lateral views) assigned a value of 1. After review by pediatric radiologic technologists, radiologic administrators, pediatric radiologists, and chairs of departments of children's hospitals, this proposed scale was modified to reflect more accurately relative value components of pediatric radiologic and imaging examinations

  6. Information about radiation dose and risks in connection with radiological examinations: what patients would like to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukkola, Leila; Oikarinen, Heljae; Haapea, Marianne; Tervonen, Osmo; Henner, Anja; Honkanen, Hilkka

    2016-01-01

    To find out patients' wishes for the content and sources of the information concerning radiological procedures. A questionnaire providing quantitative and qualitative data was prepared. It comprised general information, dose and risks of radiation, and source of information. Two tables demonstrating different options to indicate the dose or risks were also provided. Patients could give one or many votes. Altogether, 147 patients (18-85 years) were interviewed after different radiological examinations using these devices. 95 % (139/147) of the patients wished for dose and risk information. Symbols (78/182 votes) and verbal scale (56/182) were preferred to reveal the dose, while verbal (83/164) and numerical scale (55/164) on the risk of fatal cancer were preferred to indicate the risks. Wishes concerning the course, options and purpose of the examination were also expressed. Prescriber (3.9 on a scale 1-5), information letter (3.8) and radiographer (3.3) were the preferred sources. Patients aged 66-85 years were reluctant to choose electronic channels. Apart from general information, patients wish for dose and risk information in connection with radiological examinations. The majority preferred symbols to indicate dose and verbal scales to indicate risks, and the preferred source of information was the prescriber or information letter. (orig.)

  7. Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massillon, J.G.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

  8. Radiological examination of the detailed relief pattern of the stomach. Pt. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frik, W.; Fernholz, H.J.; Bussmann, A.

    1982-02-01

    Following earlier work on the relationship between the micromucosal pattern of the stomach and chronic gastritis, a comparison was carried out between the appearances in the pyloric canal and the histological findings in that area. The presence of chronic gastritis could not be excluded, irrespective of the type of relief pattern. Normal gastric mucosa was only found in areas showing medium sized areae gastricae. Fundamental problems concerning the radiological technique are discussed as well as the evidence for the diagnosis of chronic gastritis.

  9. The RETAIN project: DICOM teleradiology over an ATM-based network. Radiological Examinations Transfer on an ATM Integrated Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heautot, J F; Eichelberg, M; Gibaud, B; Tréguier, C; Lemoine, D; Scarabin, J M; Piqueras, J; Carsin, M; Gandon, Y

    2000-01-01

    The RETAIN project (Radiological Examinations Transfer on an ATM Integrated Network) has aimed at testing videoconferencing and DICOM image transfers to get advice about difficult radiological cases over an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)-based network, which affords a more comfortable interface than narrow-band networks and allows exchange of complete image series using the DICOM format of studies. For this purpose, an experimental ATM network was applied between six university hospitals in four different countries. An assessment of the functionalities of the system was performed by means of log-file analysis, video recording of the sessions and forms filled out by the participants at the end of each session. Questionnaires were answered by the users at the end of the project to bring out perspectives of utilisation and added value. We discussed 43 cases during 20 sessions. For technical or organisational problems, only 20 of the 36 planned sessions took place. The throughput over ATM (10.5 Mbit/s, 20 times faster than six ISDN B-channels) was adequate. Despite the experimental configuration of the network, the system was considered as satisfactory by all the physicians. In 72 % of the sessions, the expected result (answer to the question) was gained. By common consent, videoconferencing was unanimously regarded as a prominent tool in improving the interaction quality. Asynchronous transfer mode is an efficient method for fast transferring of radiologic examinations in DICOM format and for discussing them through high-quality videoconferencing.

  10. Present status of education for radiation safety during clinical examinations and the role of the radiological technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satou, Yukimitsu

    1988-01-01

    The applications of radiation to the medical field are increasing steadily, along with advances in radiation technology and development of new medical equipment. Medical applications of radiation differ from applications in other fields, because the patient is exposed to radiation during examination and radiotherapy. Consequently, it is important that training courses in radiation safety for radiological technologists, medical doctors and nurses be periodically carried out to ensure a more effective and safe utilization of radiation. Furthermore, it is important that such training be based on a practical education curriculum, including basic knowledge, technical training, and safe habits. In this paper, we discuss the appropriate role and attitudes of the radiological technologist in radiation safety education. (author)

  11. Present status of education for radiation safety during clinical examinations and the role of the radiological technologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satou, Yukimitsu

    1988-10-01

    The applications of radiation to the medical field are increasing steadily, along with advances in radiation technology and development of new medical equipment. Medical applications of radiation differ from applications in other fields, because the patient is exposed to radiation during examination and radiotherapy. Consequently, it is important that training courses in radiation safety for radiological technologists, medical doctors and nurses be periodically carried out to ensure a more effective and safe utilization of radiation. Furthermore, it is important that such training be based on a practical education curriculum, including basic knowledge, technical training, and safe habits. In this paper, we discuss the appropriate role and attitudes of the radiological technologist in radiation safety education.

  12. A snapshot of patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations at an Australian radiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N; Mohacsy, A; Connell, D A; Schneider, M E

    2017-05-01

    Cumulative radiation exposure is linked to increasing the lifetime attributable risk of cancer. To avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and facilitate shared decision making, patients should be aware of these issues. This paper examines patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations. Consecutive patients attending a private radiology clinic over a nine week period in 2014 in Metropolitan Melbourne were surveyed while waiting to undergo an imaging examination. Patients who were under 18 years of age, did not speak English and/or were referred for interventional imaging procedures were excluded from participation. Survey questions addressed patients' awareness of radiation dose associated with various imaging modalities' and patients' experience and preferences regarding communication of information about radiation. Data was analysed using SPSS (Ver 20.1). A total of 242 surveys were completed. Most participants were male (143/239, 59.8%) and aged between 33 and 52 years (109/242, 45%). Over half of participants were not concerned about radiation from medical imaging (130/238, 54.6%). Only a third of participants (80/234, 34.2%) correctly reported that CT has a higher radiation dose than X-ray. Very few participants correctly identified mammography, DEXA, PET and PET/CT as radiation emitting examinations. The majority of participants (202/236, 85.6%) indicated that they were not informed about radiation dose and risks by their referring doctor in advance. This paper provides information relevant to a single private radiology clinic in Australia. Nevertheless, our results have shown that patients presenting for medical imaging have little awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with these examinations and received little information by their referring physicians or staff at the radiology clinic. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The radiological examination of the detailed relief pattern of the stomach. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frik, W.; Fernholz, H.J.; Bussmann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Following earlier work on the relationship between the micromucosal pattern of the stomach and chronic gastritis, a comparison was carried out between the appearances in the pyloric canal and the histological findings in that area. The presence of chronic gastritis could not be excluded, irrespective of the type of relief pattern. Normal gastric mucosa was only found in areas showing medium sized areae gastricae. Fundamental problems concerning the radiological technique are discussed as well as the evidence for the diagnosis of chronic gastritis. (orig.) [de

  14. Digital technology influence on patient dose in the radiological examination of the upper digestive apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, E.; Pifarre, X.; Ruiz, J.; Escalada, C.; Paredes, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The radiological study of the superior digestive apparatus (oesophagus, stomach and duodenum) throughout the barium contrast is a kind of exploration which provides medium-high dosage levels for patients. In these studies the fluoroscopy and the acquisition of images for the diagnosis are shared. The acquisition of images, up until a few years ago, was accomplished through radiographic film and chemical processing; nowadays, the new generation of image-intensifier tube incorporates a new utility to digitally capture the images. This new capturing method, with higher sensitivity, allows us to obtain images with a mAs 5 times smaller than the classical system of radiological film (reduction of the dosage up to 80%). This leads us to expect very important reductions in dosage in the studies conducted with this new technology. Nonetheless, these expectations haven't been reflected in the dosimetric samples that our work team has conducted in several centers of the community of Madrid these past years. In this work, the reasons for this phenomenon are analyzed. (author)

  15. Apparatus for radiological examination of a subject through a solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.; Rice, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    A framework supporting a radiation source, such as an x-ray tube, and a radiation receptor, such as an x-ray film plate holder, comprises four arms pivotally connected to form a regular parallelogram, a parallel pair of the arms extending outside the parallelogram to pivot points for the radiation source and receptor. The parallelogram is mounted on a rotor whose central axis is parallel to the parallel pair of arms. Two links between another one of the arms and the source and receptor respectively, and parallel to the central axis, hold the axis of the source and receptor aligned on a radiation axis which passes through an isocenter on the central axis as the parallelogram is angularly adjusted in planes parallel to the central axis. The angular adjustment of the parallelogram combined with turning of the parallelogram on the rotor permit the source to radiate through a subject at the isocenter, for example the human heart or brain, from throughout a solid angle while maintaining constant radiological distance between the source and subject and a constant axial alignment of the source and receptor. The radiological magnification may also be kept constant, or the receptor may be adjusted along its axis, in which case a counterweight reciprocating along the transverse arm and connected to the receptor by two cables counterbalances the receptor in all solid angle positions. (auth)

  16. Examination of types of exposure and management methods for nurses in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroshige; Fujii, Tomonori; Koshida, Kichiro; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have been done on exposure to operators and doctors during interventional radiology (IVR), there have been very few reports on nurses. This study was carried out to clarify the situation regarding exposure for nurses, and provides examples of how to estimate and manage. We measured space dose-rate distributions with an ionization survey meter, and personal exposure dose by a small fluorescent grass dosimeter (Dose Ace). The experimental results disclosed that there tended to be two types of exposure depending on the task performed. Head and neck (collar level) were associated with the highest exposure dose, which was observed in nurses assisting operators. Alternatively, knees showed the highest exposure dose, which was observed in nurses observing and assisting the patient. When estimation of skin equivalent exposure at the knees is needed, it can be calculated by using the value measured at the collar level. Furthermore, in estimating exposure dose, the directional and energy characteristics of personal dosimeters should be considered adequate. For radiation management, a circular protective sheet can be placed around the patient's lower area and a protective screen near the patient's head, and basic and practical education can be given. We concluded that these are highly useful for the personal monitoring of nurses engaged in IVR. (author)

  17. Studies on the reporting system by a questionnaire for the physiological and radiological examinations in Gunma University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Hideki; Inoue, Tomio; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Hasegawa, Akira; Endo, Keigo

    1992-01-01

    The utilization and preservation of reports on diagnostic radiology and physiology examinations in Gunma University Hospital was evaluated using a questionnaire, in advance of an online reporting system linked to the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) being introduced into the hospital information system. The recovery rate was 83% (83/100). And the following results were obtained. Reports made by specialists are necessary, irrespective of the grade and complexity of examinations. Reports have to be written in correspondence with clinical problems. For case of film-report matching, some schemata should be added to sentence-form reports. The format of reports, including the language, expression and extent of comments, may be modified in accordance with the speciality or career of the referring doctor. (author)

  18. Guidelines on Training, Examination and Certification in Digital Industrial Radiology Testing (RT-D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies. NDT methods are primarily used for the detection, location and sizing of surface and internal defects in, for example, welds, castings, forging, composite materials and concrete. Various NDT methods are also used in the preventive maintenance of nuclear power plants, aircraft and bridges. Thus, NDT technology contributes significantly to the improvement of the quality of industrial products and the integrity of equipment and plants. The introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on traditional, nuclear based NDT methods. During the introduction phase in digital industrial radiography (DIR), the digitization of films provided economy of storage, efficiency of communication and accuracy of dimensional measurement. NDT laboratories are progressing rapidly with the digitalization of NDT data. New radiologic imaging techniques in DIR, using image intensifier systems, computed radiography with phosphor imaging plates and digital detector arrays, have increased the capacity for visualization of defects and have revealed new potential for accurate evaluation and measurement. The development of DIR has been of continuing interest to the IAEA and national NDT societies in recent years. This has led to the formation of projects on the development and application of advanced industrial radiography and tomography techniques under the IAEA Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology. This publication is intended to provide resource material to support vocational training to NDT radiographers on digital industrial radiography and to help NDT training centres and certification bodies in Member States to establish their own courses, curricula and certification systems in this technology

  19. The radiological examination standards of East Germany as a means of quality assurance and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1988-01-01

    The standards (technical standards) define the minimum expenditure required for an X-ray examination. They must be reconfirmed about every 5 years. The regulations refer to basic care and do not restrict the possibility of carrying out additional examinations. Their observance ensures an optimum quality of the diagnosis and an optimum comparability of the pictures and a radiation burden that is as low as possible under realizable conditions (expenditure). The standards regulate the extent of the examinations (minimal number of the pictures to be taken) and also the periodic sequence of the pictures in the case of angiocardiographies. Some types of examinations require special standards for examinations of adults and children. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Orientation leaflet for radiological and nuclear medical examinations. Recommendations of the Radiation Protection Commission (SSK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumprecht, D.; Haehnel, S.; Hahn, C.; Heller, H.

    2006-01-01

    The brochure is to help doctors in hospitals as well as private practitioners to select the best suited examination procedures for a given problem and help them to take better care of their patients and reduce their radiation exposure. The criteria are no substitute for the indication required by Section 80 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and Section 23 of the X-Ray Ordinance, i.e. e. an indication in which the health effect surpasses the health risk resulting from radiation exposure. The brochure informs on the role of X-ray examinations, ultrasonic examinations, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography and interventional examinations in given cases. The body system approach used in the EU version was retained. (orig.)

  1. Examination of offsite radiological emergency measures for nuclear reactor accidents involving core melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    1978-06-01

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment failure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects

  2. Clinical and radiological follow-up examinations following fractures of the Collum mandibulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, K.

    1981-01-01

    All patients presented a fracture of the collum mandibulae, which had occurred between 1 and 10 years before treatment. The patients were exclusively treated conservatively. 57 of 67 patients did not indicate any subjective pain. 10 patients complained about pain and restricted movability. In only 22 cases no pathologic findings were obtained in the clinical follow-up examinations. In 33 patients the roentgenologic follow-up examination led to pathologic findings. Severe complications as disturbance of growth and formation of ankyloses, occurred only in one single case, due to a fracture of the mandibular joint in childhood. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Examinations and patient management in radiologic diagnostics by means of a computerized data-processing communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, E.; Remplik, V.; Opfer, M.; Wilde, E.

    1986-01-01

    Concept, realization and a two-year experience in routine use of a computerized data-processing communications system supporting the central radiology department in a 1.625-bed, municipal hospital are discussed. Via the hospital ward-linked terminal network, routine X-ray examination is so ordered, that individual medical case information is provided, which certifies qualified clinical and diagnostic procedure along with good patient preparation and transportation. Complete information and documentation are also ensured. It was shown, that good motivation among involved radiologists and their close working-association with other departments are mandatory from the start to maintain exact time schedules and satisfactory completion of ordered X-ray procedures. Subsequently, the assistance through computerized data-processing becomes an accepted help - so far as it is appropriately used - as time goes by in its routine use. (orig.) [de

  4. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  5. Relationship Between Dental Hygiene Students' Performance in an Oral Radiology Course and the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    Dental hygiene students' performance in oral radiology courses may give an early indication of their readiness prior to taking the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dental hygiene students' performance in an oral radiology lecture course and their performance on the NBDHE. Data were collected for all 117 dental hygiene students at Texas A&M University College of Dentistry from 2006 to 2009 who took the NBDHE during their second year of the program. Their final grades and scores on three written section examinations in an oral radiology course taken in their first year were compared with their overall NBDHE scores and raw scores on the oral radiology and case study sections. Moderate correlations (0.3radiology course, with the strongest correlation with the final grade (r=0.488, pradiology, followed by scores in anatomic sciences; the weakest relationship was with scores in pharmacology. This relationship can help identify students who may need extra support in the oral radiology course and other courses to prepare them to succeed when they take the NBDHE. This study also contributes to understanding of the general relationship between dental hygiene program courses and students' success on the clinical licensing exam and will hopefully encourage other programs to assess their students' performance in this way.

  6. [Radiologic follow-up after breast-conserving surgery: value of MRI examination of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, C; Forrai, G; Szabó, E; Riedl, E; Fodor, J; Fornet, B; Németh, G

    1999-11-21

    The aim of the study was to establish an objective method for evaluation the extent, topography and quantity of skin and soft tissue side effects after tele- and/or brachyradiotherapy of the conserved breast and to compare the sequales of different radiation methods. 26 patients operated on for T1-2 N0-1 breast cancer underwent the following kinds of postoperative radiotherapy: 1. 46-50 Gy whole breast teletherapy + 10-16 Gy electron boost (5 patients), 2. 46-50 Gy teletherapy + 10-15 Gy HDR brachytherapy boost (12 patients), 3. 46-50 Gy teletherapy (6 patients), 4. 36,4 Gy sole HDR brachytherapy of the tumour bed (5 patients). The postirradiation side effects were examined by MRI, mammogram, US and physical examination, as well. MRI was performed on a 0.5 T, double breast coil, with SE-T1, SE-T2 and 3D-GE sequences. The findings of MRI and mammography were compared to physically detectable side effects using the RTOG/EORTC late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. US is useful in the measurement of skin thickening and in the diagnosis of fat necrosis. Mammography and physical examination are very subjective and low specificity methods to evaluate postirradiation side effects. MRI is a suitable and more objective method to detect the real extent and quantity of skin thickening and fibrosis. The incidence of > or = G2 side effects of skin and breast parenchyma were 64.5 and 32.2%, respectively. The differences between the side effects of whole breast irradiation and sole brachytherapy of the tumour bed are also clearly demonstrated. Brachytherapy alone is feasible without compromising cosmetic results. The authors established the MRI criteria for categorization the extent and grade of skin thickening and fibrosis (focal vs diffuse, grade 1-4). Breast MRI is an objective tool for assisting to the evaluation of the side effects of postoperative radiotherapy.

  7. Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles. (orig.)

  8. Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint. New aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.

    Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles.

  9. Patient dose surveys for radiological examinations in Dutch hospitals between 1993 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, F.M.; Geleijns, J.; Broerse, J.J.; Teeuwisse, W.M.; Zweers, D.

    2001-01-01

    Our inventory studies on radiation dose to patients in Dutch hospitals are reviewed and compared with current European guidelines on patient dose and reference dose values of the NRPB. Between the years 1993 and 2000 doses were measured and effective dose was assessed at 14 hospitals for paediatric radiography, at 18 hospitals for PA chest radiography, at 10 respectively 9 hospitals for barium meal and barium enema examinations and at 18 hospitals for CT scans of the brain, chest (including high resolution CT of the chest), abdomen and lumbar spine in The Netherlands. Effective doses varied from 1 μSv (AP chest radiograph premature) to 26 mSv (CT abdomen scan). Doses were in general well below the reference dose values, with the exception of CT where the dose length product often exceeded reference levels. Interhospital variations were considerable, the largest range was observed for PA chest examinations, i.e.a ratio of 27 between maximum and minimum effective dose. (author)

  10. Forensic radiology: The role of cross-sectional imaging in virtual post-mortem examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham-Jones, Joshua; Ward, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this review is to assess the benefits and limitations of using Multi Slice Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance as non-invasive post-mortem imaging methods. Method: The author utilised SciVerse (Science Direct), Scopus, PubMed and Discover to search for relevant articles. The following search terms were used: virtopsy, minimally invasive post-mortem imaging, autopsy, Multi Slice Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance. Articles which discussed the use of non-invasive imaging techniques for post-mortem examinations were included in the review. Any articles published before 2003 were excluded with a few exceptions. Findings: The decline in use of the conventional post-mortem method has led to the need for an alternative method of investigation which increases both sensitivity and specificity, and also is more acceptable to the family of the deceased. Discussion/conclusion: There are numerous factors affecting the usability of these non-invasive post-mortem options including cost and availability. With the price of non-invasive post-mortem examinations often rising above £1000, it is considered to be less economically viable than the conventional method. Therefore, further research into this method and its implementation in hospitals has been delayed

  11. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 2. Organ doses from computed tomographic examinations in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Panzer, W.; Drexler, G.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides a catalogue of organ dose conversion factors resulting from computed tomographic (CT) examinations of children. Two radiation qualities and two exposure geometries were simulated as well as the use of asymmetrical beams. The use of further beam shaping devices was not considered. The organ dose conversion factors are applicable to babies at the age of ca. 2 months and to children between 5 and 7 years but can be used for other ages as well with the appropriate adjustments. For the calculations, the patients were represented by the GSF tomographic anthropomorphic models BABY and CHILD. The radiation transport in the body was simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The doses are presented as conversion factors of mean organ doses per air kerma free in air on the axis of rotation. Mean organ dose conversion factors are given per organ and per scanned body section of 1 cm height. The mean dose to an organ resulting from a particular CT examination can be estimated by summing up the contributions to the organ dose from all relevant sections. To facilitate the selection of the appropriate sections, a table is given which relates the tomographic models' coordinates to certain anatomical landmarks in the human body. (orig.)

  12. Integrated FDG-PET/CT vs. standard radiological examinations: Comparison of capability for assessment of postoperative recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively and directly compare diagnostic capabilities of whole-body integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiologic examination for assessment of recurrence in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: A total of 92 consecutive pathologically diagnosed NSCLC patients (65 males, 27 females; mean age, 71 years) underwent pathologically and surgically proven complete resection, followed by prospective whole-body FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations. Final diagnosis of recurrence was based on the results of more than 1 year of follow-up and/or pathological examinations. On both methods, the probability of recurrence was assessed in each patient by using a five-point visual scoring system, and the each final diagnosis was made by consensus between two readers. Kappa analyses were performed to determine inter-observer agreement for both methods, and ROC analyses were used to compare capability of the two methods for assessment of postoperative recurrence on a per-patient basis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were also compared between PET/CT and standard radiological examination by means of McNemar's test. Results: All inter-observer agreements were almost perfect (integrated PET/CT: κ = 0.89; standard radiological examination: κ = 0.81). There were no statistically significant differences in area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiologic examinations (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Integrated FDG-PET/CT can be used for assessment of postoperative recurrence in NSCLC patients with accuracy as good as that of standard radiological examinations.

  13. Integrated FDG-PET/CT vs. standard radiological examinations: Comparison of capability for assessment of postoperative recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Nogami, Munenobu [Division of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2, Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimogato, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively and directly compare diagnostic capabilities of whole-body integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiologic examination for assessment of recurrence in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: A total of 92 consecutive pathologically diagnosed NSCLC patients (65 males, 27 females; mean age, 71 years) underwent pathologically and surgically proven complete resection, followed by prospective whole-body FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations. Final diagnosis of recurrence was based on the results of more than 1 year of follow-up and/or pathological examinations. On both methods, the probability of recurrence was assessed in each patient by using a five-point visual scoring system, and the each final diagnosis was made by consensus between two readers. Kappa analyses were performed to determine inter-observer agreement for both methods, and ROC analyses were used to compare capability of the two methods for assessment of postoperative recurrence on a per-patient basis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were also compared between PET/CT and standard radiological examination by means of McNemar's test. Results: All inter-observer agreements were almost perfect (integrated PET/CT: {kappa} = 0.89; standard radiological examination: {kappa} = 0.81). There were no statistically significant differences in area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiologic examinations (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Integrated FDG-PET/CT can be used for assessment of postoperative recurrence in NSCLC patients with accuracy as good as that of standard radiological examinations.

  14. Radiological evaluation of the lungs in children with cystic fibrosis diagnosed during newborn screening examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanowska, B.; Kopys-Wiszniewska, I.; Sands, D.

    2006-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited, autosomal, recessive disease. This disorder is caused by defects in the gene for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes for a protein that functions as a chloride channel. Mutations in the gene for CFTR result in ion disorders, and consequently in disturbances of exocrine glands in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. Pulmonary involvement occurs in 90% of patients, and is the main cause of death. The diagnosis of CF in Poland is based on clinical symptoms and positive results of the sweat test. Diacrisis is usually reached late in the 3 rd year of life. In 1999-2003, newborn screening examinations were performed at the Mother and Child Institute. The idea of these studies was to establish a diagnosis and begin treatment as early as possible, even in the asymptomatic period of the disease. The level of immunoreactive trypsinogen was determined in the blood of 4-6-day-old newborns, as well as the mutation of gene CFTR. The mean age of CF diagnosis was about 38 days. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of early commencement of treatment on the rapidity of progression of pulmonary involvement. 59 children with CF diagnosed by screening were examined by chest radiography in various periods of the disease, the earliest in the neonatal period. Pulmonary involvement (hyperinflation, periobronchial thickening, pulmonary nodules, cysts, parenchymal density, atelectasis and fibrous changes) were assessed according to Brasfield score. The control group consisted of 19 children with symptomatic CF, born in 1997-2003.They were also examined by chest radiography. Various pulmonary changes were recognized in 42 children diagnosed by screening. In the control group pulmonary involvement was found in 16 children. In both groups progression was found in 28% of the children, but significant progression was seen in 7% of those children with a screening diagnosis, and in 25% of the

  15. Experimental study on healing process of rat mandibular bone fracture examined by radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuchi, Yukio; Furumoto, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The healing process of rat mandibular fractures was stereoscopically observed daily, using plain roentgenography in the lateral-oblique and tooth axis directions and bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphoric acid (Tc-99m-MDP). The findings were compared with microradiograms of regional polished specimens. X-ray findings included the following. Up to 3 days after bone fracture, the fracture mesiodistally showed distinct radiolucency, with sharp and irregular fracture stump. Radiopacity of the fracture site gradually increased 7 days or later, and bone trabecular formation by callus and stump bridging started to occur at 14 days. Findings similar to those in the control group were observed 49 days or later. The inside was difficult to differentiate, irrespective of the observation time. Bone scans in the mesiodistal and buccolingual planes revealed tracer uptake in the areas of mandibular and soft tissue damage one day after bone fracture. Tracer uptake began to be seen in the fracture site 3 days later, and became marked at 14 days. Then Tc-99m DMP began to be localized and returned to the findings similar to those at 49 days. Bone scanning tended to show wider areas earlier than roentgenography. Microradiographic mesiodistal examination revealed distinct radiopacy of the fracture line for 3 days after bone fracture. Seven days later, bone resorption cavity occurred in the cortical bone around the fracture stump, along with neogenesis of callus. Neogenesis and calcification began to occur gradually, and 14 days later, the fracture osteoremodeling of the internal bone trabeculae was observed. Bone trabecular formation within the bone, however, occurred later. (N.K.)

  16. Radiological examination in diagnosis of dolicho-sigmoid taking into consideration the colon and sigmoid length ratio in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study was usefulness evaluation of radiological examination in the diagnosis of dolicho sigmoid, especially establishing diagnosis criteria of pictures on contrast enema films which may be pathognomonic for dolicho sigmoid in children. An attempt has been made to establish objectively the length of sigmoid and colon to calculated the radio of their sizes in children with dolicho sigmoid syndrome and in control group. Contrast enemas were performed in 176 children. Among the examined children, in 26 cases dolicho sigmoid syndrome was found, including two cases of dolicho colon. Children with dolicho sigmoid syndrome showed various anomalies in elongated sigmoid location at its different levels. Generally, it was situated at the level of between L 1 and L 5 . The sigmoid formed often two or more abnormal loops with various bending and twisting or irregular protrusions. The coefficient or our invention concerned the ratio of colon length to the length of elongated sigmoid and on the basis of calculations made on children suffering from dolicho sigmoid syndrome the numerical values ranged from 0.7 to 1.5. The same calculations performed on the control for the proposed coefficient ranged from 2.2 to 4.2. (author). 65 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  17. The possibility of the radiological and ultrasonographic examination of the facet joints of the equine thoracic and lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, R.

    2003-03-01

    The facet joints of the equine thoracic and lumbar spine were examined by radiology and ultrasonography in 31 and 20 standing horses, respectively. The employed methods were evaluated. The left and right joints of 15/31 standing horses were comparatively x-rayed with both 20 o ventral oblique and 30 o dorsal oblique techniques. The independent evaluation of the ensuing films by four experienced veterinary surgeons yielded a significantly better assessment of the tested parameters in the 20 o ventral oblique technique. It was possible to depict the facet joints of the right and left sides between the caudal margin of the scapula and the diaphragm with the pulmonary field as background rich in contrast. In 20 horses, the facet joints were examined from Th10 to L6 in longitudinal and sagittal planes. A linear-array ultrasound probe with a frequency of 7,5 MHz and a convex ultrasound probe with a frequency of 3,5 MHz were used. Depending on the nutritional state, the soft tissue structures could be evaluated. The evaluation of the facet joints themselves was very limited. (author)

  18. A frequency survey of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977 for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Harries, S.V.; Rae, S.

