WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiological dose estimates

  1. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from radiological examinations in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontar, Dejan; Zdesar, Urban; Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Pekarovic, Dean; Skrk, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate population exposure from diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures in Slovenia. Methods The study was conducted in scope of the “Dose Datamed 2” project. A standard methodology based on 20 selected radiological procedures was adopted. Frequencies of the procedures were determined via questionnaires that were sent to all providers of radiological procedures while data about patient exposure per procedure were collected from existing databases. Collective effective dose to the population and effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data (DLP for CT, MGD for mammography and DAP for other procedures) using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from radiological in 2011 was estimated to 1300 manSv and an effective dose per capita to 0.6 mSv of which approximately 2/3 are due to CT procedures. Conclusions The first systematic study of population exposure to ionising radiation from radiological procedures in Slovenia was performed. The results show that the exposure in Slovenia is under the European average. It confirmed large contributions of computed tomography and interventional procedures, identifying them as the areas that deserve special attention when it comes to justification and optimisation. PMID:25810709

  2. Estimate of dose in interventional radiology: a study of cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.; Braz, D.; Lopes, R.; Vallim, M.; Padilha, L.; Azevedo, F.; Barroso, R.

    2006-01-01

    Values of absorbed dose taken by patients and professionals involved in interventional radiology can be significant mainly for the reason of these proceedings taking long time of fluoroscopy There are many methods to estimate and reduce doses of radiation in the interventional radiology, particularly because the fluoroscopy is responsible for the high dose contribution in the patient and in the professional. The aim of this work is the thermoluminescent dosimetry to estimate the dose values of the extremities of the professionals involved in the interventional radiology and the product dose-area was investigated using a Diamentor. This evaluation is particularly useful for proceedings that interest multiple parts of the organism. In this study were used thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg, Ti - Harshaw) to estimate the dose values of the extremities of the professionals and to calibrate them. They were irradiated with X rays at 50 mGy, in Kerma in air and read in the reader Harshaw-5500. The product dose-area (D.A.P.) were obtained through the Diamentor (M2-P.T.W.) calibrated in Cgy.cm 2 fixed in the exit of the X-rays tube. The patients of these study were divided in three groups: individuals submitted to proceedings of embolization, individuals submitted to cerebral and renal arteriography and individuals submitted to proceedings of Transjungular Inthahepatic Porta Systemic Stent Shunt (TIPS). The texts were always carried out by the same group: radiologist doctor), an auxiliary doctor and a nursing auxiliary. The section of interventional radiology has an Angiostar Plus Siemens equipment type arc C, in which there is trifocal Megalix X-ray tube and a intensifier of image from Sirecon 40-4 HDR/33 HDR. In this work the dose estimated values were 137.25 mSv/year for the doctors, 40.27 mSv/year for the nursing and 51.95 mSv/year for the auxiliary doctor and they are below the rule, but in this study it was not taken in consideration the emergency texts as they were

  3. Dosimetry in Interventional Radiology - Effective Dose Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Jarvinen, H.; Nikodemova, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures can lead to significant radiation doses to patients and to staff members. In order to evaluate the personal doses with respect to the regulatory dose limits, doses measured by dosimeters have to be converted to effective doses (E). Measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using a single unshielded dosimeter above the lead apron can lead to significant overestimation of the effective dose, while the measurement with dosimeter under the apron can lead to underestimation. To improve the accuracy, measurements with two dosimeters, one above and the other under the apron have been suggested ( d ouble dosimetry ) . The ICRP has recommended that interventional radiology departments develop a policy that staff should wear two dosimeters. The aim of this study was to review the double dosimetry algorithms for the calculation of effective dose in high dose interventional radiology procedures. The results will be used to develop general guidelines for personal dosimetry in interventional radiology procedures. This work has been carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its 6th Framework Program.(author)

  4. Fast skin dose estimation system for interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Takeshi; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Maejima, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Shinobu; Arai, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Takenori; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Furui, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    To minimise the radiation dermatitis related to interventional radiology (IR), rapid and accurate dose estimation has been sought for all procedures. We propose a technique for estimating the patient skin dose rapidly and accurately using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation with a graphical processing unit (GPU, GTX 1080; Nvidia Corp.). The skin dose distribution is simulated based on an individual patient's computed tomography (CT) dataset for fluoroscopic conditions after the CT dataset has been segmented into air, water and bone based on pixel values. The skin is assumed to be one layer at the outer surface of the body. Fluoroscopic conditions are obtained from a log file of a fluoroscopic examination. Estimating the absorbed skin dose distribution requires calibration of the dose simulated by our system. For this purpose, a linear function was used to approximate the relation between the simulated dose and the measured dose using radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters in a water-equivalent phantom. Differences of maximum skin dose between our system and the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) were as high as 6.1%. The relative statistical error (2 σ) for the simulated dose obtained using our system was ≤3.5%. Using a GPU, the simulation on the chest CT dataset aiming at the heart was within 3.49 s on average: the GPU is 122 times faster than a CPU (Core i7-7700K; Intel Corp.). Our system (using the GPU, the log file, and the CT dataset) estimated the skin dose more rapidly and more accurately than conventional methods.

  5. Software for the estimation of organ equivalent and effective doses from diagnostic radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Ernest K; Barnett, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic radiological imaging such as conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) examinations will continue to provide tremendous benefits in modern healthcare. The benefit derived by the patient should far outweigh the risk associated with a properly conducted imaging examination. Nonetheless, it is very important to be able to quantify the risk associated with any radiological examination of patients, and effective dose has been considered a useful indicator of patient exposure. Quantification of the risks associated with radiological imaging is very important as such information will be helpful to physicians and their patients for comparing risks from various imaging examinations and for making informed decisions whenever there is a need for any radiological imaging. The determination of equivalent and effective doses in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for estimates of risk from medical exposures. In this paper we describe a simple computer program OrgDose, which calculates the doses to 27 organs in the body and then calculates the organ equivalent and effective doses and the risk from various procedures in the radiology department including conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography examinations. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with assessing organ and effective doses and risks from diagnostic radiology procedures.

  6. RASCAL [Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis]: A screening model for estimating doses from radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis (RASCAL) is a new MS-DOS-based dose assessment model which has been written for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use during response to radiological emergencies. RASCAL is designed to provide crude estimates of the effects of an accident while the accident is in progress and only limited information is available. It has been designed to be very simple to use and to run quickly. RASCAL is unique in that it estimates the source term based on fundamental plant conditions and does not rely solely on release rate estimation (e.g., Ci/sec of I-131). Therefore, it can estimate consequences of accidents involving unmonitored pathways or projected failures. RASCAL will replace the older model, IRDAM. 6 refs

  7. Software for the estimation of foetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osei, E K [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); Darko, J B [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); Faulkner, K [Quality Assurance Centre, Newcastle General Hospital, Westgate Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE4 6BE (United Kingdom); Kotre, C J [Regional Medical Physics Department, Newcastle General Hospital, Westgate Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE4 6BE (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Occasionally, it is clinically necessary to perform a radiological examination(s) on a woman who is known to be pregnant or an examination is performed on a woman who subsequently discovers that she was pregnant at the time. In radiological examinations, especially of the lower abdomen and pelvis area, the foetus is directly irradiated. It is therefore important to be able to determine the absorbed dose to the foetus in diagnostic radiology for pregnant patients as well as the foetal dose from occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. The determination of the absorbed dose to the unborn child in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for risk estimates from medical exposure of the pregnant patient and occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. In this paper we describe a simple computer program, FetDose, which calculates the dose to the foetus from both medical and occupational exposures of the pregnant woman. It also calculates the risks of in utero exposure, compares calculated doses with published data in the literature and provides information on the natural spontaneous risks. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with foetal dose (and hence risks) calculations and counselling of pregnant women who may be concerned about in utero exposure of their foetuses.

  8. Software for the estimation of foetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, E K; Darko, J B; Faulkner, K; Kotre, C J

    2003-01-01

    Occasionally, it is clinically necessary to perform a radiological examination(s) on a woman who is known to be pregnant or an examination is performed on a woman who subsequently discovers that she was pregnant at the time. In radiological examinations, especially of the lower abdomen and pelvis area, the foetus is directly irradiated. It is therefore important to be able to determine the absorbed dose to the foetus in diagnostic radiology for pregnant patients as well as the foetal dose from occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. The determination of the absorbed dose to the unborn child in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for risk estimates from medical exposure of the pregnant patient and occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. In this paper we describe a simple computer program, FetDose, which calculates the dose to the foetus from both medical and occupational exposures of the pregnant woman. It also calculates the risks of in utero exposure, compares calculated doses with published data in the literature and provides information on the natural spontaneous risks. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with foetal dose (and hence risks) calculations and counselling of pregnant women who may be concerned about in utero exposure of their foetuses

  9. Estimation of staff doses in complex radiological examinations using a Monte Carlo computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2007-01-01

    The protection of medical personnel in interventional radiology is an important issue of radiological protection. The irradiation of the worker is largely non-uniform, and a large part of his body is shielded by a lead apron. The estimation of effective dose (E) under these conditions is difficult and several approaches are used to estimate effective dose involving such a protective apron. This study presents a summary from an extensive series of simulations to determine scatter-dose distribution around the patient and staff effective dose from personal dosimeter readings. The influence of different parameters (like beam energy and size, patient size, irradiated region, worker position and orientation) on the staff doses has been determined. Published algorithms that combine readings of an unshielded and a shielded dosimeter to estimate effective dose have been applied and a new algorithm, that gives more accurate dose estimates for a wide range of situations was proposed. A computational approach was used to determine the dose distribution in the worker's body. The radiation transport and energy deposition was simulated using the MCNP4B code. The human bodies of the patient and radiologist were generated with the Body Builder anthropomorphic model-generating tool. The radiologist is protected with a lead apron (0.5 mm lead equivalent in the front and 0.25 mm lead equivalent in the back and sides) and a thyroid collar (0.35 mm lead equivalent). The lower-arms of the worker were folded to simulate the arms position during clinical examinations. This realistic situation of the folded arms affects the effective dose to the worker. Depending on the worker position and orientation (and of course the beam energy), the difference can go up to 25 percent. A total of 12 Hp(10) dosimeters were positioned above and under the lead apron at the neck, chest and waist levels. Extra dosimeters for the skin dose were positioned at the forehead, the forearms and the front surface of

  10. Effective doses in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Olga; Diaconescu, Cornelia; Roca, Antoaneta

    2001-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study is to assess in terms of effective doses the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses to the patient. Effective doses have been derived from measurements of dose-area product (DAP) carried out on over 900 patients undergoing X-ray examinations, in five paediatric units. The conversion coefficients for estimating effective doses are those calculated by the NRPB using Monte-Carlo technique on a series of 5 mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old children. The annual frequency of X-ray examinations necessary for collective dose calculation are those reported in our last national study on medical exposure, conducted in 1995. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average paediatric patient are as follows: 1.05 mSv for 0 year old, 0.98 mSv for 1 year old, 0.53 mSv for 5 year old, 0.65 mSv for 10 year old and 0.70 mSv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 625 man Sv with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations (34%). The annual collective effective associated with paediatric radiology in Romania represent 5% of the annual value resulting from all diagnostic radiology. Examination of the chest is by far the most frequent procedure for children, accounting for about 60 per cent of all annually performed X-ray conventional examinations. Knowledge of real level of patient dose is an essential component of quality assurance programs in paediatric radiology. (authors)

  11. Estimating effective dose to pediatric patients undergoing interventional radiology procedures using anthropomorphic phantoms and MOSFET dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Nelson; Gordon, Christopher L; Thomas, Karen; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effective doses received by pediatric patients during interventional radiology procedures and to present those doses in "look-up tables" standardized according to minute of fluoroscopy and frame of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Organ doses were measured with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters inserted within three anthropomorphic phantoms, representing children at ages 1, 5, and 10 years, at locations corresponding to radiosensitive organs. The phantoms were exposed to mock interventional radiology procedures of the head, chest, and abdomen using posteroanterior and lateral geometries, varying magnification, and fluoroscopy or DSA exposures. Effective doses were calculated from organ doses recorded by the MOSFET dosimeters and are presented in look-up tables according to the different age groups. The largest effective dose burden for fluoroscopy was recorded for posteroanterior and lateral abdominal procedures (0.2-1.1 mSv/min of fluoroscopy), whereas procedures of the head resulted in the lowest effective doses (0.02-0.08 mSv/min of fluoroscopy). DSA exposures of the abdomen imparted higher doses (0.02-0.07 mSv/DSA frame) than did those involving the head and chest. Patient doses during interventional procedures vary significantly depending on the type of procedure. User-friendly look-up tables may provide a helpful tool for health care providers in estimating effective doses for an individual procedure.

  12. Online software for the estimation of fetal radiation dose to patients and staff members in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Groff, Sybele Guedes de Paulo

    2009-01-01

    An online software, named 'Dose Fetal Web', which calculates the dose of the fetus and the radiological risks from both medical and occupational exposures of pregnant women is described. The software uses a mathematical methodology where coefficients for converting uterus to fetal dose, NUD, have been calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. In the fetal dose from diagnostic medical examination of the pregnant patient, database information regarding output and other equipment related to parameters from the QA database, maternal and fetal parameters collected by ultrasound procedures were used for the fetal dose estimation. In the case of fetal dose of the pregnant staff member the database information regarding routine individual monitoring dosimetry, such as occupational dose and workload, were used for the estimation. In the first case suppose a 26 weeks pregnant patient had to undergo a single AP abdomen procedure (70 kVp peak tube voltage and total filtration 3mmAl), the fetal dose calculated by the software was 4.61 mGy and the radiological risks would be 5.0·10 -4 and 0.14 to the probability of mental retardation induction and decline in the IQ score, respectively. In the second case, considering that the staff member can be pregnant, and assuming that she wore a 0,5 mm lead equivalent apron during every interventional radiology procedure and a personal dosimetry reading of 2 mGy TLD /month measured with the TLDs outside the apron, the fetal dose calculated by the software was 0.02 mSv/month. (author)

  13. Estimation of dose challenge in radiological exams policontuses patients in public hospital in Santiago with digital radiology equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Munoz Ihmaidan, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    lonizing radiation is always present in our natural environment and with the development of new technologies in diagnostic radiology we have elevated the exposure to radiation with an increased dose to both patient and professionals. This is of great importance for secondary stochastic effects that could be generated by exposure to ionizing radiation. There are different x-ray entrance dose studies in patients with radiological examinations in conventional radiology equipment, but not in trauma patients examinated with digital radiology equipment where there is a supposed greater exposure to radiation because of the increase of the number of radiological examinations requested. This study determined the doses received by trauma patients in a direct digital x ray equipment (in a ER in Santiago, Chile) and see if the doses are within the ones recommended by international societies. We used thermoluminescent crystals which were first properly calibrated and located in the center of the radiation beam. The results obtained show that using good practice we can obtain acceptable dose levels, independently of the digital equipment used where it is presumed that could give a higher dose of ionizing radiation exposure than conventional x-ray equipment

  14. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahruddin, N A; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Sabarudin, A; Bakar, K A

    2016-01-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure. (paper)

  15. Estimation of personal dose based on the dependent calibration of personal dosimeters in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroshige; Koshida, Kichiro; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of present study is, in interventional radiology (IVR), to elucidate the differences between each personal dosimeter, and the dependences and calibrations of area or personal dose by measurement with electronic dosimeters in particular. We compare space dose rate distributions measured by an ionization survey meter with the value measured by personal dosimeter: an optically stimulated luminescence, two fluoroglass, and two electronic dosimeters. Furthermore, with electronic dosimeters, we first measured dose rate, energy, and directional dependences. Secondly, we calibrated the dose rate measured by electronic dosimeters with the results, and estimated these methods with coefficient of determination and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). The results, especially in electronic dosimeters, revealed that the dose rate measured fell by energy and directional dependences. In terms of methods of calibration, the method is sufficient for energy dependence, but not for directional dependence, because of the lack of stable calibration. This improvement poses a question for the future. The study suggested that these dependences of the personal dosimeter must be considered when area or personal dose is estimated in IVR. (author)

  16. Estimation of staff lens doses during interventional procedures. Comparing cardiology, neuroradiology and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Sanchez, R.M.; Fernandez, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate lens doses using over apron active personal dosemeters in interventional catheterisation laboratories (cardiology IC, neuroradiology IN and radiology IR) and to investigate correlations between occupational lens doses and patient doses. Active electronic personal dosemeters placed over the lead apron were used on a sample of 204 IC procedures, 274 IN and 220 IR (all performed at the same university hospital). Patient dose values (kerma area product) were also recorded to evaluate correlations with occupational doses. Operators used the ceiling-suspended screen in most cases. The median and third quartile values of equivalent dose Hp(10) per procedure measured over the apron for IC, IN and IR resulted, respectively, in 21/67, 19/44 and 24/54 μSv. Patient dose values (median/third quartile) were 75/128, 83/176 and 61/159 Gy cm 2 , respectively. The median ratios for dosemeters worn over the apron by operators ( protected by the ceiling-suspended screen) and patient doses were 0.36; 0.21 and 0.46 μSv Gy -1 cm -2 , respectively. With the conservative approach used (lens doses estimated from the over apron chest dosemeter) we came to the conclusion that more than 800 procedures y -1 and per operator were necessary to reach the new lens dose limit for the three interventional specialties. (authors)

  17. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described

  18. Doses to patients from dental radiology in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.; Maccia, C.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F.

    1989-01-01

    In France, a national study was undertaken to estimate both dental radiology practices (equipment and activity) and the associated population collective dose. This study was done in two steps: A nationwide survey was conducted on the practitioner categories involved in dental radiology, and dosimetric measurements were performed on patients and on an anthropomorphic phantom by using conventional dental x-ray machines and pantomographic units. A total of 27.5 x 10(6) films were estimated to have been performed in 1984; 6% of them were pantomographic and 94% were conventional. Most of the organ doses measured for one intra-oral film were lower than 1 mGy (100 mrad); pantomogram dose values were generally higher than intra-oral ones. The collective effective dose equivalent figure was 2,000 person-Sv (2 x 10(5) person rem) leading to a per head dose equivalent of 0.037 mSv (3.7 mrem). The study allowed authors to identify ways to reduce the patient dose in France (e.g., implementing the use of long cone devices and controlling darkroom practices)

  19. Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil

    1997-07-01

    A radiological dose assessment system named FADAS has been developed. This system is necessary to estimated the radiological consequences against a nuclear accident. Mass-consistent wind field module was adopted for the generation of wind field over the whole domain using the several measured wind data. Random-walk dispersion module is used for the calculation of the distribution of radionuclides in the atmosphere. And volume-equivalent numerical integration method has been developed for the assessment of external gamma exposure given from a randomly distributed radioactive materials and a dose data library has been made for rapid calculation. Field tracer experiments have been carried out for the purpose of analyzing the site-specific meteorological characteristics and increasing the accuracy of wind field generation and atmospheric dispersion module of FADAS. At first, field tracer experiment was carried out over flat terrain covered with rice fields using the gas samplers which were designed and manufactured by the staffs of KAERI. The sampled gas was analyzed using gas chromatograph. SODAR and airsonde were used to measure the upper wind. Korean emergency preparedness system CARE was integrated at Kori 4 nuclear power plants in 1995. One of the main functions of CARE is to estimate the radiological dose. The developed real-time dose assessment system FADAS was adopted in CARE as a tool for the radiological dose assessment. (author). 79 refs., 52 tabs., 94 figs.

  20. Estimation of staff lens doses during interventional procedures. Comparing cardiology, neuroradiology and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E; Sanchez, R M; Fernandez, J M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate lens doses using over apron active personal dosemeters in interventional catheterisation laboratories (cardiology IC, neuroradiology IN and radiology IR) and to investigate correlations between occupational lens doses and patient doses. Active electronic personal dosemeters placed over the lead apron were used on a sample of 204 IC procedures, 274 IN and 220 IR (all performed at the same university hospital). Patient dose values (kerma area product) were also recorded to evaluate correlations with occupational doses. Operators used the ceiling-suspended screen in most cases. The median and third quartile values of equivalent dose Hp(10) per procedure measured over the apron for IC, IN and IR resulted, respectively, in 21/67, 19/44 and 24/54 µSv. Patient dose values (median/third quartile) were 75/128, 83/176 and 61/159 Gy cm(2), respectively. The median ratios for dosemeters worn over the apron by operators (protected by the ceiling-suspended screen) and patient doses were 0.36; 0.21 and 0.46 µSv Gy(-1) cm(-2), respectively. With the conservative approach used (lens doses estimated from the over apron chest dosemeter) we came to the conclusion that more than 800 procedures y(-1) and per operator were necessary to reach the new lens dose limit for the three interventional specialties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. TSD-DOSE : a radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingston, M.

    1998-01-01

    In May 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Operations, issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping slightly radioactive mixed waste from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. Studies were subsequently conducted to evaluate the radiological impacts associated with DOE's prior shipments through DOE's authorized release process under DOE Order 5400.5. To support this endeavor, a radiological assessment computer code--TSD-DOSE (Version 1.1)--was developed and issued by DOE in 1997. The code was developed on the basis of detailed radiological assessments performed for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. It was designed to utilize waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste handling operations at a TSD facility. The code has since been released for use by DOE field offices and was recently used by DOE to evaluate the release of septic waste containing residual radioactive material to a TSD facility licensed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Revisions to the code were initiated in 1997 to incorporate comments received from users and to increase TSD-DOSE's capability, accuracy, and flexibility. These updates included incorporation of the method used to estimate external radiation doses from DOE's RESRAD model and expansion of the source term to include 85 radionuclides. In addition, a detailed verification and benchmarking analysis was performed

  2. The genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.C.; Kendall, G.M.; Rae, S.; Wall, B.F.

    1980-09-01

    This report is the third in a series concerned with the annual genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. It combines information from a frequency survey of diagnostic radiological examinations carried out in Great Britain in 1977 and estimates of gonadal doses for different examination types, together with population and child expectancy data. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology carried out in Great Britain in 1977, is estimated to 118 μGy (11.8 millirad) of which 113 μGy (11.3 millirad) is contributed by diagnostic radiology carried out in National Health Service hospitals. There has been a sharp fall in the contribution from obstetric examinations since 1957 when the last national survey was carried out. The contribution from most other examination types is broadly similar and there is little evidence of a change in the overall level of genetically significant dose. This is in spite of an increase in the frequency of radiological examinations per thousand of the population of about 50 per cent. No significant differences were found as between England, Scotland and Wales. The British figure compares favourably with the levels of GSD reported from other countries with developed radiological services. (author)

  3. Genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S C; Wall, B F [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1981-01-01

    A brief discussion is presented of the use of population and child expectancy data to estimate the annual genetically significant dose for diagnostic radiology (GSD). The current estimate of GSD is compared with that reported in a survey 20 years previously. Comparisons are made with estimates of GSD from other countries.

  4. A kinematic model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive isotopes in the human body for radiological protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-12-01

    The great earthquake attacked the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. The system of electrical facilities to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following tsunamis. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and been diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure becomes a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplified the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed an exact model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that the above method accord too much with the actual mechanism of metabolism in human bodies, it becomes rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional hydrological tank model. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of this method is to estimate the energy radiated from the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of E. Fermi of beta decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this study are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no intentional and operational parameters of coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to observation of ICRP. Figure.1 compares time

  5. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  6. A radiological dose assessment for the Port Hope conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Cooper, F.; Janes, A.; Stager, R.; Peters, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Port Hope Conversion Facility (PHCF) receives uranium trioxide for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) or uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). The PHCF Site has a long history of industrial use. A Radiological Dose Assessment was undertaken as part of a Site Wide Risk Assessment. This assessment took into account all possible human receptors, both workers and members of the public. This paper focuses on a radiological assessment of dose to members of the public. The doses to members of the public from terrestrial pathways were added to the doses from aquatic pathways to obtain overall dose to receptors. The benchmark used in the assessment is 1 mSv/y. The estimated doses related to PHCF operations are much lower than the dose limit. (author)

  7. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

  8. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R.

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides

  9. Evaluation of entrance skin dose to the skull in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Anas Ali Elbushari

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic x-ray radiology is a common diagnostic practice.Despite of its increasing hazard to human beings, imaging procedures should be achieved with less radiation dose and sufficient image quality. The aim of this study was to estimate the entrance skin dose(ESD) for patients undergoing selected diagnostic x-ray examinations in four hospitals.The study included the examinations of the skull; posterior- anterior(PA) and lateral projections. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. ESDs were estimated from patients specific exposure parameters using established relation between output (μGy/mAs) and tube voltage(kVp). The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.0097-0.1846 mGy for skull (PA), 0.0097-0.1399 mGy for skull (LAT). These values were acceptable as compared with the international reference dose levels. This study provides additional data that can help the regulatory authority to establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Sudan.(Author)

  10. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions

  11. Paediatric doses from diagnostic radiology in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, T.J.; Cardillo, I.; Einsiedel, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines doses to paediatric patients from diagnostic radiology. Measurements were made at 29 hospitals and private radiology practices in the state of Victoria. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for the exposure factors used by hospital radiology departments and private radiology practices for a standard size 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old child, for the following procedures: chest AP/PA, lat; abdomen AP; pelvis AP; lumbar spine AP, lat; and skull AP, lat. There was a large range of doses for each particular procedure and age group. Factors contributing to the range of doses were identified. Guidance levels for paediatric radiology based on the third quartile value of the skin entrance doses have been recommended and are compared with guidance levels. Copyright (1998) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine

  12. Methods of determining the effective dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilander-Klang, A.; Helmrot, E.

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of X-ray equipment is used today in dental radiology, including intra-oral, ortho-pan-tomographic, cephalo-metric, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and computed tomography (CT). This raises the question of how the radiation risks resulting from different kinds of examinations should be compared. The risk to the patient is usually expressed in terms of effective dose. However, it is difficult to determine its reliability, and it is difficult to make comparisons, especially when different modalities are used. The classification of the new CBCT units is also problematic as they are sometimes classified as CT units. This will lead to problems in choosing the best dosimetric method, especially when the examination geometry resembles more on an ordinary ortho-pan-tomographic examination, as the axis of rotation is not at the centre of the patient, and small radiation field sizes are used. The purpose of this study was to present different methods for the estimation of the effective dose from the equipment currently used in dental radiology, and to discuss their limitations. The methods are compared based on commonly used measurable and computable dose quantities, and their reliability in the estimation of the effective dose. (authors)

  13. Estimation of effective dose for the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple myeloma using conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalafoutas, I.; Kostopoulou, H.; Steinhauer, G.; Koukourakis, G.; Yakoumakis, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haemolytic neoplasm which produces osteolytic lesions and necessitates the periodical radiological examination of the skeleton for monitoring the disease progression. This involves the acquisition of multiple radiographs every 3 to 6 months, depending on the extent and the stage of the disease. Our objective was to estimate the cumulative patient dose during the radiographic investigation of MM. Materials and methods: Sixty eight MM radiographic examinations performed with a digital X-ray unit were recorded on a CD-rom in DICOM format. The DICOM data were extracted using appropriate software (DICOM Info Extractor) and were input into a Microsoft Excel based spreadsheet, containing embedded algorithms for the identification of the radiological examination type and the estimation of entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), dose area product (DAP) and effective dose (E) in each radiograph. The DAP to E conversion coefficients for each examination type were derived using the PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo simulation software for the case of a standard adult patient utilizing the irradiation geometry as this was perceived from the images and the DICOM data. Results: The mean values [and ranges] were: for number of radiographs= 14 [7-23], for cumulative ESAK 13 [2-44] mGy, for cumulative DAP= 6 [1.35-16.5] Gycm 2 and for E= 0. [0.14-2.4] mSv. Conclusion: The average E value calculated is smaller than the values of 1.7 and 2.4 mSv reported in the literature and even smaller than the values of 4.8 and 4.1 mSv reported for MM diagnosis using whole-body CT. (authors)

  14. Doses from Hiroshima mass radiologic gastric surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoku, S; Sawada, S; Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-05-01

    Doses to examinees from mass radiologic surveys of the stomach in Hiroshima Perfecture were estimated by surveying for the frequency of the examinations, and for the technical factors used in them, and by phantom dosimetry. The average surface, active bone marrow and male and female gonad doses per examination were 5.73 rad, 231 mrad, and 20.6 and 140 mrad, respectively. These data will be used in estimating doses from medical X-rays among atomic bomb survivors. By applying them to the Hiroshima population, the genetically significant, per caput mean marrow, and leukemia significant doses were 0.14,8.6 and 7.4 mrad, respectively. There was a benefit-to risk ratio of about 50 for mass gastric surveys performed in 1976. However, the calculated risk was greater than the benefit for examinees under 29 years of age because of the lower incidence of gastric cancer in those under 29 years.

  15. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-01-01

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides

  16. INTDOS: a computer code for estimating internal radiation dose using recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-09-01

    INTDOS is a user-oriented computer code designed to calculate estimates of internal radiation dose commitment resulting from the acute inhalation intake of various radionuclides. It is designed so that users unfamiliar with the details of such can obtain results by answering a few questions regarding the exposure case. The user must identify the radionuclide name, solubility class, particle size, time since exposure, and the measured lung burden. INTDOS calculates the fractions of the lung burden remaining at time, t, postexposure considering the solubility class and particle size information. From the fraction remaining in the lung at time, t, the quantity inhaled is estimated. Radioactive decay is accounted for in the estimate. Finally, effective committed dose equivalents to various organs and tissues of the body are calculated using inhalation committed dose factors presented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This computer code was written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 computer and is written in Fortran IV. A flow chart and example calculations are discussed in detail to aid the user who is unfamiliar with computer operations

  17. Effective dose to patients in interventional vascular radiology in Malaga and Tenerife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Garcia-Granados, J.; Diaz Romero, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the research is to estimate the effective dose that patients receive during the procedure of interventional vascular radiology screening using a digital system. The effective dose is the best indicator of radiological risks. A plane ionization camera is used to estimate dose per surface area (Gy/square cm). By means of the method described in the NRPB R-262 report, projections were selected which adjust to the field irradiated in each of the procedures analysed. The product values of the dose surface and effective dose has been 75.7 Gy/cm 2 and 10.5 mSv for abdominal angiography; 29.0 Gy/cm 2 and 7.6 mSv for arteriographic diagnosis of the inferior members; 104.5 Gy/cm 2 and 23.6 mSv for gall drainage; 90.5 Gy/cm 2 and 21.5 mSv for varicoceles, and 39.5 Gy/cm 2 and 9.6 mSv for nephrostomas

  18. Estimation of radiological consequences from accidental iodine releases at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a beyond design-basis accident at an NPP for a VVER-1000 reactor are evaluated. Using the software code COSYMA and accounting for radioiodine activity release to the atmosphere at the early stage of the accident, the radionuclide concentration in air and ground deposition densities were estimated. Inhalation and ingestion thyroid doses to different population sub-groups have been calculated. Using modern knowledge about the risk of radiation-induced cancer, the radiological danger of radionuclides released is evaluated for different exposure pathways. Thyroid doses and risk was estimated for populations living at different distances from the NPP. The comparative analysis of exposure pathways and radiological danger of the radionuclides in release during early and intermediate stage of accident has conducted. (author)

  19. [Evaluation of patient doses in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropolo, R; Rampado, O; Isoardi, P; Gandini, G; Rabbia, C; Righi, D

    2001-01-01

    To verify the suitability of indicative quantities to evaluate the risk related to patient exposure, in abdominal and vascular interventional radiology, by the study of correlations between dosimetric quantities and other indicators. We performed in vivo measurements of entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) during 48 procedures to evaluate the correlation among dosimetric quantities, and an estimation of spatial distribution of exposure and effective dose (E). To measure DAP we used a transmission ionization chamber and to evaluate ESD and its spatial distribution we used radiographic film packed in a single envelope and placed near the patient's skin. E was estimated by a calculation software using data from film digitalisation. From the data derived for measurements in 27 interventional procedures on 48 patients we obtained a DAP to E conversion factor of 0.15 mSv / Gy cm2, with an excellent correlation (r=.99). We also found a good correlation between DAP and exposure parameters such as fluoroscopy time and number of images. The greatest effective dose was evaluated for a multiple procedure in the hepatic region, with a DAP value of 425 Gy cm2. The greatest ESD was about 550 mGy. For groups of patients undergoing similar interventional procedures the correlation between ESD and DAP had conversion factors from 6 to 12 mGy Gy-1 cm-2. The evaluation of ESD and E by slow films represents a valid method for patient dosimetry in interventional radiology. The good correlation between DAP and fluoroscopy time and number of images confirm the suitability of these indicators as basic dosimetric information. All the ESD values found are lower than threshold doses for deterministic effects.

  20. Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massillon, J.G.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

  1. The current contribution of diagnostic radiology to the population dose in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Rae, S.; Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Fischer, E.S.; Harries, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board of the UK has just completed a national survey to determine the genetically significant dose (GSD) to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. A statistically selected sample of about 80 hospitals spread throughout England, Scotland and Wales has supplied information on the numbers of patients examined in their X-ray departments during a week in June 1977, together with details of age, sex and examination technique. This sample is sufficient to make a reliable estimate of the total diagnostic work-load in all National Health Service Hospitals throughout Great Britain for a year. Gonadal doses from 16 examination types that are likely to be the main contributors to the GSD have been measured on nearly 5000 patients at 20 hospitals throug'out the country using specially developed thermoluminescent dosemeters. These gonadal doses are combined with the examination frequency figures and current values for child expectancy derived from data supplied by tthe registrar general, to estimate the GSD. Those changes in practice which have occurred since the late 1950's which may have influenced the new value for the GSD are discussed, as well as the progress that has been made in estimating population somatic doses from diagnostic radiology using clinical measurements that are currently underway. (H.K.)

  2. The estimation of occupational effective dose in diagnostic radiology with two dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niklason, L.T.; Marx, M.V.; Chan, Heang-Ping

    1994-01-01

    Annual effective dose limits have been proposed by national and international radiation protection committees. Radiation protection agencies must decide upon a method of converting the radiation dose measured from dosimeters to an estimate of effective dose. A proposed method for the estimation of effective dose from the radiation dose to two dosimeters is presented. Correction factors are applied to an over-apron collar dose and an under-apron dose to estimate the effective dose. Correction factors are suggested for two cases, both with and without a thyroid shield. Effective dose may be estimated by the under-apron dose plus 6% of the over-collar dose if a thyroid shield is not worn or plus 2% of the over-collar dose if a thyroid shield is worn. This method provides a reasonable estimate of effective dose that is independent of lead apron thickness and accounts for the use of a thyroid shield. 17 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Estimation of the total absorbed dose by quartz in retrospective conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correcher, V.; Delgado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of the total absorbed dose is of great interest in areas affected by a radiological accident when no conventional dosimetric systems are available. This paper reports about the usual methodology employed in dose reconstruction from the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of natural quartz, extracted from selected ceramic materials (12 bricks) picked up in the Chernobyl area. It has been possible to evaluate doses under 50mGy after more than 11 years later since the radiological accident happened. The main advance of this fact is the reduction of the commonly accepted limit dose estimation more than 20 times employing luminescence methods. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Organ doses in interventional radiology procedures: Evaluation of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tort, I.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Perez-Martinez, M.; Carrera, F.; Ojeda, C.; Diez de los Rios, A.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) procedures require large fluoroscopy times and important number of radiological images, so the levels of radiation to patient are high, which leads us to calculate the organ doses. The objective of this work is to estimate and make a comparison of the results given by the different software that we have to do the calculation of organ doses in complex procedures of IR. To do this, 28 patients have been selected, distributed in the 3 procedures with highest doses. The determination of organ doses and effective doses has been made using the projections utilized and different software based on Monte Carlo Methods: Eff-dose, PCXMC and Diasoft. We have obtained very high dispersion in the average organ dose between the 3 programs. In many cases, it is higher than 25% and in some particular cases, it is greater than 100%. Dispersion obtained in effective doses is not so high, being under 20% in all cases. This shows that a better solution is needed to solve the problem of the organ doses calculation; a more accurate method is necessary that brings us to a trustworthy approach to reality, and, at the moment, that we do not dispose of it. (author)

  5. Levels of doses to radiological workers in Ethiopia: 1977-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayou, Teshome.

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1977 to 1988, a total of 10,494 Eastman Kodak type 2 film badges and 19,236 Vinten lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDS) were delivered to medical workers in Ethiopia of which 5,135 (48.93%) film badges and 19,177 (99.69%) TLDS were evaluated. The annual average occupational doses to the workers were estimated to be of 1.44 and 4.51 man-Sv with corresponding collective dose equivalents to 0.29 and 4.51 man-Sv respectively. Comparisons of doses to similar workers in different countries were compiled from the literature. Based on the TLD results and the 1977 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) risk coefficients it is estimated that the occurrence of extra fatal and non-fatal cancer cases is in the order of 74 per million radiological workers per year. The hereditary defects expected are 18 and 36 cases in the next two and in all future generations respectively. During these periods, the number of institutions monitored rose from 35 to 88 while the workers monitored increased from 100 to 450

  6. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137 Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240 Pu and 241 Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y -1 . The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y -1 to 4.5 mSv y -1 . The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Handbook of selected organ doses for projections common in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, M.; Beck, T.J.; Warner, G.G.

    1979-05-01

    This handbook contains data from which absorbed dose (mrad) to selected organs can be estimated for common projections in pediatric radiology. The organ doses are for three reference patients: a newborn (0 to 6 months), a 1-year old child, and a 5-year old child. One intent of the handbook is to permit the user to evaluate the effect on organ dose to these reference pediatric patients as a function of certain changes in technical parameters used in or among facilities. A second intent is to permit a comparison to be made of organ doses as a function of age. This comparison can be extended to a reference adult by referring to the previous Handbook of Selected Organ Doses fo Projections Common in Diagnostic Radiology, FDA 76-8031. Assignment of organ doses to individual pediatric patients using the Handbook data is not recommended unless the physical characteristics of the patient closely correlate with one of the three reference pediatric patients given in Appendix A

  8. Radiation doses and correlated late effects in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, M.

    1980-04-01

    Patient irradiation in diagnostic radiology was estimated from measurements of absorbed doses in different organs, assessment of the energy imparted and retrospective calculations based on literature data. Possible late biological effects, with special aspects on children, were surveyed. The dose to the lens of the eye and the possibility of shielding in carotid angiography was studied as was the absorbed dose to the thyroid gland at cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography in children. Calculations of the mean bone marrow dose and gonad doses were performed in children with chronic skeletal disease revealing large contributions from examinations of organs other than the skeleton. The dose distribution in the breast in mammography was investigated. Comparison of the energy imparted in common roentgen examinations in 1960 and 1975 showed an unexpected low decrease in spite of technical improvements. Reasons for the failing decrease are discussed. The energy imparted to children in urological examinations was reduced significantly due to introduction of high sensitivity screens and omission of dose demanding projections. Contributions to the possible late effects were estimated on the basis of the organ doses assessed. (author)

  9. Managing patient dose in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Digital techniques have the potential to improve the practice of radiology but they also risk the overuse of radiation. The main advantages of digital imaging, i.e. wide dynamic range, post processing, multiple viewing options, and electronic transfer and archiving possibilities, are clear but overexposures can occur without an adverse impact on image quality. In conventional radiography, excessive exposure produces a black film. In digital systems, good images are obtained for a large range of doses. It is very easy to obtain (and delete) images with digital fluoroscopy systems, and there may be a tendency to obtain more images than necessary. In digital radiology, higher patient dose usually means improved image quality, so a tendency to use higher patient doses than necessary could occur. Different medical imaging tasks require different levels of image quality, and doses that have no additional benefit for the clinical purpose should be avoided. Image quality can be compromised by inappropriate levels of data compression and/or post processing techniques. All these new challenges should be part of the optimisation process and should be included in clinical and technical protocols. Local diagnostic reference levels should be re-evaluated for digital imaging, and patient dose parameters should be displayed at the operator console. Frequent patient dose audits should occur when digital techniques are introduced. Training in the management of image quality and patient dose in digital radiology is necessary. Digital radiology will involve new regulations and invoke new challenges for practitioners. As digital images are easier to obtain and transmit, the justification criteria should be reinforced. Commissioning of digital systems should involve clinical specialists, medical physicists, and radiographers to ensure that imaging capability and radiation dose management are integrated. Quality control requires new procedures and protocols (visualisation, transmission

  10. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Lima, Marco A.F.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Correa, Samanda C.A.; Silva, Ademir X.; Brito, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  11. Estimation of genetic risk and detriment in radiological vascular examinations in Malaga (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Fernandez Vazquez, M.I.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the population undergoing procedures of interventional vascular radiology. The values of genetically significant dose, somatically significant dose and damage are presented. The determinations refer to the population of Malaga and calculate the values of the dose-area product, dose in organs and effective doses. At first glance, these complex explorations seem to provide dose rates which are much higher than those for simple examinations. However, our values demonstrate the contrary. The numbers contrast with the values obtained from simple examinations by the population. Although the reasons are multifactorial, the root cause is the average age of the patients which undergo interventional vascular radiology: they are much older than patients who undergo simple explorations

  12. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  13. Estimates of bias and uncertainty in recorded external dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1994-10-01

    A study is underway to develop an approach to quantify bias and uncertainty in recorded dose estimates for workers at the Hanford Site based on personnel dosimeter results. This paper focuses on selected experimental studies conducted to better define response characteristics of Hanford dosimeters. The study is more extensive than the experimental studies presented in this paper and includes detailed consideration and evaluation of other sources of bias and uncertainty. Hanford worker dose estimates are used in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. A major objective of these studies is to provide a direct assessment of the carcinogenic risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. Considerations of bias and uncertainty in the recorded dose estimates are important in the conduct of this work. The method developed for use with Hanford workers can be considered an elaboration of the approach used to quantify bias and uncertainty in estimated doses for personnel exposed to radiation as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1962. This approach was first developed by a National Research Council (NRC) committee examining uncertainty in recorded film badge doses during atmospheric tests (NRC 1989). It involved quantifying both bias and uncertainty from three sources (i.e., laboratory, radiological, and environmental) and then combining them to obtain an overall assessment. Sources of uncertainty have been evaluated for each of three specific Hanford dosimetry systems (i.e., the Hanford two-element film dosimeter, 1944-1956; the Hanford multi-element film dosimeter, 1957-1971; and the Hanford multi-element TLD, 1972-1993) used to estimate personnel dose throughout the history of Hanford operations. Laboratory, radiological, and environmental sources of bias and uncertainty have been estimated based on historical documentation and, for angular response, on selected laboratory measurements

  14. Nordic Guidance Levels for Patient Doses in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxebol, G.; Olerud, H.M.; Hjardemaal, O.; Leitz, W.; Servomaa, A.; Walderhaug, T.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of Nordic authoritative cooperation in radiation protection and nuclear safety, recommendations have been prepared dealing with dose constraints in diagnostic radiology. A working group with participants from all the Nordic countries has met and discussed possible implementations of the ICRP dose constraint for medical radiology. Dose constraints, expressed as guidance levels, were specified for six different radiological examinations, i.e. chest, pelvis, lumbar spine, urography, barium meal and enema in units of kerma-area product and entrance surface dose. The recommendations are described in report No 5 in the series 'Report on Nordic Radiation Protection Cooperation'. Examples of dose distributions and factors affecting the patient dose are described in the report. (author)

  15. Parameter calculation tool for the application of radiological dose projection codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo G, I. F.; Vergara del C, J. A.; Galvan A, S. J.; Tijerina S, F.

    2016-09-01

    The use of specialized codes to estimate the radiation dose projection to an emergency postulated event at a nuclear power plant requires that certain plant data be available according to the event being simulated. The calculation of the possible radiological release is the critical activity to carry out the emergency actions. However, not all of the plant data required are obtained directly from the plant but need to be calculated. In this paper we present a computational tool that calculates the plant data required to use the radiological dose estimation codes. The tool provides the required information when there is a gas emergency venting event in the primary containment atmosphere, whether well or dry well and also calculates the time in which the spent fuel pool would be discovered in the event of a leak of water on some of the walls or floor of the pool. The tool developed has mathematical models for the processes involved such as: compressible flow in pipes considering area change and for constant area, taking into account the effects of friction and for the case of the spent fuel pool hydraulic models to calculate the time in which a container is emptied. The models implemented in the tool are validated with data from the literature for simulated cases. The results with the tool are very similar to those of reference. This tool will also be very supportive so that in postulated emergency cases can use the radiological dose estimation codes to adequately and efficiently determine the actions to be taken in a way that affects as little as possible. (Author)

  16. Cumulative radiation dose caused by radiologic studies in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Patrick K; Gracias, Vicente H; Maidment, Andrew D A; O'Shea, Michael; Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William

    2004-09-01

    Critically ill trauma patients undergo many radiologic studies, but the cumulative radiation dose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation resulting from radiologic studies in critically ill trauma patients. The study group was composed of trauma patients at an urban Level I trauma center with surgical intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) greater than 30 days. The radiology records were reviewed. A typical effective dose per study for each type of plain film radiograph, computed tomographic scan, fluoroscopic study, and nuclear medicine study was used to calculate CED. Forty-six patients met criteria. The mean surgical intensive care unit and hospital LOS were 42.7 +/- 14.0 and 59.5 +/- 28.5 days, respectively. The mean Injury Severity Score was 32.2 +/- 15.0. The mean number of studies per patient was 70.1 +/- 29.0 plain film radiographs, 7.8 +/- 4.1 computed tomographic scans, 2.5 +/- 2.6 fluoroscopic studies, and 0.065 +/- 0.33 nuclear medicine study. The mean CED was 106 +/- 59 mSv per patient (range, 11-289 mSv; median, 104 mSv). Among age, mechanism, Injury Severity Score, and LOS, there was no statistically significant predictor of high CED. The mean CED in the study group was 30 times higher than the average yearly radiation dose from all sources for individuals in the United States. The theoretical additional morbidity attributable to radiologic studies was 0.78%. From a radiobiologic perspective, risk-to-benefit ratios of radiologic studies are favorable, given the importance of medical information obtained. Current practice patterns regarding use of radiologic studies appear to be acceptable.

  17. Work practices and occupational radiation dose among radiologic technologists in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung Sik; Lee, Kyoung Mu; Jeong, Mee Seon

    2013-01-01

    Radiologic technologists are one of the occupational groups exposed to the highest dose of radiation worldwide. In Korea, radiologic technologists occupy the largest group (about 33%) among medical radiation workers and they are exposed to the highest dose of occupational dose of radiation as well (1). Although work experience with diagnostic radiation procedure of U.S. radiologic technologists was reported roughly (2), few studies have been conducted for description of overall work practices and the change by calendar year and evaluation of related factors on occupational radiation dose. The aims of the study are to describe work practices and to assess risk factors for occupational radiation dose among radiologic technologists in Korea. This study showed the work practices and occupational radiation dose among representative sample of radiologic technologists in Korea. The annual effective dose among radiologic technologists in Korea remains higher compared with those of worldwide average and varied according to demographic factors, year began working, and duration of working

  18. Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, A J

    1995-09-01

    A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were studied to determine X-ray beam positions and field sizes. Size and position of organs in the patient were estimated using ORNL phantoms and complementary clinical information. Conversion factors between the mean absorbed dose to various organs and entrance surface dose for five different body sizes were calculated. Direct measurements on patients estimating entrance surface dose and energy imparted for common X-ray investigations were performed. The examination technique for a number of paediatric X-ray investigations used in 19 Swedish hospitals was studied. For a simulated pelvis investigation of a 1-year old child the entrance surface dose was measured and image quality was estimated using a contrast-detail phantom. Mean absorbed doses to organs and tissues in urography, lung, pelvis, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and scoliosis investigations was calculated. Calculations of effective dose were supplemented with risk calculations for special organs e g the female breast. The work shows that the examination technique in paediatric radiology is not yet optimised, and that the non-optimised procedures contribute to a considerable variation in radiation dose. In order to optimise paediatric radiology there is a need for more standardised methods in patient dosimetry. It is especially important to relate measured quantities to the size of the patient, using e g the patient weight and length. 91 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs.

  19. Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were studied to determine X-ray beam positions and field sizes. Size and position of organs in the patient were estimated using ORNL phantoms and complementary clinical information. Conversion factors between the mean absorbed dose to various organs and entrance surface dose for five different body sizes were calculated. Direct measurements on patients estimating entrance surface dose and energy imparted for common X-ray investigations were performed. The examination technique for a number of paediatric X-ray investigations used in 19 Swedish hospitals was studied. For a simulated pelvis investigation of a 1-year old child the entrance surface dose was measured and image quality was estimated using a contrast-detail phantom. Mean absorbed doses to organs and tissues in urography, lung, pelvis, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and scoliosis investigations was calculated. Calculations of effective dose were supplemented with risk calculations for special organs e g the female breast. The work shows that the examination technique in paediatric radiology is not yet optimised, and that the non-optimised procedures contribute to a considerable variation in radiation dose. In order to optimise paediatric radiology there is a need for more standardised methods in patient dosimetry. It is especially important to relate measured quantities to the size of the patient, using e g the patient weight and length. 91 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs

  20. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  1. Estimation of dose in dental radiology exams in critical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzoumet, S.P.J.; Braz, D.; Padilha, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the values of doses, which are absorbed dose to the lens and thyroid in a dental X-ray. Thermoluminescence dosimeters were used, once they provide a reading of quality and effectiveness. This study was based on dental exams conducted in patients in order to estimate the dose that disperses to the lens of the eye and for the thyroid during an intraoral exam. Data collection took place in two institutions, one governmental, which had the device SELETRONIC 70X and other particular. This study showed that there is a considerable variation between the appliances. Using the appliance DABI 1070, there was a greater absorption of radiation in the right eye (values greater than 5 mGy) and a lower dose in the thyroid, and the Seletronic 70X presented an incidence of higher dose deposited in the skin and in other points there was a balance in the values. In the appliance SELETRONIC 70X, there was again a greater absorption of radiation in the right eye and a lower setting in the thyroid. The excessive dose, besides does not favor at all for the quality of radiograph, represents a risk for the patient who absorbs unnecessary and harmful radiation to the body

  2. Foetal Radiation Dose and Risk from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures: A Multinational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Ernest K.; Darko, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001–21.9 mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10 −9 ) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10 −4 ) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10 −8 ) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10 −3 ). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child

  3. Conventional radiology and genetic dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Vila, V.; Fernandez, A.; Rivera, F.; Martinez, M.; Gomez, A.; Luis, J.

    1992-01-01

    A research project was established in 1984 to evaluate the expected genetic abnormalities due to radiation received by the population attending the Outpatient Radiological Service due to medical radiological practices. The study was conducted in 1985 (12 weeks chosen by random). The equivalent gonadal dose was the chosen parameter, representing the social cost of the radiology. Samples of 2945 men and 2929 women were considered in the study. The number of genetic abnormalities, in relation to the mean age of reproduction (a generation every 30 years), was 2.13 cases per million in the first generation and 15.97 cases per million at equilibrium. The authors interpretation is that both the method and the expected genetic detriment are suitable procedures for the characterisation of the Radiological Service as a radiation source. (author)

  4. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP

  5. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  6. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Beatriz N.

    2001-01-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation

  7. Simplification of an MCNP model designed for dose rate estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Alexander; Perry, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A study was made to investigate the methods of building a simplified MCNP model for radiological dose estimation. The research was done using an example of a complicated glovebox with extra shielding. The paper presents several different calculations for neutron and photon dose evaluations where glovebox elements were consecutively excluded from the MCNP model. The analysis indicated that to obtain a fast and reasonable estimation of dose, the model should be realistic in details that are close to the tally. Other details may be omitted.

  8. A review of radiology staff doses and dose monitoring requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of radiation doses received during X-ray procedures by radiology, cardiology and other clinical staff have been reviewed. Data for effective dose (E), and doses to the eyes, thyroid, hands and legs have been analysed. These data have been supplemented with local measurements to determine the most exposed part of the hand for monitoring purposes. There are ranges of 60-100 in doses to individual tissues reported in the literature for similar procedures at different centres. While ranges in the doses per unit dose-area product (DAP) are between 10 and 25, large variations in dose result from differences in the sensitivity of the X-ray equipment, the type of procedure and the operator technique, but protection factors are important in maintaining dose levels as low as possible. The influence of shielding devices is significant for determining the dose to the eyes and thyroid, and the position of the operator, which depends on the procedure, is the most significant factor determining doses to the hands. A second body dosemeter worn at the level of the collar is recommended for operators with high workloads for use in assessment of effective dose and the dose to the eye. It is proposed that the third quartile values from the distributions of dose per unit DAP identified in the review might be employed in predicting the orders of magnitude of doses to the eye, thyroid and hands, based on interventional operator workloads. Such dose estimates could be employed in risk assessments when reviewing protection and monitoring requirements. A dosemeter worn on the little finger of the hand nearest to the X-ray tube is recommended for monitoring the hand. (authors)

  9. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana; Pascoal, Ana; Lanca, Isabel; Matela, Nuno; Sousa, Patrick; Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui; Simaozinho, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of ≈ 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications

  10. Estimation of absorbed dose and its biological effects in subjects undergoing neuro interventional radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basheerudeen, Safa Abdul Syed; Subramanian, Vinodhini; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Joseph, Santosh; Selvam, Paneer; Jose, M.T.; Annalakshmi, O.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological imaging has many applications due to its non-invasiveness, rapid diagnosis of life threatening diseases, and shorter hospital stay which benefit patients of all age groups. However, these procedures are complicated and time consuming, which use repeated imaging views and radiation, thereby increasing patient dose, and collective effective dose to the background at low doses. The effects of high dose radiation are well established. However, the effects of low dose exposure remain to be determined. Therefore, investigating the effect on medically exposed individuals is an alternative source to understand the low dose effects of radiation. The ESD (Entrance Surface Dose) was recorded using Lithium borate based TL dosimeters to measure the doses received by the head, neck and shoulder of the study subjects (n = 70) who underwent procedures like cerebral angiography, coiling, stenting and embolization

  11. Simplification of an MCNP model designed for dose rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laptev Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to investigate the methods of building a simplified MCNP model for radiological dose estimation. The research was done using an example of a complicated glovebox with extra shielding. The paper presents several different calculations for neutron and photon dose evaluations where glovebox elements were consecutively excluded from the MCNP model. The analysis indicated that to obtain a fast and reasonable estimation of dose, the model should be realistic in details that are close to the tally. Other details may be omitted.