    1980-06-01

    Medical irradiation is the largest man-made contributor to the radiation dose received by the population of Great Britain, and diagnostic radiology is the most important component of medical irradiation. The work described here is a survey of the numbers and types of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977. The overall level of diagnostic radiology in Great Britain as a whole is reported and separate estimates for England, Wales and Scotland are given. Discussion of topics such as the frequency of particular types of examination, the number of films per examination and the use of gonad shields is included, and the results of the present survey are compared with those of the last national survey which was carried out in 1957. Also reported is an estimate of the amount of radiology undertaken outside the Health Service. The findings will be combined with estimates of gonadal doses from the different examinations and child expectancy data to estimate the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain. (author)

  19. [Development of an attitude-measurement questionnaire using the semantic differential technique: defining the attitudes of radiological technology students toward X-ray examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Naomi; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2014-03-01

    In general, it is difficult to objectively evaluate the results of an educational program. The semantic differential (SeD) technique, a methodology used to measure the connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts, can, however, be applied to the evaluation of students' attitudes. In this study, we aimed to achieve an objective evaluation of the effects of radiological technology education. We therefore investigated the attitude of radiological students using the SeD technique. We focused on X-ray examinations in the field of radiological technology science. Bipolar adjective scales were used for the SeD questionnaire. To create the questionnaire, appropriate adjectives were selected from past reports of X-ray examination practice. The participants were 32 senior students at Hokkaido University at the Division of Radiological Technology at the School of Medicine's Department of Health Sciences. All the participants completed the questionnaire. The study was conducted in early June 2012. Attitudes toward X-ray examination were identified using a factor analysis of 11 adjectives. The factor analysis revealed the following three attitudes: feelings of expectation, responsibility, and resistance. Knowledge regarding the attitudes that students have toward X-ray examination will prove useful for evaluating the effects of educational intervention. In this study, a sampling bias may have occurred due to the small sample size; however, no other biases were observed.

  20. Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium (central nervous system) in diagnosis of mental disorders; Przydatnosc badan radiologicznych czaszki (osrodkowego ukladu nerwowego) w rozpoznawaniu chorob psychicznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinska-Mika, M.

    1991-12-31

    Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs.

  1. Radiation dose evaluation in patients submitted to conventional radiological examinations; Avaliacoes de doses de radiacao em pacientes submetidos a exames radiologicos convencionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilly, Junior, Joao G

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the results of the evaluation of radiation dose delivered to the patients undergoing conventional radiological procedures. Based in the realized measurement some indicators are settled to quantitative appraisal of the radiological protection conditions offered to the population. Data assessment was done in the county of Curitiba, in Parana State, Brazil, from 12/95 to 04/96, in ten rooms of three different institutions, under 101 patients, adults with 70 {+-} 10 kg, during real examinations of chest PA, chest LAT and abdomen AP. (author)

  2. Differential diagnosis of a solitary pulmonary nodule of the lung on the grounds of selected laboratory tests and radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachcinska, A.; Kozak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present in detail the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule and especially evaluation of: clinical data, analysis of radiological images, selected laboratory tests. Material and methods: There were 50 patients - 31 men and 19 women at the mean age 58.7 ± 11.4 years old who underwent surgical treatment because of a solitary pulmonary nodule. Interview, physical examination, computed tomography, bronchoscopy, spirometry, and laboratory tests needed for the operation were performed in all these patients. Additionally LDH, fibrinogen, ESR, and the tumour markers CEA, Ca 15-3, Ca 19-9, NSE, SCC, and Cyfra 21-1 were measured from the blood sample collected during admission. Results: Malignant tumour was diagnosed in 24 patients, benign in 26. There is a significant difference between patients with malignant and nonmalignant tumours in age (54.46 years vs. 63.33 years), size of the tumour in the lung scan of chest CT (1.53 cm vs. 1.91 cm) and location (lower right lobe vs. upper right lobe). There is no significant difference between type of tumour and sex, clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. Conclusions: 1. The risk factors of malignancy in patient with solitary pulmonary nodule are: age ≥ 56.5 years, size of the tumour in the lung scan of chest CT ≥ 1.45 cm, location in upper right lobe. 2. LDH, fibrinogen, ESR, and the tumour markers CEA, Ca 15-3, Ca 19-9, NSE, SCC, and Cyfra 21-1 are not useful in differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule. (authors)

  3. Radiology trainer. Musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  4. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  5. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R.; Mauricia, C.; Barroso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operators, therefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  6. New radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A.; Shiga, I.; Kanzaki, H. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.

  7. A new radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Akira; Shiga, Itsuo; Kanzaki, Hitoshi

    1982-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors. (author)

  8. New radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A; Shiga, I; Kanzaki, H [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-07-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.

  9. Dose levels from thoracic and pelvic examinations in two pediatric radiological departments in Norway - a comparison study of dose-area product and radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjernlie Saether, Hilde; Traegde Martinsen, Anne Catrine; Lagesen, Bente; Platou Holsen, Eva; Oevreboe, Kirsti Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pediatric doses expressed in dose-area product (DAP) can be retrieved from only a few publications; most of which correlate DAP to patient size or large age spans. In clinical practice age is often the only available parameter describing the patient, and thus, evaluation of dose levels in pediatric radiology on the basis of DAP related to age alone would be useful in optimization work. Purpose: To provide comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, and evaluate the usefulness of comparing age-related DAP and radiographic technique between systems to identify areas with potential for optimization. Material and Methods: DAP, age, and radiographic technique were registered for 575 thoracic examinations and 371 pelvic examinations of children from newborn up to 14 years of age in groups with an age span of 1 year, performed with two digital flat-panel systems and one computed radiography system. Results: DAP varies from 2.2 to 54.0 mGycm2 for thoracic examinations, and from 4.6 to 532.5 mGycm2 for pelvic examinations. There are significant differences in DAP between systems and departments due to differences in technique, equipment, and staff. Conclusion: This study provides comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, which could be used as an input to estimate diagnostic reference levels. The comparison between systems of DAP and radiographic technique has proven useful in identifying areas where there may be a potential for optimization.

  10. Radiologic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, L.O.

    1987-01-01

    An increasing variety of imaging modalities as well as refinements of interventional techniques have led to a resurgence of radiologic interest and participation in urolithiasis management. Judicious selection of the diagnostic examination, close monitoring during the procedure, consultation with urologic colleagues, and a careful regard for radiation safety guidelines define the role of the radiologist in renal stone disease

  11. Radiology systems architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  12. Composite resin as an implant material in bone. Histologic, radiologic, microradiologic and oxytetracycline fluorescence examination of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainio, J; Rokkanen, P [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Clinical Sciences; Central Hospital, Tampere (Finland))

    1978-01-01

    The potential of a bis-GMA composite resin as implant material in bone is evaluated. The material is claimed to have mechanical and physical properties superior to those of the bone cements used today. A groove made in the cortex of the tibia in 18 rats was filled with bis-GMA, while a similar was left empty in the contralateral tibia. The reaction of the bone to this material was evaluated by histologic, radiologic, microradiograph and OTC-fluorescence methods. The material was well tolerated by the bone; after 1,3 and 6 weeks no reaction to the material was observed.

  13. Arthroscopic all-inside meniscal repair - Does the meniscus heal? A clinical and radiological follow-up examination to verify meniscal healing using a 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Mayer, Michael; Tauber, Mark [Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Forstner, Rosemarie [University Hospital of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical and radiological results using a 3-T MRI to verify meniscal healing after arthroscopic all-inside meniscus repair. We selected 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) with an average age of 31 {+-} 9 years and retrospective clinical examinations and radiological assessments using a 3-T MRI after all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair were conducted. Repair of the medial meniscus was performed in 19 patients and of the lateral meniscus in eight. In 17 patients (63%), we performed concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 {+-} 1.7 years. The Lysholm score and Tegner activity index were used for clinical evaluation. Four grades were used to classify the radiological signal alterations within the meniscus: central globular (grade 1); linear horizontal or band-like (grade 2); intrameniscal alterations and linear signal alterations communicating with the articular surface (grade 3); and complex tears (grade 4). At follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 76 {+-} 15 points, with ten of the patients placed in group 6 based on the Tegner activity index. MRI examinations revealed no signal alteration in three patients, grade 1 in 0, grade 2 in five, grade 3 in 13, and grade 4 in six. The MRI findings correlated positively with the clinical scores in 21 patients (78%). Correlation of clinical and radiological examination was performed using 3-T MRI. In spite of satisfactory clinical outcomes at follow-up, a radiological signal alteration may still be visible on MRI, which was believed to be scar tissue, but could not be proven definitively. Imaging with a 3-Tesla MRI after meniscal suture surgery provides good but no definitive reliability on meniscus healing and therefore gives no advantage compared to 1.5-T MRI, with good clinical outcome using an all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair. 3T-MRI can not substitute diagnostic arthroscopy in patients with persistent complaints after

  14. Arthroscopic all-inside meniscal repair - Does the meniscus heal? A clinical and radiological follow-up examination to verify meniscal healing using a 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Mayer, Michael; Tauber, Mark; Forstner, Rosemarie; Minnich, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical and radiological results using a 3-T MRI to verify meniscal healing after arthroscopic all-inside meniscus repair. We selected 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) with an average age of 31 ± 9 years and retrospective clinical examinations and radiological assessments using a 3-T MRI after all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair were conducted. Repair of the medial meniscus was performed in 19 patients and of the lateral meniscus in eight. In 17 patients (63%), we performed concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 ± 1.7 years. The Lysholm score and Tegner activity index were used for clinical evaluation. Four grades were used to classify the radiological signal alterations within the meniscus: central globular (grade 1); linear horizontal or band-like (grade 2); intrameniscal alterations and linear signal alterations communicating with the articular surface (grade 3); and complex tears (grade 4). At follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 76 ± 15 points, with ten of the patients placed in group 6 based on the Tegner activity index. MRI examinations revealed no signal alteration in three patients, grade 1 in 0, grade 2 in five, grade 3 in 13, and grade 4 in six. The MRI findings correlated positively with the clinical scores in 21 patients (78%). Correlation of clinical and radiological examination was performed using 3-T MRI. In spite of satisfactory clinical outcomes at follow-up, a radiological signal alteration may still be visible on MRI, which was believed to be scar tissue, but could not be proven definitively. Imaging with a 3-Tesla MRI after meniscal suture surgery provides good but no definitive reliability on meniscus healing and therefore gives no advantage compared to 1.5-T MRI, with good clinical outcome using an all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair. 3T-MRI can not substitute diagnostic arthroscopy in patients with persistent complaints after

  15. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  16. Radiology today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, M.W.; Heuck, F.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The book encompasses the proceedings of a postgraduate course held in Salzburg in June 1980. 230 radiologists from 17 countries discussed here the important and practical advances of diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and ultrasound as they contribute to gastrointestinal, urologic, skeletal, cardiovascular, pediatric, and neuroradiology. The book contains 55 single contributions of different authors to the following main themes: Cardiovascular, Radiology, pulmonary radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, urinary tract radiology, skeletal radiology, mammography, lymphography, ultrasound, ENT radiology, and neuroradiology. (orig./MG)

  17. Clinical relevance of radiologic examination of the skeleton and bone density measurements in osteoporosis of old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuester, W.; Seidl, G.; Linkesch, W.; Kotscher, E.; Kovarik, J.; Willvonseder, R.; Kovarik, J.; Willvonseder, R.; Dorda, W.

    1981-01-01

    For the diagnosis of primary osteoporosis, various semiquantitative radiologic methods were compared in 149 unselected patients, aged over 50 years. Crush fracture syndrome (CFS), lumbar spine index (LSI), and Singh Index (SI) were assessed by three radiologists and after reevaluation, the intra- and interobserver errors were calculated. The reliability of the subjective grading was improved by joint and repeated reading of the radiographs. Additionally, the peripheral trabecular bone content was measured by photonabsorptiondensitometry (PAD). To test the value of the various semiquantitative methods. LSI, Si, and PAD have been compared with sex-matching before and after separation into age in decades in CFS-positive and CFS-negative patients. In an attempt to differentiate osteoporotics and non-osteoporotics by CFS, our results indicate that CFS-positive and CFS-negative males cannot be separated by LSI, Si, and PAD, whereas in females these methods can discriminate irrespective of the age in decades. However, in age related groups, only SI can discriminate significantly between CFS-positive and CFS-negative females. Correlation of the semiquantitative methods, regardless of the diagnosis of a CFS, revealed a significant correlation-between SI and PAD, but no correlation between LSI and SI, and LSI and PAD, respectively. (orig.)

  18. A snapshot of patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations at an Australian radiology clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Mohacsy, A.; Connell, D.A.; Schneider, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cumulative radiation exposure is linked to increasing the lifetime attributable risk of cancer. To avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and facilitate shared decision making, patients should be aware of these issues. This paper examines patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations. Methods: Consecutive patients attending a private radiology clinic over a nine week period in 2014 in Metropolitan Melbourne were surveyed while waiting to undergo an imaging examination. Patients who were under 18 years of age, did not speak English and/or were referred for interventional imaging procedures were excluded from participation. Survey questions addressed patients' awareness of radiation dose associated with various imaging modalities' and patients' experience and preferences regarding communication of information about radiation. Data was analysed using SPSS (Ver 20.1). Results: A total of 242 surveys were completed. Most participants were male (143/239, 59.8%) and aged between 33 and 52 years (109/242, 45%). Over half of participants were not concerned about radiation from medical imaging (130/238, 54.6%). Only a third of participants (80/234, 34.2%) correctly reported that CT has a higher radiation dose than X-ray. Very few participants correctly identified mammography, DEXA, PET and PET/CT as radiation emitting examinations. The majority of participants (202/236, 85.6%) indicated that they were not informed about radiation dose and risks by their referring doctor in advance. Conclusion: This paper provides information relevant to a single private radiology clinic in Australia. Nevertheless, our results have shown that patients presenting for medical imaging have little awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with these examinations and received little information by their referring physicians or staff at the radiology clinic. - Highlights: • Patients' awareness regarding

  19. Adverse effects and complications related to the use of barium sulphate contrast media for radiological examinations of the gastrointestinal tract - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periard, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Barium sulphate is considered a safe and efficacious contrast medium that is routinely used for radiologic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the examinations rarely result in complications, the technique is moderately invasive and not entirely innocuous. Complications resulting from the procedures, and adverse reactions from the barium itself, have ranged from mild to severe and in rare instances have led to patient death. This paper reviews the clinical application, biological requirements and clinical properties of barium sulphate contrast media used in diagnostic x-ray imaging. It also outlines the risk factors and associated adverse reactions and complications involved with the use of barium sulphate, and presents documented cases where iatrogenic injuries have resulted. (author)

  20. Pediatric providers and radiology examinations. Knowledge and comfort levels regarding ionizing radiation and potential complications of imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin; Maxfield, Charles M. [Duke University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Parente, Victoria M. [Duke University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Pediatric providers should understand the basic risks of the diagnostic imaging tests they order and comfortably discuss those risks with parents. Appreciating providers' level of understanding is important to guide discussions and enhance relationships between radiologists and pediatric referrers. To assess pediatric provider knowledge of diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and to understand provider concerns about risks of imaging. A 6-question survey was sent via email to 390 pediatric providers (faculty, trainees and midlevel providers) from a single academic institution. A knowledge-based question asked providers to identify which radiology modalities use ionizing radiation. Subjective questions asked providers about discussions with parents, consultations with radiologists, and complications of imaging studies. One hundred sixty-nine pediatric providers (43.3% response rate) completed the survey. Greater than 90% of responding providers correctly identified computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and radiography as modalities that use ionizing radiation, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as modalities that do not. Fewer (66.9% correct, P<0.001) knew that nuclear medicine utilizes ionizing radiation. A majority of providers (82.2%) believed that discussions with radiologists regarding ionizing radiation were helpful, but 39.6% said they rarely had time to do so. Providers were more concerned with complications of sedation and cost than they were with radiation-induced cancer, renal failure or anaphylaxis. Providers at our academic referral center have a high level of basic knowledge regarding modalities that use ionizing radiation, but they are less aware of ionizing radiation use in nuclear medicine studies. They find discussions with radiologists helpful and are concerned about complications of sedation and cost. (orig.)

  1. Pediatric providers and radiology examinations: knowledge and comfort levels regarding ionizing radiation and potential complications of imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin; Parente, Victoria M; Maxfield, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric providers should understand the basic risks of the diagnostic imaging tests they order and comfortably discuss those risks with parents. Appreciating providers' level of understanding is important to guide discussions and enhance relationships between radiologists and pediatric referrers. To assess pediatric provider knowledge of diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and to understand provider concerns about risks of imaging. A 6-question survey was sent via email to 390 pediatric providers (faculty, trainees and midlevel providers) from a single academic institution. A knowledge-based question asked providers to identify which radiology modalities use ionizing radiation. Subjective questions asked providers about discussions with parents, consultations with radiologists, and complications of imaging studies. One hundred sixty-nine pediatric providers (43.3% response rate) completed the survey. Greater than 90% of responding providers correctly identified computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and radiography as modalities that use ionizing radiation, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as modalities that do not. Fewer (66.9% correct, Pionizing radiation. A majority of providers (82.2%) believed that discussions with radiologists regarding ionizing radiation were helpful, but 39.6% said they rarely had time to do so. Providers were more concerned with complications of sedation and cost than they were with radiation-induced cancer, renal failure or anaphylaxis. Providers at our academic referral center have a high level of basic knowledge regarding modalities that use ionizing radiation, but they are less aware of ionizing radiation use in nuclear medicine studies. They find discussions with radiologists helpful and are concerned about complications of sedation and cost.

  2. Radiological clerkships as a critical curriculum component in radiology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Valcke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to explore the perceived value of clinical clerkships in the radiology curriculum as well as the impact of radiology clerkship on students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole and as a career. Methods: This study is a sequel to a previous survey in which student perceptions about radiology curriculum components were investigated. The present study focuses on a further analysis of a subsection in this study, based on 14 statements about radiology clerkship and two statements about radiology as a career. Results: Perceived usefulness of the aspects of radiology clerkship as 'radiology examination', 'skills development' and 'diagnosis focus' were awarded the highest scores. The predict value of the subscale 'radiology examination' on the level of performance was very high (adjusted R 2 = 0.19, p < .001). Conclusion: Students expressed highly favorable evaluation of clerkship as a learning environment to learn to order and to interpret imaging studies as well as an unique possibility to attend various radiological examinations and to access to specific radiology software systems, as well as to get a better view on radiology and to improve image interpretation skills. This positive attitude towards clerkship is closely tied to students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole. These aspects of dedicated radiology clerkship are crucial for effective and high-quality education as well as for the choice of radiology as a career.

  3. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  4. [Pilot study of domain-specific terminology adaptation for morphological analysis: research on unknown terms in national examination documents of radiological technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shintarou; Nishimoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-07-20

    Although large medical texts are stored in electronic format, they are seldom reused because of the difficulty of processing narrative texts by computer. Morphological analysis is a key technology for extracting medical terms correctly and automatically. This process parses a sentence into its smallest unit, the morpheme. Phrases consisting of two or more technical terms, however, cause morphological analysis software to fail in parsing the sentence and output unprocessed terms as "unknown words." The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of unknown words in medical narrative text processing. The results of parsing the text with additional dictionaries were compared with the analysis of the number of unknown words in the national examination for radiologists. The ratio of unknown words was reduced 1.0% to 0.36% by adding terminologies of radiological technology, MeSH, and ICD-10 labels. The terminology of radiological technology was the most effective resource, being reduced by 0.62%. This result clearly showed the necessity of additional dictionary selection and trends in unknown words. The potential for this investigation is to make available a large body of clinical information that would otherwise be inaccessible for applications other than manual health care review by personnel.

  5. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-11-21

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint.

  6. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint

  7. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology, Pt. 8. Radiation doses during thoracoabdominal babygram and abdominal X-ray examination of the newborn and young infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Karl; Seidenbusch, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Reconstruction of radiation doses for the thoracoabdominal babygram and the abdomen X-ray from radiographic settings and exposure data acquired at Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the University of Munich, DvHK) between 1976 and 2007; comparison of these dose values with values reported in the literature; recommendation of a reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram. Materials and Methods: The data from all X-ray examinations performed since 1976 at DvHK were stored electronically in a database. After 30 years of data collection, the database now includes 305 107 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies), especially 1493 thoracoabdominal babygrams and 3632 abdomen X-rays of newborns and young infants. With the computer program PAeDOS, a specific dose reconstruction algorithm was developed. Results: the entrance dose values of thoracoabdominal babygrams and abdomen X-rays in DvHK could be reduced in the last 30 years by a factor of 5 to 8. They are far below the entrance dose values reported by other radiology departments in Europe. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the entrance doses that correlates with the introduction of a digital storage phosphor system could be observed in the last years. Conclusion: because nearly all radiosensitive body organs in early life are involved during a thoracoabdominal babygram and because of the high radiation sensitivity of newborns, thoracoabdominal babygrams should be performed in neonatology with caution. A dose value of 1.0 cGy cm 2 could serve as the actual reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram of the newborn. (orig.)

  8. Diagnosis of a Nonpalpable Intraductal Papilloma without Radiological Abnormality by Nipple Discharge Smear Examination: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nipple discharge is the third most common breast complaint after breast pain and breast mass, most commonly associated with endocrine alterations and/or medications, pregnancy, lactation, post lactation, fibrocystic disease, intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, nipple adenoma, infection, chronic mastitis, subareolar abscess, and least frequently, breast carcinoma. Cytological examination of nipple discharge (ND is a noninvasive method of diagnosing the underlying breast pathology. We report a 46 year old female, who presented with pain and blood-mixed ND from the right breast with an impalpable mass. Cytological examination of the discharge was done and diagnosis of papillary neoplasm with degeneration, metaplasia, and atypia was given, which was further confirmed on histology and positive IHC for HMWCK and p63. Final diagnosis was intraductal papilloma of the lactiferous duct with squamous metaplasia and infarction. Differentiating benign papilloma from a carcinoma is challenging to the cytopathologist and requires clinicopathological correlation and a good knowledge of cytology.

  9. The dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the technical condition of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekas, Marcin; Pachocki, Krzysztof A

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of X-ray dental examination is associated with the patients exposure to ionizing radation. The size of the exposure depends on the type of medical procedure, the technical condition of the X-ray unit and selected exposure conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the assessment of the technical condition of medical equipment, The study included a total number of 79 dental X-ray units located in the region of Mazovia. The test methods for the assessment of the technical condition of dental X-ray units and measurement of radiation dose received by patients were based on the procedures elaborated in the Department of Radiation Hygiene and Radiobiology in the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland) accredited for the certification of compliance with PN-EN 17025. The research found that 69.6% fully meets the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 30.4% did not meet some of them. A tenfold difference in the size of the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examinations was discovered. For example, during a radiography of the canine teeth of a child, the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD) ranged from 72.8 to 2430 microGy with the average value of 689.1 microGy. Cases where the dose reference level defined in Polish legislation of 5 mGy was exceeded were also found. CONCKUSIONS: It is essential to constantly monitor the situation regarding the technical condition of X-ray units which affects the size of the population's exposure to ionizing radiation as well as raising dentists' awareness about the effects of X-rays on the human body.

  10. Shared decision-making: is it time to obtain informed consent before radiologic examinations utilizing ionizing radiation? Legal and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Concerns about the possibility of developing cancer due to diagnostic imaging examinations utilizing ionizing radiation exposure are increasing. Research studies of survivors of atomic bomb explosions, nuclear reactor accidents, and other unanticipated exposures to similar radiation have led to varying conclusions regarding the stochastic effects of radiation exposure. That high doses of ionizing radiation cause cancer in humans is generally accepted, but the question of whether diagnostic levels of radiation cause cancer continues to be hotly debated. It cannot be denied that overexposure to ionizing radiation beyond a certain threshold, which has not been exactly determined, does generate cancer. This causes a dilemma: what should patients be informed about the possibility that a CT or similar examination might cause cancer later in life? At present, there is no consensus in the radiology community as to whether informed consent must be obtained from a patient before the patient undergoes a CT or similar examination. The author analyzes whether there is a legal duty mandating radiologists to obtain such informed consent but also, irrespective of the law, whether there an ethical duty that compels radiologists to inform patients of potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, there has been a noticeable shift from a benevolent, paternalistic approach to medical care to an autonomy-based, shared-decision-making approach, whereby patient and physician work as partners in determining what is medically best for the patient. Radiologists should discuss the benefits and hazards of imaging with their patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. SU-E-P-57: Radiation Doses Assessment to Paediatric Patients for Some Digital Diagnostic Radiology Examination in Emergency Department in Qatar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, I; Aly, A; Al Naemi, H [Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation doses to pediatric patients undergoing standard radiographic examinations using Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) in Paediatric emergency center of Hamad General Hospital (HGH) in state of Qatar and compared with regional and international Dose Reference Levels (DRLs). Methods: Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) was measured for 2739 patients for two common X-ray examinations namely: Chest AP/PA, Abdomen. Exposure factors such as kV, mAs and Focal to Skin Distance (FSD) were recorded for each patient. Tube Output was measured for a range of selected kV values. ESD for each individual patient was calculated using the tube output and the technical exposure factors for each examination. The ESD values were compared with the some international Dose Reference Levels (DRL) for all types of examinations. Results: The most performed procedure during the time of this study was chest PA/PA (85%). The mean ESD values obtained from AP chest, PA chest and AP abdomen ranged 91–120, 80–84 and 209 – 659 µGy per radiograph for different age’s groups respectively. Two protocols have been used for chest AP and PA using different radiological parameters, and the different of ESD values for chest PA and were 41% for 1 years old child, 57% for 5 years old for chest AP. Conclusion: The mean ESD were compared with those found in literature and were found to be comparable. The radiation dose can be reduced more for Chest AP and PA examination by optimization of each investigation and hence more studies are required for this task. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving local reference doses for pediatric X-ray examinations in this local department and hence it can be applied in the whole Qatar.

  12. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, F.N.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review with 186 references of diagnostic pediatric radiology, a speciality restricted to an age group rather than to an organ system or technique of examination, is presented. In the present chapter topics follow the basic organ system divisions with discussions of special techniques within these divisions. The diagnosis of congenital malformations, infectious diseases and neoplasms are a few of the topics discussed for the head and neck region, the vertebrae, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary tract, and the skeleton

  13. Breath-hold times in patients undergoing radiological examinations. Comparison of expiration and inspiration with and without hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groell, R.; Schaffler, G.J.; Schloffer, S.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Breath-holding is necessary for imaging studies of the thorax and abdomen using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this study was to compare the breath-hold times in expiration and inspiration and to evaluate the effects of hyperventilation. Patients and methods. Thirty patients and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this study after informed consent was obtained in all. The breath-hold times were measured in expiration and inspiration before and after hyperventilation. Results. The mean breath-hold times in expiration (patients: 24±9 sec, volunteers: 27±7 sec) were significantly shorter than those in inspiration (patients: 41±20 sec, p<0.001; volunteers: 62±18 sec, p<0.001). Additional hyperventilation resulted in a significant increase (range: 40-60%, p≤0.005) of the mean breathhold times either in expiration and in inspiration and for both patients and volunteers. Conclusions. Although breath-holding in expiration is recommended for various imaging studies particularly of the thorax and of the abdomen, suspending respiration in inspiration enables the patient a considerable longer breath-hold time. (author)

  14. Radiologic technology educators and andragogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, M W; Simon-Galbraith, J A

    1984-01-01

    Radiologic technology educators are in constant contact with adult learners. However, the theoretical framework that radiologic educators use to guide their instruction may not be appropriate for adults. This article examines the assumptions of the standard instructional theory and the most modern approach to adult education-- andragogy . It also shows how these assumptions affect the adult learner in a radiologic education setting.