  12. Estimation of the collective dose in the Portuguese population due to medical procedures in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro; Sousa, M. Carmen de; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana; Pascoal, Ana; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Lanca, Isabel; Matela, Nuno; Janeiro, Luis; Sousa, Patrick; Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui; Simaozinho, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of medical fields, technological advancements have led to an increase in the average collective dose in national populations worldwide. Periodic estimations of the average collective population dose due to medical exposure is, therefore of utmost importance, and is now mandatory in countries within the European Union (article 12 of EURATOM directive 97/ 43). Presented in this work is a report on the estimation of the collective dose in the Portuguese population due to nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and the Top 20 diagnostic radiology examinations, which represent the 20 exams that contribute the most to the total collective dose in diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures in Europe. This work involved the collaboration of a multidisciplinary taskforce comprising representatives of all major Portuguese stakeholders (universities, research institutions, public and private health care providers, administrative services of the National Healthcare System, scientific and professional associations and private service providers). This allowed us to gather a comprehensive amount of data necessary for a robust estimation of the collective effective dose to the Portuguese population. The methodology used for data collection and dose estimation was based on European Commission recommendations, as this work was performed in the framework of the European wide Dose Datamed II project. This is the first study estimating the collective dose for the population in Portugal, considering such a wide national coverage and range of procedures and consisting of important baseline reference data. The taskforce intends to continue developing periodic collective dose estimations in the future. The estimated annual average effective dose for the Portuguese population was of 0.080±0.017 mSv caput -1 for nuclear medicine exams and of 0.96±0.68 mSv caput -1 for the Top 20 diagnostic radiology exams. (authors)

  13. Dose assessment in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, S.

    2013-04-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation bring many benefits to humankind, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. Facilities that use radiation source require special care in the design and operation of equipment to prevent radiation injury to workers or to the public. Despite considerable development of radiation safety, radiation accidents do happen. The purpose of this study is therefore to discuss how to assess doses to people who will be exposed to a range of internal and external radiation sources in the event of radiological accidents. This will go a long way to complement their medical assessment thereby helping to plan their treatment. Three radiological accidents were reviewed to learn about the causes of those accidents and the recommendations that were put in place to prevent recurrence of such accidents. Various types of dose assessment methods were discussed.(au)

  14. Estimates of radiological risk from depleted uranium weapons in war scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2002-01-01

    Several weapons used during the recent conflict in Yugoslavia contain depleted uranium, including missiles and armor-piercing incendiary rounds. Health concern is related to the use of these weapons, because of the heavy-metal toxicity and radioactivity of uranium. Although chemical toxicity is considered the more important source of health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict, and uranium munitions are a possible source of contamination in the environment. Actual measurements of radioactive contamination are needed to assess the risk. In this paper, a computer simulation is proposed to estimate radiological risk related to different exposure scenarios. Dose caused by inhalation of radioactive aerosols and ground contamination induced by Tomahawk missile impact are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (HOTSPOT code). Environmental contamination and committed dose to the population resident in contaminated areas are predicted by a food-web model (RESRAD code). Small values of committed effective dose equivalent appear to be associated with missile impacts (50-y CEDE radiological risk. These computer simulations suggest that little radiological risk is associated to the use of depleted uranium weapons.

  15. Estimation of radiological dose from radon, thoron and their progeny levels in the dwellings of Shivamogga district, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamvi, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2018-01-01

    Among all natural radiation exposure to man, inhalation of radon, thoron and their progenies are the major contributor (50 %) to the dose from ionizing radiation received by the general population. Based on the results of epidemiological studies in Europe and North America, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended reducing the indoor radon reference level from 200 to 100 Bq.m -3 . In view of this, focus has now been given for simultaneous measurement of radon, thoron and their progeny concentration in indoor air and also to estimate radiological dose in the dwellings of the Shivamogga district. The geology of the Shivamogga district comprises different types of rock formation such as granites, schists, magnetites and gneisses, Meta basalt, laterites, quartz and chlorite schist, Graywacke etc. Present study was concentrating more in granite bed rock regions along with their surrounding regions

  16. beta. and. gamma. -comparative dose estimates on Enewetak Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crase, K.W.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Robison, W.L. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore National Lab.)

    1982-05-01

    Enewetak Atoll in the Pacific is used for atmospheric testing of U.S. nuclear weapons. Beta dose and ..gamma..-ray exposure measurements were made on two islands of the Enewetak Atoll during July-August 1976 to determine the ..beta.. and low energy ..gamma..-contribution to the total external radiation doses to the returning Marshallese. Measurements were made at numerous locations with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), pressurized ionization chambers, portable NaI detectors, and thin-window pancake GM probes. Results of the TLD measurements with and without a ..beta..-attenuator indicate that approx. 29% of the total dose rate at 1 m in air is due to ..beta..- or low energy ..gamma..-contribution. The contribution at any particular site, however, is reduced by vegetation. Integral 30-yr external shallow dose estimates for future inhabitants were made and compared with external dose estimates of a previous large scale radiological survey. Integral 30-yr shallow external dose estimates are 25-50% higher than whole body estimates. Due to the low penetrating ability of the ..beta..'s or low energy ..gamma..'s, however, several remedial actions can be taken to reduce the shallow dose contribution to the total external dose.

  17. Metrology of radiation doses in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclet, H.

    2016-01-01

    This article recalls how to calculate effective and equivalent doses in radiology from the measured value of the absorbed dose. The 97/43 EURATOM directive defines irradiation standards for diagnostic radiology (NRD) as the value of the radiation dose received by the patient's skin when the diagnostic exam is performed. NRD values are standard values that can be exceeded only with right medical or technical reasons, they are neither limit values nor optimized values. The purpose of NRD values is to avoid the over-irradiation of patients and to homogenize radiologists' practices. French laws impose how and when radiologists have to calculate the radiation dose received by the patient's skin. The calculated values have to be compared with NRD values and any difference has to be justified. A table gives NRD values for all diagnostic exams. (A.C.)

  18. Radiation dose reduction: comparative assessment of publication volume between interventional and diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Henzler, Thomas; Gaba, Ron C; Morelli, John N

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to quantify and compare awareness regarding radiation dose reduction within the interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology communities. Abstracts accepted to the annual meetings of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed using the search terms "interventional/computed tomography" and "radiation dose/radiation dose reduction." A PubMed query using the above-mentioned search terms for the years of 2005-2015 was performed. Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 14 520 abstracts (mean, 660±297 abstracts) and 80 614 abstracts (mean, 3664±1025 abstracts) were presented at interventional and diagnostic radiology meetings, respectively. Significantly fewer abstracts related to radiation dose were presented at the interventional radiology meetings compared with the diagnostic radiology meetings (162 abstracts [1% of total] vs. 2706 [3% of total]; P radiology abstracts (range, 6-27) and 246±105 diagnostic radiology abstracts (range, 112-389) pertaining to radiation dose were presented at each meeting. The PubMed query revealed an average of 124±39 publications (range, 79-187) and 1205±307 publications (range, 829-1672) related to interventional and diagnostic radiology dose reduction per year, respectively (P radiology community over the past 10 years has not mirrored the increased volume seen within diagnostic radiology, suggesting that increased education and discussion about this topic may be warranted.

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  20. Patient dose during radiological examination in the follow-up of bariatric surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, L.; Cazzani, C.; Tomarchio, O.; Morone, G.; Catona, A.; Fantinato, D.

    2007-01-01

    A patient dose survey was carried out measuring the kerma-area product (KAP) values during radiological evaluation in the follow-up of bariatric surgery. The procedures were performed by three radiologists to adjust laparoscopic gastric bands and to detect postoperative complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures to treat morbid obesity. Total fluoroscopy time, exposure factors and the overall contribution of fluoroscopy to the accumulated KAP value were recorded. The median KAP values were used to estimate organ doses and effective dose to a standard patient; the radiation risk associated with the procedures was also evaluated. The doses were smaller for one of the three radiologists, owing to a more appropriate beam collimation and a reduction of the screening time. The KAP values ranged from 1.6 to 7.1 Gy cm 2 for the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding management, and from 3.0 and 8.3 Gy cm 2 for the radiological examinations after gastric bypass. As a whole, the effective doses associated to these procedures were between 0.5 and 2.7 mSv. The organs receiving the highest doses were not only breast, stomach, pancreas and liver, but also lungs, owing to of their high radiosensitivity, significantly contributed to the effective dose. (authors)

  1. Assessment of fetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, E.K.

    2000-07-01

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose is the influence of fetal size and position as these change with gestational age. Consequently, dose to the fetus is related to gestational age. Most studies of fetal dose estimation during pregnancy assume that the uterus dose is equal to fetal dose. These dose estimates do not take account of gestational age and individual fetal depth, factors which are significant when calculating dose. To establish both positional and size data for estimation of fetal absorbed dose from radiological examinations, the depths from the mother's anterior surface to the mid-line of the fetal head and abdomen were measured from ultrasound scans in 215 pregnant women. Depths were measured along a ray path projected in the anterior-posterior direction from the mother's abdomen. The fetal size was estimated from measurements of the fetal abdominal and head circumference, femur length and the biparietal diameter. The effects of fetal presentation, maternal bladder volume, placenta location, gestational age and maternal AP thickness on fetal depth and size were analysed. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was developed, and used to derive factors for converting dose-area product and free-in-air entrance surface dose from medical exposure of a pregnant patient to absorbed dose to the uterus/embryo, and for converting uterus dose to fetal dose in the later stages of pregnancy. Also presented are factors for converting thermoluminescence dosimeter reading from occupational exposure of a pregnant worker to equivalent dose to the fetus. The MC model was verified experimentally by direct measurement of uterus depth dose in a female Rando phantom, and also by comparison with other experimental work and MC results in the literature. The application of the various conversion factors is demonstrated by a review of the dose estimation process in 50 cases of fetal irradiation from medical exposures. (author)

  2. Estimation of possible radiological hazards from natural radioactivity in commercially-utilized ornamental and countertops granite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, Şeref

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study presents the activity concentrations of radionuclides in granite tile samples. ► The activity concentrations of radionuclides are measured by gamma spectrometer.. ► In this study, possible radiological hazards from usage of these materials are estimated. ► The external exposure index and internal index are calculated. ► The indoor absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to estimate natural radioactivity levels of commercially-utilized ornamental or countertops granite tiles collected from major retailers in Turkey and possible radiological hazards from usage of these materials by calculating external exposure and internal index, indoor absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined for 42 kinds of different granite tiles using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K varied from 9.2 to 192.5 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 88.4 ± 6.9 Bq kg −1 ), 7.5 to 344.6 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 95.3 ± 10.0 Bq kg −1 ) and 92.1 to 4155.9 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 1055.2 ± 103.0 Bq kg −1 ), respectively. The estimated radiological hazard indices were revised in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance. The values of the radiological hazard indices were found to be within relevant all limit values for superficial materials. The indoor absorbed gamma dose rates estimated from the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and the corresponding annual effective doses varied from 4.74 to 85.27 nGy h −1 and 0.02 to 0.42 mSv, respectively.

  3. The estimation of radiation effective dose from diagnostic medical procedures in general population of northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Abdi, R.

    2006-01-01

    The risks of low-dose Ionizing radiation from radiology and nuclear medicine are not clearly determined. Effective dose to population is a very important factor in risk estimation. The study aimed to determine the effective dose from diagnostic radiation medicine in a northern province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about various radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures were collected from all radiology and nuclear medicine departments In Mazandaran Province (population = 2,898,031); and using the standard dosimetry tables, the total dose, dose per examination, and annual effective dose per capita as well as the annual gonadal dose per capita were estimated. Results: 655,730 radiologic examinations in a year's period, lead to 1.45 mSv, 0.33 mSv and 0.31 mGy as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public, and annual average gonadal dose per capita, respectively. The frequency of medical radiologic examinations was 2,262 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. However, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations in the same period was 7074, with 4.37 mSv, 9.6 μSv and 9.8 μGy, as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public and annual average gonadal dose per caput, respectively. The frequency of nuclear medicine examination was 24 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. Conclusion: The average effective dose per examination was nearly similar to other studies. However, the average annual effective dose and annual average gonadal dose per capita were less than the similar values in other reports, which could be due to lesser number of radiation medicine examinations in the present study

  4. Assessment of Patients Radiation Dose During Interventional Radiological Procedure in PPUKM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Salleh; Muhammad Jamal Muhammad Isa

    2014-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a relatively new subspecialty of radiology. It is subspecialty where minimally invasive procedures are performed under radiological guidance using X-ray. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. Because of these it is important to determine radiation doses received by patients undergoing IR procedures. It is to ensure that the dose is within the range deemed to be saved. A total of 128 patients undergoing IR procedures in PPUKM between 2012 and 2013 were study retrospectively. Dose area product (DAP) meter were used to measure the integral dose for the whole procedures. Mean kerma-area products for abdomen, head, pelvis, and thorax were 243.1, 107.3, 39.05 and 45.7 Gycm 2 , respectively. This study may provide the useful information which can be use to establish baseline patient dose data for dose optimizing study and carried out a recommendation on effective method of patient dose reduction during IR procedures. A more detail results of this study are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Dose estimation by biological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; David C, L.; Serment G, J.; Brena V, M.

    1997-01-01

    The human being is exposed to strong artificial radiation sources, mainly of two forms: the first is referred to the occupationally exposed personnel (POE) and the second, to the persons that require radiological treatment. A third form less common is by accidents. In all these conditions it is very important to estimate the absorbed dose. The classical biological dosimetry is based in the dicentric analysis. The present work is part of researches to the process to validate the In situ Fluorescent hybridation (FISH) technique which allows to analyse the aberrations on the chromosomes. (Author)

  6. Pediatric radiology for medical-technical radiology assistants/radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppelt, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    The book on pediatric radiology includes the following chapter: differences between adults and children; psycho-social aspects concerning the patient child in radiology; relevant radiation doses in radiology; help for self-help: simple phantoms for image quality estimation in pediatric radiology; general information; immobilization of the patient; pediatric features for radiological settings; traumatology; contrast agents; biomedical radiography; computerized tomography; NMR imaging; diagnostic ultrasonography; handling of stress practical recommendations; medical displays.

  7. Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology; Protocolo y resultados de las estimaciones de dosis equivalente en utero en 500 exploraciones de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago Gomez, P.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.; Gomez Cores, S.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Gomez Calvar, R.; Herranz Crespo, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

  8. Estimation of the collective effective dose to the population from medical X-ray examinations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenkanen-Rautakoskia, Petra; Jaervinen, Hannu; Bly, Ritva

    2008-01-01

    The collective effective dose to the population from all X-ray examinations in Finland in 2005 was estimated. The numbers of X-ray examinations were collected by a questionnaire to the health care units (response rate 100 %). The effective doses in plain radiography were calculated using a Monte Carlo based program (PCXMC), as average values for selected health care units. For computed tomography (CT), weighted dose length product (DLP w ) in a standard phantom was measured for routine CT protocols of four body regions, for 80 % of CT scanners including all types. The effective doses were calculated from DPL w values using published conversion factors. For contrast-enhanced radiology and interventional radiology, the effective dose was estimated mainly by using published DAP values and conversion factors for given body regions. About 733 examinations per 1000 inhabitants (excluding dental) were made in 2005, slightly less than in 2000. The proportions of plain radiography, computed tomography, contrast-enhanced radiography and interventional procedures were about 92, 7, 1 and 1 %, respectively. From 2000, the frequencies (number of examinations per 1000 inhabitants) of plain radiography and contrast-enhanced radiography have decreased about 8 and 33 %, respectively, while the frequencies of CT and interventional radiology have increased about 28 and 38 %, respectively. The population dose from all X-ray examinations is about 0.43 mSv per person (in 1997 0.5 mSv). About half of this is caused by CT (in 1997 only 20 %) although the relative number of CT examinations is only 7 %. The contribution by plain radiography is 19 %, interventional radiology 17 %, and contrast-enhanced radiology 14 %. It is concluded that CT examinations are the major source of the population dose, while interventional radiology gives about the same population dose as plain radiography. For plain radiography, body examinations cause the highest effective dose. (author)

  9. Physical dose reconstruction in case of radiological accidents: an asset for the victims' management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Christelle; Trompier, Francois; Clairand, Isabelle; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    In most cases of radiological accidents caused by an external source, the irradiation is heterogeneous, even for a whole body irradiation. Therefore, more than a whole body dose, estimating the dose distribution in the victim's organism is essential to assess biological damages. This dose distribution can be obtained by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. The laboratory has developed several techniques based on experimental and numerical dose reconstruction and retrospective dosimetry by ESR in order to assess as accurately as possible and as quickly as possible the dose received and especially its distribution throughout the organism so that the physicians may fine tune their diagnosis and prescribe the most suitable treatment. These last years, these techniques were applied several times and each time the results obtained proved to be essential for the physicians in charge of the victims in order to define the therapeutic strategy. This article proposes a review of the physical dose reconstructions performed in the laboratory for recent radiological accidents focusing on the complementarity of the methods and the gain for the victims' management. (author)

  10. HASCAL -- A system for estimating contamination and doses from incidents at worldwide nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (HASCAL) is being developed to support the analysis of radiological incidents anywhere in the world for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA). HASCAL is a component of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), which is a comprehensive nuclear, biological, and chemical hazard effects planning and forecasting modeling system that is being developed by DNA. HASCAL computes best-guess estimates of the consequences of radiological incidents. HASCAL estimates the amount of radioactivity released, its atmospheric transport and deposition, and the resulting radiological doses

  11. Estimation of doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness from external occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Delin; Dai Guangfu

    1991-01-01

    The doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness who had engaged in diagnostic radiology have been estimated according to the radiation work load, type and capacity of X-ray equipment, protection conditions, data of nationwide survey on doses to X-ray workers in China, or the data of dose monitoring in working places. Based on the activities of radium sources, time taken up in performing radium therapy, distance to radium sources and radiation work load, the doses to patients who had engaged in radium therapy have been estimated. The results of estimated average doses for 29 cases of chronic radiation sickness are given. Their average red marrow dose, trunk dose and effective dose equivalent are 1.3 Gy, 1.2 Gy and 1.6 Sv, respectively

  12. Dose and dose-rate effects of ionizing radiation: a discussion in the light of radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehm, Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Woloschak, Gayle E. [Northwestern University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Shore, Roy E. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), Hiroshima City (Japan); Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Grosche, Bernd [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Niwa, Ohtsura [Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan); Akiba, Suminori [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ono, Tetsuya [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori-ken (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji [Nagasaki University, Department of Radiation Medical Sciences, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiyasu [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Ban, Nobuhiko [Tokyo Healthcare University, Faculty of Nursing, Tokyo (Japan); Kai, Michiaki [Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Science, Oita (Japan); Clement, Christopher H.; Hamada, Nobuyuki [International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), PO Box 1046, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Bouffler, Simon [Public Health England (PHE), Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Toma, Hideki [JAPAN NUS Co., Ltd. (JANUS), Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The biological effects on humans of low-dose and low-dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation have always been of major interest. The most recent concept as suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is to extrapolate existing epidemiological data at high doses and dose rates down to low doses and low dose rates relevant to radiological protection, using the so-called dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The present paper summarizes what was presented and discussed by experts from ICRP and Japan at a dedicated workshop on this topic held in May 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This paper describes the historical development of the DDREF concept in light of emerging scientific evidence on dose and dose-rate effects, summarizes the conclusions recently drawn by a number of international organizations (e.g., BEIR VII, ICRP, SSK, UNSCEAR, and WHO), mentions current scientific efforts to obtain more data on low-dose and low-dose-rate effects at molecular, cellular, animal and human levels, and discusses future options that could be useful to improve and optimize the DDREF concept for the purpose of radiological protection. (orig.)

  13. Paediatric radiology and scientific contributions to radiation dose at the meeting of the German Radiological Society-An analysis of an 11-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, Christoph M.; Lemburg, Stefan P.; Peters, Soeren A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the emphasis on themes pertaining to paediatric radiology and radiation dose at the Meeting of the German Radiological Society from 1998 to 2008 in comparison to international data. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 9440 abstracts with documentation of type of contribution, imaging modality, and examined body region. Abstracts primarily dealing with paediatric radiology and those stating radiation dose were documented. Results were compared with a Pubmed query. Results: 448 contributions in paediatric radiology were presented corresponding to 5% of all abstracts with an increase from 5 (1998) to 7% (2008). The proportion of prospective studies of all congress contributions was 10%, whereas in paediatric radiology, the share of prospective studies was 6%. From 1998 to 2008, the share of MRI fell from 48 to 38%, while CT contributions rose from 30 to 34%. Within paediatric radiology, the proportion of CT rose from 23 to 29%, while MRI and ultrasound fell from 63 to 48% and 35 to 19%, respectively. The share of abstracts dealing with radiation dose rose from 7 to 10% while that primarily pertaining to dose reduction grew from 2 to 4%. Of all abstracts concerning CT, 15% touched on radiation dose, whereas 6% primarily dealt with dose reduction. Among all abstracts dealing with paediatric radiology, 20 and 6% mentioned radiation dose and dose reduction, respectively. In the subgroup of paediatric radiology CT abstracts, radiation dose and dose reduction were mentioned in 34 and 16%, respectively. An online query produced 137,791 publications on CT, of whose abstracts 3% mentioned radiation dose and 0.5% mentioned dose reduction. 11% of all CT publications dealt with paediatric populations and 2% of these publications examined questions of radiation dose. Conclusions: In the last 11 years the Meeting of the German Radiological Society has presented a growing number of contributions pertaining to paediatric radiology. CT has shown the

  14. A method for optimization of patient dose estimation in conventional radiology; Un metodo per l'ottimizzazione della stima della dose al paziente nella radiologia tradizionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofani, A.; Del Corona, A. [Azienda Unita' Sanitaria Locale 6, Livorno (Italy). Unita' Ospedaliera di Fisica Sanitaria; Niespolo, A. [Azienda Ospedaliera Pisana, Pisa (Italy). Unita' Ospedaliera di Fisica Sanitaria

    2000-05-01

    The method recommended by Report no. 34 (1982) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for patient dose computation in diagnostic radiology is based on tabulated dosimetric data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations on anthropomorphic phantoms described by simple mathematical functions. When computing the dose absorbed by an adult patient, this method suffers from two main limitations: first, the geometrical parameters and in particular focus to film distance and film size are fixed, which makes the dosimetric data of limited use when the examination geometry differs form the ICRP standard. In addition, when patient size and mass differ considerably from the corresponding quantities of the mathematically described phantom (the so-called reference man, with a height of 174 cm and a mass of 70.9 Kg) the ICRP method may lead to great errors in dose estimate. The aim of the present paper is to indicate a method to overcome the above limitations. The algorithm proposed in this work is based on the method suggested by Huda Gkanatsios in order to compute the effective dose through a linear first of the energy imparted per unit dose-area product a function of the half value thickness and by using a fit coefficients depending on both phantom thickness and peak voltage. It was devised a procedure to normalize the dose computed with this methods with respect to the equivalent effective dose obtained with the ICRP method. Therefore it was determined the dependence of the absorbed dose on focus-to-film distance, film size and patient anatomy. It was found that for each value of patient mass the dose dependence on film size can be approximated by a polynomial function, while the dose dependence on focus-to-film distance can be approximated by a power law. If the above parameters vary in a limited range close to the ICRP standard, a linear fit can be performed without introducing a considerable error. The linear fit coefficients, on the other hand, were

  15. beta- and gamma-Comparative dose estimates on Eniwetok Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crase, K.W.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Robison, W.L.

    1982-05-01

    Eniwetok Atoll is one of the Pacific atolls used for atmospheric testing of U.S. nuclear weapons. Beta dose and gamma-ray exposure measurements were made on two islands of the Eniwetok Atoll during July-August 1976 to determine the beta and low energy gamma-contribution to the total external radiation doses to the returning Marshallese. Measurements were made at numerous locations with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), pressurized ionization chambers, portable NaI detectors, and thin-window pancake GM probes. Results of the TLD measurements with and without a beta-attenuator indicate that approx. 29% of the total dose rate at 1 m in air is due to beta- or low energy gamma-contribution. The contribution at any particular site, however, is somewhat dependent on ground cover, since a minimal amount of vegetation will reduce it significantly from that over bare soil, but thick stands of vegetation have little effect on any further reductions. Integral 30-yr external shallow dose estimates for future inhabitants were made and compared with external dose estimates of a previous large scale radiological survey (En73). Integral 30-yr shallow external dose estimates are 25-50% higher than whole body estimates. Due to the low penetrating ability of the beta's or low energy gamma's, however, several remedial actions can be taken to reduce the shallow dose contribution to the total external dose.

  16. Double dosimetry procedures for the determination of occupational effective dose in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, H.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Nikodemova, D.; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In interventional radiology, for an accurate determination of occupational effective dose, measurements with two dosemeters ('double dosimetry', DD) have been recommended, one dosemeter located above and one under the protective apron. In this paper, based on an extensive literature search, the most recent algorithms developed for the determination of effective dose from the dosimeter readings have been compared for a few practical interventional procedures. Recommendations on the practices and algorithms are given on the basis of the results. For the comparison of algorithms, dosemeter readings and the effective dose were obtained both experimentally and by calculation. Further, data from published Monte Carlo calculations have been applied. The literature review has indicated that very few regulations for DD exist and the DD practices have not been harmonized. There is no firm consensus on the most suitable calculation algorithms. Single dosemeter (SD) measurements are still mostly used for the calculation of effective dose. Most DD and SD algorithms overestimate effective dose significantly, sometimes by over ten times. However, SD algorithms can significantly underestimate effective dose in certain interventional radiology conditions. Due to the possibility of underestimating effective dose, DD is generally recommended. The results suggest that there might not be a single DD algorithm which would be optimum for all interventional radiology procedures. However, the selection of a precise DD algorithm for each individual condition is not practical and compromises must be made. For accurate personnel dosimetry, the accuracy of the algorithm selected should be tested for typical local interventional radiology condition. Personnel dosemeters should be used in the recommended positions. The dosemeter above the apron should be on a collar and its reading also used to assess the risk of lens injuries. The dosemeter under the apron can be on the chest or

  17. Estimation of doses to patients from ''complex'' conventional X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzado, A.; Vano, E.; Moran, P.; Ruiz, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Castellote, C.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to estimate organ doses and effective dose-equivalent for patients undergoing three 'complex' examinations (barium meal, barium enema and intravenous urography). The separation of radiological procedures into a set of standard numerical views is based on the use of Monte Carlo conversion factors and measurements within a Remab phantom. Radiation doses measured in a phantom for such examinations were compared with predictions of the ''numerical'' method. Dosimetric measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters attached to the patient's skin along with measurements of the dose-area product during the examination have enabled the derivation of organ doses and to estimate effective dose-equivalent. Mean frequency weighted values of dose-area product, energy imparted to the patient, doses to a set of organs and effective dose-equivalent in the area of Madrid are reported. Comparisons of results with those from similar surveys in other countries were made. (author)

  18. Development of radiological concentrations and unit liter doses for TWRS FSAR radiological consequence calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms

  19. Radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohnen, M.; Kemper, J.; Moedder, U.; Moebes, O.; Pawelzik, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT). An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom and two anatomical head phantoms with thermoluminescent dosimeters fixed at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR and DVT, standard parameters were used while variables in CT included mA, pitch, and rotation time. Image noise was assessed in dental CT and DVT. Radiation doses to the skin and internal organs within the primary beam and resulting from scatter radiation were measured and expressed as maximum doses in mGy. For PR, DVT, and CT, these maximum doses were 0.65, 4.2, and 23 mGy. In dose-reduced CT protocols, radiation doses ranged from 10.9 to 6.1 mGy. Effective doses calculated on this basis showed values below 0.1 mSv for PR, DVT, and dose-reduced CT. Image noise was similar in DVT and low-dose CT. As radiation exposure and image noise of DVT is similar to low-dose CT, this imaging technique cannot be recommended as a general alternative to replace PR in dental radiology. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil; Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-01-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  1. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974. II. Estimation of genetically significant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Kumamoto, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    The genetically significant dose from radiographic and fluoroscopic examination in Japan has been estimated based on a 1974 nation wide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics. The gonad dose during x-ray diagnosis was determined with an ionization chamber placed at the positions of ovary and testis in a Rando phantom. The instrumented phantom was irradiated with medical diagnostic x-rays on the basis of the exposure data on the patients selected in the nation wide survey. In the calculation of the genetically significant dose, the child expectancy of the patients that undergo each particular type of examination was assumed to be same as that of the general population. The resultant genetically significant dose was 11.1 and 5.43 mrad per person per year for radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. These values were compared with those of 1960 and 1969. Though the number of examinations per year shows a yearly increase, the genetically significant dose is gradually on the decrease. This may be due to technical improvements in medical radiological practices.

  2. Rapid radiological characterization method based on the use of dose coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Toma, Al.; Dobrin, R.; Valeca, M.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention actions in case of radiological emergencies and exploratory radiological surveys require rapid methods for the evaluation of the range and extent of contamination. When simple and homogeneous radionuclide composition characterize the radioactive contamination, surrogate measurements can be used to reduce the costs implied by laboratory analyses and to speed-up the process of decision support. A dose-rate measurement-based methodology can be used in conjunction with adequate dose coefficients to assess radionuclide inventories and to calculate dose projections for various intervention scenarios. The paper presents the results obtained for dose coefficients in some particular exposure geometries and the methodology used for deriving dose rate guidelines from activity concentration upper levels specified as contamination limits. All calculations were performed by using the commercial software MicroShield from Grove Software Inc. A test case was selected as to meet the conditions from EPA Federal Guidance Report no. 12 (FGR12) concerning the evaluation of dose coefficients for external exposure from contaminated soil and the obtained results were compared to values given in the referred document. The geometries considered as test cases are: contaminated ground surface; - infinite extended homogeneous surface contamination and soil contaminated to a depth of 15 cm. As shown by the results, the values agree within 50% relative difference for most of the cases. The greatest discrepancies were observed for depth contamination simulation and in the case of radionuclides with complicated gamma emission and this is due to the different approach from MicroShield and FGR12. A case study is presented for validation of the methodology, where both dose rate measurements and laboratory analyses were performed on an extended quasi-homogeneous NORM contamination. The dose rate estimations obtained by applying the dose coefficients to the radionuclide concentrations

  3. Estimation of the genetically significant dose resulting from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1978-01-01

    Based on the average gonad dose received per examination or per film and on the frequency of x-ray examinations (36 million per annum), the mean annual gonad dose to individuals in the GDR has been determined to be 33 mR. Considering different age groups of patients and the fact that the gonad dose to children is often significantly reduced in comparison to adults, estimates of the genetically significant dose (GSD) range from 7 to 19 mR per annum. Examinations of women have accounted for about 66 per cent of the GSD. The highest contribution to the GSD result from examinations of the following organs: kidneys, colon, bile duct (only in women), lumbar spine, pelois, hips, and proximal femur. Despite their high frequency, examinations of the stomach account for only about 3 per cent of the GSD. All thorax examinations (nearly 10,000,000 per annum) contribute less than 0.5 per cent, and the most frequent x-ray examinations of the skeletal system, skull, cervical spine, and teeth account for less than 3 per cent. The GSD values obtained are comparable with those from countries such as India, Japan, Netherlands, USSR, and USA. (author)

  4. Eye lens dose estimation during interventional radiology and its impact on the existing radiation protection and safety program: in the context with new International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Interventional radiology procedures are used for diagnosing certain medical conditions. The radiologists and medical professionals are exposed to ionizing radiation from X-rays of the equipments and also from scattered radiation during these procedures. The radiation exposure to the eye is more important to be assessed while performing such procedures. ICRP has revised the annual dose limit to the lens of the eye from 150 mSv to 20 mSv. In view of this revision, a study was carried out to evaluate the dose to the lens of the eye during interventional radiology. The paper gives the details of calibration of TLDs using a head phantom, predict annual equivalent dose and also highlight the dependence of dose on the position of TLD on the head. It is observed the predicted annual equivalent doses to the lens of eye are in the range of 25 mGy to 37 mGy. The selection of dosimeter placement may also result in an uncertainty of -14% to 20%. (author)

  5. Dose estimates in a loss of lead shielding truck accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John (Alion Science & Technology Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-08-01

    The radiological transportation risk & consequence program, RADTRAN, has recently added an updated loss of lead shielding (LOS) model to it most recent version, RADTRAN 6.0. The LOS model was used to determine dose estimates to first-responders during a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident. Results varied according to the following: type of accident scenario, percent of lead slump, distance to shipment, and time spent in the area. This document presents a method of creating dose estimates for first-responders using RADTRAN with potential accident scenarios. This may be of particular interest in the event of high speed accidents or fires involving cask punctures.

  6. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Metivier, Jean-Michel; Ritz, Christian; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Pape Moeller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h -1 ) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h -1 ), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-transformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011-2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity. (authors)

  7. Evaluations of gonad and fetal doses for diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, C J; Tsai, H Y

    1999-07-01

    A national survey of patient doses for diagnostic radiology was planned in the Republic of China. We performed a pilot study for this survey to develop a protocol of the dose assessments. Entrance skin doses and organ (including ovary, testicle and uterus) doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations for several diagnostic procedures. We derived a formula and used the RadComp software for the computation of entrance skin doses. This formula involves several factors, such as kVp, mAs, the focus-to-skin-distance and aluminum filtration. RadComp software was applied to obtain free-air entrance exposures which were converted to entrance skin doses by considering the backscattering radiation from the body. Organ doses were measured using a RANDO phantom and calculated using a mathematical phantom for several diagnostic examinations. Genetically significant doses were calculated from ovary and testicle doses for the evaluation of hereditary effects. Embryo/fetal doses were determined from the uterine doses by considering the increase in uterus size with gestational age. We found that the patient doses studied in this work were all below the reference doses recommended by the National Radiological Protection Board of the U.K.

  8. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  9. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  10. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto; Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens

  11. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto; Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  12. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor, E-mail: halva@ciencias.unam.mx [Unidad de Imagen Molecular PET/CT, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F. (Mexico); Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto [Unidad de Imagen Molecular PET/CT, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F., Mexico and Departamento de Neuroimagen, Instituto Nacional de (Mexico); Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús [Departamento de Neuroimagen, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  13. Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A; Miller, Donald L; Lee, Choonsik; Melo, Dunstana R; Villoing, Daphnée; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Winters, Sarah J; Labrake, Michael; Myers, Charles F; Lim, Hyeyeun; Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2017-12-01

    This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy). Thyroid uptake nuclear medicine examinations and pancreatic scans also gave relatively high doses to the thyroid (64 mGy and 21 mGy, respectively, in the 1960s). In the 21st century, the highest thyroid doses still result from nuclear medicine thyroid scans (130 mGy), but high thyroid doses are also associated with chest/abdomen/pelvis CT scans (18 and 19 mGy for males and females, respectively). Thyroid doses from CT scans did not exhibit the same downward trend as observed for other examinations. The largest thyroid doses from conventional radiography came from cervical spine and skull examinations. Thyroid doses from mammography (which began in the 1960s) were generally a fraction of 1 mGy. The highest average doses to the thyroid from mammography were about 0.42 mGy, with modestly larger doses associated with imaging of breasts with large compressed thicknesses. Thyroid doses from dental radiographic procedures have decreased markedly throughout the decades, from an average of 390 mGy for a full-mouth series in the 1930s to an average of 0.31 mGy today. Upper GI series fluoroscopy examinations resulted in up to two orders of magnitude lower thyroid doses than the barium swallow. There are

  14. Absorbed Doses to Embryo from Intravenous Urography at Selected Radiological Departments in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkus, R.; Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.

    2003-01-01

    Actual legislation used in radiological protection requires quality assurance program for decreasing radiation load of patients from radiological examinations. The information about irradiation of pregnant women is very important, because the embryo is more radiosensitive as adult organism. On the basis of absence of unified calculations or measurements of absorbed doses to embryo from various radiological examinations in Slovakia we present in this study the values of absorbed doses to embryo from intravenous urography at selected radiological departments in Slovakia. Absorbed doses to embryo were obtained by measurement and calculation using the simulation of irradiation of pregnant woman by intravenous urography. The results of our study indicate, that absorbed doses to embryo were at various radiological departments considerably different, depending on type of X-ray machine and different settings of technical parameters of X-ray machine. In accordance with worldwide trend it is necessary to decrease radiation load of patients as low as possible level. Differences in radiation load between radiological departments indicate, that it is necessary to continue in solving of this problem and perform measurements and calculations of absorbed doses to embryo at different types of X-ray machines and at different examinations, where the embryo is in direct beam of X-ray. (author)

  15. Assessment of eye lens doses for workers during interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urboniene, A.; Sadzeviciene, E.; Ziliukas, J.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of eye lens doses for workers during interventional radiology (IR) procedures was performed using a new eye lens dosemeter. In parallel, the results of routine individual monitoring were analysed and compared with the results obtained from measurements with a new eye lens dosemeter. The eye lens doses were assessed using H p (3) measured at the level of the eyes and were compared with H p (10) measured with the whole-body dosemeter above the lead collar. The information about use of protective measures, the number of performed interventional procedures per month and their fluoroscopy time was also collected. The assessment of doses to the lens of the eye was done for 50 IR workers at 9 Lithuanian hospitals for the period of 2012-2013. If the use of lead glasses is not taken into account, the estimated maximum annual dose equivalent to the lens of the eye was 82 mSv. (authors)

  16. ICRP recommendations on 'managing patient dose in digital radiology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.

    2005-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) approved the publication of a document on 'Managing patient dose in digital radiology' in 2003. The paper describes the content of the report and some of its key points, together with the formal recommendations of the Commission on this topic. With digital techniques exists not only the potential to improve the practice of radiology but also the risk to overuse radiation. The main advantages of digital imaging: wide dynamic range, post-processing, multiple viewing options, electronic transfer and archiving possibilities are clear but overexposures can occur without an adverse impact on image quality. It is expected that the ICRP report helps to profit from the benefits of this important technological advance in medical imaging with the best management of radiation doses to the patients. It is also expected to promote training actions before the digital techniques are introduced in the radiology departments and to foster the industry to offer enough technical and dosimetric information to radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists to help in the optimisation of the imaging. (authors)

  17. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  18. Potential effects of climatic change on radiological doses from disposal of Canadian nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental assessment of deep geologic disposal of Canadian nuclear fuel waste considers many processes that could affect radionuclide transport to humans over thousands of years. Climatic change is an important feature that will occur over these long times. Glaciation will likely occur within the next 100,000 years over much of Canada, and its impact on radiological doses has been assessed previously. In the present study, we investigate the potential effect of short- term climatic change, usually associated with global warming caused by increases in atmospheric trace gases. We study the main biosphere transport pathways causing a radiological dose to humans from 129 I, which is the most important radionuclide in disposal of Canadian used nuclear fuel. Irrigation of a garden with contaminated well water is the main pathway and it can be affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. A cold, wet climate decreases the need for irrigation, and this decreases the radiological dose. A drastic climatic change, such as an increase in temperature from 10 to 20 degrees C and decrease in precipitation from 0.3 to 0.2 m during the growing season, is estimated to increase the dose by a factor of four. This is a relatively small change compared to the range of doses that arise from the variability and uncertainty in many of the parameters used in the environmental assessment models. Therefore, it is likely that the results of probabilistic dose assessment models can include the consequences of short-term climatic change. 39 refs., 3 figs

  19. A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-05-01

    The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with

  20. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Sulieman, A.; Alsafi, K.; Omer, H.

    2014-08-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  1. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90 Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240 Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137 Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  2. Development of double dosimetry algorithm for assessment of effective dose to staff in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young

    2011-02-15

    Medical staff involving interventional radiology(IR) procedures are significantly exposed to the scatter radiation because they stand in close proximity to the patient. Since modern IR techniques are often very complicated and require extended operation time, doses to IR workers tend to increase considerably. In general, the personal dose equivalent at 10 mm depth, H{sub p}(10), read from one dosimeter worn on the trunk of a radiation worker is assumed to be a good estimate of the effective dose and compared to the dose limits for regulatory compliance. This assumption is based on the exposure conditions that the radiation field is broad and rather homogeneous. However, IR workers usually wear protective clothing like lead aprons and thyroid shield which allow part of the body being exposed to much higher doses. To solve this problem, i.e. to adequately estimate the effective doses of IR workers, use of double dosimeters, one under the apron and one over the apron where unshielded part of the body exposed, was recommended. Several algorithms on the interpretation of the two dosimeter readings have been proposed. However, the dosimeter weighting factors applied to the algorithm differ significantly, which quests a question on the reliability of the algorithm. Moreover, there are some changes in the process of calculating the effective dose in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP): changes in the radiation weighting factors, tissue weighting factors and the computational reference phantoms. Therefore, this study attempts to set a new algorithm for interpreting two dosimeter readings to provide a proper estimate of the effective dose for IR workers, incorporating those changes in definition of effective dose. The effective doses were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations for various practical conditions based on the vogel reference phantom and the new tissue weighting factors. A quasi-effective dose, which is

  3. Development of double dosimetry algorithm for assessment of effective dose to staff in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Young

    2011-02-01

    Medical staff involving interventional radiology(IR) procedures are significantly exposed to the scatter radiation because they stand in close proximity to the patient. Since modern IR techniques are often very complicated and require extended operation time, doses to IR workers tend to increase considerably. In general, the personal dose equivalent at 10 mm depth, H p (10), read from one dosimeter worn on the trunk of a radiation worker is assumed to be a good estimate of the effective dose and compared to the dose limits for regulatory compliance. This assumption is based on the exposure conditions that the radiation field is broad and rather homogeneous. However, IR workers usually wear protective clothing like lead aprons and thyroid shield which allow part of the body being exposed to much higher doses. To solve this problem, i.e. to adequately estimate the effective doses of IR workers, use of double dosimeters, one under the apron and one over the apron where unshielded part of the body exposed, was recommended. Several algorithms on the interpretation of the two dosimeter readings have been proposed. However, the dosimeter weighting factors applied to the algorithm differ significantly, which quests a question on the reliability of the algorithm. Moreover, there are some changes in the process of calculating the effective dose in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP): changes in the radiation weighting factors, tissue weighting factors and the computational reference phantoms. Therefore, this study attempts to set a new algorithm for interpreting two dosimeter readings to provide a proper estimate of the effective dose for IR workers, incorporating those changes in definition of effective dose. The effective doses were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations for various practical conditions based on the vogel reference phantom and the new tissue weighting factors. A quasi-effective dose, which is

  4. Simulation-based computation of dose to humans in radiological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breazeal, N.L.; Davis, K.R.; Watson, R.A.; Vickers, D.S.; Ford, M.S.

    1996-03-01

    The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans working in radiological environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO simulation software. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide radiation exposure information to, and collect radiation dose information from, workcell simulations. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these databases to compute and accumulate dose to programmable human models operating around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. The entire REMS capability can be operated from a single graphical user interface

  5. Simulation-based computation of dose to humans in radiological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeal, N.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, K.R.; Watson, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vickers, D.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Ford, M.S. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Safety

    1996-03-01

    The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans working in radiological environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO simulation software. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide radiation exposure information to, and collect radiation dose information from, workcell simulations. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these databases to compute and accumulate dose to programmable human models operating around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. The entire REMS capability can be operated from a single graphical user interface.

  6. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verius, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Euratom directive 2013/59 (''EU directive for radiation protection'') has to be implemented into national law by spring 2018 and requires a complete recording of patient dosages and relevant parameters. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data. When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. Depending on the information provided by the modality, dose management systems can operate at different levels in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiological and hospital information systems (RIS/HIS) or with the header information of a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image and evaluate and analyze this data. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology (IT) administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. (orig.) [de

  7. Effective dose delivered by conventional radiology to Aosta Valley population between 2002 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, F; Aimonetto, S; Catuzzo, P; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Marchisio, P; Natrella, M; Rosanò, A M; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Medical diagnostic procedures can be considered the main man-made source of ionising radiation exposure for the population. Conventional radiography still represents the largest contribution to examination frequency. The present work evaluates procedure frequency and effective dose from the majority of conventional radiology examinations performed at the Radiological Department of Aosta Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Method Effective dose to the patient was evaluated by means of the software PCXMC. Data provided by the radiological information system allowed us to obtain collective effective and per caput dose. Results The biggest contributors to per caput effective dose from conventional radiology are vertebral column, abdomen, chest, pelvis and (limited to females) breast. Vertebral column, pelvis and breast procedures show a significant dose increment in the period of the study. The mean effective dose per inhabitant from conventional radiology increased from 0.131 mSv in 2002 to 0.156 mSv in 2009. Combining these figures with those from our study of effective dose from CT (0.55 mSv in 2002 to 1.03 mSv in 2009), the total mean effective dose per inhabitant increased from 0.68 mSv to 1.19 mSv. The contribution of CT increased from 81% to 87% of the total. In contrast, conventional radiology accounts for 85% of the total number of procedures, but only 13% of the effective dose. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that conventional radiography still represents the biggest contributor to examination frequency in Aosta Valley in 2009. However, the frequency of the main procedures did not change significantly between 2002 and 2009. PMID:21937611

  8. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Esra Abdalrhman Dfaalla

    2013-06-01

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  9. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  10. Preliminary assessment of radiological doses in alternative waste management systems without an MRS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Pelto, P.J.; Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.; Fecht, B.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents generic analyses of radiological dose impacts of nine hypothetical changes in the operation of a waste management system without a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The waste management activities examined in this study include those for handling commercial spent fuel at nuclear power reactors and at the surface facilities of a deep geologic repository, and the transportation of spent fuel by rail and truck between the reactors and the repository. In the reference study system, the radiological doses to the public and to the occupational workers are low, about 170 person-rem/1000 metric ton of uranium (MTU) handled with 70% of the fuel transported by rail and 30% by truck. The radiological doses to the public are almost entirely from transportation, whereas the doses to the occupational workers are highest at the reactors and the repository. Operating alternatives examined included using larger transportation casks, marshaling rail cars into multicar dedicated trains, consolidating spent fuel at the reactors, and wet or dry transfer options of spent fuel from dry storage casks. The largest contribution to radiological doses per unit of spent fuel for both the public and occupational workers would result from use of truck transportation casks, which are smaller than rail casks. Thus, reducing the number of shipments by increasing cask sizes and capacities (which also would reduce the number of casks to be handled at the terminals) would reduce the radiological doses in all cases. Consolidating spent fuel at the reactors would reduce the radiological doses to the public but would increase the doses to the occupational workers at the reactors

  11. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint'Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila; Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de

    2011-01-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  12. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint' Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  13. EcoDoses. Improving radiological assessment of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. A status report for the NKS-B project 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Isaksson, M.; Nilsson, Elisabeth (and others)

    2005-07-01

    The NKS B-programme EcoDoses project started in 2003 as a collaboration between all the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve the radiological assessments of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. The present report sums up the work performed in the second phase of the project. The main topics in 2004 have been: (i) A continuation of previous work with a better approach for estimating global fallout on a regional or national scale, based on a correlation between precipitation and deposition rates. (ii) Fur-ther extension of the EcoDoses milk database. Estimation of effective ecological half lives of {sup 137}Cs in cows milk focussing on suitable post-Chernobyl time-series. Modelling integrated transfer of {sup 13}7{sup C}s to cow's milk from Nordic countries. (iii) Determination of effective ecological half lives for fresh water fish from Nordic lakes. (iv) Investigate ra-dioecological sensitivity for Nordic populations. (v) Food-chain modelling using the Eco-sys-model, which is the underlying food- and dose-module in several computerised deci-sion-making systems. (au)

  14. EcoDoses. Improving radiological assessment of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. A status report for the NKS-B project 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Isaksson, M.; Nilsson, Elisabeth

    2005-07-01

    The NKS B-programme EcoDoses project started in 2003 as a collaboration between all the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve the radiological assessments of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. The present report sums up the work performed in the second phase of the project. The main topics in 2004 have been: (i) A continuation of previous work with a better approach for estimating global fallout on a regional or national scale, based on a correlation between precipitation and deposition rates. (ii) Fur-ther extension of the EcoDoses milk database. Estimation of effective ecological half lives of 137 Cs in cows milk focussing on suitable post-Chernobyl time-series. Modelling integrated transfer of 13 7 C s to cow's milk from Nordic countries. (iii) Determination of effective ecological half lives for fresh water fish from Nordic lakes. (iv) Investigate ra-dioecological sensitivity for Nordic populations. (v) Food-chain modelling using the Eco-sys-model, which is the underlying food- and dose-module in several computerised deci-sion-making systems. (au)

  15. Patient absorbed radiation doses estimation related to irradiation anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Flavio Augusto Penna; Soares, Amanda Anastacio; Kahl, Gabrielly Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Developed a direct equation to estimate the absorbed dose to the patient in x-ray examinations, using electric, geometric parameters and filtering combined with data from irradiated anatomy. To determine the absorbed dose for each examination, the entrance skin dose (ESD) is adjusted to the thickness of the patient's specific anatomy. ESD is calculated from the estimated KERMA greatness in the air. Beer-Lambert equations derived from power data mass absorption coefficients obtained from the NIST / USA, were developed for each tissue: bone, muscle, fat and skin. Skin thickness was set at 2 mm and the bone was estimated in the central ray of the site, in the anteroposterior view. Because they are similar in density and attenuation coefficients, muscle and fat are treated as a single tissue. For evaluation of the full equations, we chose three different anatomies: chest, hand and thigh. Although complex in its shape, the equations simplify direct determination of absorbed dose from the characteristics of the equipment and patient. The input data is inserted at a single time and total absorbed dose (mGy) is calculated instantly. The average error, when compared with available data, is less than 5% in any combination of device data and exams. In calculating the dose for an exam and patient, the operator can choose the variables that will deposit less radiation to the patient through the prior analysis of each combination of variables, using the ALARA principle in routine diagnostic radiology sector

  16. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  17. Automatic Estimation of the Radiological Inventory for the Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Felipe, A.; Gutierrez, S.; Salas, E.; Martin, N.

    2008-01-01

    The estimation of the radiological inventory of Nuclear Facilities to be dismantled is a process that included information related with the physical inventory of all the plant and radiological survey. Estimation of the radiological inventory for all the components and civil structure of the plant could be obtained with mathematical models with statistical approach. A computer application has been developed in order to obtain the radiological inventory in an automatic way. Results: A computer application that is able to estimate the radiological inventory from the radiological measurements or the characterization program has been developed. In this computer applications has been included the statistical functions needed for the estimation of the central tendency and variability, e.g. mean, median, variance, confidence intervals, variance coefficients, etc. This computer application is a necessary tool in order to be able to estimate the radiological inventory of a nuclear facility and it is a powerful tool for decision taken in future sampling surveys

  18. Extremity doses of medical staff involved in interventional radiology and cardiology: Correlations and annual doses (hands and legs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krim, S.; Brodecki, M.; Carinou, E.; Donadille, L.; Jankowski, J.; Koukorava, C.; Dominiek, J.; Nikodemova, D.; Ruiz-Lopez, N.; Sans-Merce, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.

    2011-01-01

    An intensive measurement campaign was launched in different hospitals in Europe within work package 1 of the ORAMED project (Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff). Its main objective was to obtain a set of standardized data on extremity and eye lens doses for staff in interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) and to optimize staff protection. The monitored procedures were divided in three main categories: cardiac, general angiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography(ERCP) procedures. Using a common measurement protocol, information such as the protective equipment used (lead table curtain, transparent lead glass ceiling screen, patient shielding, whole body shielding or special cabin etc.) as well as Kerma Area Product (KAP) values and access of the catheter were recorded. This study was performed with a final database of more than 1300 procedures performed in 34 European hospitals. Its objectives were firstly to determine if the measured extremity doses could be correlated to the KAP values; secondly to check if the doses to the eyes could be linked to the doses to the hands (finger or wrist positions) and finally if the doses to the fingers could be estimated based on the doses to the wrists. General correlations were very difficult to find and their strength was mostly influenced by three main parameters: the X-ray tube configuration, the room collective radioprotective equipment and the access of the catheter. The KAP value can provide a simple mean to estimate the extremity doses of the operator given that it is assessed correctly for the operator when he is actually using the X-ray tube. Moreover, this study showed that the doses to the left finger are strongly correlated to the doses to the left wrist when no ceiling shield is used. It is also possible to estimate the doses to the eyes given the doses to the left finger or left wrist but the X-ray tube configuration and the access have to be considered. The annual

  19. Proposal of dose constraint values to the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.; Sastre, J.M.; Ferrer, N.; Andres, J.C. De; Guibelalde, E.; Tobarra, B.; Madrid, G.

    1996-01-01

    A dose constraint is the value of an individual dose not to be exceeded in the individual dose distribution considered in an optimization process. The objective of a dose constraints is to set a ceiling to the doses to individual from a source, practice or task which are considered acceptable in the optimization process at the design stage. Implicitly, as C. Zuur states, dose constraints are below the relevant dose limit and usually should be established as local or national levels. Exposures for medical purposes are not subject to dose limits and hence dose constraints were recommended by the ICRP just for occupational and public exposures. However, as an effective tool for optimization for medical exposures, ICRP-60 in paragraph 180 recognizes the value of applying this concept to patient diagnostic radiology with some peculiarities: 'Considerations should be given to the use of dose constraints, or investigation levels, selected by the appropriate professional or regulatory agency, for application in some common diagnostic procedures. They should be applied with flexibility to allow higher cases where indicated by sound clinical judgement.' This paper analyzes retrospectively the dose levels imparted to patient in some common examinations (chest, lumbar spine and mammography) at different optimization stages of different facilities to propose some local constraints for diagnostic examinations. Dose values have been obtained under routine working conditions. Centres included in the survey have been chosen all over Spain, classifying them with particular attention to the following aspects: -Organizational aspects of the diagnostic radiology service, i.e., operational, technical and clinical criteria, as well as quality requirements. - Evaluation and revision of routine medical protocols. -Quality control of the radiological equipment. - Quality criteria for the surveillance of the weekly procedures, with requirements of proper training of die technical staff

  20. Derivation of the source term, dose results and associated radiological consequences for the Greek Research Reactor – 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Charalampos, E-mail: chpappas@ipta.demokritos.gr; Ikonomopoulos, Andreas; Sfetsos, Athanasios; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Varvayanni, Melpomeni; Catsaros, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Source term derivation of postulated accident sequences in a research reactor. • Various containment ventilation scenarios considered for source term calculations. • Source term parametric analysis performed in case of lack of ventilation. • JRODOS employed for dose calculations under eighteen modeled scenarios. • Estimation of radiological consequences during typical and adverse weather scenarios. - Abstract: The estimated source term, dose results and radiological consequences of selected accident sequences in the Greek Research Reactor – 1 are presented and discussed. A systematic approach has been adopted to perform the necessary calculations in accordance with the latest computational developments and IAEA recommendations. Loss-of-coolant, reactivity insertion and fuel channel blockage accident sequences have been selected to derive the associated source terms under three distinct containment ventilation scenarios. Core damage has been conservatively assessed for each accident sequence while the ventilation has been assumed to function within the efficiency limits defined at the Safety Analysis Report. In case of lack of ventilation a parametric analysis is also performed to examine the dependency of the source term on the containment leakage rate. A typical as well as an adverse meteorological scenario have been defined in the JRODOS computational platform in order to predict the effective, lung and thyroid doses within a region defined by a 15 km radius downwind from the reactor building. The radiological consequences of the eighteen scenarios associated with the accident sequences are presented and discussed.

  1. Dose estimation of interventional cardiologists in different body regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Iana Q. de; Luz, Renata M. da; Capaverde, Alexandre S.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da; Caramori, Paulo Ricardo Avancini

    2015-01-01

    Interventional radiology is one of the medical specialties that provides the highest doses to professionals, widely used in cardiology, being called interventional cardiology. In order to contribute to the optimization of occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology procedures, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dose estimation received in different body regions by physicians in interventional cardiology procedures. Two physicians were followed, named as A and B, during one month period, performing a total of 127 procedures (70 for A and 57 for B) of interventional cardiology. During the procedures, dosimeters in different body regions beyond the full-body dosimeter were positioned. The results showed the highest values for the estimated dose received by workers were in the right wrist and left side face regions, for the physician A, and in the left knee and left side face, for the physician B. Results demonstrate the importance of using individual protection equipment by physicians in interventional cardiology, including lead glasses, besides monitoring dosimeters for other body regions, such as wrist, face and knee. (author)

  2. Radiological Dose Calculations And Supplemental Dose Assessment Data For Neshap Compliance For SNL Nevada Facilities 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    Operations of Sandia National Laboratories, Nevada (SNL/NV) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) resulted in no planned point radiological releases during 1996. Other releases from SNL/NV included diffuse transuranic sources consisting of the three Clean Slate sites. Air emissions from these sources result from wind resuspension of near-surface transuranic contaminated soil particulates. The total area of contamination has been estimated to exceed 20 million square meters. Soil contamination was documented in an aerial survey program in 1977 (EG&G 1979). Surface contamination levels were generally found to be below 400 pCi/g of combined plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and americium-241 (i.e., transuranic) activity. Hot spot areas contain up to 43,000 pCi/g of transuranic activity. Recent measurements confirm the presence of significant levels of transuranic activity in the surface soil. An annual diffuse source term of 0.39 Ci of transuranic material was calculated for the cumulative release from all three Clean Slate sites. A maximally exposed individual dose of 1.1 mrem/yr at the TTR airport area was estimated based on the 1996 diffuse source release amounts and site-specific meteorological data. A population dose of 0.86 person-rem/yr was calculated for the local residents. Both dose values were attributable to inhalation of transuranic contaminated dust.