  15. Methodological improvement and extension of scope of the guide to the radiological examination and evaluation of contaminated former mining sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH have been requested in a letter from the Federal Radiation Protection Office dated 15 September 2006 - AG 3.1 StSch - to submit a quote on the topic of ''Methodological improvement and extension of scope of the guide to the radiological examination and evaluation of contaminated former mining sites''. In response to this request Part A of this guide is to be extended by a section on microbiology or, more specifically, on processes in tailings and sedimentation plants that could be induced by microorganisms. Up until now the guide only considered chemical and geochemical processes in the modelling and evaluation of the release of radionuclides from tailings. However, in view of the possibility of microbiological processes occurring in tailings, as for example in the presence of pyrite, one must also reckon with microbiological influences on radionuclide release. the following tasks and problems will therefore be addressed: Do the recommendations given in the guide also apply if microbiological influences are considered? Is it also necessary to consider microbiological issues in the examination and modelling of radionuclide transport via groundwater? What parameters need to be measured and assessed if decisions on rehabilitation measures for tailings must also be based on microbiological aspects? Which examination methods should be used to measure the required parameters efficiently and reliably? Is there anything particular that needs to be considered in studying the involvement of microbiological processes in the release of radionuclides from industrial sedimentation plants? The recommendations given in the guide with respect to the treatment of the water pathway should be reviewed with regard to any amendments or supplementations they might require from the microbiological viewpoint. It should also be investigated whether microbiological studies and measurements are required for the guide's further development. The

  16. Emergency radiological examination of the externally stabilized pelvis--there is a catch to it: lessons learned from two cases with symphyseal disruption despite initial inconspicuous computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jörg; Hammer, Thorsten; Maier, Dirk; Südkamp, Norbert Paul; Hauschild, Oliver

    2016-03-12

    Preclinical and early clinical external pelvic stabilization using commercially available devices has become common in trauma patient care. Thus, in the emergency department an increasing number of patients will undergo radiographic evaluation of the externally stabilized pelvis to exclude injuries. While reports exist where injuries to the pelvis were elusive to radiological examination due to the pelvic immobilization we elaborate on an algorithm to remove an external pelvic stabilizing device, prevent delayed diagnosis of pelvic disruption and thus increase patient safety. We report on two patients with external pelvic stabilization presenting with an inconspicuous pubic symphysis on initial pelvic computed tomography scans. The first patient was an otherwise healthy 51-year old male being run over by his own car. He received external pelvic stabilization in the emergency department. The second patient was a 36-year old male falling from a ladder. In this patient external pelvic stabilization was performed at the scene. In the first patient no pelvic injury was obvious on computed tomography. In the second patient pelvic fractures were diagnosed, yet the presentation of the pubic symphysis appeared normal. Nevertheless, complete symphyseal disruption was diagnosed in both of them upon removal of the external pelvic stabilization and consequently required internal fixation. Based on our experience we propose an algorithm to "clear the initially immobilized pelvis" in an effort to minimize the risk of missing a serious pelvic injury and increase patient safety. This is of significant importance to orthopedic trauma surgeons and emergency physicians taking care of injured patients.

  17. Radiological English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  18. Radiological English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, R.; Ros, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  19. Non-small cell carcinoma: Comparison of postoperative intra- and extrathoracic recurrence assessment capability of qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessed FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yumiko; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the capability of integrated FDG-PET/CT for assessment of postoperative intra- and extrathoracic recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with that of standard radiological examinations. Materials and methods: A total of 121 consecutive pathologically diagnosed NSCLC patients (80 males, 41 females; mean age, 71 years) underwent pathologically and surgically confirmed complete resection, followed by prospective integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations. Final diagnosis of recurrence was based on the results of more than 12 months of follow-up and/or pathological examinations. The probability of recurrence was assessed with either method for each patient by using 5-point visual scoring system, and final diagnosis was made by consensus between two readers. ROC analysis was used to compare the capability of the two methods for assessment of postoperative recurrence on a per-patient basis. The ROC-based positive test was used to determine optimal cut-off value for FDG uptake measurement at a site suspected on the basis of qualitatively assessed PET/CT. Finally, sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of all methods were compared by means of McNemar's test. Results: Areas under the curve of qualitatively assessed PET/CT and standard radiological examinations showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). At an optimal cut-off value of 2.5, specificity and accuracy of quantitatively and qualitatively assessed PET/CT were significantly higher than those of qualitatively assessed PET/CT and standard radiological examinations (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Accuracy of assessment of postoperative intra- and extrathoracic recurrence in NSCLC patients by qualitative and/or quantitative FDG-PET/CT is equivalent to or higher than that by standard radiological examinations.

  20. Non-small cell carcinoma: Comparison of postoperative intra- and extrathoracic recurrence assessment capability of qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessed FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yumiko, E-mail: onitan@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Matsumoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Shimokato, Yamanashi (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Maniwa, Yoshimasa [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Yoshihiro [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the capability of integrated FDG-PET/CT for assessment of postoperative intra- and extrathoracic recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with that of standard radiological examinations. Materials and methods: A total of 121 consecutive pathologically diagnosed NSCLC patients (80 males, 41 females; mean age, 71 years) underwent pathologically and surgically confirmed complete resection, followed by prospective integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations. Final diagnosis of recurrence was based on the results of more than 12 months of follow-up and/or pathological examinations. The probability of recurrence was assessed with either method for each patient by using 5-point visual scoring system, and final diagnosis was made by consensus between two readers. ROC analysis was used to compare the capability of the two methods for assessment of postoperative recurrence on a per-patient basis. The ROC-based positive test was used to determine optimal cut-off value for FDG uptake measurement at a site suspected on the basis of qualitatively assessed PET/CT. Finally, sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of all methods were compared by means of McNemar's test. Results: Areas under the curve of qualitatively assessed PET/CT and standard radiological examinations showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). At an optimal cut-off value of 2.5, specificity and accuracy of quantitatively and qualitatively assessed PET/CT were significantly higher than those of qualitatively assessed PET/CT and standard radiological examinations (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Accuracy of assessment of postoperative intra- and extrathoracic recurrence in NSCLC patients by qualitative and/or quantitative FDG-PET/CT is equivalent to or higher than that by standard radiological examinations.

  1. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  2. Transposition of the 97/43 EURATOM directive. Mission on procedures and standard levels of medical examinations using ionizing radiations. The radiological procedures: quality criteria and doses optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report concerns the optimization of radiological practices, to avoid delivering unuseful doses while ensuring an image quality necessary to the obtaining of the desired diagnosis information. (N.C.)

  3. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  4. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  5. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  6. Imaging and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventional radiology; Diagnostic radiology; X-ray imaging ... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY Diagnostic radiology helps health care professionals see structures inside your body. Doctors that specialize in the interpretation ...

  7. Chronicle of pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, Gabriele; Richter, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    The chronicle of pediatric radiology covers the following issues: Development of pediatric radiology in Germany (BRD, DDR, pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in the Netherlands (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Austria (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Switzerland (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations).

  8. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  9. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Ertl-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  10. Dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents the radiological manifestations of the maxillodental region in a suitable manner for fast detection and correct diagnosing of diseases of the teeth, soft tissue, and jaws. Classification therefore is made according to the radiological manifestations of the diseases and not according to etiology. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  12. Radiological diagnosis of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlacher, B

    1981-05-01

    The problems of routine radiology and the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign gastric ulcers are gone into. The value of endoscopy combined with radiology is stressed. The patient, the physician, and the X-ray equipment have to meet certain requirements in order to obtain good images and make a correct interpretation. The most important aspect of radiology today is radiation protection, which is possible only with efficient equipment and experienced medical examiners.

  13. Radiological optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  14. MEMO radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.

    1989-01-01

    This radiology volume is a concise handbook of imaging techniques, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy, albeit that the main emphasis is on classic radiology. It offers, for instance, a survey of radiological findings for the most frequent pathological conditions, many overviews of differential diagnosis, a glossary of the technical bases of radiology and so forth. The contents are divided into the following chapters: Physical and biological bases; skeleton; thorax with the subdivisions lungs, heart, mediastinum, and pleura; gastrointestinal tract with the subsections esophagus, small and large intestine; liver; biliary tract; pancreas; retroperitoneal space; kidney; suprarenal glands; bladder; blood vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; mammary glands; female genitals; prostate and scrotum, epididymis and seminal vesicle. (orig./MG) With 23 figs [de

  15. Radiological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the (United Kingdom) National Radiological Protection Board is discussed. The following topics are mentioned: relative contributions to genetically significant doses of radiation from various sources; radon gas in non-coal mines and in dwelling houses; effects of radiation accidents; radioactive waste disposal; radiological protection of the patient in medicine; microwaves, infrared radiation and cataracts; guidance notes for use with forthcoming Ionising Radiations Regulations; training courses; personal dosimetry service; work related to European Communities. (U.K.)

  16. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao de kerma de entrada na pele em exames radiologicos no Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/DEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  17. Radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  18. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiology examination as a diagnostic aid in presentations with wide differential diagnoses: Case report of new Hodgkin's lymphoma on a background of poorly controlled HIV · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rachel Hubbard, Jalpa Kotecha, Thomas ...

  19. Dry run 1: an initial examination of a procedure for the post-closure radiological risk assessment of an underground disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Broyd, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    A probabilistic risk analysis is demonstrated for a single groundwater release scenario from a repository for intermediate level wastes at a depth of about 150 metres under Harwell. This is the first stage development of an overall methodology which will eventually treat combinations of risks due to multiple release scenarios with parameter values whose uncertainty varies with time. It is shown that upper bound estimates of risk are unlikely to be useful and that the approach to radiological risk assessment based upon 'best estimates' is difficult to justify. Consequently, a full probabilistic risk analysis is necessary although further development of statistical sampling and data acquisition techniques and also of methods for the generation and analysis of site evolution scenarios, is necessary. (author)

  20. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  1. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  2. Postoperative radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenne, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the importance of postoperative radiology. Most surgical procedures on the alimentary tract are successful, but postoperative complications remain a common occurrence. The radiologist must be familiar with a large variety of possible surgical complications, because it is this specialty that is most commonly called on to render a definitive diagnosis. The decision for reoperation, for instance, is usually based on results from radiologic imaging techniques. These now include ultrasonography, CT scanning, needle biopsy, and interventional techniques in addition to contrast studies and nuclear medicine investigation

  3. Radiology of chest diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, S.; Stark, P.

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into three parts: The first part - 'Technology and normal findings' - explains current radiological diagnostic methods. The indications for particular examinations are given, with the techniques and possible errors. The second part of the book - 'Diseases of the lung' - gives a systematic description of basic knowledge needed for diagnosis. Each chapter begins with a definition of the disease and a discussion of the diagnostic information that can be expected from the various radiological methods. This is followed by the pathological morphology and pathological physiology and the clinical symptoms. The third part of the book - 'Radiological signs and differential diagnosis' - deals with image patterns, such as segmental opacities, calcification, localized hyperlucency, etc. It begins where the diagnostician must begin - immediate confrontation with the radiograph, analysis of the details, recognition of structures and understanding the image. (orig./DGD) With 381 figs., 42 tabs

  4. Contribution to the study of the leukemia potential of radiation used in radio-diagnostic in children: statistical study of the main radiological examinations according to age and sex (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, B.

    1963-06-01

    With a view to discovering whether low irradiation doses are liable to increase the incidence of leukemia or cancer amongst people exposed to this risk, an enquiry, has been undertaken into the distribution according to age and to sex of 13,596 important radiological examinations carried out in radio-pediatric departments from 1953 to 1961, a population structure study essential for choosing the group studied and the comparison group. This survey will be used as the basis for the constitution of a population whose pathology will be examined with great care. The main conclusion resulting from this enquiry is that the frequency of digestive and urinary examinations is very high in babies of under one year old and higher in boys than in girls. (author) [fr

  5. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Pediatric radiology is an important subsection of diagnostic radiology involving specific difficulties, but unfortunately is quite too often neglected as a subject of further education and training. The book therefore is not intended for specialists in the field, but for radiologists wishing to plunge deeper into the matter of pediatric radiology and to acquire a sound, basic knowledge and information about well-proven modalities, the resulting diagnostic images, and interpretation of results. The book is a compact guide and a helpful source of reference and information required for every-day work, or in special cases. With patients who are babies or children, the challenges are different. The book offers all the information needed, including important experience from pediatric hospital units that may be helpful in diagnostic evaluation, information about specific dissimilarities in anatomy and physiology which affect the imaging results, hints for radiology planning and performance, as well as information about the various techniques and their indication and achievements. The book presents a wide spectrum of informative and annotated images. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Analysis of the Radiology Reports from Radiology Clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Jang, Eun Ho

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the form and content of the radiology reports from radiology clinics in Korea. One hundred and sixty six radiology reports from 49 radiology clinics were collected, and these reports were referred to the academic tertiary medical center from March 2008 to February 2009. These included reports for CT (n = 18), MRI (n = 146) and examinations not specified (n = 2). Each report was evaluated for the presence of required contents (demographics, technical information, findings, conclusion, the name, license number and signature of the radiologist and the referring facility). These requirements were based on the guideline of the American College of Radiology and the previous research. The name of the patient, the gender, the body part, the type of examination, the time of examination and the conclusion, the name of the radiologist and the name of facility were well recorded in over 90% of the radiology reports. However, the identification number of the patient, the referring facility, the referring physician, the use of contrast material, the clinical information, the time of dictation, the signature of the radiologist and the license number of the radiologist were poorly recorded (less than 50%). The optimal format of a radiology report should be established for reliable and valid communication with clinicians

  7. Occupational exposure in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.J.; Lee, K.Y.; Cha, S.H.; Kang, Y.K.; Kim, H.J.; Oh, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to survey of radiation safety control and to measure occupational radiation exposure dose of staff in interventional radiology in Korea. Interventioanl radiology requires the operator and assisting personnel to remain close to the patient, and thus close to primary beams of radiation. Therefore exposure doses of these personnel are significant from a radiological protection point of view. We surveyed the status of radiation safety on interventional radiology of 72 hospitals. The result were that 119 radiation equipments are using in interventional radiology and 744 staffs are composed of 307 radiologists, 116 residents of radiology, 5 general physicians, 171 radiologic technologists and 145 nurses. 81.4% and 20.2 % of operating physicians are using neck collar protector and goggle respectively. The average radiation dose was measured 0.46±0.15 mSv/10 hours fluoroscopy inside examination room in radiation protection facilities. Occupational radiation exposure data on the staff were assessed in interventional radiology procedures from 8 interventional radiology equipments of 6 university hospitals. The dose measurements were made by placing a thermoluminesent dosimeter(TLD) on various body surface of operation and assistant staff during actual interventional radiology. The measured points were the corner of the eyes, neck(on the thyroid) , wrists, chest(outside and inside of the protector), and back. Average radiation equivalent dose of the corner of left eye and left wrist of operating physicians were 1.19 mSv(0.11∼4.13 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy and 4.32 mSv(0.16∼11.0 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy respectively. Average exposure dose may vary depending on the type of procedure, personal skills and the quality of equipment. These results will be contributed to prepare the guide line in interventional radiology in Korea

  8. Chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference in plain chest film diagnosis provides a thorough background in the differential diagnosis of 22 of the most common radiologic patterns of chest disease. Each chapter is introduced with problem cases and a set of questions, followed by a tabular listing of the appropriate differential considerations. The book emphasizes plain films, CT and some MR scans are integrated to demonstrate how these modalities enhance the work of a case

  9. Issues in radiology related to the new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkin, M.

    1982-01-01

    A number of interrelated issues facing radiology have been highlighted by our new technologies. The issues discussed in this presentation are: subspecialization of radiology; the use of economic analyses (CEA/CBA) to judge the cost effectiveness of radiologic procedures, the alleged overuse of radiologic examinations; and the need for the diagnostic radiologist to become more actively involved in patient management

  10. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  11. The critical examination of X-ray generating equipment in diagnostic radiology. Guidance on the interpretation of the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985, Regulation 32(2)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Regulation 32(2)a requires an examination, where appropriate, of X-ray equipment and its operating environment, following its installation, repair or modification. In this context 'appropriate' means - 'if there are possible radiation protection implications'. The examination should be carried out before the equipment is brought into use. The intent of the Regulation is to ensure that the installation process does not compromise the radiation safety of the equipment as provided for by its original design and manufacture, and that any persons who might be exposed are adequately protected. However, the scope of the Regulation does not directly cover features controlling the optimisation of dose for a medical exposure. An examination of the equipment relating to the radiation protection consequences of the way it was installed is required. This is termed 'critical', emphasising the need to review the installation to a greater degree than the simple fulfilment of a preconceived test procedure. The involvement of a radiation protection adviser is required as an expert in radiation safety. This document provides guidance on when it is necessary to carry out a critical examination, and on its content. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 firmly place the responsibility for ensuring that a critical examination is carried out, on the installer of the equipment. However, knowledge of various aspects of the critical examination is also relevant to employers who manage health related facilities, as well as their RPAs, and physicists who carry out equipment tests. Aside from the actual examination itself, there are issues pertaining to purchase contracts, and a knowledge of the satisfactory completion of a critical examination will be relevant to an employer in fulfilling his duties under Regulations 6 and 33. (author)

  12. The critical examination of X-ray generating equipment in diagnostic radiology. Guidance on the interpretation of the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985, Regulation 32(2)a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Regulation 32(2)a requires an examination, where appropriate, of X-ray equipment and its operating environment, following its installation, repair or modification. In this context 'appropriate' means - 'if there are possible radiation protection implications'. The examination should be carried out before the equipment is brought into use. The intent of the Regulation is to ensure that the installation process does not compromise the radiation safety of the equipment as provided for by its original design and manufacture, and that any persons who might be exposed are adequately protected. However, the scope of the Regulation does not directly cover features controlling the optimisation of dose for a medical exposure. An examination of the equipment relating to the radiation protection consequences of the way it was installed is required. This is termed 'critical', emphasising the need to review the installation to a greater degree than the simple fulfilment of a preconceived test procedure. The involvement of a radiation protection adviser is required as an expert in radiation safety. This document provides guidance on when it is necessary to carry out a critical examination, and on its content. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 firmly place the responsibility for ensuring that a critical examination is carried out, on the installer of the equipment. However, knowledge of various aspects of the critical examination is also relevant to employers who manage health related facilities, as well as their RPAs, and physicists who carry out equipment tests. Aside from the actual examination itself, there are issues pertaining to purchase contracts, and a knowledge of the satisfactory completion of a critical examination will be relevant to an employer in fulfilling his duties under Regulations 6 and 33. (author)

  13. The radiological technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiologists rely upon the talents of the technologists with whom they work. Indeed, a good technologist will only enhance the radiologist's performance. Radiological technologists no longer solely take radiographs, but are involved in many more detailed areas of imaging, such as computered tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear radiology, ultrasound, angiography, and special procedures. They are also required to make decisions that affect the radiological examination. Besides the degree in radiological technology (RT), advanced degrees in nuclear medicine technology (NMT) and diagnostic medical sonography (RDMS) are attainable. The liability of the technologist is not the same as the radiologist involved, but the liability is potentially real and governed by a subdivision of jurisprudence known as agency law. Since plaintiffs and attorneys are constantly searching for new frontiers of medical liability, it is wise for the radiologist and technologist to be aware of the legalities governing their working relationship and to behave accordingly. The legal principles that apply to this working relationship are discussed in this chapter, followed by a presentation of some relevant and interesting cases that have been litigated

  14. Chronic intersticial lung disease in the horse- Findings in arterial bloodgas analysis, tracheobronchial mucus cytology and radiological examination of the thorax; Chronisch interstitielle Lungenerkrankung beim Pferd - Blutgasanalytische, sekretzytolytische und röntgenologische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M. [Klinik fuer Pferde, Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Klein, H. J.; Deegen, E.

    1990-07-01

    In 12 horses chronic interstitial lung disease was diagnosed. All horses were referrred because of unexplained loss of performance. In general there was no history of respiratory problems; 4 horses showed nasal discharge and 2 horses coughed. Results of arterial bloodgas analysis, tracheobronchial mucus cytology and radiological examination of the lungs were found in a typical combination, and they were different from results found generally in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mean value of arterial partial pressure of oxygen was 100,6 mm Hg, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 45,1 mm Hg and alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen 5,1 mm Hg, respectively. In tracheobronchial aspirates pulmonary alveolar macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes were found in a relation of 2,6 : 1. Chest radiographs of all horses showed diffuse interstitial pattern throughout the lung.

  15. Patient exposure in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.; Isac, R.

    2002-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study was to assess, in terms of effective dose, the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses delivered to patient

  16. Risk versus benefit in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radiology may be grouped into a) those inherent in the use of ionizing radiation which today are well known and b) those associated with the use of any scientific method in medicine. Inherent risks of scientific methods like inadequate examination and the interpretation of results are discussed. Radiology brought major benefits in medical care and some of the newer methods are considered

  17. The use of radiological guidelines to achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaves, J.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the use of request guidelines can achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee joints performed for general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: GPs referring to three community hospitals and a district general hospital were circulated with referral guidelines for radiography of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee, and all requests for these three examinations were checked. Requests that did not fit the guidelines were returned to the GP with an explanatory letter and a further copy of the guidelines. Where applicable, a large-joint replacement algorithm was also enclosed. If the GP maintained the opinion that the examination was indicated, she or he had the option of supplying further justifying information in writing or speaking to a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Overall the number of radiographic examinations fell by 68% in the first year, achieving a 79% reduction in the second year. For knees, lumbar spine and cervical spine radiographs the total reductions were 77%, 78% and 86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of referral guidelines, reinforced by request checking and clinical management algorithms, can produce a dramatic and sustained reduction in the number of radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

  18. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture

  19. Cardiothoracic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    A wealth of cardiothoracic websites exist on the internet. What follows is a list of the higher quality resources currently available which should save you time searching them out for yourself. Many of the sites listed cater for undergraduates and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, nevertheless these may also be of interest to specialists in thoracic radiology, particularly for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (April 2005)

  20. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    using dose guidance (reference) levels in radiology and nuclear medicine examinations, Radiological protection of the embryo and foetus in pregnant patients, Radiological protection of paediatric patients, Radiological protection of patients in radiotherapy: external beam, Radiological protection of patients in radiotherapy: brachytherapy, Radiological protection of patients in biomedical research, Influence of standardization in the design and development of medical radiological equipment on the radiological protection of patients, Education, training and continuous professional development in the radiological protection of patients, Topics for research and development in the radiological protection of patients, Implementation of regulations on the radiological protection of patients

  1. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    using dose guidance (reference) levels in radiology and nuclear medicine examinations, Radiological protection of the embryo and foetus in pregnant patients, Radiological protection of paediatric patients, Radiological protection of patients in radiotherapy: external beam, Radiological protection of patients in radiotherapy: brachytherapy, Radiological protection of patients in biomedical research, Influence of standardization in the design and development of medical radiological equipment on the radiological protection of patients, Education, training and continuous professional development in the radiological protection of patients, Topics for research and development in the radiological protection of patients, Implementation of regulations on the radiological protection of patients.

  2. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Schoepf, U Joseph; Xu, Jiaqian; Lu, Guang Ming; Li, Enzhong

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. • Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase. • Neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology are the most productive fields. • MRI is the most used modality in Mainland China's Radiology research. • Guangdong, Shanghai, and Beijing are the most productive provinces.

  3. Radiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  4. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography has made possible the excellent and basic work having to do with the characteristics of the trachea, its caliber, shape, and length in children. Another group of articles has to do with interventional pediatric radiology. This year there were a number of articles of which only a sample is included, dealing with therapeutic procedures involving drainage of abscesses, angioplasty, nephrostomy, therapeutic embolization, and the removal of esophageal foreign bodies. Obviously, there is no reason to think that techniques developed for the adult may not be applicable to the infant or child; also, there is no reason to believe that processes peculiar to the child should not be amenable to intervention, for instance, use of embolization of hepatic hemangioma and transluminal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary valvular stenosis. Among the reports and reviews, the author would add that sonography remains a basic imaging technique in pediatric radiology and each year its application broadens. For example, there is an excellent article having to do with sonography of the neonatal and infant hip and evaluation of the inferior vena cava and the gallbladder. Nuclear medicine continues to play a significant role in diagnosis, which is featured in two articles concerned with problems of the hip

  5. Radiological malpractice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.

    1987-01-01

    As medico-legal statistics show, compared with other branches of medicine, cases of liability of the radiologist or his assistants are relatively rare. The duty to exercise due care as set out in Paragraph 6 of the Austrian penal code or Paragraph 276 of the German civil code, respectively, provide a basic rule of law also for radiology. Due to the risk inherent in the investigation method, incidents in angiography cannot be totally excluded. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that all steps be taken with regard to staff, equipment and drugs to be able to deal with any complications and incidents that may arise. The courts of law require the employer to produce strongest exonerating evidence to prove that the duty to exercise due care in the selection and supervision of the assistants has been duly fulfilled. For the practical execution of radiological investigations of the digestive tract, also the RTA is responsible; her liability when performing an irrigoscopy is particularly great, as perforation of the intestine is often lethal. The introduction of the rectal tube into the vagina by mistake, with resultant injury or death of the patient, will regularly lead to conviction under penal law. (orig.) [de

  6. Patient dose measurement in common medical X-ray examinations and propose the first local dose reference levels to diagnostic radiology in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuli, Behrouz; Tabari Juybari, Raheleh; Forouzi, Meysam; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate patient dose in pelvic and abdomen x-ray examinations. This work also provided the LDRLs (local diagnostic reference levels) in Khuzestan region, southwest of Iran to help establish the NDRLs (national diagnostic reference levels). Methods: Patient doses were assessed from patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters based on the IAEA indirect dosimetry method. With regard to this method, exposure parameters such as tube output, kVp, mAs, FFD and patient anatomical data were used for calculating ESD (entrance skin dose) of patients. This study was conducted on 250 standard patients (50% men and 50% women) at eight high-patient-load imaging centers. Results: The results indicate that mean ESDs for the both pelvic and abdomen examinations were lower than the IAEA and EC reference levels, 2.3 and 3.7 mGy, respectively. Mean applied kVps were 67 and 70 and mean FFDs were 103 and 109, respectively. Tube loadings obtained in this study for pelvic examination were lower than all the corresponding values in the reviewed literature. Likewise, the average annual patient load across all hospitals were more than 37000 patients, i.e. more than 100 patients a day. Conclusions: The authors recommend that DRLs (diagnostic reference levels) obtained in this region, which are the first available data, can be used as local DRLs for pelvic and abdomen procedures. This work also provides that on-the-job training programs for staffs and close cross collaboration between physicists and physicians should be strongly considered.

  7. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  8. Radiological diagnosis of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlay, D.B.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is about radiology of fractures. While it contains sections of clinical features it is not intended that readers should rely entirely upon these for the diagnosis and management of the injured patient. As in the diagnosis and treatment of all medical problems, fracture management must be carried out in a logical step-by-step fashion - namely, history, examination, investigation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and then treatment. Each section deals with a specific anatomical area and begins with line drawings of the normal radiographs demonstrating the anatomy. Accessory views that may be requested, and the indications for these, are included. Any radiological pitfalls for the area in general are then described. The fractures in adults are then examined in turn, their radiological features described, and any pitfalls in their diagnosis discussed. A brief note of important clinical findings is included. A brief mention is made of pediatric fractures which are of significance and their differences to the adult pattern indicated. Although fractures can be classified into types with different characteristics, in life every fracture is individual. Fractures by and large follow common patterns, but many have variations

  9. Orthopedic radiology in the postoperative patient (practical orthopedic radiology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, B.N.; Gelman, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This course examines various aspects of the radiologic examination of postoperative orthopedic patients. The operative indications, pertinent aspects of surgical technique, expected postoperative radiographic appearances, and radiographic findings indicating postoperative complications are discussed. The evaluation of total joint replacement surgery, spinal surgery, lower extremity procedures, and failed orthopedic devices and appliances are covered

  10. Radiological diagnosis in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, R.

    2001-01-01

    This loose-leaf publication covers all radiological problems that may possibly occur in accident surgery. The focus is on conventional radiological diagnosis. The physical and technical fundamentals of diagnostic examination methods are discussed, followed by practical hints on radiation protection, technical equipment and quality assurance, as well as accurate information on the procedure of taking and interpreting standard X-ray pictures. The indications for standard X-raying, tomography, CT and MRT are presented in consideration of the radiation exposure incurred by the patient. The reader is also informed on the dynamics and varying morphology of bone fracture healing, potential disturbances of callus formation and reconstruction, as well as on possible complications. The main section of the book discusses injuries of the skull, spinal cord, pectoral girdle, upper arm, elbow and lower arm, wrist and hands, pelvis, hip joint, knee and upper and lower leg, ankle joint and foot, thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  11. Radiology for veterinarians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, K.

    1983-01-01

    The author has made an attempt to comprise the extensive and heterogenic area of radiological topics in the sense of a studying support for the second part of the veterinary examination and as an introduction to the entire area. Numerous details, exact physical derivations and more extensive radiological tables and graphs had to be left out to achieve the brief and understandable form. On the other hand, in addition to the test subjects, at least a few of the particularly up-to-date problems of this branch had to be emphasized and the data necessary to assess them had to be given. This explains the extensive form of the manuscript and the frequent occurrence of numbers, especially in the chapters radioecology, radiobiology and radiotoxicology. (orig./MG) With 65 figs., 76 tabs [de

  12. Computer assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, H.U.; Jaffe, C.C.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the CAR'93 symposium present the 126 oral papers and the 58 posters contributed to the four Technical Sessions entitled: (1) Image Management, (2) Medical Workstations, (3) Digital Image Generation - DIG, and (4) Application Systems - AS. Topics discussed in Session (1) are: picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology, hospital information systems and radiological information systems, technology assessment and implications, standards, and data bases. Session (2) deals with computer vision, computer graphics, design and application, man computer interaction. Session (3) goes into the details of the diagnostic examination methods such as digital radiography, MRI, CT, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, digital angiography, and multimodality imaging. Session (4) is devoted to computer-assisted techniques, as there are: computer assisted radiological diagnosis, knowledge based systems, computer assisted radiation therapy and computer assisted surgical planning. (UWA). 266 figs [de

  13. A phantom-based evaluation of three commercially available patient organ shields for computed tomography X-ray examinations in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, J.; Mukonoweshuro, W.; Loader, R.

    2013-01-01

    Three commercially available in-plane patient organ shields (barium eye, bismuth eye and bismuth breast) for computed tomography (CT) examinations were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for dose reduction. Absorbed doses were measured using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosemeters fastened to a Kyoto CT Torso phantom. Resultant images were visually compared with those minus shielding by an experienced radiologist. Approximate dose reductions of 21, 38 and 50 % were achieved by the barium eye, bismuth eye and bismuth breast shields, respectively, at a cost of increased image noise and streak artefacts. Shielded images produced varied levels of image artefact, particularly those resulting from the eye shields. Measured dose reductions were not consistent with the potential dose savings stated by the manufacturers of the shields. When evaluating the breast shield, similar dose reduction was achieved without shield-induced artefact by simply reducing the X-ray tube current. (authors)

  14. Radiologic findings of dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, M. S.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, D. H. [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The stature of human is very important factor in human-being, especially in childhood. The stature depends on various different conditions, such as familial factor, constitutional factor, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal disorders, or endocrinopathies. The early diagnosis of dwarfism is very important problem, because if appropriate treatment is delayed, the complication or sequales are more increased. The survey of familial history or patient's past history, detail check up of physical examination, radiological evaluation, and other laboratory examinations are essentially needed for the accurate diagnosis of dwarfism. Among the patients admitted to Yonsei University college of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1963, with chief complaint of short stature or other associated diseases, an analysis of radiological findings were made for the 72 cases of chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, and cretinism in which radiologic evaluation was available. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The cause of short stature are chromosomal anomalies (48 cases), skeletal dysplasia (14 cases) and cretinism (10 cases). 2. in chromosomal anomalies, 43 cases of mongolism and 5 cease of Turner's syndrome are noted. In mongolism, 18 cases among the 30 cases below 1 year old are distributed below the 10 percentile of height. On radiologic findings, 11 paired ribs (22/43), congenital heart disease (14/43), decreased iliac index (8/12), and associated anomalies or diseases, such as pneumonia (14 cases), C1-C2 dislocation (1 case), imperforated anus (1 case), Morgagni's hernia (1 case) and leukemia with sepsis (1 case). In Turner's syndrome, decreased bone density (5/5), positive metacarpal sign (2/5), positive carpal sign (1/5), change of knee joint (3/5), hypoplasia of (1/3), and increased carrying angle of elbows (1/3) are noted.

  15. Radiologic findings of dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. S.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The stature of human is very important factor in human-being, especially in childhood. The stature depends on various different conditions, such as familial factor, constitutional factor, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal disorders, or endocrinopathies. The early diagnosis of dwarfism is very important problem, because if appropriate treatment is delayed, the complication or sequales are more increased. The survey of familial history or patient's past history, detail check up of physical examination, radiological evaluation, and other laboratory examinations are essentially needed for the accurate diagnosis of dwarfism. Among the patients admitted to Yonsei University college of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1963, with chief complaint of short stature or other associated diseases, an analysis of radiological findings were made for the 72 cases of chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, and cretinism in which radiologic evaluation was available. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The cause of short stature are chromosomal anomalies (48 cases), skeletal dysplasia (14 cases) and cretinism (10 cases). 2. in chromosomal anomalies, 43 cases of mongolism and 5 cease of Turner's syndrome are noted. In mongolism, 18 cases among the 30 cases below 1 year old are distributed below the 10 percentile of height. On radiologic findings, 11 paired ribs (22/43), congenital heart disease (14/43), decreased iliac index (8/12), and associated anomalies or diseases, such as pneumonia (14 cases), C1-C2 dislocation (1 case), imperforated anus (1 case), Morgagni's hernia (1 case) and leukemia with sepsis (1 case). In Turner's syndrome, decreased bone density (5/5), positive metacarpal sign (2/5), positive carpal sign (1/5), change of knee joint (3/5), hypoplasia of (1/3), and increased carrying angle of elbows (1/3) are noted

  16. Digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is vital to the life-saving efforts of surgeons and other physicians, but precious time can be lost generating the images and transferring them to and from the operating room. Furthermore, hospitals are straining under the task of storing and managing the deluge of diagnostic films produced every year. A 300-bed hospital generates about 1 gigabyte (8 x 10 9 bits) of picture information every day and is legally bound to hold it for three to seven years--30 years in the case of silicosis or black lung disease, illnesses that may have relevance to future lawsuits. Consequently, hospital warehouses are filling with x-ray film and written reports that are important for analysis of patient histories, for comparison between patients, and for analyzing the progress of disease. Yet only a fraction of the information's potential is being used because access is so complicated. What is more, films are easily lost, erasing valuable medical histories

  17. The clinical, radiological, and scan-examination in horses with backproblems; Die klinische, röntgenologische und szintigraphische Untersuchung bei den sogenannten Rückenproblemen des Pferdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Tierklinik Hochmoor, Gescher (Germany)

    1988-09-15

    In 21 horses with the anamnesis backproblems there had been a clinical, scan- and X-ray-examination of the thoracal and lumbar vertebra in special consideration of the spinosus process and the dorsal intervertebral joint. But there was not always a relation between the clinical signs and X-rays or scan results. Not all positive X-rays found their corresponding scan activity and not all scan activities took place in X-rays. In many cases there was pathological change of the spinosus process and arthropathy of the dorsal intervertebral joint at the same time. Only with X-raying it is not possible to decide to operate the thoracolumbal, interspinale syndrom (TIS) or not [German] Bei 2l Pferden mit dem Vorbericht 'Rückenleiden' wurden klinisch, röntgenologisch und szintigraphisch die Brust- und Lendenwirbelsäule unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Dornfortsätze und der dorsalen Intervertebralgelenke untersucht. Die erhobenen klinischen, röntgenologischen und szintigraphischen Befunde stimmten nicht immer überein. So waren nicht alle erhobenen Röntgenbefunde szintigraphisch aktiv, und für die szintigraphisch aktiven Zonen konnten nicht immer rötgenologische Befunde erhoben werden. Bei den Veränderungen der Dornfortsätze lagen oft gleichzeitig Arthrosen der dorsalen Intervertebralgelenke vor. Die Indikation ftir die Operation des thorakolumbalen, interspinalen Syndroms (TIS) kann deshalb nicht mit der Röntgenuntersuchung der Dornfortsätze allein gestellt werden.

  18. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  19. Radiology of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huepscher, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Before the radiologist can decide on his approach to the examination, he needs clinical information and a short relevant medical history of the patient. These aspects are considered in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 covers the 'standard' examination of the esophagus, the contrast media, the relative values of the single contrast, mucosal relief and double contrast studies, the various techniques used to obtain double contrast films and, finally, several of the drugs administered during the examination. Since in cases of aspecific dysphagia the entire esophagus - including the pharynx - must be examined, this stepchild of the radiological examination is the focus of attention in Chapter 3 while an overview of the anatomy, physiology, roentgen anatomy and roentgen physiology of the esophageal body is presented in Chapter 4. Congenital abnormalities, displacement and impressions, diverticula, foreign bodies, perforation and tumors are considered in more detail in Chapters 5 to 10, respectively. The value of computed tomography for the staging of esophageal cancer is discussed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 is devoted to the highly diversified spectrum of abnormalities of the esophageal wall. Disturbed motility is the subject of Chapter 13. In Chapter 14 the hiatal hernia, gastroesophageal reflux and its results are discussed in a somewhat broader context. In Chapter 15 the radiological aspects of the postoperative esophagus are described. (orig./MG)

  20. Radiological approach to systemic connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, W.; Schneider, M.

    1988-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) represent the most frequent manifestations of systemic connective tissue diseases (collagen diseases). Radiological examinations are employed to estimate the extension and degree of the pathological process. In addition, progression of the disease can be verified. In both of the above collagen diseases, specific radiological findings can be observed that permit them to be differentiated from other entities. An algorithm for the adequate radiological work-up of collagen diseases is presented. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiological approach to systemic connective tissue diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, W; Schneider, M

    1988-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) represent the most frequent manifestations of systemic connective tissue diseases (collagen diseases). Radiological examinations are employed to estimate the extension and degree of the pathological process. In addition, progression of the disease can be verified. In both of the above collagen diseases, specific radiological findings can be observed that permit them to be differentiated from other entities. An algorithm for the adequate radiological work-up of collagen diseases is presented.

  2. Physical correlates of radiologic heart volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, D.

    1978-01-01

    Radiologic heart volume was calculated on a 10 per cent random sample of subjects examined in the London Civil Service Health Survey. Data were available for 1 188 men over the age of 40, and the importance of correcting radiologic heart volume for body size, age and heart rate was demonstrated. After these variables were taken into account, the most important association found was with blood pressure. Radiologic heart volume has potential value in cardiovascular screening programmes. (Auth.)

  3. Public competitive examination for radiology technologist: knowledge in radiation protection required in Brazil; Concursos públicos para tecnólogo em radiologia: conhecimentos em proteção radiológica efetivamente exigidos no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.S.; Silva, K.R.; Gomes, A.S., E-mail: julianaa.radiologia@gmail.com, E-mail: karine.ramosrcha@gmail.com, E-mail: alexandre.gomes@unigranrio.edu.br [Faculdade Casa Branca (FACAB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Pós-graduação em Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas, Industriais e Nucleares; Maxim Cursos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are used in areas such as health, industry and safety, not only in the private sector, but also in the public. Thus, it is necessary the radiological protection, a set of studies and practices that increases the safety in these applications, where the professional involved is the technologist in radiology. The objective was to analyze the contents effectively required by the Brazilian public agencies in their competitions for radiology technologist, regarding the area of radiological protection, identifying their profile of requirement. It consisted of three stages: first, a survey of all the public competitions already carried out in the country up to the end of 2016, that requested a diploma of graduation in Technology in Radiology; second, all the specific questions were collected and grouped in an electronic text file; third, issues involving radiological protection were segregated, using as reference the 2017 edition of the National Nuclear Energy Commission's General Proof of Radioprotection Supervision. The results showed that almost 40% of the competition questions were about radiation protection. From this sampling, the topics most covered were: radiological safety (36%), fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics (24%) and biological effects of radiation (16%). It is concluded that the competitions for radiologist technologist have the profile of concentration of exigency in radiological safety, fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics and biological effects of the radiations.

  4. Radiologic protection in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.; Bermudez Jimenez, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    With this work and employing the radioprotection criterion, the authors pretend to minimize the risks associated to this practice; without losing the quality of the radiologic image. Odontology should perform the following criterions: 1. Justification: all operation of practice that implies exposition to radiations, should be reweighed, through an analysis of risks versus benefits, with the purpose to assure, that the total detriment will be small, compared to resultant benefit of this activity. 2. Optimization: all of the exposures should be maintained as low as reasonable possible, considering the social and economic factors. 3. Dose limit: any dose limit system should be considered as a top condition, nota as an admissible level. (S. Grainger)

  5. Deep Learning in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Morgan P; Awan, Omer A; Colucci, Andrew T; Ghobadi, Comeron W; Kadom, Nadja; Kansagra, Akash P; Tridandapani, Srini; Auffermann, William F

    2018-03-29

    As radiology is inherently a data-driven specialty, it is especially conducive to utilizing data processing techniques. One such technique, deep learning (DL), has become a remarkably powerful tool for image processing in recent years. In this work, the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on Deep Learning provides an overview of DL for the radiologist. This article aims to present an overview of DL in a manner that is understandable to radiologists; to examine past, present, and future applications; as well as to evaluate how radiologists may benefit from this remarkable new tool. We describe several areas within radiology in which DL techniques are having the most significant impact: lesion or disease detection, classification, quantification, and segmentation. The legal and ethical hurdles to implementation are also discussed. By taking advantage of this powerful tool, radiologists can become increasingly more accurate in their interpretations with fewer errors and spend more time to focus on patient care. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety aspects in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.C. da.

    1991-05-01

    The development of a program for the evaluation of the physical installations and operational procedures in diagnostic radiology with respect to radiation-safety is described. In addition, a proposal for the quality analysis of X-ray equipment and film-processing is presented. The purpose is both to ensure quality and safety of the radiology service, as well as to aid in the initial and in-service training of the staff. Interviews with patients, staff practicing radiology at a wide range of levels and the controlling authorities were carried out in the State of Rio de Janeiro in order to investigate the existence and the effective use of personal radioprotection equipment as well as user's and staff's concern for radiation safety. Additionally physical measurements were carried out in University Hospitals in Rio de Janeiro to assess the quality of equipment in day-to-day use. It was found that in the locations which did not have routine maintenance the equipment was generally in a poor state which lead to a high incidence of repetition of examinations and the consequent financial loss. (author)

  7. Radiological diagnosis of pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.; Wiebe, V.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is extremely important in the diagnosis of occupational lung disease. Owing to its general availability and international comparability, the roentgenographic pa view of the chest obtained by the high-voltage technique is still the basis of the radiologic examination. Supplementary investigations are necessary for medical reasons, however, as well as for documentation of experts' certification. Valuable diagnostic information is supplied by oblique views of the thorax and by conventional X-ray tomography, though not by scintigraphic examinations or - up to now - by digital luminescence radiography. Ultrasound helps in the differentiation of free pleural fluid, organized pleural effusion, and pleural malignancy. In addition, computed tomography (CT) can be guided by ultrasound. CT has emerged as the method of choice for examination and for support of medical expert's certification of pneumoconiotic pleural disease, and high-resolution CT (HRCT) is also increasing used for examination of pneumoconiotic lung foci as well. Diagnostic accurcay in pneumoconiosis is further improved by shorter CT scanning times in combination with HRCT. (orig.) [de

  8. Current radiology. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular

  9. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  10. Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  11. Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A

    2009-10-01

    One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health.

  12. Dosimetry of diagnosis examinations in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzery, Claude; Aubert, Bernard; Caselles, Olivier; Gardin, Isabelle; Guilhem, Marie-Therese; Laffont, Sophie; Lisbona, Albert

    2001-08-01

    This document aims at helping the professionals involved in nuclear medicine in assessing doses delivered to patients after administration of a radio-pharmaceutical product for diagnosis purpose. The first part gives information on the average dose for the three most irradiated organs, the cervix and the gonads, as well as the efficient dose for the considered radio-pharmaceutics. The second part recalls dosimetric values

  13. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  14. Radiological protection and quality control for diagnostic radiology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baorong, Yue

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are 43,000 diagnostic departments, nearly 70,000 X-ray diagnostic facilities, 7,000 CT, 250 million for the annual total numbers of X-ray examinations, 120,000 occupationally exposed workers in diagnostic radiology. 'Basic standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' is promulgated on October, 2002. This basic standard follows the BSS. 'Rule on the administration of radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy', as a order of the Ministry of Health No. 46, is promulgated by Minister of Health on January 24, 2006. It includes general provisions, requirements and practice, establishment and approval of radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy services, safeguards and quality assurance, and so on. There are a series of radiological protection standards and quality control standards in diagnostic radiology, including 'radiological protection standard for the examination in X-ray diagnosis', 'radiological health protection standards for X-ray examination of child-bearing age women and pregnant women', 'radiological protection standards for the children in X-ray diagnosis', 'standards for radiological protection in medical X-ray diagnosis', 'specification for radiological protection monitoring in medical X-ray diagnosis', 'guide for reasonable application of medical X-ray diagnosis', 'general aspects for quality assurance in medical X-ray image of diagnosis', 'specification of image quality control test for the medical X-ray diagnostic equipment', 'specification of image quality assurance test for X-ray equipment for computed tomography', 'specification for testing of quality control in computed radiography (CR)' and 'specification for testing of quality control in X-ray mammography'. With the X-ray diagnostic equipment, there are acceptant tests, status tests and routing tests in large hospitals. It is poor for routing test in middle and smaller hospitals. CT is used widely in diagnostic radiology, however most workers in CT

  15. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  16. Effective doses in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Olga; Diaconescu, Cornelia; Roca, Antoaneta

    2001-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study is to assess in terms of effective doses the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses to the patient. Effective doses have been derived from measurements of dose-area product (DAP) carried out on over 900 patients undergoing X-ray examinations, in five paediatric units. The conversion coefficients for estimating effective doses are those calculated by the NRPB using Monte-Carlo technique on a series of 5 mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old children. The annual frequency of X-ray examinations necessary for collective dose calculation are those reported in our last national study on medical exposure, conducted in 1995. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average paediatric patient are as follows: 1.05 mSv for 0 year old, 0.98 mSv for 1 year old, 0.53 mSv for 5 year old, 0.65 mSv for 10 year old and 0.70 mSv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 625 man Sv with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations (34%). The annual collective effective associated with paediatric radiology in Romania represent 5% of the annual value resulting from all diagnostic radiology. Examination of the chest is by far the most frequent procedure for children, accounting for about 60 per cent of all annually performed X-ray conventional examinations. Knowledge of real level of patient dose is an essential component of quality assurance programs in paediatric radiology. (authors)

  17. Radiological dose and metadata management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, M.; Madsack, B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the features of management systems currently available in Germany for extraction, registration and evaluation of metadata from radiological examinations, particularly in the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) environment. In addition, the probable relevant developments in this area concerning radiation protection legislation, terminology, standardization and information technology are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  19. Digital Radiology Image Learning Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, R.L.; Greenes, R.; Allman, R.; Swett, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Radiology Image Learning Library (DRILL) is designed as an interactive teaching tool targeted to the radiologic community. The DRILL pilot comprises a comprehensive mammographic information base consisting of factual data in a relational database, an extensive knowledge base in semantic nets and high-resolution images. A flexible query module permits the user to browse and retrieve examination data, case discussions, and related images. Other applications, including expert systems, instructional programs, and skill building exercises, can be accessed through well-defined software constructs

  20. Radiology information management system, TOSRIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yuichiro; Uchiyama, Akira; Kimura, Hirohito

    1991-01-01

    This is a report on a new type of distributed computer system for radiology departments named 'TOSRIM' (Toshiba radiology information management system), which is designed to be installed between medical diagnosis equipment and a host computer system in a hospital. Recently, a new type of host computer system has been developed which enables doctors to order any of the hospital's entire activities using terminals. By connecting 'TOSRIM' to this type of host computer system, many of the activities of a radiology department can be carried out via terminals without the use of examination requirement forms. As well as being connected to medical diagnosis equipment, 'TOSRIM' can also be connected to a medical imaging system which stores and displays medical images. By means of these connections, doctors will be able to diagnose medical images using display terminals without the need for films. (author)

  1. Dictionary of radiology. Radiologisches Woerterbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freye, K; Lammers, W

    1982-01-01

    The dictionary of radiology is based on practical experience in diagnostic radiology. Following a brief clinical introduction, radiological methods including nuclear medicine and the increasingly important field of sonography are presented in alphabetic order, each term with a short definition. The most favourable order of application is determined by the diagnostic value, technical requirements and discomfort of the various methods. Preparative measures, the duration of the examinations, and problems of radiation hygiene are discussed. Illustrative drawings supplement the text. The fields of application given for the various methods are based on the latest state of knowledge. Other methods, e.g. endoscopy in all its variants and thermography, are mentioned whereever they are of diagnostic value. The book has a brief appendix in which the fundamental physical and technical context are explained, also in alphabetic order. Detailed cross-references establish a connection between diseases and diagnostic methods, thus facilitating access to the desired information.

  2. Radiology in silico-tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of a decreasing number of new cases of silico-tuberculosis even today there still remains a serious complication of silicosis. The job of radiology is to recognise the disease, evaluate the course of the disease during therapy and classify the disease for compensation purposes. Due to the pathogenetic and pathomorphologic similarities of silicosis and tuberculosis, it is often difficult and sometimes even impossible to recognise the presence of tuberculosis in cases of silicoses or to identify and isolate the TB component in silico-tuberculosis. Careful consideration of all radiological and clinical parameters improves the accuracy of diagnosis. Since the radiographic examination provides the only method of evaluating the morphologic state of the disease, radiology will keep its central position in the diagnosis of silico-tuberculosis. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiology information management system, TOSRIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Yuichiro; Uchiyama, Akira; Kimura, Hirohito (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    This is a report on a new type of distributed computer system for radiology departments named 'TOSRIM' (Toshiba radiology information management system), which is designed to be installed between medical diagnosis equipment and a host computer system in a hospital. Recently, a new type of host computer system has been developed which enables doctors to order any of the hospital's entire activities using terminals. By connecting 'TOSRIM' to this type of host computer system, many of the activities of a radiology department can be carried out via terminals without the use of examination requirement forms. As well as being connected to medical diagnosis equipment, 'TOSRIM' can also be connected to a medical imaging system which stores and displays medical images. By means of these connections, doctors will be able to diagnose medical images using display terminals without the need for films. (author).

  4. Radiologic image compression -- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Huang, H.K.; Zaremba, L.; Gooden, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of radiologic image compression is to reduce the data volume of and to achieve a lot bit rate in the digital representation of radiologic images without perceived loss of image quality. However, the demand for transmission bandwidth and storage space in the digital radiology environment, especially picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology, and the proliferating use of various imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed radiography, and digital subtraction angiography, continue to outstrip the capabilities of existing technologies. The availability of lossy coding techniques for clinical diagnoses further implicates many complex legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the recent progress of lossless and lossy radiologic image compression and presents the legal challenges of using lossy compression of medical records. To do so, the authors first describe the fundamental concepts of radiologic imaging and digitization. Then, the authors examine current compression technology in the field of medical imaging and discuss important regulatory policies and legal questions facing the use of compression in this field. The authors conclude with a summary of future challenges and research directions. 170 refs

  5. Radiological Protection Science and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Augustin; ); Mossman, Ken; Morgan, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19. century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in 1994 and 2007 on radiological protection science. This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances. Reports published by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) in 1998 and 2007 provided an overview of the scientific knowledge available at that time, as well as the expected results from further research. They also discussed the policy implications that these results could have for the radiological protection system. The 2007 report highlighted challenges posed by developments in relation to medical exposure and by intentions to include the environment (i.e. non-human species), within the scope of the radiological protection system. It also addressed the need to be able to respond to a radiological terrorist attack. This report picks up on where the 1998 and 2007 reports left off, and addresses the state of the art in radiological prevention science and application today. It is divided into five chapters. Firstly, following broadly the structural topics from the 1998 and 2007 reports, the more purely scientific aspects of radiological protection are presented. These include cancer risk of low dose and dose rates, non-cancer effects and individual sensitivity. In view of the increasing

  6. Radiological protection in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, B

    1974-01-01

    Information that would allow an assessment of the standard of radiological protection in dentistry in the United Kingdom is sparse. The National Radiological Protection Board (previously the Radiological Protection Service) has provided a monitoring and advisory service to dentists for many years but very limited use has been made of this service. In a recent survey, 114 dentists were visited in representative practices in South East England and it was established that only 6.5% of dentists in general practice do not use radiography as an adjunct to their practice (Smith, 1969). In the 88 x-ray sets which were examined, 24% had less than the recommended thickness of aluminium filtration, while 25% had a fixed field size which was larger than necessary for dental radiography; in addition, 27% of the timers were found to have an error of greater than 20% in repetition of the pre-set exposure time. The exposure rate at the cone tip of a dental x-ray unit is generally in the range 1 to 4 R/s. A fault in the timer unit coupled with a failure on the part of the dentist to notice that x-rays are being generated (normally indicated by a red warning light) would rapidly lead to excessive exposure of the patient. Furthermore, a dentist continually holding films in the mouth of his patient would certainly incur a dose well in excess of the permissible hand dose, assuming anaverage work load for the x-ray equipment. Three case histories are given to illustrate the type of hazard that might arise from faulty equipment or bad operating technique.

  7. GAMBARAN RADIOLOGIS PADA OCCULT PNEUMOTHORAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Aditha Satya Putra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of death in chest wall trauma. Radiological examination is the key factor to establish the existence of a pneumothorax. Occult pneumothorax is pneumothorax that undiagnosed clinically and with thoracic x-ray, but it can be tolerated while other more urgent trauma. Occult pneumothorax can be detected by CT (Computed tomography. Occult pneumothorax may progress to tension pneumothorax in certain circumstances. Missing in diagnosed pneumothorax will cause death. This literature will discuss radiological examination for diagnosing, early detection, and management of occult pneumothorax. If thoracic x-ray examination did not reveal the occult pneumothorax, it can be dangerous if existence of pneumothorax was not known. In this case, the examination of thoracic CT-Scan is gold standard for determining the presence of occult pneumothorax and can provide appropriate care.

  8. Fetal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology examinations are frequently performed in all countries because of the benefit that the patient derives from the resultant diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed it is inevitable that there will be occasions when the planned exposure of a woman who is known to be pregnant is contemplated. In these circumstances, there must be rigorous justification of the examination and the procedure itself must be optimised as well. Radiation risks from fetal irradiation are well established. These risks fall into three categories: 1) a cancer induction risk (mainly leukaemia); 2) hereditary effects (as the fetus is a potential parent); 3) a risk of serious mental retardation (if the fetus is exposed in the critical 8-15 weeks period when the forebrain is being developed). Risk factors for these effects have been reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Special rules apply to the radiology of women who are or who may be pregnant. These rules have been developed to avoid he unintended irradiation of the fetus. These rules have been variously referred to as the 10-day rule and the 28-day rules, in which radiology of potentially pregnant women is restricted to the first 10 or 28 days following menstruation. It is apparent that the advice provided by national bodies varies, as different rules apply internationally, due presumably to a lack of an international consensus on the subject. The advice from the National Radiological Protection Board, the College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists applies in the United Kingdom. In summary, the advice is that women of child bearing age are asked before a diagnostic radiology examination in which the pelvis is in, or near, the primary beam are asked if they are, or may be, pregnant. If pregnancy can be excluded then the examination can proceed. If it is likely that the patient is pregnant, then the proposed examination must undergo rigorous justification. If

  9. Patient exposure evaluation in Romanian radiological departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girjoaba, O.; Cucu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A nation-wide evaluation of ionizing radiation exposure of the Romanian population due to the radiological examinations is performed in accordance with European Directive 97/43 EURATOM implemented in national regulations. Method: The study is applied to the collected data from radiological departments from Romanian hospitals during 2010. The radiological examinations were grouped in three categories: conventional diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology and computed tomography. The annual collective dose was determined from the reported data about the mean effective doses and the frequency for each type of radiological examination, in conformity with the national regulations. Regarding the frequency aspects, the results include the age and gender distributions. Major results: More then 6 million radiological examinations were performed in 2010, Romania having a population about of 20.3 million inhabitants. The collective effective dose for 2010 resulted from the study is 152 mSv per 1000 inhabitants. Conclusions: Medical practitioners must select the best medical imaging investigation for each clinical case taking into account the importance of keeping the patient dose as low as possible. Medical physicists should be strongly involved in the establishing of the dosimetry procedures. (author)

  10. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  11. Radiologic diagnostics of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.