  3. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    There are two stages in the X-ray image forming process; first the irradiation of the patient to produce the X-ray pattern in space, known as the primary radiological image, and second, the conversion of this pattern into a visible form. This report discusses the first stage and its interrelation with image quality and patient dose

  4. Radiation doses in diagnostic radiology and methods for dose reduction. Report of a co-ordinated research programme (1991-1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    It is well recognized that diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to the collective dose from all man-made sources of radiation. Large differences in radiation doses from the same procedures among different X ray rooms have led to the conclusion that there is a potential for dose reduction. A Co-ordinated Research Programme on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction, involving Member States with different degrees of development, was launched by the IAEA in co-operation with the CEC. This report summarizes the results of the second and final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 4 to 8 October 1993. 22 refs, 6 figs and tabs.

  5. Radiation doses in diagnostic radiology and methods for dose reduction. Report of a co-ordinated research programme (1991-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    It is well recognized that diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to the collective dose from all man-made sources of radiation. Large differences in radiation doses from the same procedures among different X ray rooms have led to the conclusion that there is a potential for dose reduction. A Co-ordinated Research Programme on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction, involving Member States with different degrees of development, was launched by the IAEA in co-operation with the CEC. This report summarizes the results of the second and final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 4 to 8 October 1993. 22 refs, 6 figs and tabs

  6. Contributions to the genetic and mean bone-marrow doses of the Australian population from radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The results of a national survey of radiological procedures used for diagnosis and therapy in medicine, dentistry and chiropracty are reviewed. Statistical data for the distribution and frequency of various procedures in Australian hospitals and practices are summarised, together with their associated radiation doses. Annual genetically significant and mean bone-marrow doses to the Australian population arising from these procedures are derived for the survey year of 1970. Values of 176 microgray and 651 microgray for the annual (per capita) genetic and mean bone-marrow doses respectively are reported. These compare closely with corresponding estimates in other countries with similar medical practices to those in Australia

  7. Estimated fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to photons from 50 keV to 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, no conversion coefficients are available for use in radiological protection of the embryo and foetus against external exposure to photons. This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external photon fields. Monoenergetic photons ranging from 50 keV to 10 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries included antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months. Photon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were estimated for the four prenatal ages. (authors)

  8. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Correa, Samanda C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  9. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  10. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

  11. Dose classification scheme for digital imaging techniques in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, A.

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: image quality in diagnostic radiology is determined in crucial extent by the signal-noise-ratio, which is proportional to the applied x-ray dose. Onward technological developments in the diagnostic radiology are therefore frequently connected with a dose increase, which subjectively is hardly or even not perceptible. The aim of this work was to define reproducible standards for image quality as a function of dose and expected therapeutical consequence in case of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and the upper and lower jaw (dental CT), whereby practical-clinical purposes are considered. Materials and methods: the image quality of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and dental CT was determined by standard deviation of the CT-numbers (pixel noise) in a region of interest of the phantom of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM phantom) and additionally in the patients CT images. The diagnostic quality of the examination was classified on the basis of patients CT images in three dose levels (low dose, standard dose and high dose). Results: the pixel noise of CT of the paranasal sinuses with soft tissue reconstruction amounts to 19.3 Hounsfield units (HU) for low dose, 8.8 HU for standard dose, and below 8 HU for high dose. The pixel noise of the dental CT with bone (high resolution) reconstruction amounts to 344 HU for low dose, 221 HU for standard dose, and below 200 HU for high dose. Suitable indications for low dose CT are the scanning of body regions with high contrast differences, like the bony delimitations of air-filled spaces of the facial bones, and radiological follow-up examinations with dedicated questions such as axis determination in dental implantology, as well as the images of objects with small diameter such as in case of children. The standard dose CT can be recommended for all cases, in which precise staging of the illness plays an indispensable role for the diagnosis and therapy planning. With high dose

  12. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields; Estimacion de dosis en embrion o feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, Beatriz N [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation.

  13. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekce, Senem Divrik; Gekce, Erkan; Coskun, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X 2 -test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  14. Dose Evaluation and Quality Criteria in Dental Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, C.; Rossi, F.; Stecco, A.; Villari, N.; Zatelli, G.

    2000-01-01

    Radioprotection in dental radiology is of particular interest in the framework of the Revised Medical Exposure Directive for the great number of examinations involving the adult as well as the paediatric population (Article 9: Special Practice). The present study is intended to find the quality criteria of orthodontic imaging and for evaluating the dose absorbed within the dental and maxillary volume in connection with radiological examinations performed with either spiral CT, dental panoramic tomography or teleradiography. The X ray dose to organs sited in the body, neck, ocular and intracranial area was measured using lithium fluoride dosemeters, positioned in a Rando phantom. Quality criteria have been established by an expert radiologist considering the diagnostic information obtained in the images. The dosimetric data obtained were comparable with other authors', although with some differences due to technical characteristics. These result data are useful for choosing the patient's diagnostic path, considering the radiobiological risk associated with increasing orthodontic imaging. (author)

  15. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h(-1)) with the dos...

  16. Effective dose estimation from the Hp(10) value measured by film OR TL dosemeter located above the lead apron in medical diagnostic and intervention radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Plichta, J.; Petrova, K.

    2001-01-01

    In medical institutions where the diagnostic and intervention radiology is examined the staff personnel doses reach for a long time the annual limit. State Office for Radiation Safety ordered the research task with a view to: (a) the influence of the dosemeter location on different parts of the body on the reliability of E value estimation by means of the value which is measured on the standard body location - left part of the chest above the lead apron. (b) the influence of the protective lead apron (neck, spectacles) with known lead equivalent on the E and H T value determination. In this contribution we present the results of this experimental study including the recommendation for the number and location on the body of dosemeters which are needed for the reliable estimation of E value. (authors)

  17. Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Osborne, R.V.

    1988-03-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

  18. Patient dose in interventional radiology: a multicentre study of the most frequent procedures in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Bigand, Emeline; Salvat, Cecile; Vidal, Vincent; Beregi, Jean Paul; Hornbeck, Amaury; Greffier, Joel

    2017-01-01

    A national retrospective survey on patient doses was performed by the French Society of Medical physicists to assess reference levels (RLs) in interventional radiology as required by the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom. Fifteen interventional procedures in neuroradiology, vascular radiology and osteoarticular procedures were analysed. Kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), reference air kerma and number of images were recorded for 10 to 30 patients per procedure. RLs were calculated as the 3rd quartiles of the distributions. Results on 4600 procedures from 36 departments confirmed the large variability in patient dose for the same procedure. RLs were proposed for the four dosimetric estimators and the 15 procedures. RLs in terms of KAP and FT were 90 Gm.cm 2 and 11 mins for cerebral angiography, 35 Gy.cm 2 and 16 mins for biliary drainage, 75 Gy.cm 2 and 6 mins for lower limbs arteriography and 70 Gy.cm 2 and 11 mins for vertebroplasty. For these four procedures, RLs were defined according to the complexity of the procedure. For all the procedures, the results were lower than most of those already published. This study reports RLs in interventional radiology based on a national survey. Continual evolution of practices and technologies requires regular updates of RLs. (orig.)

  19. Patient dose in interventional radiology: a multicentre study of the most frequent procedures in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Bigand, Emeline [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); La Timone University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille Cedex (France); Salvat, Cecile [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Lariboisiere Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Paris (France); Vidal, Vincent [La Timone University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille Cedex (France); French Society of Radiology (SFR) - Interventional Radiology Federation (FRI), Paris (France); Beregi, Jean Paul [French Society of Radiology (SFR) - Interventional Radiology Federation (FRI), Paris (France); Nimes University Hospital, Medical Imaging Group Nimes, Department of Radiology, Nimes (France); Hornbeck, Amaury [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Trousseau University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Greffier, Joel [French Society of Medical Physicists (SFPM), Paris (France); Nimes University Hospital, Medical Imaging Group Nimes, Department of Radiology, Nimes (France)

    2017-10-15

    A national retrospective survey on patient doses was performed by the French Society of Medical physicists to assess reference levels (RLs) in interventional radiology as required by the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom. Fifteen interventional procedures in neuroradiology, vascular radiology and osteoarticular procedures were analysed. Kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), reference air kerma and number of images were recorded for 10 to 30 patients per procedure. RLs were calculated as the 3rd quartiles of the distributions. Results on 4600 procedures from 36 departments confirmed the large variability in patient dose for the same procedure. RLs were proposed for the four dosimetric estimators and the 15 procedures. RLs in terms of KAP and FT were 90 Gm.cm{sup 2} and 11 mins for cerebral angiography, 35 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 16 mins for biliary drainage, 75 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 6 mins for lower limbs arteriography and 70 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 11 mins for vertebroplasty. For these four procedures, RLs were defined according to the complexity of the procedure. For all the procedures, the results were lower than most of those already published. This study reports RLs in interventional radiology based on a national survey. Continual evolution of practices and technologies requires regular updates of RLs. (orig.)

  20. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974. IV. Dose estimation of fetus exposed in utero to diagnostic x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Kumamoto, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1976-07-01

    In fetus exposed in utero to diagnostic x rays for the medical examinations of the mother, the absorbed dose has been estimated on the basis of a 1974 nation wide radiological survey. The results of the survey showed that the number of radiographs per year connected with pregnant women was 0.32 million for chest examination excluding mass surveys. 0.29 million for obstetrical examinations including pelvimetry, and 0.21 million for abdominal and pelvic examinations with a total of 0.82 million. The dose absorbed in the fetus was measured with an ionization chamber placed at the hypothetical center of the fetus in an ''average woman'' Rando phantom in which a maternal body was simulated by adding MixDp materials. ''The collective dose'' to the fetus in the pregnant women receiving a given type of examination was calculated from the number of radiographs per year connected with the pregnant women and the fetal doses. The percapita mean marrow dose (CMD), the leukemia significant dose (LSD) and the genetically significant dose (GSD) for the fetus were determined from the collective dose, taking into account the birth expectancy, the child expectancy, life expectancy and significant factor for the fetus. The collective dose to the fetus was estimated to be 9.3 x 10/sup 4/ man rad per year. The resultant values of CMD, LSD and GSD were 0.81 mrad per year, 0.79 mrad per person per year and 1.44 mrad per person per year, respectively.

  1. Estimated occupational dose in interventional procedures crystalline; Estimacion de la dosis ocupacional en el cristallino en procedimientos interveniconistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portas Ferradas, B. C.; Chapel Gomez, M. L.; Jimenez Alarcon, J. I.

    2011-07-01

    This paper present the result of the estimated doses in the eyes of workers exposed for radiology procedures and interventional cardiology from measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeter placed near the lens.

  2. Preliminary mortality survey from 1973 to 1977 of Japanese radiological technologists and analyses of the association of mortality with cumulative doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Ishizaka, Masatsuna; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Kano, Eiichi; Nikaido, Osamu.

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Association of Radiologic Technologists reported that, from 1941 to 1978, 395 deaths occurred among Japanese radiological technologists who belong to the association. Using these data, Sakka, Kitabatake and colleagues, and the present authors studied mortality and cause of death among these technologists for 11 years from 1955 to 1965, for 7 years from 1966 to 1972, and for 5 years from 1973 to 1977, respectively. In general, the number of cancer deaths in the three studies was less than expected. However, Kitabatake et al. and the present authors found that deaths from skin cancer were significantly more frequent than expected. The present authors recently estimated the cumulative doses of radiation exposure for the majority of deaths (268 out of 395). The mean dose of radiation related to cancer deaths was then compared with that for non-cancer deaths. Also the proportional mortality ratios for cancers were observed in relation to the estimated dose level. In the present study, however, statistical tests to assess for the relationship between mortality and dose of radiation exposure showed no correlation, for the majority of deaths from cancer. (author)

  3. Estimation of the radiological background and dose assessment in areas with naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies—a case study in the Iberian Massif (Central Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies, representative of the several thousand recognized in the Portuguese section of the Iberian Massif and outcropping in three target areas with a total of a few thousand square metres, were subjected to a detailed study (1:1000 scale) to evaluate the radiological health-risk on the basis of a dose assessment. To reach this goal some radioactive isotopes from the uranium, thorium and potassium radioactive series were measured in 52 samples taken from different environmental compartments: soils, stream sediments, water, foodstuff (vegetables) and air; external radiation was also measured through a square grid of 10 × 10 m, with a total of 336 measurements. The results show that some radioisotopes have high activities in all the environmental compartments as well as a large variability, namely for those of the uranium decay chain, which is a common situation in the regional geological setting. Isotopic disequilibrium is also common and led to an enrichment of several isotopes in the different pathways, as is the case of 226 Ra; maximum values of 1.76 Bq L −1 (water), 986 Bq kg −1 (soils) and 18.9 Bq kg −1 (in a turnip sample) were measured. On the basis of a realistic scenario combined with the experimental data, the effective dose from exposure to ionizing radiation for two groups of the population (rural and urban) was calculated; the effective dose is variable between 8.0 and 9.5 mSv year −1 , which is 3–4 times higher than the world average. Thus, the radiological health-risk for these populations could be significant and the studied uranium anomalies must be taken into account in the assessment of the geochemical background. The estimated effective dose can also be used as typical of the background of the Beiras uranium metalogenetic province and therefore as a “benchmark” in the remediation of the old uranium mining sites. - Highlights: ► The importance of small-sized naturally occurring uranium

  4. Radiation dose estimates due to air particulate emissions from selected phosphate industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Horton, T.R.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Boysen, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs has conducted a series of studies to determine the radiological impact of the phosphate mining and milling industry. This report describes the efforts to estimate the radiation doses due to airborne emissions of particulates from selected phosphate milling operations in Florida. Two wet process phosphoric acid plants and one ore drying facility were selected for this study. The 1976 Annual Operations/Emissions Report, submitted by each facility to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and a field survey trip by EPA personnel to each facility were used to develop data for dose calculations. The field survey trip included sampling for stack emissions and ambient air samples collected in the general vicinity of each plant. Population and individual radiation dose estimates are made based on these sources of data

  5. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divrik Gökçe, Senem; Coşkun, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Objective Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. Materials and Methods A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A χ2-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Results Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Conclusion Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period. PMID:22438688

  6. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  8. Systems automated reporting of patient dose in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado Chamorro, P.; Sanz Freire, C. J.; Martinez Mirallas, O.; Tejada San Juan, S.; Lopez de Gammarra, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    It has developed a procedure automated reporting of doses to patients in Radiology. This procedure allows to save the time required of the data used to calculate the dose to patients by yields. Also saves the time spent in the transcription of these data for the realization of the necessary calculations. This system has been developed using open source software. The characteristics of the systems of digital radiography for the automation of procedures, in particular the registration of dose should benefit from patient. This procedure is validated and currently in use at our institution. (Author)

  9. Cytogenetic biodosimetry to estimate radiation doses received in accidental radiological exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous applications of nuclear technologies in various aspects of life increase the probability of over exposure due to involuntary or premeditated nuclear accidents. National radiation-protection preparedness requires adequate estimate of dose received for efficient medical assistance of victims. Cytogenetic biodosimetry is an ISO and IAEA standardized biotechnology technique. We have established a reference biological dosimetry laboratory to boost the nation's ability to respond to sporadic and mass radiation casualty incidents and to assess the magnitude of radiation overexposure. Accurate calculation of radiation doses received will result in evidence based treatment decisions and better management of valuable emergency resources. It will also contribute to the 'National Radiation Protection Program' by playing a role in nuclear emergency plans. The cytogenetic method is standardized and scalable. In addition to diagnosis of over exposure, it provides triage capability for rapid stratification of patients who need more specialized medical care. It can also detect false positives and false negatives exposure particularly in cases of legal allegations

  10. A radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and nonsite specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. (author)

  11. An estimation of the percentage of dose in intraoral radiology exams using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzoumet, S.P.J.; Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Padilha, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    In this work we used the EGS4 code in a simulated study of dose percentage in intraoral examination to 10 energy range to 140 keV. The simulation was carried out on a model consisting of different geometry (cheek, tooth and mouth cavity) under normal incidence X-ray beam over the surface of the various simulated materials. It was observed that for energy smaller than 30 keV most of the energy is deposited on the cheek. In 30 keV there is a point of maximum radiation absorption in the tooth (approximately 60% of the energy of the incident radiation is deposited on the tooth) in relation to other simulated materials. It means that in this energy there is a better contrast in the radiographic image of the tooth and a smaller dose on the cheek. In 40 keV the deposited energy in the tooth is roughly equal to the energy that is transmitted (to the radiographic film or buccal cavity) causing a degradation in the radiographic image and/or a higher dose in the oral cavity. For energies above 40 keV, the amount of energy transmitted (to the oral cavity and/or radiographic film) is higher than the energy deposited in other materials, i.e, it only contributes to increasing of dose in the regions close to the oral cavity and the radiographic image degradation. These results can provide important information for radiological procedures applied in dentistry where the image quality is a relevant factor to a dental evaluation needs as well as reducing dose in the oral cavity.

  12. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekce, Senem Divrik [I. Ikad Community Health Center, Health Directorate, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Gekce, Erkan [Samsun Maternity and Women' s Disease and Pediatrics Hospital, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Coskun, Melek [Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz May' s University, Samsun (Turkmenistan)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X{sup 2}-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  13. A conceptual framework for managing radiation dose to patients in diagnostic radiology using reference dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. (authors)

  14. Comparative analysis of dose levels to patients in radiological procedures guided by fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Pablo Luis; Fernandez, Manuel; Ramos, Julio A.; Delgado, Jose Miguel; Cons, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the comparative data of the dose indicators for patient in radiological processes with respect to the values published in the ICRP document. It is analyzed the need for different strategies to communicate to different specialists mechanisms to optimize the radiation beginning with practice by training of second degree level in radiological protection and then, working with them the basics of equipment management to reduce doses without detriment to the welfare purpose

  15. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayno, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  16. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayno, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources

  17. Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.; Mott, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose.

  18. Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.; Mott, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose

  19. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do [Universidade Federal de Sergipe - CCET - Dept. de Fisica, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  20. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2006-01-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  1. Use of virtual reality to estimate radiation dose rates in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Jorge, Carlos A.F.; Couto, Pedro M.

    2007-01-01

    Operators in nuclear plants receive radiation doses during several different operation procedures. A training program capable of simulating these operation scenarios will be useful in several ways, helping the planning of operational procedures so as to reduce the doses received by workers, and to minimize operations' times. It can provide safe virtual operation training, visualization of radiation dose rates, and estimation of doses received by workers. Thus, a virtual reality application, a free game engine, has been adapted to achieve the goals of this project. Simulation results for Argonauta research reactor of Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear are shown in this paper. A database of dose rate measurements, previously performed by the radiological protection service, has been used to display the dose rate distribution in the region of interest. The application enables the user to walk in the virtual scenario, displaying at all times the dose accumulated by the avatar. (author)

  2. Evaluation of patient radiation doses using DAP meter in interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology. Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Univeristy, Kyushu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    The author investigated interventional radiology patient doses in several other countries, assessed accuracy of DAP meters embedded in intervention equipment in domestic country, conducted measurement of patient doses for 13 major interventional procedures with use of Dose Area Product(DAP) meters from 23 hospitals in Korea, and referred to 8,415 cases of domestic data related to interventional procedures by radiation exposure after evaluation the actual effective of dose reduction variables through phantom test. Finally, dose reference level for major interventional procedures was suggested. In this study, guidelines for patient doses were 237.7 Gy·cm{sup 2} in TACE, 17.3 Gy·cm{sup 2} in AVF, 114.1 Gy·cm{sup 2} in LE PTA and STENT, 188.5 Gy·cm{sup 2} in TFCA, 383.5 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Aneurysm Coil, 64.6 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PTBD, 64.6 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Biliary Stent, 22.4 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PCN, 4.3 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Hickman, 2.8 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Chemo-port, 4.4 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Perm-Cather, 17.1 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PCD, and 357.9 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Vis, EMB. Dose reference level acquired in this study is considered to be able to use as minimal guidelines for reducing patient dose in the interventional radiology procedures. For the changes and advances of materials and development of equipment and procedures in the interventional radiology procedures, further studies and monitoring are needed on dose reference level Korean DAP dose conversion factor for the domestic procedures.

  3. Optimization of the quality and dose in thorax general radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Suy Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Image quality and radiation dose at skin entrance in chest radiography were studied for three exposure protocols, denoted as 1, 2 and 3. Protocol 1 represents the most used technique in radiology services in our country. This technique consists of the following parameters: 81 kV tube voltage, anti-scatter grid and 2 m focus-film distance. Protocol 2 uses the same parameters of the Protocol 1, without grid. Protocol 3 uses I 33kV without grid and 3,5 m focus-film distance. In Protocols 2 and 3 a 30 em air gap was used between patient and film. Two samples of 50 patients were radiographed in two different facilities, herein denoted 1 and 2. Protocol 1 was used in facility I to radiograph the first patient sample, and Protocols 2 and 3 were used in facility 2 to radiograph the second patient sample. Three experts in chest radiology evaluated the obtained chest images according anatomical quality criteria for this examination. For each patient exposure the radiation dose at skin entrance was measured. In this work, a chest phantom, containing test objects to evaluate quantitatively image quality, was made. The phantom was radiographed with the three protocols herein investigated. Results of this study showed clearly that Protocol 3 presents an average dose at skin entrance about half than Protocol 2 and about one third of Protocol 1. In regard to chest radiographic images and radiation dose, it was statistically demonstrated that the Protocol 3 is better than Protocols 1 and 2, with the improvement of the image quality and patient dose reduction in order of 3 times. This work also discusses the perspective of using optimized exposure technique proposed by Protocol 3 as an alternative technique far chest radiographic examinations to those currently used in our diagnostic radiology facilities. (author)

  4. Quality control, mean glandular dose estimate and room shielding calculation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in the importance of Radiation Protection in mammography. A good control of the radiological risk depends on the dose optimization, room shielding calculation and the quality of equipment. The work was carried out in the three private medical centers called A, B, and C. Dosimetry estimates were made on the equipment of the three centers. Values has been compared with the Diagnostic Reference Levels established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Conformity control of the radiological devices has also been done with the Mammographic Quality Control Kit of the INSTN-Madagascar. Verifications of shields of the room containing the mammography equipment were done by theoretical calculations using the method provided by NCRP 147. [fr

  5. A study on the food consumption rates for off-site radiological dose assessment around Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun

    2008-01-01

    The internal dose by food consumption mostly accounts for radiological dose of public around Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). But, food consumption rates applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which are the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in 1988, are not able to reflect the latest dietary characteristics of Korean. The food consumption rates to be used for radiological dose assessment in Korea are based on the maximum individual of US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Regulatory Guide 1.109. However, the representative individual of the critical group is considered in the recent ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendation and European nations' practice. Therefore, the study on the re-establishment of the food consumption rates for individual around nuclear power plant sites in Korea was carried out to reflect on the recent change of the Korean dietary characteristics and to apply the representative individual of critical group to domestic regulations. The ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. The statistical data such as mean, standard deviation, various percentile values about food consumption rates to be used for the representative individual of the critical group were analyzed by using the raw data of the national food consumption survey in 2001∼2002. Also, the food consumption rates for maximum individual are re-estimated

  6. Absorbed dose to the skin in radiological examinations of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonca, G.; Brusa, A.; Somigliana, A.; Pasqualotto, C.; Sichirollo, A.E.; Bellomi, M.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.

    1995-01-01

    Absorbed doses to the skin in radiological examinations of the upper and lower gastronintestinal tract in conventional and digital radiology are evaluated and compared. Absorbed doses were measured with LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters placed on the lower pelvis, umbilicus and forehead of the patient to evaluate the absorbed dose in and outside the primary beam. On 10 patients a reduction in absorbed dose of about 34% for double contrast barium enema and of 66% for upper gastrointestinal tract examinations was revealed with digital radiography equipment. In our working conditions the lower dose requirement for digital radiography is mainly due to image intensifiers and television chains and also, due to our equipment settings, to the dose reduction with digital spot fluorography compared with conventional spot film radiography. (Author)

  7. Development of mathematical model for estimation of entrance surface dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgani, Yassir Mohammed Tahir

    2013-05-01

    Computer simulation is a convenient and frequently used tool in the study of x-ray mammography, for the design of novel detector systems, the evaluation of dose deposition, x-ray technique optimization, and other applications. An important component in the simulation process is the accurate computer generation of x-ray spectra. A computer model for the generation of x-ray spectra in the mammographic energy rang from 18 keV to 40 ke V has been developed by Boone et al. Due to the lack of QC and dose measurement tools, in addition to unavailability of medical physics, a mathematical tool was developed for estimation of patient exposure and entrance dose. The proposed model require no assumptions concerning the physics of x-ray production in an x-ray tube, but rather makes use of x-ray spectra recently measured experimentally by John M Boone (Department of Radiology, University of California). Using experimental dose measurements for specific tube voltage and tube current the generated x-ray spectra were calibrated. The spectrum calibration factors show a tube voltage dependency. From the calibrated x-ray spectrum, the exposure and entrance dose were estimated for different k Vp and m A. Results show good agreement between the measured and estimated values for tube voltage between 18 to 45 k Vp with a good correlation of nearly 1 and equal slope. The maximum estimated different between the measured and the simulated dose is approximately equal to 0.07%.(Author)

  8. Estimating effective doses to children from CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, J.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Assessing doses to patients in diagnostic radiology is an integral part of implementing optimisation of radiation protection. Sources of normalised data are available for estimating doses to adults undergoing CT examinations, but for children this is not the case. This paper describes a simple method for estimating effective doses arising from paediatric CT examinations. First the effective dose to an adult is calculated, having anatomically matched the scanned regions of the child and the adult and also matched the irradiation conditions. A conversion factor is then applied to the adult effective dose, based on the region of the body being scanned - head, upper or lower trunk. This conversion factor is the child-to-adult ratio of the ratios of effective dose per entrance air kerma (in the absence of the patient) at the FAD. The values of these conversion factors were calculated by deriving effective dose per entrance air kerma at the FAD for new-born, 1, 5, 10, 15 and adult phantoms using four projections (AP, PA, left and right laterals) over a range of beam qualities and FADs.The program PCXMC was used for this purpose. Results to date suggest that the conversion factors to give effective doses for children undergoing CT examinations of the upper trunk are approximately 1.3, 1.2, 1.15, 1.1 and 1.05 for ages 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years respectively; CT of the lower trunk - 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, 1.2, 1.1; and CT of the head - 2.3, 2.0, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1. The dependence of these factors on beam quality (HVL from 4 to 10 mm Al) is less than 10%, with harder beams resulting in slightly smaller conversion factors. Dependence on FAD is also less than 10%. Major sources of uncertainties in the conversion factors include matching anatomical regions across the phantoms, and the presence of beam divergence in the z-direction when deriving the factors. The method described provides a simple means of estimating effective doses arising from paediatric CT examinations with

  9. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Characterisation of an anthropomorphic chest phantom for dose measurements in radiology beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, L. M. S.; Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Santos, W. S.; Pereira, A. J. S.; Rodrigues, T. M. A.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise an anthropomorphic chest phantom for dosimetric measurements of conventional radiology beams. This phantom was developed by a previous research project at the Federal University of Sergipe for image quality control tests. As the phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material, it is possible to characterise it for dosimetric studies. For comparison, a geometric chest phantom, consisting of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) with dimensions of 30×30×15 cm³ was used. Measurements of incident air kerma (Ki) and entrance surface dose (ESD) were performed using ionisation chambers. From the results, backscatter factors (BSFs) of the two phantoms were determined and compared with values estimated by CALDose_X software, based on a Monte Carlo simulation. For the technical parameters evaluated in this study, the ESD and BSF values obtained experimentally showed a good similarity between the two phantoms, with minimum and maximum difference of 0.2% and 7.0%, respectively, and showed good agreement with the results published in the literature. Organ doses and effective doses for the anthropomorphic phantom were also estimated by the determination of conversion coefficients (CCs) using the visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code. Therefore, the results of this study prove that the anthropomorphic thorax phantom proposed is a good tool to use in dosimetry and can be used for risk evaluation of X-ray diagnostic procedures.