    2003-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly population and is getting more and more important with the ageing of the population. A radiologic structural examination with CT or MRI is meanwhile a standard procedure in the diagnostic work up of patients with dementia syndrome. Radiology enables an early diagnosis and a differential diagnosis between different causes of dementia. Because structural changes occur only late in the disease process, a more detailed structural analysis using volumetric techniques or the use of functional imaging techniques is mandatory. These days, structural imaging uses MRI which enables to detect early atrophic changes at the medial temporal lobe with focus on the amygdala hippocampal complex. These changes are also present in the normal ageing process. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, however, they are more rapid and more pronounced. The use of functional imaging methods such as perfusion MRI, diffusion MRI or fMRI allow new insights into the pathophysiologic changes of dementia. The article gives an overview of the current status of structural imaging and an outlook into the potential of functional imaging methods. Detailed results of structural and functional imaging are presented in other articles of this issue. (orig.) [de

  12. Overview of radiological anatomy and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the examination of the most common radiographs of the body that will be encountered by the x-ray operator. The discussion of the radiograph begins with a review of the anatomy and functions of the region. This is followed by a description of the normal anatomy that is imaged in the radiographs. The subjects discussed are follows - Skeleton; Axial Skeleton, Skull: functions, radiographic appearance. Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (Sternum and Ribs), The Chest Radiograph, Appendicular Skeleton, Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arm. Radiological Appearance of the Elbow, Radiological Appearance of the Wrist and Hand, Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs, Innominate (hip bones) Radiological Appearance of the Pelvis, Lower Extremities, Joints, Classification, Radiological Appearance of the Knee, Radiological Appearance of the Ankle and Foot, Systems and Cavities of the Body, Cranial Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

  13. Paediatric doses from diagnostic radiology in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, T.J.; Cardillo, I.; Einsiedel, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines doses to paediatric patients from diagnostic radiology. Measurements were made at 29 hospitals and private radiology practices in the state of Victoria. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for the exposure factors used by hospital radiology departments and private radiology practices for a standard size 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old child, for the following procedures: chest AP/PA, lat; abdomen AP; pelvis AP; lumbar spine AP, lat; and skull AP, lat. There was a large range of doses for each particular procedure and age group. Factors contributing to the range of doses were identified. Guidance levels for paediatric radiology based on the third quartile value of the skin entrance doses have been recommended and are compared with guidance levels. Copyright (1998) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine

  14. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Xu, Jiaqian [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Li, Enzhong [National Natural Science Foundation of China, Department of Medical Science, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P < 0.001). Within Mainland China's Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. (orig.)

  15. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Lu, Guang Ming; Schoepf, U.J.; Xu, Jiaqian; Li, Enzhong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P < 0.001). Within Mainland China's Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. (orig.)

  16. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is proving to be a powerful diagnostic modality. Included in this year's abstracts and discussions are papers having to do with it application to neoplasia in general and a variety of specific disorders of the brain and spinal column. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is reported; whether or not this becomes practical, it is an exciting prospect. Perhaps because interventional techniques are so readily applicable at this time, both in the infant and child as well as in the adult, little has been included. On the other hand, some disorders that were in the province of adult medicine are now becoming distressingly common in infants and children, i.e., the adult respiratory distress syndrome; the acquired immune deficiency syndrome and AIDS-related complex; and aluminum bone disease in children. Of those developments that are promising and related to the infant or child, one can count the articles having to do with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the treatment of the respiratory distress syndrome, hyaline membrane disease, with human surfactant. The latter raises expectations for the end of multiple examinations of the sick neonate necessary for the definition and follow-up of pulmonary interstitial emphysema and the other complications of air block phenomenon. The two contributions on the role of diagnostic imaging before and after transplantation of the liver serve as a reference

  17. Radiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, C.W.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.; Rothman, S.L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the low back and the conditions producing monoradiculopathy has improved to a point almost beyond belief, largely due to the development of CT scanning with high resolution multiplanar reconstruction. Still, as elegant as CT images are, we cannot image the psyche, and complex psychological problems plus the need for secondary gain will often overshadow all anatomic abnormalities. Scanning does give the clinician confidence in excluding pathologic alterations in previously silent areas. It is rare today for the clinician (that is, one who is comfortable interpreting these newer scans) to miss free fragments in the lateral recess, to miss far lateral disks, or to fail to take into account foraminal stenosis. Combinations of diseases that can lead to the failed chymopapain syndrome are now easily seen with scanning. The authors particularly caution the interested physician to evaluate carefully the areas of the lateral recesses for bony, ligamentous, and other soft tissue changes, and to be cognizant of the condition of the facet joints and the degree of end-plate osteophyte formation. Though the moment of truth is still realized in a private examining room with physician and patient face to face, the physician now has an incredibly powerful tool at his or her disposal. That tool, the CT scanner and the multiplanar images it produces, plus the help of interested spine radiologists, will allow the physician to create an accurate three-dimensional image of the entire nerve pathway. Better patient selection, and thus ore successful treatments, is the inevitable result

  18. Radiologic findings in neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dai Young; Jeon, Seok Chol; Lee, Kwan Se; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    Neurofibromatosis is an uncommon but certainly not a rare hereditary disorder, probably of neuralcrest origin, involving not only neuroectoderm and mesoderm but also endoderm and characterized by cafe au lait spots and cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors, with secondary mesodermal defects responsible for protean osseous abnormalities and various manifestations in other systems. This paper is a study of confirmed 143 cases of neurofibromatosis collected for past 8 years. In this analysis, special attention was given to the selected 37 cases which showed abnormal findings on radiological examinations. Overall male to female ratio was 1 : 1.3. The most frequent kind of abnormalities was vertebral kyphoscoliosis in 12 cases. Among the more pathognomonic but uncommon abnormalities to neurofibromatosis, we experienced each 2 cases of lambdoid defect, pseudoarthrosis and renovascular hypertension, and 1 cases of sphenoid bone absence.

  19. Radiology of oesophageal dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.J.; Nolan, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Dysphagia is defined as the sensation of difficulty in swallowing. The causes of dysphagia can be oropharyngeal or oesophageal. Oesophageal dysphagia develops as a result of mechanical obstruction or motility disorders and frequently causes distressing symptoms. Patients who develop oesophageal dysphagia can be easily and rapidly examined by routine barium techniques. The barium swallow remains a safe, accurate and widely available method for showing structural and functional oesophageal lesions, and for identifying those patients who require urgent endoscopic assessment and treatment. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and endoscopic ultrasonography are available for the preoperative staging of oesophageal neoplasms. This article discusses the radiological appearances of the main oesophageal disorders that cause dysphagia in adults. (author). 15 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  20. Radiology of the breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.; Bertrand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the breasts are visualized on conventional chest radiographs, detail is insufficient for accurate imaging, and as a result, mammography for optimum detail has been developed. Ductograms (galactograms) are used in selected cases with serous or blood discharge from the nipples. This discussion of mammography concerns itself with the following: 1. Some of the epidemiologic aspects of breast cancer (particularly in females). 2. The controversy concerning radiation in mammography. 3. The radiologic techniques of examination of the breast-with brief mention of other methods of imaging. 4. The roentgen signs of abnormality as observed radiographically and how these signs are related to the pathologic aspects of disease of the breast, some of which are controversial. 5. Tabulation of roentgen signs and morphology into lesions that are definitely benign, definitely malignant, and indeterminate, requiring biopsy

  1. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  2. Evidence-based Practice of Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Lisa P; Dunne, Ruth M; Carroll, Anne G; Malone, Dermot E

    2015-10-01

    Current health care reform in the United States is producing a shift in radiology practice from the traditional volume-based role of performing and interpreting a large number of examinations to providing a more affordable and higher-quality service centered on patient outcomes, which is described as a value-based approach to the provision of health care services. In the 1990 s, evidence-based medicine was defined as the integration of current best evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. When these methods are applied outside internal medicine, the process is called evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP facilitates understanding, interpretation, and application of the best current evidence into radiology practice, which optimizes patient care. It has been incorporated into "Practice-based Learning and Improvement" and "Systems-based Practice," which are two of the six core resident competencies of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and two of the 12 American Board of Radiology milestones for diagnostic radiology. Noninterpretive skills, such as systems-based practice, are also formally assessed in the "Quality and Safety" section of the American Board of Radiology Core and Certifying examinations. This article describes (a) the EBP framework, with particular focus on its relevance to the American Board of Radiology certification and maintenance of certification curricula; (b) how EBP can be integrated into a residency program; and (c) the current value and likely place of EBP in the radiology information technology infrastructure. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2015.

  3. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board...... of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology....

  4. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  5. Radiological diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, F.; Palladino, M.; Stella, P.

    1988-01-01

    Seven patients with clinically suspected Meckel's diverticulum were examined. The symptoms of Meckel's diverticulum are variable, ranging from mild recurrent or severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding to intestinal obstruction and acute peritonitis. The authors evaluate the diagnostic results and suggest guidelines to choose the most appropriate radiological procedures, according to the clinical pattern: barium meal, enteroclysis and scintigraphy ( 99m TC) in patients with mild bleeding; mesenteric angiography in case of severe bleeding. The possibility of false negatives and positives is then discussed

  6. Radiological security for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya G, Manuel.

    1985-04-01

    This report comprises the basic notions of nucleonics, simple calculations for point sources, X-rays, calculations for coatings, standards for radiation protection and industrial radiography instruments. The preceding sums up with the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This is a guide for people who wish to pass examinations, to get the license for radiological safety, for operators on gamma-graphic sources, which work in the country. It is a requirement for work with this kind of radioactive sources

  7. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  8. GAMBARAN RADIOLOGIS PADA OCCULT PNEUMOTHORAKS

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Aditha Satya Putra; Nyoman Srie Laksminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of death in chest wall trauma. Radiological examination is the key factor to establish the existence of a pneumothorax. Occult pneumothorax is pneumothorax that undiagnosed clinically and with thoracic x-ray, but it can be tolerated while other more urgent trauma. Occult pneumothorax can be detected by CT (Computed tomography). Occult pneumothorax may progress to tension pneumothorax in certain circumstances. Missing in diagnosed pneumothorax will cause deat...

  9. Glove Perforations During Interventional Radiological Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leena, R. V.; Shyamkumar, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Intact surgical gloves are essential to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of glove perforations during interventional radiological procedures. In this study, a total of 758 gloves used in 94 interventional radiological procedures were examined for perforations. Eleven perforations were encountered, only one of which was of occult type. No significant difference in the frequency of glove perforation was found between the categories with varying time duration.

  10. Radiological forms of pneumonia appearing in ornithosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltz, G.; Simay, A.; Muennich, D.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and radiological symptoms of ornithosis are reviewed. 102 patients were examined. In 80 cases radiological alterations were found in the lungs: in 78 cases reticular infiltrations and in two cases shadows resembling to milk-glass. In most cases the infiltration was localized in the basal segments. In three cases the alterations of the lungs were accompanied by enlarged lymph nodes in the hilus, and in six cases by intrapleural fluid. (L.E.)

  11. Quality assurance program on diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Borges, Jose Carlos; Mota, Helvecio Correa

    1995-01-01

    Aiming to elaborate a methodology to optimize the performance of the Radiology Service of the Military Police Hospital, in Rio de Janeiro, some goals were established: improvement of the attendance to patients; improvement of the qualification of technicians; achievement and maintenance of high degrees of quality in each step of the radiological process; improvement of the image quality; optimization of dose per examination and cost reduction. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  12. Report writing in skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation of reports in clinical practice is a standard method of documentation of a patient's history, examination findings, therapeutic regime, and prognosis, as well as other important features. In the practice of producing and interpreting diagnostic radiographs, report writing also serves a number of important roles, which include providing an accurate means of recording findings in instances of 1) medicolegal circumstances; 2) a standard for comparison with previous or later examinations; 3) a permanent record if the radiographs are lost or not immediately available for perusal; 4) communication with other practitioners and health professionals; and 5) expediating the treatment regime by providing a resume of important indications and contraindictions for therapy. In the radiological literature there is a distinct lack of material on report writing and very little as to what would be considered a standard style. Consequently, radiological reporting has increasingly become a subjective, personalized procedure, with each individual modifying the report according to previous training, experience, and needs. It is the purpose of this chapter to provide basic guidelines on the mechanisms of formulating adequate standardized reports in radiological examinations of the skeletal system

  13. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  14. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Chil [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  15. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  16. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  17. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of ionizing radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as other conditions such as cardiac ablation, are well established. However determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses is not as easy task. Furthermore, radiation doses for individual patients may vary greatly from one radiological procedure to another. Attention is needed to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to patients from All types of radiation producing machines and equipment. The patient risk from radiation injury-stochastic and/or deterministic must be weighted against the benefits of a proper medical examination or treatment as well as the risk of depriving the patient from the necessary medical care. Arbitrary reduction of radiological patient doses without regard to final outcome is determined to proper medical care provided to the patient. Sacrificing image quality in order to reduce patient dose is potentially harmful to the patient as well. Furthermore, the role of radiation exposure incurred from screening procedures such as mammography, needs to be properly considered and differentiated from medically indicated procedures. A known radiation induced risk needs to be balanced against diagnostic efficacy of a screening procedure. In these cases, regulations on standards and guidelines for determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses may be appropriate. In this paper, the technical data collected in the United States have been compared with the corresponding data in Canada. However, even here, it has been recognized that we can not assume that one dose limit fits all. It is advisable to consider individual patient specifics if it means the difference between detection and miss

  19. Portrayal of radiology in a major medical television series: How does it influence the perception of radiology among patients and radiology professionals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, T.; Merkle, E.M.; Boll, D.T.; Leyendecker, J.R.; Gupta, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    To assess how the portrayal of Radiology on medical TV shows is perceived by patients and radiology professionals. In this IRB-approved study with patient consent waived, surveys were conducted among adult patients scheduled for radiological examinations and radiology professionals. The questionnaire investigated medical TV watching habits including interest in medical TV shows, appearance of radiological examination/staff, radiology's role in diagnosis-making, and rating of the shows' accuracy in portraying radiology relative to reality. One hundred and twenty-six patients and 240 professionals (133 technologists, 107 radiologists) participated. 63.5 % patients and 63.2 % technologists rated interest in medical TV shows ≥5 (scale 1-10) versus 38.3 % of radiologists. All groups noted regular (every 2nd/3rd show) to >1/show appearance of radiological examinations in 58.5-88.2 % compared to 21.0-46.2 % for radiological staff appearance. Radiology played a role in diagnosis-making regularly to >1/show in 45.3-52.6 %. There is a positive correlation for interest in medical TV and the perception that radiology is accurately portrayed for patients (r = 0.49; P = 0.001) and technologists (r = 0.38; P = 0.001) but not for radiologists (r = 0.01). The majority of patients perceive the portrayed content as accurate. Radiologists should be aware of this cultivation effect to understand their patients' behaviour which may create false expectations towards radiological examinations and potential safety hazards. (orig.)

  20. DOE Radiological Control Manual Core Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Maisler, J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health (EH-40) has taken a leading role in the development of new standardized radiological control training programs for use throughout the DOE complex. The Department promulgated its Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual in June 1992. To ensure consistent application of the criteria presented in the RadCon Manual, standardized radiological control core training courses and training materials have been developed for implementation at all DOE facilities. In producing local training programs, standardized core courses are to be supplemented with site-specific lesson plans, viewgraphs, student handbooks, qualification standards, question banks, and wallet-sized training certificates. Training programs for General Employee Radiological Training, Radiological Worker I and II Training, and Radiological Control Technician Training have been disseminated. Also, training committees under the direction of the Office of Health (EH-40) have been established for the development of additional core training courses, development of examination banks, and the update of the existing core training courses. This paper discusses the current activities and future direction of the DOE radiological control core training program

  1. [Instruction in dental radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Kreulen, C.M.; Berkhout, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic use of oral radiology is an essential part of daily dental practice. Due to the potentially harmful nature of ionising radiation, the clinical use of oral radiology in the Netherlands is framed by clinical practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. Undergraduate students receive

  2. Medical Ethics in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

  3. Physics of Radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Harold Elford

    1983-01-01

    Authority, comprehensivity and a consummate manner of presentation have been hallmarks of The Physics of Radiology since it first saw publication some three decades past. This Fourth Edition adheres to that tradition but again updates the context. It thoroughly integrates ideas recently advanced and practices lately effected. Students and professionals alike will continue to view it, in essence, as the bible of radiological physics.

  4. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  5. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, F.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  6. Radiology applications of financial accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibenhaut, Mark H

    2005-03-01

    A basic knowledge of financial accounting can help radiologists analyze business opportunities and examine the potential impacts of new technology or predict the adverse consequences of new competitors entering their service area. The income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement are the three basic financial statements that document the current financial position of the radiology practice and allow managers to monitor the ongoing financial operations of the enterprise. Pro forma, or hypothetical, financial statements can be generated to predict the financial impact of specific business decisions or investments on the profitability of the practice. Sensitivity analysis, or what-if scenarios, can be performed to determine the potential impact of changing key revenue, investment, operating cost or financial assumptions. By viewing radiology as both a profession and a business, radiologists can optimize their use of scarce economic resources and maximize the return on their financial investments.

  7. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong

    1997-01-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment

  8. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong [Sansung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment.

  9. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  10. Screening and preventive diagnosis with radiological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.F. [University Hospitals - Grosshadern and Innenstadt (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Kaick, G. van [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Fink, C.; Schoenberg, S.O. (eds.) [Univ. Hospital Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2008-07-01

    Continuous technical developments have improved the potential of organ-based radiological diagnostics and have now also led to the use of dedicated whole-body examinations in the field of screening and preventive diagnosis. This book aims to provide clinicians with a broad understanding of screening and preventive diagnosis using radiological imaging. The first part of the book is dedicated to the fundamentals of screening and preventive diagnosis, and comprises chapters on epidemiology and pathology, technical and organizational aspects of radiological screening, legal and ethical issues, and cost-benefit analysis. The second part of the book discusses in depth the most important practical examples of radiological screening and surveillance, both for unselected populations and for individual risk groups. (orig.)

  11. Screening and preventive diagnosis with radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.F.; Fink, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous technical developments have improved the potential of organ-based radiological diagnostics and have now also led to the use of dedicated whole-body examinations in the field of screening and preventive diagnosis. This book aims to provide clinicians with a broad understanding of screening and preventive diagnosis using radiological imaging. The first part of the book is dedicated to the fundamentals of screening and preventive diagnosis, and comprises chapters on epidemiology and pathology, technical and organizational aspects of radiological screening, legal and ethical issues, and cost-benefit analysis. The second part of the book discusses in depth the most important practical examples of radiological screening and surveillance, both for unselected populations and for individual risk groups. (orig.)

  12. Role of Radiology in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging utilizing radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matter pertaining to the law. Postmortem dental radiographs are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during the forensic examination procedures. Pathologists regularly use radiographic images during the course of autopsy to assist them in identification of foreign bodies or determination of death. Forensic radiology can be used in suspicious death or murder, in analysis of adverse medical events, solving legal matters, to detect child abuse, drug trafficking, body identification and disease identification. Using the possibilities of radiology, special characteristics of the internal structures of the dentomaxillofacial region can be revealed. We can also detect endodontic treatments, healing extraction sockets, implants or even tooth colored restoration. Therefore, we can give answers to problems dealing with identification procedures, mass disaster and dental age estimation.

  13. Evaluation of knowledge and practice of professionals in radiology, in patient protection, in X-ray examinations in collective environments and in a improving quality of service through training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da

    2014-01-01

    When there is exposure to ionizing radiation, the probability of developing a stochastic effect increases, and one of the most feared stochastic effects is cancer. Calculations made from data obtained with the population of Hiroshima, showed that these effects have not dose threshold. So it is impossible predict that a specific dose value, will lead to damages and therefore, doses must always be limited. Medical exposures have contributed to the increase in dose received by the populations of countries like Brazil. This is because there was an increase in interventional procedures using ionizing radiation. What has concerned researchers since, many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. The proper use of personal protective equipment reduces the exposure of patients and professionals. Trained and knowledgeable of the rules are able to choose the shielding for each type of procedure. So we evaluated the knowledge and radiology professional practice, in protection of patients, who can not be removed from the environment in sinus X-rays and check if the training improves the quality of this service. It was concluded that there is deficiency in knowledge of the rules and failures in protection of patients, and that training with regard to radiological protection increases the level of theoretical knowledge of the professionals involved, and improve their practices with respect to protection, reducing the doses and minimizing the risks involved in medical exposures

  14. Problems of quality assurance and quality control in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    Topical problems of quality assurance and quality control in diagnostic radiology are discussed and possible solutions are shown. Complex units are differentiated with reference to physicians, technicians, organization of labour, methods of examination and indication. Quality control of radiologic imaging systems should involve three stages: (1) simple tests carried out by radiologic technicians, (2) measurements by service technicians, (3) testing of products by the manufacturer and independent governmental or health service test agencies. (author)

  15. Referral expectations of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  16. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Guidelines for radiological interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The German Radiological Society, in cooperation with other German professional bodies, set up draft Guidelines for Radiological Interventions and submitted them to the professional community for discussion. The Guidelines are meant to assess the potential of radiological interventions as treatment alternatives to surgery or aggressive therapy such as chemotherapy. In fact, technical practicability on its own is insufficient to warrant intervention. The Guidelines are systematically compiled notions and recommendations whose aim it is to provide support to physicians and patients in choosing suitable medical care provisions (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, aftertreatment) in specific circumstances. A complete Czech translation of the Guidelines is given. (P.A.)

  18. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  19. Image processing in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, F.

    2002-01-01

    Medical imaging processing and analysis methods have significantly improved during recent years and are now being increasingly used in clinical applications. Preprocessing algorithms are used to influence image contrast and noise. Three-dimensional visualization techniques including volume rendering and virtual endoscopy are increasingly available to evaluate sectional imaging data sets. Registration techniques have been developed to merge different examination modalities. Structures of interest can be extracted from the image data sets by various segmentation methods. Segmented structures are used for automated quantification analysis as well as for three-dimensional therapy planning, simulation and intervention guidance, including medical modelling, virtual reality environments, surgical robots and navigation systems. These newly developed methods require specialized skills for the production and postprocessing of radiological imaging data as well as new definitions of the roles of the traditional specialities. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of medical imaging processing methods, practical implications for the ragiologist's daily work and future aspects. (orig.) [de

  20. The radiological manifestation of hypophosphatasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haisong; Li Xiaofei; Han Yan; Cao Qingxuan; Xu Wenjian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the radiological features of hypophosphatasia. Methods: Five cases of hypophosphatasia were definitely diagnosed, which included 3 males and 2 females aged from 5 months to 23 years. The laboratory assays were analyzed, radiological appearances of bone were determined and differential diagnoses were made. Results: The alkaline phosphatase in blood serum of five patients decreased, which were 8, 20, 13, 21, and 18 U/L respectively. Phosphoethanolamine increased in blood serum of the five patients, which were 16.5, 13.5, 21.6, 18.7, and 28.9 μmol/L respectively. Phosphoethanolamine also increased in urine,which were 2350, 9120, 3520, 5280, and 1820 μmol/L respectively. Calcium in blood serum increased, which were 4.2, 5.6, 4.9, 6.1, and 3.5 mmol/L respectively. X-ray images displayed that the density of bone decreased in 5 cases, the metaphyses exhibited widening and cupping in 4 cases, the provisional calcification zone of the metaphysis became thinning or disappearing in 4 cases, long bone bended in 4 cases and pathologically fractured in 1 case. Conclusion: Hypophosphatasia can be indicated by its relatively special radiological appearance, and it can be diagnosed and differentiated from rickets, osteomalacia and osteogenesis imperfect by the laboratory examination combined with its clinical presentation. (authors)

  1. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  2. Pediatric radiology for medical-technical radiology assistants/radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppelt, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    The book on pediatric radiology includes the following chapter: differences between adults and children; psycho-social aspects concerning the patient child in radiology; relevant radiation doses in radiology; help for self-help: simple phantoms for image quality estimation in pediatric radiology; general information; immobilization of the patient; pediatric features for radiological settings; traumatology; contrast agents; biomedical radiography; computerized tomography; NMR imaging; diagnostic ultrasonography; handling of stress practical recommendations; medical displays.

  3. Spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Brunese, Luca

    2010-10-28

    Diagnostic errors are important in all branches of medicine because they are an indication of poor patient care. Since the early 1970s, physicians have been subjected to an increasing number of medical malpractice claims. Radiology is one of the specialties most liable to claims of medical negligence. Most often, a plaintiff's complaint against a radiologist will focus on a failure to diagnose. The etiology of radiological error is multi-factorial. Errors fall into recurrent patterns. Errors arise from poor technique, failures of perception, lack of knowledge and misjudgments. The work of diagnostic radiology consists of the complete detection of all abnormalities in an imaging examination and their accurate diagnosis. Every radiologist should understand the sources of error in diagnostic radiology as well as the elements of negligence that form the basis of malpractice litigation. Error traps need to be uncovered and highlighted, in order to prevent repetition of the same mistakes. This article focuses on the spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiology, including a classification of the errors, and stresses the malpractice issues in mammography, chest radiology and obstetric sonography. Missed fractures in emergency and communication issues between radiologists and physicians are also discussed.

  4. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  5. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP and signi......Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP...... and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...

  6. Diagnostic radiology: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter describes the historic development of diagnostic equipment for radiology. The problems associated with fluoroscope design are detailed and the current uses of updated technology, particularly digitization, are considered. Numerous historical photographs are included. 13 refs

  7. Ergonomics in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, N. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nimitgoyal@doctors.org.uk; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations.

  8. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Ergonomics in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, N.; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations

  11. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Picture yourself in L.A. Register now SIR Essentials Purchase/register Search SIR's entire catalog for educational ... Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  12. Radiology Architecture Project Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Raymond W; Hogan, Laurie; Teshima, Satoshi; Davidson, Scott

    2017-12-19

    The rapid pace of technologic advancement and increasing expectations for patient- and family-friendly environments make it common for radiology leaders to be involved in imaging remodel and construction projects. Most radiologists and business directors lack formal training in architectural and construction processes but are expected to play significant and often leading roles in all phases of an imaging construction project. Avoidable mistakes can result in significant increased costs and scheduling delays; knowledgeable participation and communication can result in a final product that enhances staff workflow and morale and improves patient care and experience. This article presents practical guidelines for preparing for and leading a new imaging architectural and construction project. We share principles derived from the radiology and nonradiology literature and our own experience over the past decade completely remodeling a large pediatric radiology department and building a full-service outpatient imaging center. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiology and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Law of Medical Malpractice: An Overview; The Radiologist as Defendant; The Radiologist as an Expert Witness; The Missed Diagnosis; Legalities of the Radiograph; and Angiography and Interventional Radiology

  14. Radiologic science for technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides in-depth coverage of physics, biology and protection for the radiologic technology student. It presents a significant portion of all of the science required of radiologic technology students under one cover. Chapter content reflects a readable and practical organization with outlines listed on the first page of each chapter and sample problems at the end. New to this edition are: new and expanded sections on radiation techniques, digital imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound

  15. Hygiene in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp-Schwoerer, A.; Daschner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  17. Textbook of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, C.E.; Ravin, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book is presented in two volumes, standard textbook of imaging, conclusive and totally up-to-date. This provides information organized by major topics covering the state-of-the-art for all imaging procedures. The volume 1 presents radiologic physics and technology by discussing roentgenography, ultrasound, CT, nuclear medicine, MRI, and positron emission tomography. The volume 2 studies pulmonary radiology, imaging of the skeletal and central nervous systems, uroradiology, abdominal and cardiac imaging, and imaging of the pelvis

  18. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...... is cyclic: exacerbations relieved by asymptomatic periods. New imaging modalities, including the combination of MR imaging and multiplanar 3-D CT scans, have broadened our awareness of possible pain-generating degenerative processes of the lumbar spine other than disc degeneration....

  19. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  20. RCT: Module 2.11, Radiological Work Coverage, Course 8777

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Radiological work is usually approved and controlled by radiation protection personnel by using administrative and procedural controls, such as radiological work permits (RWPs). In addition, some jobs will require working in, or will have the potential for creating, very high radiation, contamination, or airborne radioactivity areas. Radiological control technicians (RCTs) providing job coverage have an integral role in controlling radiological hazards. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  1. Radiological characteristics of AIDS- related lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gloria Maria Martins G.; Marchiori, Edson

    1996-01-01

    The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased the incidence of lymphoma, particularly the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The lymphoma in immune deficient patients is usually high-grade, very aggressive and with poor prognostic. We report the radiologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma in 19 patients and correlate with the literature. The disease was predominant in homosexual male patients, with mean age of 38 years. The radiological characteristics are nonspecific to differential diagnosis, but we must suspect of lymphoma. We found ring-enhanced lesions in the radiologic studies of central nervous system. Hylar and mediastinal lymphadenopath, nodules and alveolar infiltration were detected on thoracic examinations. Abdominal examinations showed hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hepatic focal lesions and thickneded with distorted mucosa in the alimentary tract. Bone involvement presented as focal and disseminated destructive lesions. (author)

  2. Out-patient radiology in gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, G.; Risi, D.; Accordino, M.E.; Meli, C.; Iascone, C.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is reported of 131 symptomatic patients for gastro-esophageal reflux, comparing the radiological diagnosis to endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric results. A low incidence of x-ray examination is found. The role of radiology in gastro-esophageal reflux is considered and discussed

  3. Radiological findings and interventions for iatrogenic vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Sang Wook; Lee, Jong Seog; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jong Hyo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological findings and effectiveness of radiological interventions in patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries. We analyzed 50 patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries treated with radiological intervention. The causes of injuries were surgery (n=20), cardiovascular intervention (n=15), non-cardiovascular radiological intervention (n=14), and endoscopic intervention (n=1). The injury had resulted in hemorrhage in 35 cases. The iliac and/or femoral, hepatic, and renal vessels were commonly injured. Angiography, ultrasonography with Doppler examination, CT, and CT angiography were performed to diagnose vascular injuries and guide the radiological intervention. The mean follow-up period was 23 months and in 16 cases was more than one year. the major radiological findings were extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous shunt, or vascular obstruction. To control these lesions, radiological interventions such as embolization (n=36), local urokinase administration, stent insertion, foreign body removal, ultrasonography-guided compression, or stent-graft insertion were performed. The clinical problems were immediately controlled by the single trials of radiological interventions and did not recur in 40 cases (80%). Radiological examinations and interventions are useful in cases with iatrogenic vascular injuries. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  4. Pediatric radiology malpractice claims - characteristics and comparison to adult radiology claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal A.; Taylor, George A.; Dwyer, Kathy; Yu-Moe, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    Medical malpractice is the primary method by which people who believe they have suffered an injury in the course of medical care seek compensation in the United States and Canada. An increasing body of research demonstrates that failure to correctly diagnose is the most common allegation made in malpractice claims against radiologists. Since the 1994 survey by the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH), no other published studies have specifically examined the frequency or clinical context of malpractice claims against pediatric radiologists or arising from pediatric imaging interpretation. We hypothesize that the frequency, character and outcome of malpractice claims made against pediatric radiologists differ from those seen in general radiology practice. We searched the Controlled Risk Insurance Co. (CRICO) Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS), a private repository of approximately 350,000 open and closed medical malpractice claims in the United States, for claims related to pediatric radiology. We further queried these cases for the major allegation, the clinical environment in which the claim arose, the clinical severity of the alleged injury, indemnity paid (if payment was made), primary imaging modality involved (if applicable) and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis underlying the claim. There were a total of 27,056 fully coded claims of medical malpractice in the CBS database in the 5-year period between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014. Of these, 1,472 cases (5.4%) involved patients younger than 18 years. Radiology was the primary service responsible for 71/1,472 (4.8%) pediatric cases. There were statistically significant differences in average payout for pediatric radiology claims ($314,671) compared to adult radiology claims ($174,033). The allegations were primarily diagnosis-related in 70% of pediatric radiology claims. The most common imaging modality implicated in

  5. Pediatric radiology malpractice claims - characteristics and comparison to adult radiology claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal A.; Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dwyer, Kathy; Yu-Moe, Winnie [CRICO Risk Management Foundation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Medical malpractice is the primary method by which people who believe they have suffered an injury in the course of medical care seek compensation in the United States and Canada. An increasing body of research demonstrates that failure to correctly diagnose is the most common allegation made in malpractice claims against radiologists. Since the 1994 survey by the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH), no other published studies have specifically examined the frequency or clinical context of malpractice claims against pediatric radiologists or arising from pediatric imaging interpretation. We hypothesize that the frequency, character and outcome of malpractice claims made against pediatric radiologists differ from those seen in general radiology practice. We searched the Controlled Risk Insurance Co. (CRICO) Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS), a private repository of approximately 350,000 open and closed medical malpractice claims in the United States, for claims related to pediatric radiology. We further queried these cases for the major allegation, the clinical environment in which the claim arose, the clinical severity of the alleged injury, indemnity paid (if payment was made), primary imaging modality involved (if applicable) and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis underlying the claim. There were a total of 27,056 fully coded claims of medical malpractice in the CBS database in the 5-year period between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014. Of these, 1,472 cases (5.4%) involved patients younger than 18 years. Radiology was the primary service responsible for 71/1,472 (4.8%) pediatric cases. There were statistically significant differences in average payout for pediatric radiology claims ($314,671) compared to adult radiology claims ($174,033). The allegations were primarily diagnosis-related in 70% of pediatric radiology claims. The most common imaging modality

  6. Pediatric radiology malpractice claims - characteristics and comparison to adult radiology claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Micheál A; Dwyer, Kathy; Yu-Moe, Winnie; Taylor, George A

    2017-06-01

    Medical malpractice is the primary method by which people who believe they have suffered an injury in the course of medical care seek compensation in the United States and Canada. An increasing body of research demonstrates that failure to correctly diagnose is the most common allegation made in malpractice claims against radiologists. Since the 1994 survey by the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH), no other published studies have specifically examined the frequency or clinical context of malpractice claims against pediatric radiologists or arising from pediatric imaging interpretation. We hypothesize that the frequency, character and outcome of malpractice claims made against pediatric radiologists differ from those seen in general radiology practice. We searched the Controlled Risk Insurance Co. (CRICO) Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS), a private repository of approximately 350,000 open and closed medical malpractice claims in the United States, for claims related to pediatric radiology. We further queried these cases for the major allegation, the clinical environment in which the claim arose, the clinical severity of the alleged injury, indemnity paid (if payment was made), primary imaging modality involved (if applicable) and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis underlying the claim. There were a total of 27,056 fully coded claims of medical malpractice in the CBS database in the 5-year period between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014. Of these, 1,472 cases (5.4%) involved patients younger than 18 years. Radiology was the primary service responsible for 71/1,472 (4.8%) pediatric cases. There were statistically significant differences in average payout for pediatric radiology claims ($314,671) compared to adult radiology claims ($174,033). The allegations were primarily diagnosis-related in 70% of pediatric radiology claims. The most common imaging modality implicated in

  7. Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology for Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the radiation dose to children from diagnostic radiology examinations has recently been popularly expressed, particularly as related to computed tomography (CT) procedures. This involves the observation that children can receive doses far in excess of those delivered to adults, in part due to the digital nature of the image receptors that may give no warning to the operator of the dose to the patient. Concern for CT examinations should be extended to the broad range of paediatric diagnostic radiological procedures responsible for radiation doses in children, especially as factors, such as increased radiosensitivity and the longer life expectancy of children, increase the associated radiation risk. In all cases, owing to the added paediatric radiological examination factor of patient size and its associated impact on equipment selection, clinical examination protocol and dosimetric audit, the determination of paediatric dose requires a distinct approach from adult dosimetry associated with diagnostic radiological examinations. In response to this, there is a need to inform health professionals about standardized methodologies used to determine paediatric dose for all major modalities such as general radiography, fluoroscopy and CT. Methodologies for standardizing the conduct of dose audits and their use for the derivation and application of diagnostic reference levels for patient populations, that vary in size, are also required. In addition, a review is needed of the current knowledge on risks specific to non-adults from radiation, and also an analysis of the management of factors contributing to dose from paediatric radiological examinations. In 2007, the IAEA published a code of practice, Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice, as Technical Reports Series No. 457 (TRS 457). TRS 457 recommends procedures for dosimetric measurement and calibration for the attainment of standardized dosimetry, and addresses requirements

  8. The Future of Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Margulis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been my good fortune to live and practice radiology during a long period of momentous change – to see the transformation of the discipline from a supportive service into a mainstream, essential branch of clinical medicine. I remember wearing red goggles to adapt my vision before performing fluoroscopy; observing the horrible, now thankfully obsolete, practice of ventriculography, which was considered advanced neuroradiology; and performing other, now rarely prescribed procedures, such as double-contrast barium enemas and intravenous pyelography. Witnessing the beginnings of interventional radiology, I suggested its name in an editorial. I also had the good fortune to see the introduction of computed tomography (CT and a technology first known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Together with fellow members of a committee of the American College of Radiology and editors of prestigious radiological journals, I took part in changing the name of the latter modality to MRI, freeing it from threatening implications. Looking back on these experiences, one lesson stands out above all: Innovation and transformation never cease. Looking forward, it is clear that radiology, along with the rest of medicine, is now undergoing further momentous changes that will affect the future of all those already practicing as well as those yet to start their careers.

  9. Radiologic findings after fundoplication compared with a pH reflux test and symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.; Linkoeping Univ.; Linkoeping Univ.

    1986-01-01

    In a follow-up after fundoplication, 61 patients underwent a double contrast examination of the stomach and a radiologic examination to detect any gastro-oesophageal reflux. The radiologic findings were compared with pH reflux test and symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was found in 7 patients at radiologic examination. None of these patients had an adequate fundoplication at a double contrast examination of the stomach and all had symptoms indicating reflux. Recurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux may be shown at the radiologic examination and predicted by the morphologic appearances at the double contrast examination. (orig.)

  10. Radiologic findings after fundoplication compared with a pH reflux test and symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.

    In a follow-up after fundoplication, 61 patients underwent a double contrast examination of the stomach and a radiologic examination to detect any gastro-oesophageal reflux. The radiologic findings were compared with pH reflux test and symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was found in 7 patients at radiologic examination. None of these patients had an adequate fundoplication at a double contrast examination of the stomach and all had symptoms indicating reflux. Recurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux may be shown at the radiologic examination and predicted by the morphologic appearances at the double contrast examination.

  11. Soft tissue Burkitt's lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Barredo, R.; Fernandez Echevarria, M.A.; Riego, M. del; Canga, A.

    1998-01-01

    An unusual case is reported of a soft tissue mass in the lower extremity, without bone involvement, in an 85-year-old woman; the histopathological diagnosis was Burkitt's lymphoma. Pertinent clinical history, histological examination, and imaging procedures allowed early diagnosis. To our knowledge, the radiological findings in Burkitt's lymphoma with this unusual clinical presentation have not been described previously. (orig.)

  12. Radiological protection and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    Dosimetric results obtained inside and outside nuclear power plants are examined with a review to proposing revision of the radiological protection standards. Dose limits are considered with regard to leukemia and genetic effects. Other topics discussed are: observed collective damage and mean risk; lethal exposure; healing and sign change of additional risk; and genetic effects of radiation on mice

  13. Results of a survey by the European Society of Radiology (ESR): undergraduate radiology education in Europe-influences of a modern teaching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oris, Elena; Verstraete, Koenraad; Valcke, Martin

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine in what way a conventional versus a modern medical curriculum influences teaching delivery in formal radiology education. A web-based questionnaire was distributed by the ESR to radiology teaching staff from 93 European teaching institutions. Early exposure to radiology in pre-clinical years is typically reported in institutions with a modern curriculum. The average number of teaching hours related to radiology is similar in both curriculum types (60 h). Radiology in modern curricula is mainly taught by radiologists, radiology trainees (50%), radiographers (20%) or clinicians (17%). Mandatory clerkships are pertinent to modern curricula (55% vs. 41% conventional curriculum), which start in the first (13% vs. 4% conventional curriculum) or second year of the training (9% vs. 2% conventional curriculum). The common core in both curricula consists of radiology examinations, to work with radiology teaching files, to attend radiology conferences, and to participate in multidisciplinary meetings. The influence of a modern curriculum on the formal radiology teaching is visible in terms of earlier exposure to radiology, involvement of a wider range of staff grades and range of profession involved in teaching, and radiology clerkships with more active and integrated tasks. • This study looks at differences in the nature of formal radiology teaching.

  14. Evaluation of radiological medical practice during night duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasu, J.P.; Rocher, L.; Miquel, A.; Rondeau, Y.; Blery, M.; Nguyen, D.T.; Spira, A.; Livartowski, J.; Ellrodt, A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological activity during night duty, in a University Hospital, during 100 days, the radiological activity has been evaluated from examinations requiring radiologist (including US and CT, special X-ray examinations). The urgent nature and the agreement between the suspected disease and the final diagnose have been compared with the level of the clinician (medical student, resident, senior). 981 radiological examinations were performed on an emergency basis. In 39%, the examination was urgent or very urgent and for 61% little urgent or non-urgent. The level of the clinician was correlated with the degree of emergency evaluated by the radiologist and with the agreement between suspected disease and the final diagnose (p<0.0001). During night duty, the medical activity in radiology is not justified only be emergency, but also the continuous hospital activities. Better formation of the physician is required to limit the number of examinations. (authors)

  15. Room design in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achalli, Sonika

    2013-01-01

    Radiography and radiographic examination of the patient form most valuable diagnostic tool in providing comprehensive dental care. The safe and effective use of the X-ray equipment is important for the protection of the patient, other members of the public and all members of the dental team. For patients, the risk that is associated with exposure to X-rays must always be weighed against the clinical benefit of an accurate diagnosis. The risks associated with the exposure to the X-rays during the radiographic examination of the patient must be minimised by meticulously adhering to good practice and thus carefully managing the use of dental radiological procedures. The dentist or the personnel who is the license holder for the X-ray equipment is ultimately responsible for the radiation safety at the workplace. One important method in limiting the possible risk of radiation exposure at workplace is the correct design of an X-ray room. This paper is aimed at discussing the guidelines and recommendations on X-ray room designs in dental radiology in order to facilitate radiation control and safe working conditions for radiation workers as well as the public. (author)

  16. Anesthesia for radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetic techniques for neurodiagnostic studies and radiation therapy have been recently reviewed, but anesthetic involvement in thoracic and abdominal radiology has received little attention. Patient reactions to radiologic contrast media may be of concern to the anesthesiologist, who is often responsible for injecting these agents during diagnostic procedures, and thus is included in this discussion. Finally, the difficulties of administering anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are outlined, in an effort to help anesthesiologist to anticipate problems with this new technologic development. Although there are very few indications for the use of general anesthesia for diagnostic radiologic studies in adults, most procedures performed with children, the mentally retarded, or the combative adult require either heavy sedation or general anesthesia. In selecting an anesthetic technique for a specific procedure, both the patient's disease process and the requirements of the radiologist must be carefully balanced

  17. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  18. The year book of diagnostic radiology 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, W.M.; Adams, D.F.; Bookstein, J.J.; Gabrielsen, T.O.; Holt, J.F.; Martel, W.; Silver, T.M.; Thornbury, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 edition of the Year Book of Diagnostic Radiology fulfills the standards of excellence established by previous volumes in this series. The abstracts were carefully chosen, are concise, and are well illustrated. The book is recommended for all practicing radiologists: for the resident it is a good source from which to select articles to be carefully studied, and as review source before board examinations; for the subspecialist it provides a means to maintain contact with all areas of diagnostic radiology; and for the general radiologist, it is a convenient and reliable guide to new developments in the specialty

  19. Digital image information systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, C.F.C.; Luetke, B.; Seufert, G.

    1987-01-01

    About 25% of all patient examinations are performed digitally in a today's radiological department. A computerized system is described that supports generation, transport, interpretation and archiving of digital radiological images (Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS). The technical features concerning image communication via local area networks, image storage on magnetic and optical media and digital workstations for image display and manipulation are described. A structured system architecture is introduced. It allows flexible adaption to individual organizations and minimizes the requirements of the communication network. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiology education: a radiology curriculum for all medical students?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Laura; Kok, E.M.; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic errors in radiology are frequent and can cause severe patient harm. Despite large performance differences between radiologists and non-radiology physicians, the latter often interpret medical images because electronic health records make images available throughout the hospital. Some

  1. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  2. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  3. Radiologic protection in pediatric radiology: ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ramon; Khong, Pek-Lan; Ringertz, Hans

    2013-01-01

    ICRP has provided an updated overview of radiation protection principles in pediatric radiology. The authors recommend that staff, radiologists, medical physicists and vendors involved in pediatric radiology read this document. For conventional radiography, the report gives advice on patient positioning, immobilization, shielding and appropriate exposure conditions. It describes extensively the use of pulsed fluoroscopy, the importance of limiting fluoroscopy time, and how shielding and geometry must be used to avoid unnecessary radiation to the patient and operator. Furthermore, the use of fluoroscopy in interventional procedures with emphasis on dose reduction to patients and staff is discussed in light of the increasing frequency, complexity and length ofthe procedures. CT is the main reason that medical imaging in several developed countries is the highest annual per capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources. The ICRP report gives extensive descriptions of how CT protocols can be optimized to minimize radiation exposure in pediatric patients. The importance of balancing image quality with acceptable noise in pediatric imaging and the controversies regarding the use of protective shielding in CT are also discussed.

  4. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  5. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  6. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in the series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (May 2006)

  7. Genitourinary and breast radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriss, R.W.; Graham, R.N.J.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the sixth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on genitourinary (GU) and breast radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (July 2006)

  8. Practical interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, J.; Schreyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The book is intended as a practical guide and manual for interventional radiology applications. Main emphasis is placed on the performance of the various techniques, with explanations of the various steps to be taken, illustrated by drawings or pictures. Indications, contra-indications and clinical achievements are given in brief. There is one chapter each for the following techniques: angioplasty - intra-arterial fibrinolysis - vascular stents - neuroembolisation - embolisation of other vessels - biliary interventions - abscess drainage - nephrostomy and ureteral manipulations -percutaneous fine-needle biopsy - vena cava filters - interventional radiology in infants. (orig.)

  9. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  10. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  11. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  12. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  13. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  14. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  15. Radiological worker training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

  16. Radiology of thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.

    1987-01-01

    This course provides an overview of the radiologic manifestations of trauma to the chest. The basic mechanisms of injury are discussed. The effect of trauma on the chest wall, the lung parenchyma, and the pleural space is described. Rib fractures, sternal fractures, lung contusion, lung hematoma, lung laceration, post-traumatic atelectasis, hemothorax, chylothorax, pneumothorax, and adult respiratory distress syndrome are discussed and illustrated. Injuries to the tracheobronchial tree, the aorta and brachiocephalic vessels, the esophagus, the diaphragm, and the heart are also presented. The purpose of the lecture is to familiarize the audience with common and unusual radiologic presentations of traumatic injury to the thorax

  17. Anesthesia for interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Varney, R.R.; D'Agostino, H.B.; Zornow, M.; Mazzie, W.

    1989-01-01

    We recognized that the complexity and surgical nature of many interventional radiology procedures dictate essential radiologic involvement into traditional anesthesiologic areas. They reviewed our experience with a variety of interventional procedures to document complications and problems related to anesthetic use (or misuse) and compile recommendations for rational monitoring and control for these procedures. In particular, the authors have studied complications of drug therapies and the treatment of these complications; use of complex anesthesia procedures (e.g., epidural anesthesia, succinylcholine blockage); reasons for choice of drugs (e.g., fentanyl vs meperidine vs morphine); and medico-legal aspects of radiologist performing traditional anesthesiology-type procedures

  18. Sampling on radiological protection training in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2001-01-01

    Radiological security aspects were evaluated in radiology departments from Mexico City. The study was carried out in two stages, the first one evaluated 40 departments just before the implementation of the new Official Mexican Standards related to Radiological Security and Quality Control in Radiology; in the second stage 33 departments were evaluated 2 years after those standards were implanted, showing a favorable impact of the training programs for the type of answers obtained [es

  19. Recommendations of the Indian College of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    The deliberations at the 3rd Southern Regional Conference of Radiologists and the midterm teaching sessions of the Indian College of Radiology held in June 1979 are reported. The various recommendations were formulated and discussed to ensure uniformity in pattern for practice and training in radiology throughout the country. Some of the significant topics discussed included: mode of examination, standard of training and norms for equipping the radiology department, duration and type of course, nomenclature of post-graduate course, under-graduate training in radio-diagnosis and other imaging techniques, under-graduate training in radiotherapeutic oncology, representation in Indian Medical Council, post-graduate and diploma training courses in radio-diagnosis and imaging techniques and post-graduate training course in radiation oncology. (K.B.)

  20. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio; Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  1. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  2. Emergency radiology curriculum at Medical University - Plovdiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Hilendarov, A.; Cvetkova, S.; Stoeva, M.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent advances in contemporary radiology turn it into one of the major sources for patient information with improved emergency techniques. Emergency Radiology (EP) focuses on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to present the ER curriculum at Medical Imaging Department, Medical University - Plovdiv, aiming to deliver knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Material and methods: The curriculum covers various aspects of ER Radiology - diagnostic imaging methods, contrast enhanced examinations, imaging topography, traumatic and acute conditions, physical and technical aspects. It includes 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. Results and discussion: The educational course in Emergency Radiology is available for medical students in their 8-th and 9-th semester. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. Conclusion: Being one of the most advanced areas of radiology, ER improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole

  3. Radiological aerial monitoring in a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo

    2008-01-01

    Since North Korea announced the underground nuclear test on last October 9th, 2006, many countries around the world have worried about the atmospheric dispersion and pollution of radioactive materials crossing the border by the clandestine nuclear test. After that time, verifying the existence of nuclear test by detecting radioactive materials such as xenon, I-131, and Cs-134 at the early stage of radiological emergency, locating the position of test site by backward trajectory analysis, and chasing the moving path of airborne radionuclide have been heavily issued. And collection of airborne radioactivity and gamma radiation monitoring technology using an aircraft have been recently examined by an authority concerned in South Korea. Although various techniques of radiological aerial monitoring have been developed and operated around the world, the relevant technical development or research is still required. In order to decide potential measuring location and time within the framework of radiological monitoring system, we use HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of U.S. Department of Commerce. The model is validated and assessed against North Korea's nuclear test. Calculation results of radionuclide trajectory show a good agreement with measured values. Backward trajectory analysis is useful to track the radiological source term, possible time and place of nuclear accidents and/or activities. Nationwide early warning system using aircraft and atmospheric dispersion model can help a nearly real-time forecasting and warning in preparation for radiological emergencies. (author)

  4. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1990's, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) launched a process for establishing new recommendations, which are expected to serve as guidelines for national systems of radiological protection. Currently the ICRP's proposed recommendations are being subjected to extensive stakeholder comment and modifications. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been actively involved in this process. Part of the Committee's work has been to undertake collaborative efforts with the ICRP through, for example, the organisation of broad stakeholder fora. The first of these, held in Taormina, Italy in 2002, focused on the development of a policy basis for the radiological protection of the environment. The second forum, held in Lanzarote, Spain in April 2003, addressed the latest concepts and approaches in the ICRP proposed recommendations for a system of radiological protection. During this meeting, the ICRP listened to the views of various stakeholder groups, including radiological protection regulators, environmental protection ministries, the nuclear power industry and NGOs. As a result, the ICRP modified its proposals to better reflect stakeholder needs and wishes. This report presents the outcomes of the discussions, examining what the ICRP proposed and how its proposals have been affected and modified as a result of stakeholder input. (author)

  5. Introduction of radiological protection; Pengenalan kepada perlindungan radiologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: basic principles of radiological protection , dose limit which was suggested, stochastic and nonstochastic effects, equivalent dose and alternative of it`s calculation, limit for the publics, ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) recommendations, and the principles of radiological protection. Dangerous radiation sources also briefly summarized i.e. x-ray generators, reactor nucleus.

  6. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rweyemamu, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this project was to review patient dosimetry aiming at reducing the patient dose during diagnostic procedures while maintaining the best image quality in order to protect patients from ionizing radiation. CT examination was selected in this study to represent imaging protocols with high patient doses used in diagnostic radiology. Dosimetric parameters in CT which are CTDI, CTDIW, DLP, MSAD, organ dose and effective dose were discussed. Parameters such as tube current, tube voltage, filtration, scan volume and slice thickness were found to affect patient dose, therefore proper management of these factors was recommended. For optimization of protection of the patient, application of the “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) principle was recommended as an important key for avoiding overexposure and minimizing patient doses. Also it was recommended that CT examinations should be performed if and only if is the only suitable option when weighed against other options which do not involve ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Quality management systems in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K. Korir

    2013-08-01

    Objective: To assess the level of quality management systems in X-ray medical facilities in Kenya. Methods: Quality management inspection, quality control performance tests and patient radiation exposure were assessed in 54 representative X-ray medical facilities. Additionally, a survey of X-ray examination frequency was conducted in 140 hospitals across the country. Results: The overall findings placed the country’s X-ray imaging quality management systems at 61±3% out of a possible 100%. The most and the least quality assurance performance indicators were general radiography X-ray equipment quality control tests at 88±4%, and the interventional cardiology adult examinations below diagnostic reference level at 25±1%, respectively. Conclusions: The study used a systematic evidence-based approach for the assessment of national quality management systems in radiological practice in clinical application, technical conduct of the procedure, image quality criteria, and patient characteristics as part of the quality management programme.

  8. Radiologic evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joong; Kang, Hee Tae; Kim, Jong Deok; Rhee, Hak Song

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer of Korea is much lower than that of Western countries, but has shown a tendency to a slight increase recently. Barium enema is the most valuable, noninvasive and inexpensive method available to evaluate the size, shape and site of colorectal cancer. The authors reviewed and radiologically classified barium enema studies of 232 cases of colorectal cancer from Aug. 1967 to July 1982 at Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Confirmed clinically, operatively and pathologically. The results were as follows; 1. The ratio of male and female was 1.3:1, and youngest was 13 year-old and the oldest 86 year-old. 2. The peak incidence occurred from 5th to 7th decades, accounting for 78% of all cases (181/232), and there was a relatively high incidence of the disease in patients below 30 years of age at 7.8% (18/232). 3. Rectum and rectosigmoid region are the most frequently involved regions (127/232:54.8%). 4. The positivity of barium enema examination was 4.0% (232/5807), and its accuracy was 96.5% (224/232). 5. The radiologic findings were classified into 4 groups, and they were annular encircling 62.9% (146/232). polypoid fungating 26.8% (62/232), infiltrating 8.6% (20/232), and primary ulcerating 1.7% (4/232) in order of frequency. 6. The linear length of the cancer ranged from 1.5 Cm to 15 Cm, and the average length was 5.5 Cm. 7. There was no statistical correlation between the length of lesion, the site, and the radiologic findings, and stages of the lesion (P:0.750-0.250). 8. The majority of colorectal cancers was adenocarcinoma (217/232:93.6%)

  9. Guidelines for a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This manual presents guidelines for hospitals on a radiology quality assurance and dose measurement audit program and a system of planned actions that monitor and record the performance and effectiveness of the radiological service

  10. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Chung Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  11. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  12. Radiological controls integrated into design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.W. [Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  13. Program of environmental radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirement of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.14, related to the Program of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (PMRA)

  14. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong a University Medical Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Yeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  15. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seong Gyu; Lee, Hyo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  16. Guidelines on radiology standards for primary dental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A Joint Working Party (JWP) on patient dose reduction in diagnostic radiology was established between the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) towards the end of 1988. JWP identified a large potential for patient dose reduction on a national scale, and a report of its findings was published in 1990. This guidance was only generally applicable to dental radiology and in 1992 a further joint venture between RCR and NRPB resulted in the formation of a Working Party (WP) to consider all aspects of dental radiology applicable to primary dental care. Dental radiology is one of the largest single groups of radiographic examination performed, although the effective dose per radiograph is small. This means that individual risks from dental radiology are low, but WP has identified a significant potential for reduction in the collective dose and for improvements in the diagnostic quality of radiographs. The WP recommendations cover all aspects of dental radiology: training and examination regimes for dentists and staff, patient selection and clinical justification for radiography, diagnostic interpretation, equipment and procedural aspects, and finally the question of quality assurance in dental radiology. The economic impact of the many recommendations by WP has been considered in some detail. The benefits and cost of each recommendation either have been assigned a monetary value or have been assessed more qualitatively. The conclusion is that there is a strong economic justification for implementation of the full package of recommendations. (Author)

  17. Treatment delay and radiological errors in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinohe, K.; Takahashi, M.; Tooyama, N.