  11. Entrance surface dose measurements in pediatric radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, L.A.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of pediatric radiological examinations was carried out in a reference pediatric hospital of the city of Sao Paulo, in order to investigate the doses to children undergoing conventional X-ray examinations. The results showed that the majority of pediatric patients are below 4 years, and that about 80% of the examinations correspond to chest projections. Doses to typical radiological examinations were measured in vivo with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti and LiF: Mg, Cu, P) attached to the skin of the children to determine entrance surface dose (ESD). Also homogeneous phantoms were used to obtain ESD to younger children, because the technique uses a so small kVp that the dosimeters would produce an artifact image in the patient radiograph. Four kinds of pediatric examinations were investigated: three conventional examinations (chest, skull and abdomen) and a fluoroscopic procedure (barium swallow). Relevant information about kVp and mAs values used in the examinations was collected, and we discuss how these parameters can affect the ESD. The ESD values measured in this work are compared to reference levels published by the European Commission for pediatric patients. The results obtained (third-quartile of the ESD distribution) for chest AP examinations in three age groups were: 0.056 mGy (2-4 years old); 0.068 mGy (5-9 years old); 0.069 mGy (10-15 years old). All of them are below the European reference level (0.100 mGy). ESD values measured to the older age group in skull and abdomen AP radiographs (mean values 3.44 and 1.20 mGy, respectively) are above the European reference levels (1.5 mGy to skull and 1.0 mGy to abdomen). ESD values measured in the barium swallow examination reached 10 mGy in skin regions corresponding to thyroid and esophagus. It was noticed during this survey that some technicians use, improperly, X-ray fluoroscopy in conventional examinations to help them in positioning the patient. The results presented here are a

  12. Magnitudes and units in the X-ray dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar M, V. M.; Cejudo A, J.; Vergara M, F.

    2009-10-01

    The dosimetry objective in the radiological image is the quantification from the exposition to the radiation with a commitment of optimizing the image quality to the reason of the absorbed dose. The dosimetry has the meaning of avoiding excessive dose that could imply a significant risk of deterministic effects induction. The dosimetric magnitudes and dosimetry protocols in the radiological image, are those that are related to the risks for the patient. Exist in diagnostic radiology two fundamentals reason to measure or to estimate the patient radiation dose. First, the mensurations are a means to verify the good practices and an aid to the optimization of the patient protection. Second, the absorbed dose estimation to tissues and organs in the patient are necessary to determine the risks, and this way to indicate that the radiological techniques employees can be justified and in investigated cases of over exposition. (Author)

  13. Estimated radiation exposure from medical imaging for patients of radiology service of Al Faraby Hospital, Oujda Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane Semghouli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effective dose received per radiological examination per patient and the additional cancer risk factor in the Radiological Service of Al Faraby Hospital in 2012. Methods: From the number of radiological procedures (NX made in 2012 in the radiology service of Al Faraby Hospital and the average effective dose DEX associated with each type of act exam X, it is possible to calculate the effective dose collective [S =∑ DEX * NX]. The additional cancer risk factor is calculated by the X-ray risk software promoting responsible imaging through patient and provider education. It is function of the effective dose received, the age at the time of exam, and gender of patient. Results: The radiological average effective dose received per act exam is 1 millisievert (mSv, whereas it is 4.45 mSv and 0.21 mSv for the computed tomography (CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. As for the average number of acts per patient 2.66, the effective dose is 1.16 mSv and 3.8 mSv for CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. As for the average effective dose per patient 2.69 mSv, it is 5.16 mSv and 0.81 mSv for CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. As for the additional cancer risk in 40 years at the time of exam, the average additional cancer risk is equal to 2.17 × 10-4, wheras the risk is 4.17 × 10-4 and 6.54 × 10-5 for CT scan and conventional radiological examinations, respectively. Conclusion: Medical exposure related to the diagnosis of patients in the radiology service in 2012 can be characterized by: (a 2.66 Act exams on average per patient diagnosis corresponding to a mean effective dose equal to 2.69 mSv per patient, (bfrequency of conventional radiology and CT scan was 81% and 19%, respectively. These act exams contribute to the collective effective dose by 17% and 83%, respectively, and (c radiological acts can be divided into three levels of exposures

  14. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: terrestrial food chain and total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Conrado, C.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent manmade radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. The survey consisted mainly of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates over the islands of each atoll. The logistical support for the entire survey was designed to accommodate this operation. As a secondary phase of the survey, shore parties collected appropriate terrestrial and marine samples to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to those individuals residing on the atolls, who may in the future reside on some of the presently uninhabited atolls, or who collect food from these atolls. Over 5000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern water and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef and pelagic fish, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. The concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu, and 241 Am in terrestrial food crops, fowl, and animals collected at the atolls or islands are summarized. An assessment of the total dose from the major exposure pathways including external gamma, terrestrial food chain including food products and drinking water, marine food chain, and inhalation is provided. Radiological doses at each atoll or island are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in the terrestrial foods, marine foods, etc. assuming the average daily intake for each food item

  15. Radiation dose evaluation in patients submitted to conventional radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the results of the evaluation of radiation dose delivered to the patients undergoing conventional radiological procedures. Based in the realized measurement some indicators are settled to quantitative appraisal of the radiological protection conditions offered to the population. Data assessment was done in the county of Curitiba, in Parana State, Brazil, from 12/95 to 04/96, in ten rooms of three different institutions, under 101 patients, adults with 70 ± 10 kg, during real examinations of chest PA, chest LAT and abdomen AP. (author)

  16. Estimation of equivalent dose on the ends of hemodynamic physicians during neurological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squair, Peterson L.; Souza, Luiz C. de; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de

    2005-01-01

    The estimation of doses in the hands of physicists during hemodynamic procedures is important to verify the application of radiation protection related to the optimization and limit of dose, principles required by the Portaria 453/98 of Ministry of Health/ANVISA, Brazil. It was checked the levels of exposure of the hands of doctors during the use of the equipment in hemodynamic neurological procedures through dosimetric rings with thermoluminescent dosemeters detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100), calibrated in personal Dose equivalent HP (0.07). The average equivalent dose in the end obtained was 41.12. μSv per scan with an expanded uncertainty of 20% for k = 2. This value is relative to the hemodynamic Neurology procedure using radiological protection procedures accessible to minimize the dose

  17. Estimation of dose in dental radiology exams in critical regions; Estimativa de dose em exames de radiologia odontologica em regioes criticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzoumet, S. P.J.; Braz, D. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Barroso, R. C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Mauricio, Claudia; Domingues, Claudio [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padilha, Lucas [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the values of doses, which are absorbed dose to the lens and thyroid in a dental X-ray. Thermoluminescence dosimeters were used, once they provide a reading of quality and effectiveness. This study was based on dental exams conducted in patients in order to estimate the dose that disperses to the lens of the eye and for the thyroid during an intraoral exam. Data collection took place in two institutions, one governmental, which had the device SELETRONIC 70X and other particular. This study showed that there is a considerable variation between the appliances. Using the appliance DABI 1070, there was a greater absorption of radiation in the right eye (values greater than 5 mGy) and a lower dose in the thyroid, and the Seletronic 70X presented an incidence of higher dose deposited in the skin and in other points there was a balance in the values. In the appliance SELETRONIC 70X, there was again a greater absorption of radiation in the right eye and a lower setting in the thyroid. The excessive dose, besides does not favor at all for the quality of radiograph, represents a risk for the patient who absorbs unnecessary and harmful radiation to the body.

  18. Optimization of Patient Doses in Interventional Radiology and Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Boehm, K.

    2011-01-01

    Interventional radiology and cardiology belongs to the imaging modalities connected with significantly higher radiation exposure of patients and medical staff, compared to the exposure during other diagnostic procedures. The objective of this presentation is to promote typical technical parameters and parameters related to the radiation policy, used during the most frequent endovascular and cardiology procedures, as well as the monitoring of the exposure of patients. The presented study reports the results of collecting the data of monitoring doses received by 318 patients undergoing interventional examinations in 3 various departments of the Slovak National Institute of Cardiology and Vascular Diseases. There were 9 different endovascular and cardiology procedures reviewed. The reported patient's radiation exposures were established by using the KAP values, directly shown on the display of the X-ray equipment. From the measured KAP values the entrance surface doses were calculated. Equivalent doses have been measured on hands, legs and other parts of medical staff body, by using electronic dosimeters or thermoluminescent dosimeters. The presented results have covered a wide range of the measured fluoroscopy time values, different number of acquisitions used in various interventional procedures, various cumulated KAP values and also a wide range of the cumulated entrance surface doses. The occupational doses of the operators, followed during dose measurements on their left hands, covered the range from 0.1 μSv to 1513 μSv for one examination performed. The important contribution of the presented results to the radiation protection policy in the Slovak Republic is the mapping of the current situation of the radiation exposure of patients undergoing the chosen interventional examinations and the professional radiation exposure level of interventional operators, providing the most significant interventional procedures in the Slovak interventional hospitals. The

  19. Estimation of population doses from stomach mass screening, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Kato, Y; Maruyama, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamata, R; Urahashi, S

    1977-06-01

    The population dose from mass photofluorography of stomach have been estimated on the basis of nation wide radiological survey. The number of photofluorographic examinations was 2.38 million for male and 1.74 million for female, with a total of 4.12 million. The gonad doses were determined with an ionization chamber, using a tissue equivalent phantom. The gonad dose for male was 10.4 mrad per examination and for female was 150 mrad per examination. The active bone marrow doses at 32 points of bone marrow in the whole body were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeter. The mean marrow dose per photofluorographic examination was 450 mrad for male and 390 mrad for female. The child expectancy factor and the leukemia significant factor were calculated based on the Vital Statistics 1975. The genetically significant dose (GSD) and per caput mean marrow dose (CMD) were calculated by the formulae presented from the United Nations Scientific Comittee of Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The resultant GSD was 0.15 mrad per person per year. The CMD was 16.5 mrad per person per year. The leukemia significant dose (LSD) was determined by adopting a weight factor, that is leukemia significant factor. The resultant LSD was 14.5 mrad per person per year. These population doses were compared with those from diagnostic medical x-ray examinations in 1974.

  20. Dose levels from thoracic and pelvic examinations in two pediatric radiological departments in Norway - a comparison study of dose-area product and radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjernlie Saether, Hilde; Traegde Martinsen, Anne Catrine; Lagesen, Bente; Platou Holsen, Eva; Oevreboe, Kirsti Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pediatric doses expressed in dose-area product (DAP) can be retrieved from only a few publications; most of which correlate DAP to patient size or large age spans. In clinical practice age is often the only available parameter describing the patient, and thus, evaluation of dose levels in pediatric radiology on the basis of DAP related to age alone would be useful in optimization work. Purpose: To provide comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, and evaluate the usefulness of comparing age-related DAP and radiographic technique between systems to identify areas with potential for optimization. Material and Methods: DAP, age, and radiographic technique were registered for 575 thoracic examinations and 371 pelvic examinations of children from newborn up to 14 years of age in groups with an age span of 1 year, performed with two digital flat-panel systems and one computed radiography system. Results: DAP varies from 2.2 to 54.0 mGycm2 for thoracic examinations, and from 4.6 to 532.5 mGycm2 for pelvic examinations. There are significant differences in DAP between systems and departments due to differences in technique, equipment, and staff. Conclusion: This study provides comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, which could be used as an input to estimate diagnostic reference levels. The comparison between systems of DAP and radiographic technique has proven useful in identifying areas where there may be a potential for optimization.

  1. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  2. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  3. Radiation exposure and dose evaluation in intraoral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, B.; Looe, H. K.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Eenboom, F.; Chofor, N.; Sering, M.; Ruehmann, A.; Poplawski, A.; Willborn, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, dose area product measurements have been performed to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental radiology. Measurements were carried out at 60 X-ray units for all types of intraoral examinations performed in clinical routine. The third quartile values calculated range from 26.2 to 87.0 mGy cm 2 . The results showed that there exists a large difference between the patient exposures among different dental facilities. It was also observed that dentists working with faster film type or higher tube voltage are not always associated with lower exposure. The study demonstrated the necessity to have the DRLs laid out as guidelines in dental radiology. (authors)

  4. AIRDOS-II computer code for estimating radiation dose to man from airborne radionuclides in areas surrouding nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.E.

    1977-04-01

    The AIRDOS-II computer code estimates individual and population doses resulting from the simultaneous atmospheric release of as many as 36 radionuclides from a nuclear facility. This report describes the meteorological and environmental models used is the code, their computer implementation, and the applicability of the code to assessments of radiological impact. Atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition of released radionuclides are estimated as a function of direction and distance from a nuclear power plant or fuel-cycle facility, and doses to man through inhalation, air immersion, exposure to contaminated ground, food ingestion, and water immersion are estimated in the surrounding area. Annual doses are estimated for total body, GI tract, bone, thyroid, lungs, muscle, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes, and ovaries. Either the annual population doses (man-rems/year) or the highest annual individual doses in the assessment area (rems/year), whichever are applicable, are summarized in output tables in several ways--by nuclides, modes of exposure, and organs. The location of the highest individual doses for each reference organ estimated for the area is specified in the output data

  5. Preliminary characterization of dose in personnel of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godolfim, Laura Larre; Anes, Mauricio; Bacelar, Alexandre; Lykawka, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to X-rays of Interventional Radiology professionals (IR) impacts in the high dose rate received by these individuals, and there are reports of biological effects of this professional activity. Therefore, it is fomented greater control over the doses received by these workers. This research intends to characterize the doses received by the professionals during IR procedures. We evaluated the doses of radiologists, anesthesiologists and nursing staff of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, through measures with dosimeters of the OSL type, distributed in up to six regions of the body of these professionals. Until now were accompanied 33 cholangiography procedures and 29 embolization procedures. As a preliminary result, it was possible to identify a wide variation between doses of the professionals of the same function in each procedure. In overview, the dose of the professionals presented in descending order as a radiologist 1> radiologist 2 > anesthetist > nursing. (author)

  6. Patient absorbed radiation doses estimation related to irradiation anatomy; Estimativa de dose absorvida pelo paciente relacionada a anatomia irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Flavio Augusto Penna; Soares, Amanda Anastacio; Kahl, Gabrielly Gomes, E-mail: prof.flavio@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda-a-soares@hotmail.com, E-mail: gabriellygkahl@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Eduacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Developed a direct equation to estimate the absorbed dose to the patient in x-ray examinations, using electric, geometric parameters and filtering combined with data from irradiated anatomy. To determine the absorbed dose for each examination, the entrance skin dose (ESD) is adjusted to the thickness of the patient's specific anatomy. ESD is calculated from the estimated KERMA greatness in the air. Beer-Lambert equations derived from power data mass absorption coefficients obtained from the NIST / USA, were developed for each tissue: bone, muscle, fat and skin. Skin thickness was set at 2 mm and the bone was estimated in the central ray of the site, in the anteroposterior view. Because they are similar in density and attenuation coefficients, muscle and fat are treated as a single tissue. For evaluation of the full equations, we chose three different anatomies: chest, hand and thigh. Although complex in its shape, the equations simplify direct determination of absorbed dose from the characteristics of the equipment and patient. The input data is inserted at a single time and total absorbed dose (mGy) is calculated instantly. The average error, when compared with available data, is less than 5% in any combination of device data and exams. In calculating the dose for an exam and patient, the operator can choose the variables that will deposit less radiation to the patient through the prior analysis of each combination of variables, using the ALARA principle in routine diagnostic radiology sector.

  7. Comparison and applicability analysis of models for estimating radiological dose rates of freshwater biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Zongzhen; Qin, Chunli

    2018-01-01

    A number of inter-comparisons of non-human biota radiation assessment models have been fulfilled by international researchers and organizations. This paper describes the radiological impact to reference biota in Chinese inland nuclear power plant scenario, by using RESRAD-Biota, ERICA and R&D 128. The estimation results are ranging from 6.1×10-3μGy/h to 6.17×10-2μGy/h, mainly contributed by 134Cs and 137Cs, obviously below recommended limits and thus prove the biota in reservoir can be adequately protected from effluent discharge. By comparing models characteristics and performances in exercise, we conclude the ERICA tool reveals more applicability in Chinese nuclear sites and propose several suggestions to establish native framework for non-human biota assessment.

  8. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee–Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  9. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2016-08-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee-Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  10. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-08-15

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee–Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  11. [Evaluation of Organ Dose Estimation from Indices of CT Dose Using Dose Index Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriuchijima, Akiko; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Akio

    Direct measurement of each patient organ dose from computed tomography (CT) is not possible. Most methods to estimate patient organ dose is using Monte Carlo simulation with dedicated software. However, dedicated software is too expensive for small scale hospitals. Not every hospital can estimate organ dose with dedicated software. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the simple method of organ dose estimation using some common indices of CT dose. The Monte Carlo simulation software Radimetrics (Bayer) was used for calculating organ dose and analysis relationship between indices of CT dose and organ dose. Multidetector CT scanners were compared with those from two manufactures (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare; SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare). Using stored patient data from Radimetrics, the relationships between indices of CT dose and organ dose were indicated as each formula for estimating organ dose. The accuracy of estimation method of organ dose was compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulation using the Bland-Altman plots. In the results, SSDE was the feasible index for estimation organ dose in almost organs because it reflected each patient size. The differences of organ dose between estimation and simulation were within 23%. In conclusion, our estimation method of organ dose using indices of CT dose is convenient for clinical with accuracy.

  12. Estimates of effective dose in adult CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mustafa Awad Elhaj.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of study was to estimate effective dose (E) in adult CT examinations for Toshiba X64 slice using CT. Exp version 2.5 software in Sudan. Using of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patients that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. lack of optimized protocols could be an additional source of increased dose in developing countries. In order to achieve these objectives, data of CT-scanner has been collected from three hospitals ( ANH, ZSH and MMH). Data collected included equipment information and scan parameters for individual patients, who were used to asses. 300 adult patients underwent head, chest, abdomen-pelvis and peivis CT examinations. The CT1_w , CTD1_vol, DLP, patient effective dos and organ doses were estimated, using CT exposure parameters and CT Exp version 2.5 software. A large variation of mean effective dose and organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning protocols used in different hospitals and scan length. The mean effective dose in this study in the Brain, PNS, Chest, pulmonary, Abdomen-pelvis, Pelvis, KUB and CTU were 3.2 mSv, 2.6 mSv, 18.9 mSv 17.6 mSv 27.1 mSv, 11.2 mSv, 9.6 mSv and 23.7 mSv respectively, and organ equivalent, doses presented in this study in this study for the eye lens (for head), lungs and thymus ( for chest) , liver, kidney and small intest ( for abdomen t-pelvis), bladder, uterus and gonads ( for pelvis), were 62.9 mSv, 39.5 mSv, 34.1 mSv, 53.9 mSv, 52.6 mSv, 58.1 mSv, 37 mSv, and 34.6 mSv, respectively. These values were mostly comparable to and slightly higher than the values of effective doses reported from similar studies the United Kingdom, Tanzania, Australia, Canada and Sudan. It was concluded that patient effective dose and organ doses could be substantially minimized through careful selection of scanning parameters based on clinical indications of study, patient size, and body

  13. Natural radiation - a perspective to radiological risk factors of nuclear energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustonen, R.; Christensen, T.; Stranden, E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nordic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different...... radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92 000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production...... to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23 000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases...

  14. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion

  15. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion.

  16. Estimating doses and risks associated with decontamination and decommissioning activities using the CRRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Cotter, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) is applicable to determining doses and risks from a variety of decontamination and decommissioning activities. For example, concentrations in air from resuspended radionuclides initially deposited on the ground surface and the concentrations of deposited radionuclides in various soil layers can be obtained. The CRRIS will estimate exposure to radon and its progeny in terms of working-level months, and will compute the resulting health risks. The CRRIS consists of seven integrated computer codes that stand alone or are run as a system to calculate environmental transport, doses, and risks. PRIMUS output provides other CRRIS codes the capability to handle radionuclide decay chains. ANEMOS and RETADD-II calculate atmospheric dispersion and deposition for local and regional distances, respectively. Multiple ANEMOS runs for sources within a small area are combined on a master grid by SUMIT. MLSOIL is used to estimate effective ground surface concentrations for dose computations. TERRA calculates food chain transport, and ANDROS calculates individual or population exposures, doses, and risks. Applications of the CRRIS to decontamination problems are discussed. 16 refs., 1 fig

  17. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  18. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, L.M.; Trubey, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed

  19. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the beef/milk food-chain pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayno, D R

    1983-12-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the beef/milk food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po in plants and cattle. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. In this paper, data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk from cattle that have fed on forage contaminated with the tailings. The estimated doses from this technologically enhanced source are compared with those resulting from average dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  20. Current situation of doses delivered to the patients in the field of dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Monnin, P.; Aroua, A.; Valley, J.F.; Verdun, F.R.; Perrier, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the doses delivered to the patients in the field of dental radiology. The technology progress in medical imaging will be discussed from a dose perspective. In this work, patient dosimetry has been performed for intra-oral, panoramic and CT dental examinations. Doses were estimated using appropriate dosimetric indicators such as the entrance surface kerma (ESK) and the kerma area product (KAP). These indicators are easily measurable and enable to estimate the effective dose for a standard patient. KAP values were measured for two intra-oral systems using D and E/F speed dental films, as well as a digital system based on the CCD technology. In addition, the KAP was measured on three ortho-pan-tomograms (OPGs) of various generations. Finally, in order to assess the dose delivered during dental implants planning, the kerma length product (KLP) and the computed tomography dose index (CTDI W ) were determined for a CT scanner using the Dentascan protocol and a new DVT (Digital Volume Tomography) dedicated system. Using E/F speed instead of D speed films allowed to educe the KAP by a factor of 2 without significant loss of image quality. A further dose reduction by a factor of 6 was possible with digital systems but with an important degradation of the spatial resolution (variation of the MTF at 50% from 13 mm -1 to 5 mm -1 ). KAP measurements on OPGs showed that old systems delivered doses three times higher than a more recent devices. The new dedicated tomographic system enabled a reduction of the patient dose by a factor of 18 when compared with the Dentascan CT system. (author)

  1. Radiological Characterization of cuban coffee and estimation of the doses received by the population due to coffee consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Rodriguez Castro, G.; Perez Sanchez, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the radioactivity levels in the coffee produced and consumed in our country and to estimate the doses received by the Cuban people due to its consumption. As a results of this study the most relevant radionuclide was K 40 , due to the concentration levels found only considering it when estimating the annual committed dose that is received thought this via. The K 40 concentration value present in the infusion represented a dose for the consumer of 15.6 u Sv/year

  2. Estimation of effective doses in pediatric X-ray computed tomography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Hideki; Takahashi, Midori; Kudou, Kazuya; Mariya, Yasushi; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2017-11-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines. In Japan, the number of facilities that own diagnostic CT equipment, the number of CT examinations and the number of CT scanners increased by ~1.4-fold between 2005 and 2011. CT operators (medical radiological technologists, medical physicists and physicians) must understand the effective doses for examinations at their own institutions and carefully approach each examination. In addition, the patients undergoing the examination (as well as his/her family) must understand the effective dose of each examination in the context of the cumulative dose. In the present study, the numbers of pediatric patients (aged 0-5 years) and total patients who underwent CT at Hirosaki University Hospital (Hirosaki, Japan) between January 2011 and December 2013 were surveyed, and effective doses administered to children aged 0, 1 and 5 years were evaluated. Age- and region-specific conversion factors and dose-length products obtained from the CT scanner were used to estimate the effective doses. The numbers of CT examinations performed in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 16,662, 17,491 and 17,649, respectively, of which 613 (1.2%) of the overall total involved children aged 0-5 years. The estimated effective doses per examination to children aged 0, 1 and 5 years were 6.3±4.8, 4.9±3.8 and 2.7±3.0 mSv, respectively. This large variation was attributed to several factors associated with scan methods and ranges in actual setting. In conclusion, the requirement for individual patient prospective exposure management systems and estimations of low-dose radiation exposure should be considered in light of the harmful effects of exposure.

  3. Protection of staff in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkamu, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    This project focuses on the interventional radiology. The main objective of this project work was to provide a guidance and advice for occupational exposure and hospital management to optimize radiation protection safety and endorse safety culture. It provides practical information on how to minimize occupational exposure in interventional radiology. In the literature review all considerable parameters to reduce dose to the occupationally exposed are well discussed. These parameters include dose limit, risk estimation, use of dosimeter, personal dose record keeping, analysis of surveillance of occupational dose, investigation levels, and proper use of radiation protection tools and finally about scatter radiation dose rate. In addition the project discusses the ways to reduce occupational exposure in interventional radiology. The methods for dose reduction are minimizing fluoroscopic time, minimizing the number of fluoroscopic image, use of patient dose reduction technologies, use of collimation, planning interventional procedures, positioning in low scattered areas, use of protective shielding, use of appropriate fluoroscopic imaging equipment, giving training for the staff, wearing the dosimeters and know their own dose regularly, and management commitment to quality assurance and quality control system and optimization of radiation protection of safety. (author)

  4. Pilot study of the dose in crystalline lens in the interventional radiology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.; Martinez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Molina, D.; Sanchez, L.; Diaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    The interventional radiology involves considerable exposure levels for the occupationally exposed personnel (OEP). The doses can encompass a wide range of values in dependence of the function that develops the personnel and the complexity of each procedure. In organs like the crystalline lens and skin values can be reached that imply the appearance of deterministic effects if is not fulfilled the appropriate measures of radiological protection. This has been demonstrated through multiple studies, among those that the retrospective study of damages in the crystalline lens and dose has been one of those most commented, known as RELID. The objective of that study was to examine the opacity prevalence in the crystalline lens in workers linked to the interventional cardiology and to correlate it with the occupational exposition. The obtained results contributed to that the ICRP recommend a new limit value of equivalent dose for crystalline lens of 20 mSv in one year. With the objective of analyzing the operational implications, in the radiological surveillance programs that they could originate with the new recommendations was developed a pilot study to evaluate the dose in crystalline lens in the OEP linked to the interventional radiology in a Cuban hospital. For this, an anthropomorphic mannequin RANDO-ALDERSON was used on which thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed below and above of the leaded apron and in different positions at level of the crystalline lens: above, below and to the sides of the leaded lenses that the personnel uses routinely. The mannequin was located on the same positions that occupy the main specialist that execute the procedure, as well as of the nurse to assist him. The measurements were made simulating the more representative procedures about complexity, duration time and exposure rate. The used dosimeters were RADOS model for whole body composed of two thermoluminescent detectors Gr-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) to evaluate personal equivalent dose

  5. Dose estimation by biological methods; Estimacion de dosis por metodos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C; David C, L; Serment G, J; Brena V, M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The human being is exposed to strong artificial radiation sources, mainly of two forms: the first is referred to the occupationally exposed personnel (POE) and the second, to the persons that require radiological treatment. A third form less common is by accidents. In all these conditions it is very important to estimate the absorbed dose. The classical biological dosimetry is based in the dicentric analysis. The present work is part of researches to the process to validate the In situ Fluorescent hybridation (FISH) technique which allows to analyse the aberrations on the chromosomes. (Author)

  6. Calculating the radiological parameters used in non-human biota dose assessment tools using ERICA Tool and site-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, Maria [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece); Florou, Heleny [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Kitis, Georgios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    The substantial complexity in ecosystem-radionuclide interactions is difficult to be represented in terms of radiological doses. Thus, radiological dose assessment tools use typical exposure situations for generalized organisms and ecosystems. In the present study, site-specific data and radioactivity measurements of terrestrial organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) are provided. The retrieved data are used in combination with the ERICA Assessment Tool for calculation of radiological parameters. The process of radionuclide transfer within ecosystem components is represented using concentration ratios (CRs), while for the calculation of dose rates the dose conversion coefficient (DCC) methodology is applied. Comparative assessments are performed between the generic and assessment-specific radiological parameters and between the resulting dose rates. Significant differences were observed between CRs calculated in this study and those reported in the literature for cesium and thorium, which can easily be explained. On the other hand, CRs calculated for radium are in very good agreement with those reported in the literature. The DCCs exhibited some small differences between the reference and the assessment-specific organism due to mass differences. The differences were observed for internal and external dose rates, but they were less pronounced for total dose rates which are typically used in the assessment of radiological impact. The results of the current work can serve as a basis for further studies of the radiological parameters in environments that have not been studied yet. (orig.)