    2003-01-01

    During routine investigations, we are surprised to find that therapy for bone metastases is sometimes delayed for a considerable period of time. To determine the extent of this delay and its causes, we reviewed the medical records of symptomatic patients seen at our hospital who had been recently diagnosed as having bone metastases for the last four years. The treatment delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and definitive treatment for bone metastases. The diagnostic delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and diagnosis of bone metastases. The results of diagnostic radiological examinations were also reviewed for errors. The study population included 76 males and 34 females with a median age of 66 years. Most bone metastases were diagnosed radiologically. Over 75% of patients were treated with radiotherapy. The treatment delay ranged from 2 to 307 days, with a mean of 53.3 days. In 490 radiological studies reviewed, we identified 166 (33.9%) errors concerning 62 (56.4%) patients. The diagnostic delay was significantly longer for patients with radiological errors than for patients without radiological errors (P < 0.001), and much of it was due to radiological errors. In conclusion, the treatment delay in patients with symptomatic bone metastases was much longer than expected, and much of it was caused by radiological errors. Considerable efforts should therefore be made to more carefully examine the radiological studies in order to ensure prompt treatment of bone metastases. (author)

  18. Trends in radiology in Finland between 1995 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, Arvi; Jaervinen, Hannu; Soimakallio, Seppo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of a joint nomenclature, i.e., the examination coding system used in Finland, for making a nationwide summary of the radiological examinations and interventional procedures. Another objective was to find trends in radiological practices in Finland between 1995 and 2000 by comparing the nationwide summaries made by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). An inquiry for the numbers of radiological examinations performed in 2000 was sent to 473 medical radiation users, i.e., safety license holders obtained from the registry maintained by STUK. In 2000, the proportions of plain radiography, contrast-enhanced radiography, angiography, computed tomography and radiological interventional procedures were approximately 91.1, 1.4, 0.9, 5.0, and 1.5%, respectively (distribution of medical examinations). Between 1995 and 2000, the number of medical X-ray examinations showed a slight decrease from ca. 4.2 million to ca. 4.1 million. During the investigated five years period the frequency of contrast enhanced radiography diminished ca. 50% while the frequency of computed tomography increased ca. 20%. The reported number of ultrasonographic examinations showed a slight increase to approximately 0.5 million, whereas the reported number of MRI examinations increased approximately twofold to approximately 0.1 million. The observed trends in radiological practices are useful in attempts to optimize the resources of STUK in the field of radiological protection. (orig.)

  19. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  20. Radiology of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.; Delorme, G.

    1994-01-01

    This book, written by internationally recognized experts, fully illustrates the diagnosis of both common and rarer diseases of the pancreas, the latest technical developments in relevant imaging modalities are thoroughly discussed and appraised with respect to the pancreas. The book will appeal to both clinicians and researchers in radiology and oncology. (orig.)

  1. ERC Radiological Glovebag Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-07-01

    This document establishes the requirements and responsibilities for the standardized methods for installation, use, and dismantlement of glovebags within the Hanford Site Environmental Contractor Radiological Glovebag Program. This document addresses the following topics: Containment selection and fabrication, Glovebag fabrication, Containment installation and inspection, General glovebag containment work practices, Emergency situations, and Containment removal

  2. German radiological congress 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubitz, B.; Stender, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The publication contains the abstracts of the 261 papers read at the meeting and the 82 further papers announced, and 37 brief descriptions of the contributions to the scientific exhibition. The papers were on the subjects of radiology, nuclear medicine and to a certain extent, also radiobiology. (MG) [de

  3. Medical radiology terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Standardization achievements in the field of radiology induced the IEC to compile the terminology used in its safety and application standards and present it in publication 788 (1984 issue), entitled 'Medical radiology terminology'. The objective pursued is to foster the use of standard terminology in the radiology standards. The value of publication 788 lies in the fact that it presents definitions of terms used in the French and English versions of IEC standards in the field of radiology, and thus facilitates adequate translation of these terms into other languages. In the glossary in hand, German-language definitions have been adopted from the DIN standards in cases where the French or English versions of definitions are identical with the German wording or meaning. The numbers of DIN standards or sections are then given without brackets, ahead of the text of the definition. In cases where correspondance of the various texts is not so good, or reference should be made to a term in a DIN standard, the numbers are given in brackets. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Collaborative Radiological Response Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    DOE and EPA national laboratories .55 Additionally, the GAO conducted a survey of emergency management officials in cities, states and federal...for Biosecurity of UPMC, (2012). After fukushima: Managing the consequences of a radiological release. Retrieved from : http://issuu.com

  5. Radiological protective screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugnatti, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A radiological screen for placing on a patient's skin is discussed, comprising a flat jacket containing a fine particulate filler and a settable resin binder, the fine particulate filler being of a material which absorbs medical radiation, and the jacket including a window to transmit such radiation through the flat jacket. 16 claims, 4 drawing figures

  6. Radiology of spinal curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book offers the only comprehensive, concise summary of both the clinical and radiologic features of thoracic and lumbar spine deformity. Emphasis is placed on idiopathic scoliosis, which represents 85% of all patients with scoliosis, but less common areas of secondary scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis are also covered

  7. Radiological safety by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundaker, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Under the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1968, the Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Radiological Health may prescribe performance standards for products that emit radiation. A description is given of the development of these standards and outlines the administrative procedures by which they are enforced. (author)

  8. Radiology in emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present

  9. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A symposium of eight short but complete papers giving an overview of interventional radiology is presented. Organized by Dr. William Casarella, this symposium is certainly the most current review of the subject available. This year's cardiovascular section is again heavily weighted toward interventional radiology. Abrams and Doubilet's article on the underutilization of angioplasty is important because it describes the cost effectiveness of this method. Most health planners, right or wrong, have complained about overutilization of diagnostic radiology procedures. In general, the opposite is true for interventional procedures - they are underutilized. If the authors draw the attention of their hospital administrators to these approaches and also produce the data on long-term follow-up for our medical colleagues, interventional radiology may realize its full potential. Articles on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are beginning to appear and this technique seems to have great potential. An important article, which is the first prospective study comparing lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, supports the increased use of pulmonary angiography. Finally, an article on complications of percutaneous biliary drainage provokes some discussion of its value for routine preoperative use

  10. Recent trend of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.Y.; Kim, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Present status and recent trend of diagnostic radiology have been reviewed. The interrelationships and Characteristics of various fields of radiology such as computed tomography, X-ray radiology, and nuclear medicine were discussed. The mevit of computed tomography and the promising use of short lived, accelerator produced radionuclides, and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine were emphasized. (author)

  11. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  12. Medical radiology and population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Kendall, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Surveys of both the frequency of medical X-ray examinations and their associated gonadal doses in 1977 were performed in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain. The results indicated that 393 X-ray examinations per thousand of the population were performed over the year which represents an increase in the rate per thousand of 48% since 1957. This frequency level is lower than in most other industrialised countries. The frequency of radiological examinations per thousand was highest for old people. The frequency per thousand patients in their twenties had not changed significantly since 1957. A most important finding was the low reported frequency of the use of gonad shields. Gonadal doses were measured directly on 4565 patients undergoing 13 types of examination of the lower abdomen using lithium borate dosemeters. The mean ovarian dose of 1.6 cGy for barium enemas was > 3 times higher since 1957 due mainly to changes in techniques. Most of the other types of examination demonstrated either similar or reduced doses to those found in 1957. An enormous variability in gonadal doses delivered for the same type of examination was observed. This, together with the low usage of gonad shields, would suggest that some patients in the U.K. are receiving doses that are unnecessarily high. (U.K.)

  13. Lessons learned in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews aspects of the history of radiology with the goal of identifying lessons learned, particularly in the area of radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. It is pointed out that since the days of Roentgen there has been a need not only to control and quantify the amount of radiation reaching the patient but also to optimize the imaging process to offer the greatest diagnostic benefit within allowable levels of patient dose. To this end, in diagnostic radiology, one finds the development of better films, X rays tubes, grids, screens and processing techniques, while in fluoroscopy, one sees the increased luminance of calcium tungstate. In interventional radiology, one finds an improvement in catheterization techniques and contrast agents. In nuclear medicine, the development of tracer techniques into modern cameras and isotopes such as technetium can be followed. In radiotherapy, one sees the early superficial X rays and radium sources gradually replaced with radon seeds, supervoltage, 60 Co and today's linear accelerators. Along with the incredible advances in imaging and therapeutic technologies comes the growing realization of the potential danger of radiation and the need to protect the patient (as well as physicians, ancillary personnel and the general population) from unnecessary radiation. The important lesson learned is that we must walk a tightrope, balancing the benefits and risks of any technology utilizing radiation to produce the greatest benefits at the lowest acceptable risk. The alternative techniques using non-ionizing radiation will have to be considered as part of the general armamentarium for medical imaging whenever radiation consequences are unacceptable. (author)

  14. Radiological and radioisotope diagnosis of pericarditides in lymphogranulomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astanov, B M; Kuz' min, V P; Shapiro, I B; Romagin, V K [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-04-01

    The radiological and scintigraphic results of 52 patients suffering from granulomatosis and pericarditis, the latter as a consequence of radiotherapy in 30 cases, were compared. The radiological examination after application of an artificial pneumopericardium allows the interpretation of both the quantity of the exudate and the condition of epicardium and pericardium. Applying additional scintigraphic methods central hemodynamic parameter can be examined; thus in exsudative pericarditis s decrease of the cardiac output and of the cardiac index could be stated intensifying with increasing exsudation.

  15. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numberger, J.

    1982-01-01

    The general X-ray-symptoms follow one another or appear at the same time: Swelling of soft tissues by fungus; toxic perifocal and sometimes parafocal osteoporosis; osteolysis by specific granulation tissues; destruction of adjacent discs and articulation cartilages; formation of sequesters; cold abscess and formation of fistulas because of perforation of the corticalis by liquified tuberculous tissue; bone compression and deformation; amorphous calcifications; perifocal osteosclerosis as a repairing process. The spondylitis tuberculosis is the most frequent form with about 50%; usually narrowing of the discspace is the earliest X-ray-finding. On the second and third place follow the tuberculosis of the hip- and the knee-joint, the rest shows up at other locations of red bone marrow. Very often the perifocal osteoporosis is the earliest X-ray-symptom of joint tuberculosis. All X-ray-findings, even the earliest, in reality are late symptoms, because at that time the disease exists at least some months. Radiologically only the differential diagnosis can be made, final diagnosis is established by histologic examination only. Because the course of untreated skeletal tuberculosis usually is chronic and destructive and, on the other hand early antituberculous chemotherapy as well as surgical treatment show excellent results early radiological suggestion of tuberculosis is of great importance for initiating other diagnostic procedures to establish the diagnosis. (orig./MG) [de

  16. The radiological diagnosis of bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Since the definitive diagnosis of very many bone tumors is not only histological but also radiological it is important that the latter examination be of high quality. Prior to biopsy the differential diagnosis should be narrowed down as far as possible radiologically. The radiological procedures include conventional X-ray examination in two projections, tomography, angiography, and computerized tomography. Tomography can reveal the borders of the tumor and minute clacifications within the tumor. Angiography may show atypically vascularized areas and thus be helpful in choosing the best site for biopsy and in making a prognosis. It might reveal, for example, unusual vascularization or penetration of tumor into blood vessels. Computerized tomography allows precise delineation of the intraosseous and extraosseous borders of the tumor, and is particularly useful in this respect in regions in which angiography has its technical limitations, such as the pelvis and the spine. The radiological assessment of a tumor or tumor-like lesion should take account of the structural changes, the site of the lesion, and the age and sex of the patient. The report should include a statement about the malignancy of the lesion. (orig.) [de

  17. A study of professional competence for radiological technology department students in Taiwan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Kai-Yuan; Hsieh Bor-Tsung; Huang W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, so many medical institutions established and the increasing use of the high technological medical imaging equipment, it makes radiological technology become the main instrument for the medical diagnostic and radiation therapy. However, the medical radiological technologies play the important role to operate all the related radiological machines. If they do not use the machines adequately, it will increase the patients' radiation absorbed dose. Then, the whole society health may be influenced. Therefore, constructing the professional competence of the medical radiological technologists is an important course. The purpose of this research are: (1) to construct the index of professional competence with radiological technology students, (2) to discuss the professional competence for the graduates from the department of radiological technology to be the reference for the Ministry of Examination for the license test of radiological technologists, (3) to provide the direction of the radiological technology department development. (author)

  18. Radiology. Basic course 2. 4. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, A.; Steinhorst, M.

    1990-06-01

    The first part presents the subject catalogue in general radiology and a comprehensive refresher course. The main facts most frequently asked in examinations are dealt with in detail. The second part lists all important original questions from the field of general radiology, arranged by the chapters of the subject catalogue. For quick checking, correct answers are shown at the bottom of each page. The commentary presents a summary of examination problems, related subjects and problems, and hints referring to differential diagnostic aspects. The commentary part is followed by a reproduction of the original examination problems presented from March 1988 through August 1989, each collection of problems with a commentary. Students may test their state of knowledge by going through these collections of problems. There also is a collection of original images belonging to the questions. (orig./HP) With 40 figs [de

  19. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on

  20. Congenital hip dislocation: Radiological screening or diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Faure, C.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital hip dislocation is a perfect example of public health problems: its incidence is high 0.6, to 2% of newborns in France and an early detection allows an easy and successful treatment. The current situation in our country is not satisfactory for several reasons: - Too many children are treated without reasons because of misleading radiological pictures; - Conversely, some dislocations are discovered only at the walking age, the treatment becoming then more difficult and less effective; - Almost 300,000 radiological examinations of the hip for screening are performed each year and among them 100,000 in newborns. This is not satisfactory as it is commonly admitted now that radiological examination at birth is unreliable and frequently misleading. For all these reasons a special working group has been settled up by the General Direction of Health, including physicians of different practices, from different specialities. The conclusion of this group will be published in a special booklet and can be summarized as follows: The group recommends to perform detection of congenital hip dislocation mainly by the clinical examination. This examination may be difficult but it must be performed very early, the first day of life, repeated several times, at the end of the first week and during the first, second, and third month. Every baby in this country must undergo several clinical examinations up to one year of age

  1. Paediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric interventional radiology (PIR) is a rapidly-growing subspecialty, which offers a wide range of procedures applicable to almost all areas of hospital paediatrics. There are many important differences between paediatric and adult practice in interventional radiology, including disease processes and treatment goals, anatomical considerations, periprocedural patient management, radiation exposure optimisation and legal aspects. The use of retrievable or absorbable interventional devices such as stents will probably become more widespread in PIR practice. Recent advances in the technology of imaging equipment have been accompanied by an increase in the complexity of the work done by the radiographer. These developments present challenges and opportunities related to training and maintenance of skills, staffing arrangements, and the potential for advanced practice. It is likely that specialisation in PIR will become a more common role for radiographers in the future

  2. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  3. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Artificial intelligence in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Parmar, Chintan; Quackenbush, John; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-05-17

    Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics. In this Opinion article, we establish a general understanding of AI methods, particularly those pertaining to image-based tasks. We explore how these methods could impact multiple facets of radiology, with a general focus on applications in oncology, and demonstrate ways in which these methods are advancing the field. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing clinical implementation and provide our perspective on how the domain could be advanced.

  5. Radiological control implementation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamley, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A manual is being developed to explain to line managers how radiological controls are designed and implemented. The manual also fills a gap in the Health Physics literature between textbooks and on-the-floor procedures. It may be helpful to new Health Physicists with little practical experience and to those wishing to improve self-assessment, audit, and appraisal processes. Many audits, appraisals, and evaluations have indicated a need for cultural change, increased vigor and example, and more effective oversight by line management. Inadequate work controls are a frequent and recurring problem identified in occurrence reports and accident investigations. Closer study frequently indicates that many line managers are willing to change and want to achieve excellence, but no effective guidance exists that will enable them to understand and implement a modern radiological control program

  6. Management of Radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Gil, E.; San Nicolas, J.; Lazuen, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Spain has a system of planning and response to emergency situations that is structured and coordinated by the General Directorship of civil Defense of the Ministry of the Interior and in which all levels of the Public Administration. state, autonomous and municipal-and owners of potentially hazardous activities participate. Activities involving a nuclear or radiological risk have specific emergency plans whose general principles are based on the general emergency system and whose technical bases are consistent with international practices and recommendations. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear actively participates in the design, implementation and activation of these plans, and for this purpose has an organization superimposed on its ordinary working organization that is activated in the event of an accident, as well as an Emergency Room specifically designed to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies. (Author)

  7. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Digital radiology and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    1991-01-01

    With the access to digital methods for handling and processing images in general, many medical imaging methods are becoming more effectively handled digitally. This applies in particular to basically digital techniques such as CT and MR but also now includes Nuclear Medicine (NM), Ultrasound (US) and a variety of radiological procedures such as Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) and Fluoroscopy (DF). The access to conventional projection images by stimulatable plates (CR) or by digitization of film makes all of radiology potentially accessible, and the management of such images by a network is the basic aim of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). However, it is suggested that in order for such systems to be of greater value, that way in which such images are treated needs to change, that is, digital images can be used to derive additional clinical value by appropriate processing

  9. Data mining in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining

  10. Radiologic evaluation of chondromalacia patellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, F.; Nilsson, B.E

    1980-01-01

    In a series of patients in whom the patello-femoral joint has been examined by arthroscopy, in conjunction with arthrotomy or both, previously obtained films were reviewed. A series of radiologic morphometric measurements with bearing on the shape of the patella and the patello-femoral joint was carried out and compared between patients who had normal patello-femoral joints, patients with chondromalacia grade II or III and patients with chondromalacia grade IV or arthrosis. No difference between the three groups in any of the variables was found. However, a shallow excavation in the subchondral bone was observed in the lateral view of the patella in most of those patients with proven chondromalacia patellae. (Auth.)

  11. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  12. Radiologic features in histiocytosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Mo; Cho, Byung Jae; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1980-01-01

    Histiocytosis syndrome is not rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by development of granulomatous lesions with histiocytic proliferation. Authors analyzed 22 cases, which had been confirmed as histiocytosis syndrome from 1971 to Feb. 1980 with special attention to 15 cases showing positive findings on radiological examinations. The results are as follows. 1. Overall male to female ratio was about 2:1. The majority were between 1 and 7 years of age. 2. Skeletal system was involved in orders as follows: skull, pelvis, femur, rib, spine. 3. Four cases of pulmonary involvement were experienced. All cases had interstitial involvement with reticulonodular densities on roentgenograms. 4. We had experienced a pituitary tumor, presumably localized histiocytic mass, in a patient with diabetes insipidus. 5. In long bone involvement, diaphysis or metaphysis was usually involved, but in one patient, lesion were extended into epiphysis. 6. One case of platyspondyly was found, with symmetrical compression

  13. The radiological accident in Tbilisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramidze, S.; Katamadze, N.; Lomtadze, Z.; Crus Suarez, R.; Bilbao Alfonso, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    On 9 October 1997 a facsimile message was received by the IAEA from the Minister of Health of Georgia stating that servicemen of the Lilo Training Detachment of Frontier Troops had developed local radiation induced skin diseases on various parts of their bodies. Details were sent of the medical diagnoses of the nine victims together with information on the radiation sources and dose rates that had caused the exposures. The Georgian minister of Health requested the IAEA to assist in the examination and treatment of the patients. An investigation had revealed that several Cs-137, Co-60 radiation sources and some beta emitters had been found and that in some places high dose rates had been detected. The Government of Georgia requested the IAEA to send an emergency team to evaluate the radiological situation at the Lilo Training Center. The present paper is a summary of the finding and lessons to be learned from this situation. (author)

  14. Radiologic features in histiocytosis syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Mo; Cho, Byung Jae; Yeon, Kyung Mo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Histiocytosis syndrome is not rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by development of granulomatous lesions with histiocytic proliferation. Authors analyzed 22 cases, which had been confirmed as histiocytosis syndrome from 1971 to Feb. 1980 with special attention to 15 cases showing positive findings on radiological examinations. The results are as follows. 1. Overall male to female ratio was about 2:1. The majority were between 1 and 7 years of age. 2. Skeletal system was involved in orders as follows: skull, pelvis, femur, rib, spine. 3. Four cases of pulmonary involvement were experienced. All cases had interstitial involvement with reticulonodular densities on roentgenograms. 4. We had experienced a pituitary tumor, presumably localized histiocytic mass, in a patient with diabetes insipidus. 5. In long bone involvement, diaphysis or metaphysis was usually involved, but in one patient, lesion were extended into epiphysis. 6. One case of platyspondyly was found, with symmetrical compression.

  15. Radiological safety and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Kim, Ki Sub

    1995-01-01

    The practical objective of radiological safety control is intended for achievement and maintenance of appropreately safe condition in environmental control for activities involving exposure from the use of radiation. In order to establish these objectives, we should be to prevent deterministic effects and to limit the occurrence stochastic effects to level deemed to be acceptable by the application of general principles of radiation protection and systems of dose limitation based on ICRP recommendations. 34 tabs., 19 figs., 11 refs. (Author) .new

  16. "Patient care in radiology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro Brask, Kirsten; Birkelund, Regner

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to research how the staff experience care expressed during the brief encounter with the patients in a diagnostic imaging department. This was a qualitative study with a phenomenological and hermeneutical frame of reference. The data were collected using field observation...... was electronically forwarded. And, care expressed in between was perceived as care in the traditional sense and termed as “patient care in radiology.”...

  17. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Radiological containment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments

  19. Microcephaly: a radiological review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, Ailbhe; Garel, Catherine; Germanaud, David; Lenoir, Marion; Pointe, Hubert Ducou le [Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Radiology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Villemeur, Thierry Billette de; Mignot, Cyril [Universite Paris V Rene Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Paediatric Neurology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France)

    2009-08-15

    Microcephaly results from inadequate brain growth during development. It may develop in utero, and therefore be present at birth, or may develop later as a result of perinatal events or postnatal conditions. The aetiology of microcephaly may be congenital (secondary to cerebral malformations or metabolic abnormalities) or acquired, most frequently following an ischaemic insult. This distinct radiological and pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology. (orig.)

  20. Training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina G, E.

    2014-08-01

    In the Peru, according to the current regulations, people that work with ionizing radiations should have an authorization (individual license), which is granted by the Technical Office of the National Authority that is the technical body of the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) manager of the control of ionizing radiations in the country. The individual license is obtained after the applicant fulfills the requested requirements, as having safety knowledge and radiological protection. Since its founding in 1972, the Centro Superior de Estudios Nucleares (CSEN) of the IPEN has carried out diverse training courses in order to that people can work in a safe way with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and research, until the year 2013 have been organized 2231 courses that have allowed the training of 26213 people. The courses are organized according to the specific work that is carried out with radiations (medical radio-diagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear meters, logging while drilling, etc.). In their majority the courses are directed to people that will make use of radiations for first time, but refresher courses are also granted in the topic. The CSEN also carries out the Master degree programs highlighting the Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection carried out from the year 2004 with the support of the National University of Engineering. To the present has been carried out 2 programs and there is other being developed. In this work is shown the historical evolution of the radiological protection courses as well as the important thing that they are to work in a safe way in the country. (Author)

  1. Radiological safety and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sea Young; Yoo, Y S; Lee, J C; Lee, T Y; Lee, J L; Kim, B W; Lee, B J; Chung, K K; Chung, R I; Kim, J S; Lee, H S; Han, Y D; Lee, J I; Lee, K C; Yoon, J H; Sul, C W; Kim, C K; Yoon, K S; Seo, K W; Yoon, Y C [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program of 1995. This program consists of working area monitoring including HANARO, personnel radiation monitoring, education for radiation protection. As a result, the objectives of radiation protection have been achieved satisfactorily through the activities mentioned above. Also, the calibration services were provided to insure accurate radiation measurement in the radiation working places. 21 figs., 39 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new.

  2. Radiological physics in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstam, Rune

    1980-01-01

    Development of radiological or radiation physics as a separate discipline in Sweden is outlined. Growth in number of hospital physicists is compared with that of some other countries for the period 1950-1975. The main duties of hospital physicists are described. Undergraduate and postgraduate courses in radiation physics in Sweden are discussed. A microtron and a multi-source cobalt-60 unit are described. (M.G.B.)

  3. Computer-assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, H.U.

    1988-01-01

    New digital imaging modalities and more sophisticated image processing systems will have a profound effect on those areas of medicine concerned with imaging. This mainly means computer-assisted radiology (CAR) and implies a transition from analog film systems to digital imaging systems, integration of digital imaging modalities through picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the graduated employment of image-oriented medical work stations (MWS) for computer-assisted representation, communication, diagnosis, and therapy planning. (orig.) [de

  4. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1978-04-01

    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  5. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  6. Radiological findings in angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, B. [Univ. of Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases; Kahle, G. [Univ. of Marburg, (Germany). Inst.of Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Surgery after pre-operative embolization has become the main treatment modality in angiofibroma therapy. As surgical planning is based on precise pre-operative tumour evaluation, knowledge of the characteristic growth patterns is of great interest. Analysis of tumour extension and blood supply, as well as methods of controlling intra-operative bleeding, help in determining the appropriate surgical approach. Though benign, angiofibroma demonstrates a locally aggressive nature. This fibrovascular tumour is characterised by typical radiological findings and by predictable growth patterns. The tumour extension and blood supply can be accurately determined by CT, MR imaging and angiography. With classic radiological findings, no pre-operative biopsy is necessary in most angiofibromas. Advances in radiological imaging have contributed to improved surgical planning and tumour resection. The surgeon is able to select the least traumatic approach with secure haemostatic control, which is also critical for avoiding the disturbance of facial skeletal growth in this group of young patients. Embolization, pre-operative autologous donation and the cell saver system for immediate retransfusion of the collected blood after filtration, are important tools for dealing with blood loss in angiofibroma surgery as they minimize homologous blood transfusion.

  7. Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.; Marino, S.A.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Hall, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which can be used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology and radiological physics. It is part of the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL), and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy. RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, with priorities based on the recommendations of a Scientific Advisory Committee. Facilities and services are provided to users, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This chapter presents a brief description of current experiments being carried out at RARAF and of the operation of the Facility from January through June, 1986. Operation of the Facility for all of 1985 was described in the 1985 Progress Report for RARAF. The experiments described here were supported by various Grants and Contracts from NIH and DOE and by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut of Sweden

  8. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  9. Radiological manifestations of melioidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.S.; Chong, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis is a serious infection that is associated with high mortality. It is due to a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei which is an environmental saprophyte found in wet soils. Melioidosis is endemic to northern Australia and the Southeast Asia. However, there is now increasing number of reports of imported cases to regions where this infection has not been previously encountered. Almost any organ can be affected. Like many other conditions, radiological imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic workup of melioidosis. Awareness of the various radiological manifestations can help direct appropriate investigations to achieve early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Generally, there are no known characteristic features on imaging that can specifically differentiate melioidosis from other infections. However, the 'honeycomb' appearance has been described to be characteristic for large melioidosis liver abscesses. Simultaneous involvement of various organs is also characteristics. To date, there are few data available on the radiological manifestations of melioidosis. The present pictorial essay describes melioidosis affecting the various organs.

  10. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: X-ray examinations remain an essential and widely used diagnostic tool in medicine and hence the most significant source of exposure to man-made radiation for populations. Patterns of practice in diagnostic radiology continue to evolve, with overall growth in the numbers of procedures worldwide and, particularly in developed countries, increasing importance for complex procedures such as computed tomography (CT) and interventional techniques. In order to maximise the benefits from x-rays relative to the associated radiation risks, there is a need to ensure the prior justification of all examinations and the optimisation of patient protection such that doses are as low as reasonably practicable to meet specific clinical requirements. Accordingly, patient dosimetry is a fundamental requirement in diagnostic radiology. Detailed measurements for the assessment of risks or comparison of different types of procedure require the estimation of organ and effective doses. Such comprehensive dosimetry necessarily involves the simulation of clinical practice using anthropomorphic phantoms, with either measurements in a physical phantom or calculations utilising a mathematical phantom. Simpler measurements for the routine monitoring of dose in x-ray departments can be based on practical quantities such as entrance surface dose, dose-area product and, for CT, weighted CT dose index and dose-length product. Widescale surveys reveal significant variations between departments in the typical doses for a given type of procedure and potential scope for dose reductions. In order to promote improvements in practice, the results of periodic dose surveys in departments should be compared with appropriate standards, such as diagnostic reference levels for adult and paediatric patients, that are set nationally or locally for the purposes of promoting critical review of the equipment and techniques in use. Patient dosimetry should form an essential element of routine quality

  11. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciraj-Bjelac Olivera F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to assess patient organ doses, effective doses and entrance surface doses in conventional diagnostic radiology procedures for standard adult patient. The survey consists of measurements of doses delivered to 239 patients in nine types of X-ray examinations. Three types of data were collected: X-ray machine data, patient data, and output measurements. Entrance surface dose was assessed based on the survey data and subsequently, using conversion coefficients, the organ doses and effective doses were calculated. Values of the entrance surface dose and the effective dose were estimated to be 0.4 to 5.8 mGy and 0.03 to 3.00 mSv for different examinations. Derived doses were compared with recommended general diagnostic reference levels. The impact of examination parameters on dose values was discussed. Except for posterior-anterior chest examination, all estimated doses are lower than stated reference levels. Survey data are aimed at helping development of national quality control and radiation protection programmed for medical exposures.