  7. Potential radiological doses associated with the disposal of petroleum industry NORM via landspreading. Final report, September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Arnish, J.J.

    1998-12-01

    As a result of oil and gas production and processing operations, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate at elevated concentrations in by-product waste streams. The primary radionuclides of concern in NORM wastes are radium-226 of the uranium-238 decay series, and radium-228, of the thorium-232 decay series. The production waste streams most likely to be contaminated by elevated radium concentrations include produced water, scale, and sludge. Scales and sludges removed from production equipment often are disposed of by landspreading, a method in which wastes are spread over the soil surface to allow the hydrocarbon component of the wastes to degrade. In this study, the disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes by landspreading was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of future land use scenarios--including residential, industrial, recreational, and agricultural scenarios--were considered. The waste streams considered included scales and sludges containing NORM above background levels. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate potential radiological doses to workers and the general public resulting from the disposal of NORM wastes by noncommercial landspreading activities and (2) analyze the effect of different land use scenarios on potential doses

  8. ESTIMATION OF EXPOSURE DOSES FOR THE SAFE MANAGEMENT OF NORM WASTE DISPOSAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Ko, Nak Yul; Cho, Dong-Keun; Baik, Min Hoon; Yoon, Ki-Hoon

    2018-03-16

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes with different radiological characteristics are generated in several industries. The appropriate options for NORM waste management including disposal options should be discussed and established based on the act and regulation guidelines. Several studies calculated the exposure dose and mass of NORM waste to be disposed in landfill site by considering the activity concentration level and exposure dose. In 2012, the Korean government promulgated an act on the safety control of NORM around living environments to protect human health and the environment. For the successful implementation of this act, we suggest a reference design for a landfill for the disposal of NORM waste. Based on this reference landfill, we estimate the maximum exposure doses and the relative impact of each pathway to exposure dose for three scenarios: a reference scenario, an ingestion pathway exclusion scenario, and a low leach rate scenario. Also, we estimate the possible quantity of NORM waste disposal into a landfill as a function of the activity concentration level of U series, Th series and 40K and two kinds of exposure dose levels, 1 and 0.3 mSv/y. The results of this study can be used to support the establishment of technical bases of the management strategy for the safe disposal of NORM waste.

  9. 137Cs Radiological risk estimation of NSD facility at Karawang site by using RESRAD onsite application: effect of cover thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; Prihastuti, S.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-02-01

    The operational of near surface disposal facility during waste packages loading activity into the facility, or in a monitoring activity around disposal facility at Karawang area is predicted to give a radiological risk to radiation workers. The thickness of disposal facility cover system affected the number of radiological risk of workers. Due to this reason, a radiological risk estimation needs to be considered. RESRAD onsite code is applied for this purpose by analyse the individual accepted dose and radiological risk data of radiation workers. The obtained results and then are compared with radiation protection reference in accordance with national regulation. In this case, the data from the experimental result of Karawang clay as host of disposal facility such as Kd value of 137Cs was used. Results showed that the thickness of the cover layer of disposal facility affected to the radiological risk which accepted by workers in a near surface disposal facility.

  10. Radiation dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.; Toohey, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages. The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or Reference Man phantom in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for flow energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical. In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms

  11. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Carlsson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs. (authors)

  12. Specification of carbon ion dose at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Nakai, Tatsuaki; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The clinical dose distributions of therapeutic carbon beams, currently used at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), are based on in-vitro Human Salivary Gland (HSG) cell survival response and clinical experience from fast neutron radiotherapy. Moderate radiosensitivity of HSG cells is expected to be a typical response of tumours to carbon beams. At first, the biological dose distribution is designed so as to cause a flat biological effect on HSG cells in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region. Then, the entire biological dose distribution is evenly raised in order to attain a RBE (relative biological effectiveness)=3.0 at a depth where dose-averaged LET (linear energy transfer) is 80 keV/μm. At that point, biological experiments have shown that carbon ions can be expected to have a biological effect identical to fast neutrons, which showed a clinical RBE of 3.0 for fast neutron radiotherapy at NIRS. The resulting clinical dose distribution in this approximation is not dependent on dose level, tumour type or fractionation scheme and thus reduces the unknown parameters in the analysis of the clinical results. The width SOBP and the clinical/physical dose at the center of SOBP specify the dose distribution. The clinical results analyzed in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) were found to show good agreement with the expected RBE value at higher TCP levels. The TCP analysis method was applied for the prospective dose estimation of hypofractionation. (author)

  13. MO-DE-204-03: Radiology Dose Optimisation - An Australian Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, D.

    2016-01-01

    The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend

  14. MO-DE-204-03: Radiology Dose Optimisation - An Australian Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, D. [Princess Alexandra Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend

  15. Analysis of dose distribution in interventionist radiology professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Leonardo Peres; Canevaro, Lucia V.; Luz, Eara de Souza

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an evaluation was made of the distribution of dose received by professionals involved in some procedures of Interventional Radiology at hospitals and clinics in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. For these measurements thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD100) were used, positioned at different points of the body of professionals: the hands, knees, neck, forehead and chest, inside and outside the lead apron. The measurements were made by procedure and/or a day of work, and the TLD were calibrated in equivalent operating magnitude of personal dose (Hp (d)) at different depths: 0.07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm. In some procedures, physicians (holders of service and residents) received significant doses. The results show the importance of the appropriate training of these professionals and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as thyroid shield, which is not always used. Based on these evaluations, some suggestions were made in order to optimize the dose values in these procedures and a discussion on the need for additional monitoring points

  16. Validation of a mathematical phantom for dose assessment of radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Joana D' Arc R.L.; Gomes, Rogerio S.; Costa, Mara Lucia L.

    2013-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in the industry with the purpose of well logging, non-destructive testing, food irradiation, process control systems, elemental analysis and others. Among the most used sources, it can mention: 137 Cs, 60 Co, 192 Ir, 85 Kr and Americium-Beryllium with radiation activities ranging between a few MegaBecquerels (MBq) to million of GBq, as the case of food irradiation. In general, these sources present sufficient activity to represent a significant health hazard when inadequately shielded or not handled according to proper safety procedures, producing radiation exposures to workers and to members of public. In cases of overexposure to ionizing radiation, an estimative of the dose received by victims of radiation accidents, as well as its distribution within the organism, can be provided by use an anthropomorphic phantom associates with a theoretical simulation Monte Carlo method to simulate the radioactive source and its interactions with the phantom. In this work is presented the validation results of application of a mathematical phantom modeled in Geant4, as a tool to reconstruct dose of radiological accidents due to external exposure. The results are compared with the dosimetry of real accidents. (author)

  17. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulea, D.; Cosma, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  18. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  19. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks.

  20. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2008-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks

  1. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  2. Estimation of internal dose from radiocesium and phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji

    1994-01-01

    A complicated model describing the movement of a radionuclide in both the natural environment and socioeconomical systems is usually used to estimate the internal dose to the public in terms of collective dose, taking demographic data into account. The result can be certified for reliability in some compartments of the model. One of the compartments is the body content. In the case of radiocesium, the individual body burden can be measured using a whole-body counter. The measurement must be calibrated with a phantom. The public is composed of individuals of various ages. Accordingly, the whole-body counter should be calibrated with a set of phantoms approximating individuals of different body sizes. Relationships between counting efficiency and body size were analyzed on 137 Cs 134 Cs or 40 K incorporated into the whole-body using a set of phantoms. Four sizes covering average Japanese physiques from infant to adult male, were chosen to prepare an anthropomorphic phantom system. The distribution of 137 Cs in aquatic solution was homogeneous through the phantom. A whole-body counter at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, was used at a rate of 5 cm per minute in a scanning mode. The measurements were carried out in an iron room. Relations were analyzed between counting efficiency and some anthropometric parameters. The best fit was given by a linear equation of both reciprocals of height in cm and weight in kg, with a correlation coefficient of 1.00 for 137 Cs. The result indicates that radioactivity of 137 Cs can be determined for individuals with different anthropometric parameters using the whole-body counter system. This means that effective equivalent doses for individuals can be computed accurately from the measurements. Further, an estimate on the body content from an dose estimation model using measurements of radioactivity in environmental substances can be evaluated by comparing the body burden measured. (J.P.N.)

  3. Preliminary radiological consequence estimates for a reference LEU core for PARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Khan, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiological consequence analysis of a reference LEU core for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR) has been carried out using mathematical models. It was assumed that 20% of the fuel, having an average burn-up of 50% achieved by continuously operating the reactor for 300 days at 10 MW, fails. It was further assumed that 100% of the noble gases and a fraction of iodine are released. Three modes of leakage from reactor building have been considered. These are exhaust through the normal ventilation system, through emergency ventilation system and leakage from the building. The whole body and thyroid doses have been calculated for 2 hours and 30 days at the boundaries of the exclusion zone at 450m and the low population zone at 1000m. For the releases at stack height through normal and emergency ventilation system, doses at both the boundaries remain within emergency dose limits of 300 rem for thyroid and 25 rem for the whole body. However, in the case of direct release from the containment building, the limiting thyroid dose of 300 rem, at 1000m, for 30 days exposure is achieved for a leak rate of 27% per day under Pasquill condition E. The results presented in this report are only preliminary estimates. A more accurate detailed analysis for various burnups will be carried out using standard computer codes

  4. Overview of double dosimetry procedures for the determination of the effective dose to the interventional radiology staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, H.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Jansen, J.; Miljanic, S.; Nikodemova, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    In interventional radiology, for an accurate determination of effective dose to the staff, measurements with two dosemeters have been recommended, one located above and one under the protective apron. Such 'double dosimetry' practices and the algorithms used for the determination of effective dose were reviewed in this study by circulating a questionnaire and by an extensive literature search. The results indicated that regulations for double dosimetry almost do not exist and there is no firm consensus on the most suitable calculation algorithms. The calculation of effective dose is mainly based on the single dosemeter measurements, in which either personal dose equivalent, directly, (dosemeter below the apron) or a fraction of personal dose equivalent (dosemeter above the apron) is taken as an assessment of effective dose. The most recent studies suggest that there might not be just one double dosimetry algorithm that would be optimum for all interventional radiology procedures. Further investigations in several critical configurations of interventional radiology procedures are needed to assess the suitability of the proposed algorithms. (authors)

  5. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    In fetus exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays for the medical examinations of the mother, the absorbed dose has been estimated on the basis of a 1974 nation wide radiological survey. The results of the survey showed that the number of radiographs per year connected with pregnant women was 0.32 million for chest examination excluding mass surveys. 0.29 million for obstetrical examinations including pelvimetry, and 0.21 million for abdominal and pelvic examinations with a total of 0.82 million. The dose absorbed in the fetus was measured with an ionization chamber placed at the hypothetical center of the fetus in an ''average woman'' Rando phantom in which a maternal body was simulated by adding MixDp materials. ''The collective dose'' to the fetus in the pregnant women receiving a given type of examination was calculated from the number of radiographs per year connected with the pregnant women and the fetal doses. The percapita mean marrow dose (CMD), the leukemia significant dose (LSD) and the genetically significant dose (GSD) for the fetus were determined from the collective dose, taking into account the birth expectancy, the child expectancy, life expectancy and significant factor for the fetus. The collective dose to the fetus was estimated to be 9.3 x 10 4 man rad per year. The resultant values of CMD, LSD and GSD were 0.81 mrad per year, 0.79 mrad per person per year and 1.44 mrad per person per year, respectively. (Evans, J.)

  6. Radiation doses estimation for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with PCFV using RASCAL software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, Josip; Konjarek, Damir; Grgic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Calculation is done using Source Term to Dose module of RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System Consequence Analysis) software to estimate projected radiation doses from a radioactive plume to the environment. Utilizing this module, it is possible to do preliminary assessment of consequences to the environment in case of adverse reactor conditions or releases from other objects containing radioactive materials before the emergency situation has happened or in the early phase. RASCAL is simple, easy to use, fast-running tool able to provide initial estimate of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. Upon entering rather limited amount of input parameters for the Krsko NPP, mostly key plant parameters, time dependent source term calculation is executed to determine radioactive inventory release rates for different plant conditions, release paths and availability of protective measures. These rates given for each radionuclide as a function of time are used as an input to atmospheric dispersion and transport model. Together with release rates, meteorological conditions dataset serve as input to determine the behavior of the radioactive releases that is plume in the atmosphere. So as an output, RASCAL produces a 'dispersion envelope' of radionuclide concentrations in the atmosphere. These concentrations of radionuclides in the atmosphere are further used for estimating the doses to the environment and the public downwind the release point. Throughout this paper, dose assessment is performed for two distances, close-in distance and distance out to 40 km from the source, for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with Passive Containment Filtered Vent (PCFV) system used. Obvious difference is related to released radioactivity of Iodine isotopes. Results of radioactive effluents deposition in the environment are displayed via various doze parameters, radionuclide concentrations and materials exposure rates in this particular case. (authors)

  7. Introduction of radiological protection; Pengenalan kepada perlindungan radiologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: basic principles of radiological protection , dose limit which was suggested, stochastic and nonstochastic effects, equivalent dose and alternative of it`s calculation, limit for the publics, ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) recommendations, and the principles of radiological protection. Dangerous radiation sources also briefly summarized i.e. x-ray generators, reactor nucleus.

  8. Estimation of breast dose and cancer risk in chest and abdomen CT procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, Suha Abubaker Ali

    2013-05-01

    The use of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patents that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. Lack of optimized protocols be an additional source of increased dose in developing countries. The aims of this study are first, to measure patient doses during CT chest and abdomen procedures, second, to estimate the radiation dose to the breast, and third to quantify the radiation risks during the procedures. Patient doses from two common CT examinations were obtained from four hospitals in Khartoum.The patient doses were estimated using measurement of CT dose indexes (CTDI), exposure-related parameters, and the IMPACT spreadsheet based on NRPB conversion factors. A large variation of mean organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning protocols used in different hospitals and scanner type. The largest range was found for CT of the chest, for which the dose varied from 2.3 to 47 (average 24.7) mSv and for abdomen CT, it was 1.6 to 18.8 (average 10.2) mSv. Radiation dose to the breast ranged from 1.6 to 32.9 mSv for the chest and 1.1 to 13.2 mSv for the abdomen. The radiation risk per procedure was high. The obtained values were mostly higher than the values of organ doses reported from the other studies. It was concluded that current clinical chest and abdomen protocols result in variable radiation doses to the breast. The magnitude of exposure may have implications for imaging strategies.(Author)

  9. Monte Carlo simulation for radiation dose in children radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Hitalo R.; Tomal, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The dosimetry in pediatric radiology is essential due to the higher risk that children have in comparison to adults. The focus of this study is to present how the dose varies depending on the depth in a 10 year old and a newborn, for this purpose simulations are made using the Monte Carlo method. Potential differences were considered 70 and 90 kVp for the 10 year old and 70 and 80 kVp for the newborn. The results show that in both cases, the dose at the skin surface is larger for smaller potential value, however, it decreases faster for larger potential values. Another observation made is that because the newborn is less thick the ratio between the initial dose and the final is lower compared to the case of a 10 year old, showing that it is possible to make an image using a smaller entrance dose in the skin, keeping the same level of exposure at the detector. (author)

  10. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  11. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.; Teng, I. L.; Muhammad samudi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia), and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y -1 permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77 x 10 -3 risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19 x 10 -3 risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  12. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents

  13. Patient dose monitoring systems: A new way of managing patient dose and quality in the radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, N

    2017-12-01

    Due to the upcoming European Directive (2013/59/EURATOM) and the increased focus on patient safety in international guidelines and regulations, Patient Dose Monitoring Systems, also called Dose Management Systems (DMS), are introduced in medical imaging departments. This article focusses on the requirements for a DMS, its benefits and the necessary implementation steps. The implementation of a DMS can be perceived as a lengthy, yet worthy, procedure: users have to select the appropriate system for their applications, prepare data collection, validate, perform configuration, and start using the results in quality improvement projects. A state of the art DMS improves the quality of service, ensures patient safety and optimizes the efficiency of the department. The gain is multifaceted: the initial goal is compliance monitoring against diagnostic reference levels. At a higher level, the user gets an overview of the performance of the devices or centers that are under his supervision. Error identification, generation of alerts and workflow analysis are additional benefits. It can also enable a more patient-centric approach with personalized dosimetry. Skin dose, size-specific dose estimates and organ doses can be calculated and evaluated per patient. A DMS is a powerful tool and essential for improved quality and patient care in a radiology department. It can be configured to the needs of medical physicists, radiologists, technologists, even for the management of the hospital. Collaboration between all health professionals and stakeholders, input-output validation and communication of findings are key points in the process of a DMS implementation. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A project: 'Radiological protection in radiology', IAEA - Universidad Central de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.R.; Salazar, G.; Fermin, R.; Gonzalez, M.

    2001-01-01

    For several years a reference center of the UCV has been working on the project VEN/9/007 on dose reduction in diagnostic radiology sponsored by the IAEA. The dose and quality image was evaluated for different types of radiological study (conventional radiology, CT, mammography, interventional radiology) in different facilities at Caracas and others regions of the Venezuela. TL dosimeters were used to assess dose and reduction in dose. Based on the recommendations given by CEC documents on diagnostic quality criteria, a quality control program in radiological protection of patients and staff has been developed, for example: Pilot study by using TLD in personnel radiation monitoring. Comparative study between high and low kVp in chest. Evaluation and dose reduction in chest pediatric. Reduction of radiation dose in studies of billiards via Quality Image and reduction of the dose in studies of colon by enema. Radiation dose of staff in fluoroscopy procedures. Evaluation and dose reduction in dental radiography in public Institutions. A mammography accreditation program for Venezuela, applied to public hospitals. (author)

  15. Quality control of diagnostic radiology to reduce absorbed dose of patients in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghahadi, Bahman.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reduce absorbed dose, to increase the image quality and to reduce the numbers of rejected films various quality control parameters were applied to X ray machines. These parameter are Kilo Volt peak, Milli Ampere, Exposure Time Focal Film Distance, Inherent Filters, Additional Filters Half Value Layer, Processor Condition, Cassettes. To evaluate and to apply these parameters in diagnostic radiological centers, ten hospitals were selected and a total number of 12 X ray machines were kept under quality control program. Considering different kinds of diagnostic radiology examination and to compare the dose before and after implementation of a quality control program, two kinds of examinations include in chest and abdomen examinations were considered. For each X ray machine, ten patients and for all selected centers, 120 patients were selected for chest examination and 120 patients for abdomen examinations; before and after implementation of quality control program, a total of 480 patients were selected randomly to be controlled. Base on different examinations carried out, it was concluded that both exposure conditions and general situations in radiological centers were not acceptable. The dosimetry results show that the average ski dose for chest and abdomen examinations were 0.28 m Gy and 4.23 Gy respectively. Before implementation of quality control step to reduce the surface skin dose, quality control parameters were applied and the exposure conditions were imposed. On average the absorbed doses for chest and abdomen examination were decreased to 79% and 61% respectively after the implementation of the program. From dose reduction point of view, the results of a part of this project which made by co-operation of International Atomic Energy Agency showed that Iran acquired the first grade for chest examination and second grade for abdomen examination. Base on the results obtained, the number of patients under chest and abdomen examination were 4041588 and

  16. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine; Estimativa da dose coletiva na populacao portuguesa devido a exames medicos de radiologia de diagnostico e de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Sousa, M. Carmen de [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Coimbra (Portugal); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (Portugal); Pascoal, Ana [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Kings Health Partners; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana isabel [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada (Portugal); Lanca, Isabel [Administracao Regional de Saude, Coimbra (Portugal); Matela, Nuno [Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias. Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica; Janeiro, Luis [Escola superior de Saude da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Patrick [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui [Medical Consult, SA, Lisboa (Portugal); Simaozinho, Paula [Administracao Regional de Saude, Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of Almost-Equal-To 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications.

  17. Evaluation of radiological doses to the terrestrial plants around Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajay Kumar; Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Joshi, S.N.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Existing policies for radiation protection do not provide explicit criteria for the protection of species other than humans, i.e. not for flora and fauna. Concern over this omission is now being widely expressed and moves are under way to evaluate the doses to terrestrial and aquatic biota. During the present work radiological doses (external and internal) to the terrestrial plants were evaluated by estimating the concentration of anthropogenic ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) and natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) in the plant leaves and by measuring the external gamma radiation due to different radionuclide. The soil and vegetation sample were collected from fifteen sampling locations around the different locations at Trombay. The samples were processed as per IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) protocol for the estimation of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil and terrestrial plants. The gamma emitting radionuclides were measured by high resolution gamma (HPGe) spectrometry system. Maximum exposure (external + internal) to the terrestrial plants was observed due to 232 Th while 238 U showed minimum exposure. The average value of radiation exposure to the terrestrial plants for 40 K, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 U and 232 Th was 1555.2 ± 92.4, 691.2 ± 54.3, 2564.1 ± 534.9, 82.5 ±5.2, and 4419.6 ± 1165.5 μGy/y respectively. The radiation exposure (external + internal ) to the terrestrial plants due to all radionuclides was found within the permissible limits (i.e. 10 mGy/d) as per recommended by the United States, Department of Energy (DOE). (author)

  18. Predictions of models for environmental radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact assessment, models are used for estimating source term, environmental dispersion and transfer of radionuclides, exposure pathway, radiation dose and the risk for human beings Although it is recognized that the specific information of local data are important to improve the quality of the dose assessment results, in fact obtaining it can be very difficult and expensive. Sources of uncertainties are numerous, among which we can cite: the subjectivity of modelers, exposure scenarios and pathways, used codes and general parameters. The various models available utilize different mathematical approaches with different complexities that can result in different predictions. Thus, for the same inputs different models can produce very different outputs. This paper presents briefly the main advances in the field of environmental radiological assessment that aim to improve the reliability of the models used in the assessment of environmental radiological impact. The intercomparison exercise of model supplied incompatible results for 137 Cs and 60 Co, enhancing the need for developing reference methodologies for environmental radiological assessment that allow to confront dose estimations in a common comparison base. The results of the intercomparison exercise are present briefly. (author)

  19. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  20. Estimation of build up of dose rate on U3O8 product drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Shinde, A.M.; Deshpande, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In fuel reprocessing plant, plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) are products. Approximately 180 kg U 3 O 8 is filled in SS drum and sealed firmly before storage. In PHWR natural uranium (UO 2 ) is used as fuel. In natural uranium, thorium-232 is present as an impurity at few tens of ppm level. During irradiation in power reactors, due to nuclear reaction formation of 232 U from 232 Th takes place. Natural decay of 232 U leads to the formation of 208 Tl. As time passes, there is buildup of 208 Tl and hence increase in dose rate on the drum containing U 3 O 8 . It is essential to estimate the buildup of dose rate considering the external radiological hazards involved during U 3 O 8 drum handling, transportation and fuel fabrication. This paper describes the calculation of dose rate on drum in future years using MCNP code. For dose rate calculation decay of fission product activity which remains as contamination in product and build up of '2 08 Tl from 232 U is considered. Some measured values of dose rate on U 3 O 8 drum are given for the comparisons with estimated dose rate based on MCNP code. (author)

  1. Does bridging the gap between knowledge and practice help? Example of patient dose reduction in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Kaul, Rashmi; Kumar, Pratik; Berry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is aimed at bridging the gap between knowledge and practice and evaluating the impact of this activity on reduction of patient dose. While enormous data on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology exists, there is absolute lack of information at user's level. For example, the implications on patient dose from 1cm error in x-ray field size or error of 5 kVp or 5mAs is invariably not known. We estimated that 1 cm increase in field size results in irradiation of 600-900cc of extra volume of patient which may contain sensitive tissue, 5 kVp increase results in exposure of 35-65 mR, with more effect in case of lumbar spine and abdomen x-ray and lesser for chest and D-spine, 5 mAs error results in 4-25 mR. The impact of information supply to users was evaluated and it was found that information based approach results in dose reduction to patient and improved image quality. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  3. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  4. Estimation of Exposure Doses for Several Scenarios of the Landfill Disposal of NORM Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ko, Nak Yul; Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Hoon [Korea Institude of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Act on safety control of radioactive materials around living environment was promulgated to protect citizen's health and environment in 2013. According to this Act, the integrated plan for radiation protection and the necessary safety guides for treatment, reuse, and disposal of NORM wastes have to be made. And NORM wastes have to be disposed in landfill sites by reducing the concentration of radionuclide, and they should not be reutilized. In this study, we estimated exposure doses for several scenarios for NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) waste disposal into a reference landfill site to check the radiological safety. Also, we estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of important radionuclides in wastes to be disposed into a landfill site based on the exposure dose limits to support the establishment of technical bases for safety guide. We estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of wastes containing U series, Th series, and {sup 40}K based on the exposure dose limits. The results of this study can be used as technical bases to support the establishment of a guide for the safe management of NORM waste disposal.

  5. A methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da.

    1990-01-01

    A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to stablish better procedures of radiation safety and accidents analysis. The objective of this work is to elaborate a radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography. The suggested methodology will enable professionals to determine the true causes of the event and to estimate the dose with a good certainty. The technical analytical tree, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs, was adopted in the elaboration of the suggested methodology. The viability of the use of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 Computer Code System to calculate the absorbed dose in radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, mainly at sup(192)Ir radioactive source handling situations was also studied. (author)

  6. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D. [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several

  7. The establishment and use of dose reference levels in general paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.J.; Hardwick, J.; Mencik, C.; McLaren, C.; Young, C.; Mashford, P.

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels for general paediatric radiology have been established in terms of delivered exposure parameters rather than skin dose or dose-area product. With supporting measurements from equipment quality assurance and assumptions of standard patient sizes it was possible to derive reference levels in terms of entrance surface dose. This allowed comparison to be made with other published data. The reference levels for common examinations are presented for different age bands. There is a notable variation with patient age for some examinations which is not apparent in other published data. (author)

  8. SUDOQU, a new dose-assessment methodology for radiological surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Teun; van Dijk, Arjan

    2018-06-12

    A new methodology has been developed for the assessment of the annual effective dose resulting from removable and fixed radiological surface contamination. It is entitled SUDOQU (SUrface DOse QUantification) and it can for instance be used to derive criteria for surface contamination related to the import of non-food consumer goods, containers and conveyances, e.g., limiting values and operational screening levels. SUDOQU imposes mass (activity)-balance equations based on radioactive decay, removal and deposition processes in indoor and outdoor environments. This leads to time-dependent contamination levels that may be of particular importance in exposure scenarios dealing with one or a few contaminated items only (usually public exposure scenarios, therefore referred to as the 'consumer' model). Exposure scenarios with a continuous flow of freshly contaminated goods also fall within the scope of the methodology (typically occupational exposure scenarios, thus referred to as the 'worker model'). In this paper we describe SUDOQU, its applications, and its current limitations. First, we delineate the contamination issue, present the assumptions and explain the concepts. We describe the relevant removal, transfer, and deposition processes, and derive equations for the time evolution of the radiological surface-, air- and skin-contamination levels. These are then input for the subsequent evaluation of the annual effective dose with possible contributions from external gamma radiation, inhalation, secondary ingestion (indirect, from hand to mouth), skin contamination, direct ingestion and skin-contact exposure. The limiting effective surface dose is introduced for issues involving the conservatism of dose calculations. SUDOQU can be used by radiation-protection scientists/experts and policy makers in the field of e.g. emergency preparedness, trade and transport, exemption and clearance, waste management, and nuclear facilities. Several practical examples are worked

  9. Estimation of effective dose from radionuclides contained in misch metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Aburai, Tamaru; Nisizawa, Kunihide

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclides contained in three kinds of misch metal products and two kinds of ingots were analyzed using a Ge (Li) semiconductor detector. Lanthanum-138 ( 138 La) and several daughter nuclides derived from thorium and uranium series were detected in all samples. All misch metal products and ingots were determined to be radioactive consumer products (RCP), although they have not been regarded as RCP in Japan. 138 La showed the highest nuclide content rate of all the radionuclides, and the lanthanum metal ingots displayed the highest specific activity at 720 mBq·g -1 . The maximum external effective dose was estimated to be at 3.7 mSv when a metal match was carried for 8,760 hours at 1 mm from the skin. The calculated effective dose under some conditions exceeded 10 μSv per year. This value corresponded to the exemption standard proposed by the UK's National Radiological Protection Board. Individuals working with large amounts of RCP should be appropriately protected. (author)

  10. Patients exposure assessment for radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Stankovic, K.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.)