  12. Radiological diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamisch, T.C.; Werlen, S.; Trattnig, S.; Zilkens, C.; Kim, Y.J.; Siebenrock, K.A.; Bittersohl, B.

    2009-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingements (FAI) are due to an anatomical disproportion between the proximal femur and the acetabulum which causes premature wear of the joint surfaces. An operation is often necessary in order to relieve symptoms such as limited movement and pain as well as to prevent or slow down the degenerative process. The result is dependent on the preoperative status of the joint with poor results for advanced arthritis of the hip joint. This explains the necessity for an accurate diagnosis in order to recognize early stages of damage to the joint. The diagnosis of FAI includes clinical examination, X-ray examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The standard X-radiological examination for FAI is carried out using two X-ray images, an anterior-posterior view of the pelvis and a lateral view of the proximal femur, such as the cross-table lateral or Lauenstein projections. It is necessary that positioning criteria are adhered to in order to avoid distortion artifacts. MRI permits an examination of the pelvis on three levels and should also include radial planned sequences for improved representation of peripheral structures, such as the labrum and peripheral cartilage. The use of contrast medium for a direct MR arthrogram has proved to be advantageous particularly for representation of labrum damage. The data with respect to cartilage imaging are still unclear. Further developments in technology, such as biochemical-sensitive MRI applications, will be able to improve the diagnosis of the pelvis in the near future. (orig.) [de

  13. National examination of Brazilian residents and specialization trainees in radiology and diagnostic imaging: a tool for evaluating the qualifications of future radiologists Prova Nacional dos Residentes e Especializandos em Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem no Brasil: instrumento de avaliação da qualificação do futuro radiologista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This is a study of performance based on an In-training Examination for Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging targeting residents (R and specialization trainees (ST in Radiology. The radiological training may differ between R and ST in some centers. The authors present their experience and thoughts regarding the first three years of application of the In-training Examination administered by The Brazilian College of Radiology. METHODS: Three hundred and eight-six tests were analyzed in 1999, 715 in 2000, and 731 in 2001. The yearly tests consisted of multiple-choice answers, some with interpretation of digital images, and were divided into 9 specialties: neurology, thorax, physics, pediatrics, digestive system, urinary system, musculoskeletal system, mammography, and gynecology-obstetrics. Each specialty was analyzed separately. The tests were given simultaneously in 12 Brazilian cities. The subspecialty scores of examinees at different stages of training were compared (1st, 2nd, and 3rd year residents and specialization trainees, by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P0.05. Generally, in 2000 and 2001, R achieved higher scores than ST (POBJETIVO: Estudo comparativo entre o desempenho dos residentes e especializandos em radiologia por meio da Prova Nacional dos Residentes e Especializandos em Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem (PNRERADI, durante os três primeiros anos de sua aplicação. O ensino nos centros de formação em radiodiagnóstico pode diferir entre residentes e especializandos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 386 provas em 1999, 715 em 2000 e 731 em 2001. As provas foram divididas em nove subespecialidades: neurologia, tórax, digestivo, física, pediatria, urinário, músculo-esquelético, mamografia e ginecologia-obstetrícia, cada uma delas avaliada separadamente, constando de testes de múltipla escolha, algumas com interpretação de imagens digitalizadas. As provas foram aplicadas simultaneamente em 12 cidades distribuídas no territ

  14. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology. Image quality - radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Stieve, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The publication contains the 37 lectures of the symposium on digital imaging in diagnostic radiology, held in November 1995 at Kloster Seeon, as well as contributions enhancing the information presented in the lectures. The publication reflects the state of the art in this subject field, discusses future trends and gives recommendations and information relating to current practice in radiology. In-depth information is given about R and D activities for the digitalisation of X-ray pictures and the image quality required to meet the purposes of modern diagnostics. Further aspects encompass radiological protection and dose optimization as well as optimization of examination methods. (vhe) [de

  15. Evaluation criteria for emergency response plans in radiological transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of general criteria which can be used as guides for evaluating emergency response plans prepared in connection with the transportation of radiological materials. The development of criteria takes the form of examining the meaning and role of emergency plans in general, reviewing the process as it is used in connection with natural disasters and other nonnuclear disasters, and explicitly considering unique aspects of the radiological transportation setting. Eight areas of critical importance for such response plans are isolated: notification procedures; accident assessment; public information; protection of the public at risk; other protective responses; radiological exposure control; responsibility for planning and operations; and emergency response training and exercises. (Auth.)

  16. Radiology and the cancer services collaborative - an opportunity awaits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, C.J.; Seymour, R.; Wright, L.

    2003-01-01

    The principles and methodologies used by the Cancer Services Collaborative (CSC) are particularly relevant for radiology departments. A radiology project looking at the provision of barium enema examinations is used to highlight how the principles can be applied to a radiology department. Advice on how to access available CSC literature is offered. The CSC principles and methodologies are an important part of the NHS modernization agenda, and offer an exciting vehicle to improve patient care. It is important that radiologists understand the opportunities offered and the challenges posed by the modernization agenda

  17. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  18. Quality assurance program in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Borges, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Aiming to elaborate a methodology to optimize the performance of the Radiology Service of the Military Police Hospital, in Rio dee Janeiro, some goals were established: improvement of the attendance to patients; improvement of the qualification of technicians; achievement and maintenance of high degrees of quality in each step of the radiological process; improvement of the image quality; optimization of dose per examination and cost reduction. The procedure used to detect faults in the radiological process was the analysis of causes of film losses. Results show a 70% reduction in the film rejection rate. 74% of total identified faults were due to equipment, 11% to films, 10% to patients and 5% to developing. The reduction in the cost of developed film reached 75%. A training course given to the staff of the radiological service fully reached its goals, contributing, with the staff motivation, mostly to the success of the program. This success indicates that, with a serious persistent work, it is possible to offer to patients services within their expectations, even at a public hospital. Such programs should be supported by health authorities, not only due to their technical and economic needs but, mostly, due to their social implications. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  19. The colon. Clinical radiology and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbusch, G.; Reeders, J.W.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    This comprehensive reference work presents in-depth information on the diagnostic radiology and endoscopy of the colon. After a brief review of the history of colon examinations, two chapters explain the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine as well as the methods and techniques applied for radiological examination of the colon. The pathology and characteristical findings and the diagnostic evaluation of the various types of disease are the main subject, with the chapters discussing inflammations and tumors consuming by far most of the space, but there is also valuable information on vascular lesions, traumata, latrogenous or post-surgery lesions, among others, and on the characteristical findings in children. Numerous tables, radiographs and endoscopic images together with drawings illustrate and accompany the textbook information. (orig.). 492 figs., 95 tabs [de

  20. Radiologic aspects of epiphysial dysplasia in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, V.F. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    The results of radiologic examination of 40 patients aged 15 to 64 years with epiphysial (spondyloepiphysial) displasia, adequate in manifestness to developmental anomaly are analyzed. The radiologic examination involved standard radiographs in standard and atypical projections, radiography with direct enlargement of X-ray appearance, and tomography. Various types of epiphysial deformation have been distinguished as a manifest feature of the above-mentioned dysplastic process. Possible combinations of the tubular bones epiphysial hypoplasia with the damage of other articular components are pointed out. Concomitant degenerative-dystrophic processes are characterized as deforming arthrosis, degenerative-dystrophic lesions with cystoid reconstruction of the articulating bones, and aseptic epiphysial necrosis. X-ray picture of the degenerative-dystrophic lesion with cystoid reconstruction of the hinging bones is disclosed most comprehensively.

  1. Radiologic aspects of epiphysial dysplasia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, V.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results of radiologic examination of 40 patients aged 15 to 64 years with epiphysial (spondyloepiphysial) displasia, adequate in manifestness to developmental anomaly are analyzed. The radiologic examination involved standard radiographs in standard and atypical projections, radiography with direct enlargement of X-ray appearance, and tomography. Various types of epiphysial deformation have been distinguished as a manifest feature of the above-mentioned dysplastic process. Possible combinations of the tubular bones epiphysial hypoplasia with the damage of other articular components are pointed out. Concomitant degenerative-dystrophic processes are characterized as deforming arthrosis, degenerative-dystrophic lesions with cystoid reconstruction of the articulating bones, and aseptic epiphysial necrosis. X-ray picture of the degenerative-dystrophic lesion with cystoid reconstruction of the hinging bones is disclosed most comprehensively

  2. Continuing training in radiological protection as an effective means of avoiding radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Martins, G.; Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    it is notorious that one of the main causes of radiological accidents is the lack of knowledge of radiological protection of workers. In order to meet the needs of professionals in acquiring a solid base in radiological protection and safety, was created in 2013, by the Casa Branca School / SP and technically supported by the company MAXIM Cursos, the 'Post-Graduation Course Lato Sensu de Radiological Protection in Medical, Industrial and Nuclear Applications', which offers a broad improvement in radiation protection. The course of 380 hours and duration of 18 months is divided into 13 modules, including theoretical classes, in person and online using the virtual classroom and practical training in radiation protection in general. In the end students should present a monograph, guided by a course teacher and reviewed by an Examining Bank. Five classes have been formed in these four years, totaling 92 students. In all, 51 monographs have been defended on topics of technical and scientific interest. For this, the Faculty consists of 25 professors, being 9 Doctors, 13 Masters and 3 Specialists in Radiological Protection

  3. Health surveillance of radiological work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauw, H.; Vliet, J.V.D.; Zuidema, H.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding x-ray devices and issuing film badges to radiological workers in 1936 can be considered the start of radiological protection in the Philips enterprises in the Netherlands. Shielding and equipment were constantly improved based upon the dosimetry results of the filmbadges. The problem of radioactive waste led to the foundation of a central Philips committee for radiological protection in 1956, which in 1960 also issued an internal license system in order to regulate the proper precautions to be taken : workplace design and layout, technological provisions and working procedures. An evaluation of all radiological work in 1971 learnt that a stricter health surveillance program was needed to follow up the precautions issued by the license. On one hand a health surveillance program was established and on the other hand all types of radiological work were classified. In this way an obligatory and optimal health surveillance program was issued for each type of radiological work

  4. Pediatric radiology in oto-rhino-laryngology

    OpenAIRE

    von Kalle, T; Koitschev, A

    2014-01-01

    [english] Head and neck diseases in children and adolescents present special diagnostic and differential diagnostic challenges to ENT surgeons as well as to radiologists. Both disciplines have to adapt the latest radiological and interventional technologies to the needs of the pediatric patient in order to enable a minimally invasive but successful diagnostic procedure.High quality sonography by an experienced examiner is often the only imaging technique that is necessary in children and adol...

  5. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.D. Jr.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph on digital imaging provides a basic overview of this field at the present time. This paper covers clinical application, including subtraction angiography; chest radiology; genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and breast radiology; and teleradiology. The chest section also includes an explanation of multiple beam equalization radiography. The remaining chapters discuss some of the technical aspects of digital radiology. It includes the basic technology of digital radiography, image compression, and reconstruction information on the economics of digital radiography

  6. Radiological aspects of Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Robert; Booth, Tom; Hargunani, Rikin; Wylie, Peter; Holloway, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Advances in imaging and the development of commercially available enzyme therapy have significantly altered the traditional radiology of Gaucher disease. The cost of treatment and need for monitoring response to therapy have magnified the importance of imaging. There are no recent comprehensive reviews of the radiology of this relatively common lysosomal storage disease. This article describes the modern imaging, techniques and radiological manifestations of Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  7. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The present guide endeavours to provide an outline of the type of quality assurance programme to be recommended for (1) routine implementation by those performing radiodiagnostic procedures (medical radiology technicians, medical physicists, and radiologists), (2) for application by the responsible national authorities, and (3) for use by international bodies such as the International Society of Radiology (ISR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)

  8. Interventional radiology and undesirable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.

    2009-01-01

    As some procedures of interventional radiology are complex and long, doses received by patients can be high and cause undesired effects, notably on the skin or in underlying tissues (particularly in the brain as far as interventional neuroradiology is concerned and in lungs in the case of interventional cardiology). The author briefly discusses some deterministic effects in interventional radiology (influence of dose level, delay of appearance of effects, number of accidents). He briefly comments the diagnosis and treatment of severe radiological burns

  9. Radiological aspects of Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Robert; Booth, Tom; Hargunani, Rikin; Wylie, Peter; Holloway, Brian [Royal Free Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Advances in imaging and the development of commercially available enzyme therapy have significantly altered the traditional radiology of Gaucher disease. The cost of treatment and need for monitoring response to therapy have magnified the importance of imaging. There are no recent comprehensive reviews of the radiology of this relatively common lysosomal storage disease. This article describes the modern imaging, techniques and radiological manifestations of Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  10. Radiological protection report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Two years after the massive release of radiation from the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the repercussions continue to preoccupy the radiological and emergency protection community, both in Switzerland and internationally. In Switzerland the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has initiated measures as part of the European Union Stress Tests and has its own Fukushima Action Plan. In this Annual Report, ENSI focuses on radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities. The average individual dose has changed little compared with previous years. At 0.7 mSv, it is significantly below the limit both for persons exposed to radiation during their work (20 mSv) and the annual average rate of exposure for the population in Switzerland as a whole (5.5 mSv). In terms of collective doses, the extensive maintenance work at the Leibstadt power plant (KKL) resulted in a doubling of rates compared with recent years. However, in the remaining nuclear facilities the rates have not changed significantly. The highest individual dose during the year under review was 13 mSv. Exposure rates in 2012 for all those exposed to radiation during work in facilities subject to ENSI surveillance were below the maximum limit. Greater attention is now being given to work in high and variable radiation fields and in difficult conditions. Swiss nuclear facilities continue to operate a consistent radiological protection approach. Measuring equipment plays an important role in radiological protection. Having conducted a range of inspections and comparative measurements of aerosol-iodine filters and waste water sampling together with measurements in the field of personal dosimetry, ENSI has concluded that the required measuring equipment for radiological protection exists, that this equipment is correctly used and provides reliable data. ENSI maintains a test laboratory that analyses samples from nuclear facilities and their immediate vicinity and also conducts field

  11. Guidance levels for diagnostic radiology in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Over two decades surveys of radiological practice in Romania have demonstrated wide variations in patient dose levels between different hospitals. Local and national investigations revealed poor performances as well as of radiological equipment, darkroom procedure or technology of investigation. Hitherto, the annual collective effective dose to the population of Romania from diagnostic medical exposures attained a value of 13,820 manSv. Since the annual frequencies of radiological examinations remain unchanged over last ten years, this value is mostly attributed to the individual dose levels in different X-ray procedures. Notwithstanding the huge benefits to patients, the reduction of unnecessary exposures and individual doses are our principal concern and the establishment of national reference dose levels should solve this problem. British experience demonstrated that reference doses are a practical tool in this purpose and the adoption of national reference dose values indicated an overall improvement in patient exposure. Even the local of reference dose values proved a useful way to achieve patient dose reduction. In meantime the optimization of patient protection, each X-ray examination should be conducted with lowest necessary dose to achieve the clinical aim. This paper presents the first approach to establish local reference dose levels for some diagnostic examinations based on the measurements made in six (from the eighth of Eastern territory of Romania) districts, invited to cooperate in this end

  12. Radiology textbook for dental chair assistants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diewald, H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the goals of the X-ray Ordinance (of January 8, 1987) being to protect individuals or the population at large against the harmful effects of X-rays, every dentist using X-ray equipment in his practice has to acquire the necessary expert knowledge in radiation protection. The same applies to dental chair assistants, who under permanent supervision of the responsible dentist, carry out radiological examinations. Assistants have to give proof of the necessary training in radiation protection in connection with the methods and equipment applied in the practice. The training consists of a theoretical and practical part tailored to the assistants' practical work, and lectures on radiological hazards and the relevant radiation protection measures. The subject matters of the courses in radiation protection are defined by the X-ray Ordinance, as well as the examination. The author of this textbook has collected a list of examination questions and problems taken from the practice. They completely cover the various subject matters of dental radiology so that the required knowledge can be acquired, which will ensure in practice good image quality and optimal radiation protection. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  14. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  15. Educational course in emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Stoeva, M.; Cvetkova, S.; Hilendarov, A.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency radiology is the part of radiology primarily focused on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. This advanced area of radiology improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole. The educational course in Emergency (ER) Radiology is available for medical students in their 8th and 9th semester. The main objective of the ER course is to obtain knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. The curriculum of the course consists of 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. (authors)

  16. Radiological diagnostics of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.A.; Essig, M.; Kauczor, H.U.

    2007-01-01

    Muscular diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases with difficult differential diagnosis. This article reviews morphological and functional radiological techniques for assessment of muscular diseases. Morphological techniques can describe edema-like changes, lipomatous and atrophic changes of muscular tissue. However, these imaging signs are often not disease-specific. As a result, clinicians assign radiology a secondary role in the management of muscular diseases. Meanwhile, functional radiological techniques allow the assessment of muscle fiber architecture, skeletal muscle perfusion, myocellular sodium-homoeostasis, lipid- and energy-phosphate metabolism, etc. By detecting and spatially localizing pathophysiological phenomena, these new techniques can increase the role of radiology in muscular diseases. (orig.)

  17. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Fifteen different experiments were run during these 12 months, approximately the same as the previous two years. Brief summaries of each experiment are included. Accelerator usage is summarized and development activities are discussed. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  19. Strategic thinking for radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    We have now analyzed the use and benefits of four Strategic Thinking Tools for Radiology: the Vision Statement, the High Five, the Two-by-Two, and Real-Win-Worth. Additional tools will be provided during the tutorial. The tools provided above should be considered as examples. They all contain the 10 benefits outlined earlier to varying degrees. It is extremely important that the tools be used in a manner consistent with the Vision Statement of the organization. The specific situation, the eff...

  20. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  1. Radiological findings after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedl, P.; Polterauer, P.; Funovics, J.

    1980-06-01

    In 63 patients after total gastrectomy and reconstruction of the small bowel described by Beal-Longmire, Roux and Tomoda radiological findings were correlated with clinical symptoms. No correlation could be found between clinical symptoms of dumping and oesophagitis caused by reflux on one side and increased length of intestinal transit time, increased diameter of intestinal loops and gastro-oesophageal reflux on the other side. Enlarged blind loops after termino-lateral oesophago-jejunostomy and insufficient ligations (operation technique by Tomoda) were correlated with higher incidence of pains. Patients operated by the method of Beal-Longmire and Roux showed better results than those operated with the method of Tomoda.

  2. Mortal radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Several severe radiological emergencies were reviewed to determine the likely range of conditions which must be coped with by a mobile teleoperator designed for emergencies. The events reviewed included accidents at TMI (1978), SL-1 (1961), Y-12 (1958), Bethesda (1982), Chalk River (1952 and 1958), Lucens (1969). The important conditions were: radiation fields over 10,000 R/h, severe contamination, possible critical excursion, possible inert atmosphere, temperatures from 50 0 C to -20 0 C, 100% relative humidity, 60-cm-high obstacles, stairs, airlocks, darkness, and lack of electric power

  4. Improvements in radiological apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in radiological apparatus are described which allow better unilateral access to the patient. A base mounts ring supports for rotation about an axis and a table for supporting a subject is fitted to the ring support. An X-ray tube and receptor are held on opposite ends of a two-limbed carriage and radiation axis. The carriage is mounted on a sliding arm carried on the ring support and extending parallel to the rotational axis of the support. The carriage also pivots on the arm about an axis perpendicular to the rotational axis and to the radiation axis. (author)

  5. Radiological evaluation of chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, T.M.; Hawkins, I.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Eleven new and six recurrent chondroblastomas were studied with multiple radiological imaging methods (plain radiography, conventional tomography, computed tomography, radionuclide bone scanning, and angiography). When the plain radiographic appearance was typical, conventional tomography or computed tomography (CT) was helpful, but other studies were not. Periosteal reaction and angiographic hypervascularity were common and did not indicate cortical breakthrough. For large, aggressive, or atypical lesions, conventional tomography and CT were helpful in delineating anatomic extent, and angiography was of value in demonstrating major vessel displacement. Radionuclide bone scanning was not useful.

  6. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP and signi...... is cyclic: exacerbations relieved by asymptomatic periods. New imaging modalities, including the combination of MR imaging and multiplanar 3-D CT scans, have broadened our awareness of possible pain-generating degenerative processes of the lumbar spine other than disc degeneration....

  7. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  8. Radiology of syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taybi, H.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of 20 years, the author has investigated the radiological aspects of many different syndromes. 541 of them are listed in this book, together with their typical X-ray pictures. Congenital deformities, genetic diseases, and acquired diseases with typical combinations of sigs and symptoms are presented with information on how to identify them. Clinical manifestations are briefly characterized, and hereditary aspects are mentioned. Pathological characteristics and names of the syndromes are presented. A bibliography is given for every syndrome for those who intend to deepen their knowledge. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Angiography and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The decrease in angiographic procedures as a result of less invasive imaging modalities has been counterbalanced by the rise in interventional radiological techniques. Because the interventional radiologist behaves somewhat like a surgeon, his legal responsibilities also approach those of his surgical colleagues. The basic concerns of negligent malpractice are amplified by the issues of informed consent and vicarious liability. Also, damages resulting from these procedures are costly because of the severity of the injuries. The angiographer must become versed in medicolegal issues of this rapidly evolving specialty

  10. Radiological aspects of Arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Sara Eugenia; Barragan, John Henry; Narvaez, Jorge Andres

    2008-01-01

    The development of new surgical techniques, of new prosthetic materials, and the increase in life expectancy with greater coverage of health services has ugmented the performance of hip replacements in our country. The radiologist should be familiar with the different surgical techniques and prosthetic devices, the evaluation of its components and associated complications. The most frequently performed arthroplasties are: shoulder, elbow, hip and knee replacement. This article reviews the most frequent prosthetic devices used, the radiological aspects of arthroplasties and their most common complications.

  11. Radiological diagnosis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.H.W.

    1990-01-01

    The roentgen-morphologic findings of 'osteoporosis' in the different regions of the skeleton are demonstrated. A combination of osteoporosis and osteomalacia induced by hormonal and metabolic bone diseases occur frequently. The results of sequential studies are discussed. Diagnostic informations obtained by quantitative radiology, especially by different methods like x-ray morphometry, densitometry with gamma-rays of isotopes of different energies, quantitative computed tomography, and imaging analysis with electronic methods are described. The sequential use of diagnostic imaging techniques in cases of suspected osteoporosis are explained. (Author)

  12. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 251 original questions and answers, including comments and an appendix on clinical radiology. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (HP) [de

  13. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  14. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: the clinical and radiological manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Weidong; Zhao Rongguo; Qin Mingwei; Xue Huadan; Liang Jixiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical and radiological features of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), and to deepen the understanding of this unusual disease and improve the diagnostic level at the early stage. Methods: Fourteen cases (10 males and 4 females, mean age 45.8 years) of pathologically diagnosed RPF from January 1990 to June 2004 were summarized. The clinical and radiological performance of the cases were analyzed. All patients received non-contrast CT scanning, 10 of them underwent enhanced CT scanning as well. 8 patients received MRI, 10 patients received IVP examination, and 11 received B-ultrasound. Results: (1) The very first symptoms usually included back pain, bellyache (10 cases), or urinary tract obstruction (3 cases), with increase of ESR, IgG, CRP value and abnormal renal function. (2) The result of radiological examination showed that 11 lesions of the 14 cases located at retroperitoneum. Ten cases were mass type and 4 cases were diffuse type. Non-contrast CT scanning revealed soft tissue mass at retroperitoneum with in homogenous or homogenous density. After contrast medium injection the lesions were enhanced with different extent. MRI results showed that the lesions presented low signal in T 1 WI, while in T 2 WI the signals had no obvious coherence but were different from one case to another. Conclusion: Radiological examination is one of the important methods for diagnosis of RPF. Based on the different characteristics of RPF in CT and MRI, together with the clinical findings, we will get valuable references for staging and follow-up of RPF. (authors)

  15. Radiological evaluation of swallowing and clinical patterns of systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesi, A.; Pesaresi, A.; Cavalli, M.L.; Serri, L.; Salmistraro, D.; Candela, M.; Gabrielli, A.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) were studied by means of videofluoroscopy in order to evaluate the abnormalities in the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition and to correlate the radiological patterns with the clinical features of the disease. Thirteen patients (25.5%) exhibited swallowing disorders such as oral leakage, retention, penetration, mild or moderate aspiration and abnormal upper esophageal sphincter behavior. These dysfunctions were more evident in patients with esophageal motility abnormalities. A normal radiological pattern in the esophagus was not associated with swallowing alterations. Remarkably, patients with oral-pharyngeal disorders had a higher incidence of lung diseases. Forty-five patients (88%) exhibited disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition, such as mild or severe motility abnormalities or hiatal hernia, gastro-esophageal reflux, reflux esophagitis, and stricture. Radiological findings in the esophagus can be abnormal in the early stages of the disease. On the other hand, the radiological pattern of esophageal motility can be occasionally negative in advanced or extensive disease. This indicates a discrepancy between clinical symptoms and radiological picture of the esophagus. The radiological examination of the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition is important in patients with scleroderma in order to evaluate visceral involvement, motility disorders, and risk of aspiration. Such radiological information can be useful in preventing esophagitis and pulmonary complications

  16. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    Radiological interventions possess wide utilization in the diagnosis and treatment for pediatric patients. Pediatric interventional radiology is an important branch of interventional radiology and also an important branch of pediatric radiology. Pediatric interventional radiology has grown substantially over the last 30 years, radiologists closely cooperation with surgeons and other physicians providing a new horizon in the management of pediatric diseases in western countries. It includes pediatric cardiac interventional radiology, pediatric neuro-interventional radiology, pediatric vascular interventional radiology, pediatric nonvascular interventional radiology, pediatric tumor interventional radiology and others. In the United States, every children hospital which owns two hundred beds has to have special trained interventional radiologists in radiologic department installing with advanced digital subtraction angiographic equipment. Interventional therapeutic procedures and diagnostic angiography have been proceeding more and more for the congenital and acquired diseases of children. The promising results give use uprising and interventional therapy as an alternative or a replacement or supplement to surgical operation. Pediatric interventional radiology is rather underdeveloped in China with a few special pediatric interventional radiologist, lack of digital subtraction angiography equipment. Pediatric radiologists have no enough field for interventional procedures such as pediatric neuro-interventional radiology and pediatric vascular interventional radiology. In the contrary adult interventional radiologists do have better interventional jobs in China and Pediatric cardiologists also share the same trend. They perform angiocardiography for congenital heart diseases and treat congenital heart disease with interventional procedures including balloon dilation of valves and vessels, coil embolization of collaterals, patent ducts and other arterial fistulae

  17. Radiology of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, F.; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.

    2001-01-01

    The spleen is generally not considered a challenge to the radiologist. Most often it poses a problem by anomalies or an irregular but normal contrast enhancement; however, a variety of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases may involve the spleen. CT and ultrasonography are screening modalities for the spleen. For problem solving, MR imaging can be helpful, especially due to its free choice of the imaging plane and because of the high resolution in contrast MR imaging. Splenic angiography as a diagnostic tool has generally been replaced by CT, ultrasound, or MR and is now used as an interventional method, e.g., in non-surgical management of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia or in patients with splenic trauma. This article reviews the radiology of the spleen, including anatomy, embryology, splenomegaly, splenic injury, infarction, cysts, tumors, abscesses, sarcoidosis, and AIDS. Knowledge about the use of different imaging modalities and underlying gross and microscopic pathologic features leads to a better understanding of the radiologic findings. (orig.)

  18. Bookshelf on radiological health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, H.G.; Moss, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    This bookshelf is an attempt to list, categorize, and present details on the many varied sources of information available to personnel working in the field of radiological health. This particular bookshelf will not cover those sources listed in a previous publication (Bureau of Radiological Health Training Publication TP-198), but will concentrate on those sources published or revised after 1965. It is hoped that this bookshelf will help schools, public health officials, teachers, students, and others in updating their existing sources of information. It is obvious that any such attempt at developing a master list of this type has to contain only representative sources of information. The authors invite readers to inform them of any omissions or errors. Finally, this bookshelf attempts, where applicable, to restrict the number of sources to those more associated with public health aspects. The bookshelf is divided into four main sections. They are textbooks, current literature, training and educational materials, and other sources. Each one of these sections is further stratified into additional details

  19. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  20. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.