    2007-01-01

    In this work the results of dose assessment for the most frequent radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology are shown. Entrance surface doses were assessed for 7 radiographic procedures. Three hospitals, six x-ray units in total, were enrolled in investigation. Patient doses were estimated based on results of x-ray tube output measurements. Finally, doses were compared with Diagnostic reference level. Higher dose values were observed for chest examinations. In comparison with results from other countries, doses from this procedure in Serbia are significantly higher. Estimated doses for other procedures were well below Diagnostic reference levels [sr

  11. Crystalline dose of interventional radiologists; Dosis en cristalino de radiologicos intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Concepcion, E.; Diaz Romero, F.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    The measured dose area product in radiology equipment used in angio radiology during different diagnostic and therapeutic can be used to estimate the value of the dose in the lens of doctors or medical personnel carrying out such interventions. (Author)

  12. Estimation of population doses from chest mass screening, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    The population doses in mass photofluorography of the chest were estimated on the basis of nation-wide radiological survey. A total frequency of photofluorographic examinations for the chest mass survey was 18.3 million for males and 15.0 million for females, with a total of 33.3 million. Mass surveys of the chest during the school age are carried out only at the time of admission into the primary school (5 or 6 years old) and at the second class of the junior high school (13 or 14 years old). The gonad doses were determined with an ionization chamber placed at the position of gonad in tissue-equivalent phantoms. The active bone marrow was subdivided into 72 elements. The dose contribution to the marrow arising from the particular exposure conditions was calculated at each site within the elements, using the depth-dose curves experimentally determined and the proportion of the total active bone marrow present at that site. The resultant genetically significant dose for males and females was 0.07 and 0.025 mrad per person per year, respectively, with a total of 0.032 mrad per person per year. The per Caput mean marrow dose for male and female was 5.5 and 4.2 mrad per year, respectively, with a total of 9.7 mrad per year. The leukemia significant dose was calculated from the per Caput mean marrow dose by adopting weighting factor, that is leukemia significant factor. The resultant leukemia significant factor for male and female was 5.2 and 4.1 mrad per person per year, respectively. (auth.)

  13. Reference doses and patient size in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; Wall, B.; Shrimpton, P.

    2000-01-01

    There is a wide range in patient size from a newborn baby to a 15 year old adolescent. Reference doses for paediatric radiology can sensibly be established only for specific sizes of children. Here five standard sizes have been chosen, representing 0 (newborn), 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old patients. This selection of standard ages has the advantage of matching the paediatric mathematical phantoms which are often used in Monte Carlo organ dose calculations. A method has been developed for calculating factors for normalising doses measured on individual children to those for the nearest standard-sized 'child'. These normalisation factors for entrance surface dose (ESD) and dose-area product (DAP) measurements depend on the thickness of the real child, the thickness of the nearest standard 'child', and an effective linear attenuation coefficient (μ) which is itself a function of the x-ray spectrum, the field size, and whether or not an antiscatter grid is used. Entrance and exit dose measurements were made with phantom material representing soft tissue to establish μ values for abdominal and head examinations, and with phantom material representing lung for chest examinations. These measurements of μ were confirmed and extended to other x-ray spectra and field sizes by Monte Carlo calculations. The normalisation factors are tabulated for ESD measurements for specific radiographic projections through the head and trunk, and for DAP measurements for complete multiprojection examinations in the trunk. The normalisation factors were applied to European survey data for entrance surface dose and dose-area product measurements to derive provisional reference doses for common radiographic projections and for micturating cystourethrography (MCU) examinations - the most frequent fluoroscopic examination on children. (author)

  14. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Boel; Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik; Boye, Kjetil; Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus; Trovik, Clement; Biermann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  15. Enviromental sampling at remote sites based on radiological screening assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.; Wenz, G.; Oxenberg, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) data from remote sites on the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, were used to estimate doses to humans and terrestrial mammals from residual radiation deposited during testing of components containing depleted uranium (DU) and thorium (Th). ERM data were used with the DOE code RESRAD and a simple steady-state pathway code to estimate the potential adverse effects from DU and Th to workers in the contaminated zones, to hunters consuming animals from the contaminated zones, and to terrestrial mammals that inhabit the contaminated zones. Assessments of zones contaminated with DU and Th and DU alone were conducted. Radiological doses from Th and DU in soils were largest with a maximum of about 3.5 mrem y -1 in humans and maximum of about 0.1 mrad d -1 in deer. Dose estimates from DU alone in soils were significantly less with a maximum of about 1 mrem y -1 in humans and about 0.04 mrad d -1 in deer. The results of the dose estimates suggest strongly that environmental sampling in these affected areas can be infrequent and still provide adequate assessments of radiological doses to workers, hunters, and terrestrial mammals

  16. A rapid radiobioassay method for strontium estimation in nuclear/radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    During a nuclear/radiological emergency, workers as well as members of the public (MOP) may get internally contaminated with the radionuclides like Sr and Cs. In such situations, a truly rapid radiobioassay method is required to screen a large number of people in order to assess internal contamination and also to decide on subsequent medical intervention. The current precipitation method used at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is quite lengthy and laborious. Efforts are being made to optimize bioassay methods at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre using Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique for emergency response. The present work reports standardization of SEC technique for rapid estimation of Sr in urine samples. The method standardized using Sr spec is simpler, shorter, result in higher recoveries and reproducible results. It is most suitable for quick dose assessment of 90 Sr in bioassay samples in case of emergency

  17. Developing low-dose C-arm CT imaging for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Cahill, Anne Marie [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Felice, Marc [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Laura [Computed Tomography Division, Siemens Healthcare Sector, Shanghai (China); Sarmiento, Marily [Siemens Medical Solutions, Angiography and X-ray Division, Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Manufacturers have provided C-arm CT imaging technologies for applications in interventional radiology in recent years. However, clinical imaging protocols and radiation doses have not been well studied or reported. The purpose of this study is to develop low-dose settings for clinically acceptable CT imaging of temporomandibular joint in interventional radiology suites, using a C-arm imaging angiography system. CT scans were performed with a flat-panel digital C-arm angiographic system on a 5-year-old anthropomorphic phantom. The CTDI was determined for various rotation times, dose settings and Cu filter selections. The CTDI values were compared with those of conventional low-dose CT for the same phantom. The effectiveness of using Cu filters to reduce dose was also investigated. Images were reviewed by a senior radiologist for clinical acceptance. The manufacturer's default setting gave an equivalent CTDI of 4.8 mGy. Optimizing the dose settings and adding copper filtration reduced the radiation dose by 94%. This represents a 50% reduction from conventional CT. Use of Cu filters and low-dose settings significantly reduced radiation dose from that of standard settings. This phantom study process successfully guided the clinical implementation of low-dose studies for all ages at our institution. (orig.)

  18. [Cooperation with the electronic medical record and accounting system of an actual dose of drug given by a radiology information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Yoneda, Tarou; Satou, Shuji; Ishikawa, Toru; Hara, Misako

    2009-12-20

    By input of the actual dose of a drug given into a radiology information system, the system converting with an accounting system into a cost of the drug from the actual dose in the electronic medical record was built. In the drug master, the first unit was set as the cost of the drug, and we set the second unit as the actual dose. The second unit in the radiology information system was received by the accounting system through electronic medical record. In the accounting system, the actual dose was changed into the cost of the drug using the dose of conversion to the first unit. The actual dose was recorded on a radiology information system and electronic medical record. The actual dose was indicated on the accounting system, and the cost for the drug was calculated. About the actual dose of drug, cooperation of the information in a radiology information system and electronic medical record were completed. It was possible to decide the volume of drug from the correct dose of drug at the previous inspection. If it is necessary for the patient to have another treatment of medicine, it is important to know the actual dose of drug given. Moreover, authenticity of electronic medical record based on a statute has also improved.

  19. CUEX methodology for assessing radiological impacts in the context of ICRP Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Kaye, S.V.; Struxness, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Cumulative Exposure Index (CUEX) methodology was developed to estimate and assess, in the context of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Recommendations, the total radiation dose to man due to environmental releases of radioactivity from nuclear applications. Each CUEX, a time-integrated radionuclide concentration (e.g.μCi.h.cm -3 ), reflects the selected annual dose limit for the reference organ and the estimated total dose to that organ via all exposure modes for a specific exposure situation. To assess the radiological significance of an environmental release of radioactivity, calculated or measured radionuclide concentrations in a suitable environmental sampling medium are compared with CUEXs determined for that medium under comparable conditions. The models and computer codes used in the CUEX methodology to predict environmental transport and to estimate radiation dose have been thoroughly tested. These models and codes are identified and described briefly. Calculation of a CUEX is shown step by step. An application of the methodology to a hypothetical atmospheric release involving four radionuclides illustrates use of the CUEX computer code to assess the radiological significance of a release, and to determine the relative importance (i.e. percentage of the estimated total dose contributed) of each radionuclide and each mode of exposure. The data requirements of the system are shown to be extensive, but not excessive in view of the assessments and analyses provided by the CUEX code. (author)

  20. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis; Comportamento estatistico das altas doses em radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com, E-mail: elisa@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  1. Staff lens doses in interventional urology. A comparison with interventional radiology, cardiology and vascular surgery values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E; Fernandez, J M; Sanchez, R M; Resel, L E; Moreno, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate radiation doses to the lens of urologists during interventional procedures and to compare them with values measured during interventional radiology, cardiology and vascular surgery. The measurements were carried out in a surgical theatre using a mobile C-arm system and electronic occupational dosimeters (worn over the lead apron). Patient and staff dose measurements were collected in a sample of 34 urology interventions (nephrolithotomies). The same dosimetry system was used in other medical specialties for comparison purposes. Median and 3rd quartile values for urology procedures were: patient doses 30 and 40 Gy cm 2 ; personal dose equivalent Hp(10) over the apron (μSv/procedure): 393 and 848 (for urologists); 21 and 39 (for nurses). Median values of over apron dose per procedure for urologists resulted 18.7 times higher than those measured for radiologists and cardiologists working with proper protection (using ceiling suspended screens) in catheterisation laboratories, and 4.2 times higher than the values measured for vascular surgeons at the same hospital. Comparison with passive dosimeters worn near the eyes suggests that dosimeters worn over the apron could be a reasonable conservative estimate for ocular doses for interventional urology. Authors recommend that at least the main surgeon uses protective eyewear during interventional urology procedures. (paper)

  2. Efforts towards enhancing the quality of radiological services in Malaysia: review of patient dose surveys 1993-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairuman, H.; Sapiin, B.; Muthuvelu, P.; Hatta, N.; Hambali, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Ministry of Health (MoH) Malaysia is continuously taking steps to improve the quality of radiological services provided by the public and private medical institutions. This is to ensure that optimum diagnostic information is obtained with the least exposure to patients as well as staff. Over the years, MOH has taken both administrative and legislative measures to enforce the various requirements under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984. In order to further upgrade and enhance the quality, safety and efficacy of radiological services, implementation of the Quality Assurance Programme (QAP) has been made mandatory. Implementation of the QAP comprises certification of irradiating equipment, training of personnel (continuous professional education), film reject rate analysis and film auditing and assessment. All these particulars must be documented and submitted annually to the MoH in order to comply with licensing requirements. It is envisaged that with the implementation of QAP, the medical institutions will be able to institutionalise and internalise the culture of quality and safety in the applications of radiation in medicine. This implementation will indirectly result in reduction of dose to the patient and importantly in optimization the use of ionizing radiation in medicine. With the QAP in place a survey of doses to patient in 7 routine X-ray examinations was initiated in 1993 to provide a reference dose baseline in Malaysia. This was then followed by further dose surveys involving other modalities namely interventional radiology, mammography, adult chest and abdominal X-rays and computer tomography dose index (CTDI) for head and body phantom in CT scanner. The results of these dose surveys will be reviewed in this paper. The results of the mean entrance surface dose (ESD) (mGy) to patients in 7 routine X-ray examination done (1993 - 1995), the mean values of dose area product (DAP) (Gycm 2 ) for patient undergoing interventional radiology

  3. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs

  4. Information about radiation dose and risks in connection with radiological examinations: what patients would like to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukkola, Leila; Oikarinen, Heljae; Haapea, Marianne; Tervonen, Osmo; Henner, Anja; Honkanen, Hilkka

    2016-01-01

    To find out patients' wishes for the content and sources of the information concerning radiological procedures. A questionnaire providing quantitative and qualitative data was prepared. It comprised general information, dose and risks of radiation, and source of information. Two tables demonstrating different options to indicate the dose or risks were also provided. Patients could give one or many votes. Altogether, 147 patients (18-85 years) were interviewed after different radiological examinations using these devices. 95 % (139/147) of the patients wished for dose and risk information. Symbols (78/182 votes) and verbal scale (56/182) were preferred to reveal the dose, while verbal (83/164) and numerical scale (55/164) on the risk of fatal cancer were preferred to indicate the risks. Wishes concerning the course, options and purpose of the examination were also expressed. Prescriber (3.9 on a scale 1-5), information letter (3.8) and radiographer (3.3) were the preferred sources. Patients aged 66-85 years were reluctant to choose electronic channels. Apart from general information, patients wish for dose and risk information in connection with radiological examinations. The majority preferred symbols to indicate dose and verbal scales to indicate risks, and the preferred source of information was the prescriber or information letter. (orig.)

  5. Parameter calculation tool for the application of radiological dose projection codes; Herramienta de calculo de parametros para la aplicacion de codigos de proyeccion de dosis radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo G, I. F.; Vergara del C, J. A.; Galvan A, S. J. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Tijerina S, F., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Federal Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, 91476 Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The use of specialized codes to estimate the radiation dose projection to an emergency postulated event at a nuclear power plant requires that certain plant data be available according to the event being simulated. The calculation of the possible radiological release is the critical activity to carry out the emergency actions. However, not all of the plant data required are obtained directly from the plant but need to be calculated. In this paper we present a computational tool that calculates the plant data required to use the radiological dose estimation codes. The tool provides the required information when there is a gas emergency venting event in the primary containment atmosphere, whether well or dry well and also calculates the time in which the spent fuel pool would be discovered in the event of a leak of water on some of the walls or floor of the pool. The tool developed has mathematical models for the processes involved such as: compressible flow in pipes considering area change and for constant area, taking into account the effects of friction and for the case of the spent fuel pool hydraulic models to calculate the time in which a container is emptied. The models implemented in the tool are validated with data from the literature for simulated cases. The results with the tool are very similar to those of reference. This tool will also be very supportive so that in postulated emergency cases can use the radiological dose estimation codes to adequately and efficiently determine the actions to be taken in a way that affects as little as possible. (Author)

  6. Commercial sugar, an alternative dosemeter for the dose determination in radiological emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.

    1997-01-01

    It was carried out the dosimetric evaluation of commercial sugar, with the purpose to determine the feasibility to be able to use this type of substance as a dosimetric material in cases to present some radiological emergency cases. The studied parameters using the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) technique were: pre-doses signal or depth signal, dose-response stability, reproducibility, reliability and signal clearing decreasing. (Author)

  7. Clinical evaluation of the partition model for estimating radiation doses from yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of hepatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Lau, W.Y.; Leung, T.W.T.; Chan, M.; Johnson, P.J.; Li, A.K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation doses to the tumour and non-tumorous liver compartments from yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of hepatic cancer, as estimated by a partition model, have been verified by correlation with the actual doses measured with a beta probe at open surgery. The validity of the doses to the lungs, the tumour and non-tumours liver compartment as estimated by the partition model was further evaluated in clinical settings. On the basis of the observation that one of three patients who received more than 30 Gy from a single treatment and one of two patients who received more than 50 Gy from multiple treatments developed radiation pneumonitis, it was deduced that an estimated lung dose 30 Gy as estimated by the partition model and were predicted to develop radiation pneumonitis, did so despite the use of partial hepatic embolization to reduce the degree of lung shunting. Furthermore, a higher radiological response rate and prolonged survival were found in the group of patients who received higher tumour doses, as estimated by the partition model, than in the group with lower estimated tumour doses. Thus the radiation doses estimated by the partition model can be used to predict (a) complication rate, (b) response rate and (c) duration of survival in the same manner as the actual radiation doses measured with a beta probe at open surgery. The partition model has made selective internal radiation therapy using 90 Y microspheres safe and repeatable without laparotomy. (orig.)

  8. Estimating risk at a Superfund site contaminated with radiological and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temeshy, A.; Liedle, J.M.; Sims, L.M.; Efird, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results for estimating carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects at a Superfund site that is radiologically and chemically contaminated. Risk to receptors from disposal of waste in soil and resulting contamination of groundwater, air, surface water, and sediment is quantified. Specific risk assessment components which are addressed are the exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and the resulting risk characterization. In the exposure assessment, potential exposure pathways are identified using waste disposal inventory information for soil and modeled information for other media. Models are used to calculate future radionuclide concentrations in groundwater, soil, surface water and air. Chemical exposure concentrations are quantified using site characterization data. Models are used to determine concentrations of chemicals in surface water and in air. Toxicity parameters used to quantify the dose-response relationship associated with the carcinogenic contaminants are slope factors and with noncarcinogenic contaminants are reference doses. In the risk characterization step, results from the exposure assessment and toxicity assessment are summarized and integrated into quantitative risk estimates for carcinogens and hazard induces for noncarcinogens. Calculated risks for carcinogenic contaminants are compared with EPA's target risk range. At WAG 6, the risk from radionuclides and chemicals for an on-WAG homesteader exceeds EPA's target risk range. Hazard indices are compared to unity for noncarcinogenic contaminants. At WAG 6, the total pathway hazard index for the on-WAG homesteader exceeds unity

  9. Determination of organ doses during radiological examinations and calculation of somatically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Examples are used to demonstrate that a shift in the point of emphasis is necessary with regard to radiation hazard in medicinal X-ray diagnosis. The parameters employed in this study to calculate somatic dose (SD) and somatically significant dose (SSD) may well be in need of modification; nevertheless the numerical estimation of SSD arrived at here appears to reflect the right order of magnitude for the estimation of somatic risk. The consideration of the threshold dose for somatic injury remains a problem. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Cardiac-Specific Conversion Factors to Estimate Radiation Effective Dose From Dose-Length Product in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sigal; Halliburton, Sandra; Thompson, Carla M; Xu, Yanping; Chelliah, Anjali; Jambawalikar, Sachin R; Peng, Boyu; Peters, M Robert; Jacobs, Jill E; Ghesani, Munir; Jang, James J; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Einstein, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to determine updated conversion factors (k-factors) that would enable accurate estimation of radiation effective dose (ED) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and calcium scoring performed on 12 contemporary scanner models and current clinical cardiac protocols and to compare these methods to the standard chest k-factor of 0.014 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 . Accurate estimation of ED from cardiac CT scans is essential to meaningfully compare the benefits and risks of different cardiac imaging strategies and optimize test and protocol selection. Presently, ED from cardiac CT is generally estimated by multiplying a scanner-reported parameter, the dose-length product, by a k-factor which was determined for noncardiac chest CT, using single-slice scanners and a superseded definition of ED. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor radiation detectors were positioned in organs of anthropomorphic phantoms, which were scanned using all cardiac protocols, 120 clinical protocols in total, on 12 CT scanners representing the spectrum of scanners from 5 manufacturers (GE, Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba). Organ doses were determined for each protocol, and ED was calculated as defined in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. Effective doses and scanner-reported dose-length products were used to determine k-factors for each scanner model and protocol. k-Factors averaged 0.026 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 (95% confidence interval: 0.0258 to 0.0266) and ranged between 0.020 and 0.035 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 . The standard chest k-factor underestimates ED by an average of 46%, ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on scanner, mode, and tube potential. Factors were higher for prospective axial versus retrospective helical scan modes, calcium scoring versus coronary CTA, and higher (100 to 120 kV) versus lower (80 kV) tube potential and varied among scanner models (range of average k-factors: 0.0229 to 0.0277 mSv·mGy -1 cm -1 ). Cardiac k

  11. Scenarios for 14C release to the atmosphere by the world nuclear industry and estimated radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Killough, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the radiation dose to the world population and the associated potential health effects from three scenarios of 14 C releases by the nuclear industry between 1975 and 2020. Measures of health impact are derived from source terms through the use of a multicompartment model of the global carbon cycle, dose-rate factors based on 14 C specific activity in various organs of man, and health-effect incidence factors recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The scenarios for worldwide 14 C releases considered are (1) a pessimistic scenario in which all the 14 C projected to be produced in fuel cycles is released, (2) an optimistic scenario that assumes a decontamination factor of 100 for fuel reprocessing, and (3) an intermediate scenario that simulates a phased improvement in effluent treatment technology at reprocessing plants. The estimates of cumulative potential health effects are based on integrations over infinite time. Comparisons with estimated effects from naturally formed 14 C are shown

  12. Estimation of entrance dose on chest radiographs according to the exposure index on Computerized Radiology System: preliminary results; Estimativa de dose de entrada a partir do indice de exposicao em sistema CR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donomai, Luana Kaoru; Jornada, Tiago da Silva; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci, E-mail: luana.donomai@gmail.com, E-mail: tiagosjornada@gmail.com, E-mail: daros.kellen@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Digital radiology has improved image quality in radiographs in comparison to screen/film systems though the visual control of the quantity of radiation involved on these exams became more demanding due to the low perception of over and underexposed images. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the exposure index (EI) from chest examinations and relate them to the entrance skin dose. Indices from 29 patients and kerma entrance dose were correlated. A correlation coefficient equal to 0,6881 was calculated. EI and entrance dose are correlated positive and moderately, indicating the relevance to deepen the subject. (author)

  13. Analysis of dose to crystalline in Interventional radiology: a purpose of one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera M, F.; Moreno R, F.; Velazquez M, F.; Manzano M, F.J.; Moreno S, T.

    1998-01-01

    The present work shows the dose values to crystalline for the personnel which works in interventional radiology procedures. It was took data of 436 studies with a total of 2,133.4 minutes in fluoroscopy and 19,563 images. It was showed dose values to crystalline in three situations: without blinding, with blinding of 0.25 and 0.50 mm Pb and by type of study: fluoroscopy, graphie and total. The dose means and ranges to patient for each of these studies also are detailed. (Author)

  14. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Sheppard, M I

    1988-06-01

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the "background" radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable.

  15. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Sheppard, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the background radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable

  16. Assessment of eye lens doses in interventional radiology: a simulation in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemusova, Z.; Ekendahl, D.; Judas, L.

    2016-01-01

    As workers in interventional radiology belong to one of the most occupationally exposed groups, methods for sufficiently accurate quantification of their external exposure are sought. The objective of the authors' experiment was to investigate the relations between eye lens dose and H p (10), H p (3) or H p (0.07) values measured with a conventional whole-body personal thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD). Conditions of occupational exposure during common interventional procedures were simulated in laboratory. An anthropomorphic phantom represented a physician. The TLDs were fixed to the phantom in different locations that are common for purposes of personal dosimetry. In order to monitor the dose at the eye lens level during the exposures, a special thermoluminescence eye dosemeter was fixed to the phantom's temple. Correlations between doses measured with the whole-body and the eye dosemeters were found. There are indications that personnel in interventional radiology do not need to be unconditionally equipped with additional eye dosemeters, especially if an appropriate whole-body dosimetry system has been already put into practice. (authors)

  17. Comparison of the COMRADEX-IV and AIRDOS-EPA methodologies for estimating the radiation dose to man from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Hoffman, F.O.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents a comparison between two computerized methodologies for estimating the radiation dose to man from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere. The COMRADEX-IV code was designed to provide a means of assessing potential radiological consequences from postulated power reactor accidents. The AIRDOS-EPA code was developed primarily to assess routine radionuclide releases from nuclear facilities. Although a number of different calculations are performed by these codes, three calculations are in common - atmospheric dispersion, estimation of internal dose from inhalation, and estimation of external dose from immersion in air containing gamma emitting radionuclides. The models used in these calculations were examined and found, in general, to be the same. Most differences in the doses calculated by the two codes are due to differences in values chosen for input parameters and not due to model differences. A sample problem is presented for illustration

  18. SU-E-I-57: Estimating the Occupational Eye Lens Dose in Interventional Radiology Using Active Personal Dosimeters Worn On the Chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, A; Marteinsdottir, M; Kadesjo, N; Fransson, A [Dept. of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a general formalism for determination of occupational eye lens dose based on the response of an active personal dosimeter (APD) worn at chest level above the radiation protection apron. Methods: The formalism consists of three factors: (1) APD conversion factor converting the reading at chest level (APDchest) to the corresponding personal dose equivalent at eye level, (2) Dose conversion factor transferring the measured dose quantity, Hp(10), into a dose quantity relevant for the eye lens dose, (3) Correction factor accounting for differences in exposure of the eye(s) compared to the exposure at chest level (e.g., due to protective lead glasses).The different factors were investigated and evaluated based on phantom and clinical measurements performed in an x-ray angiography suite for interventional cardiology. Results: The eye lens dose can be conservatively estimated by assigning an appropriate numerical value to each factor entering the formalism that in most circumstances overestimates the dose. Doing so, the eye lens dose to the primary operator and assisting staff was estimated in this work as D-eye,primary = 2.0 APDchest and D-eye,assisting = 1.0 APDchest, respectively.The annual eye lens dose to three nurses and one cardiologist was estimated to be 2, 2, 2, and 13 mSv (Hp(0.07)), respectively, using a TLD dosimeter worn at eye level. In comparison, using the formalism and APDchest measurements, the respective doses were 2, 2, 2, and 16 mSv (Hp(3)). Conclusion: The formalism outlined in this work can be used to estimate the occupational eye lens dose from the response of an APD worn on the chest. The formalism is general and could be applied also to other types of dosimeters. However, the numerical value of the different factors may differ from those obtained with the APD’s used in this work due to differences in dosimeter properties.

  19. SU-E-I-57: Estimating the Occupational Eye Lens Dose in Interventional Radiology Using Active Personal Dosimeters Worn On the Chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, A; Marteinsdottir, M; Kadesjo, N; Fransson, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general formalism for determination of occupational eye lens dose based on the response of an active personal dosimeter (APD) worn at chest level above the radiation protection apron. Methods: The formalism consists of three factors: (1) APD conversion factor converting the reading at chest level (APDchest) to the corresponding personal dose equivalent at eye level, (2) Dose conversion factor transferring the measured dose quantity, Hp(10), into a dose quantity relevant for the eye lens dose, (3) Correction factor accounting for differences in exposure of the eye(s) compared to the exposure at chest level (e.g., due to protective lead glasses).The different factors were investigated and evaluated based on phantom and clinical measurements performed in an x-ray angiography suite for interventional cardiology. Results: The eye lens dose can be conservatively estimated by assigning an appropriate numerical value to each factor entering the formalism that in most circumstances overestimates the dose. Doing so, the eye lens dose to the primary operator and assisting staff was estimated in this work as D-eye,primary = 2.0 APDchest and D-eye,assisting = 1.0 APDchest, respectively.The annual eye lens dose to three nurses and one cardiologist was estimated to be 2, 2, 2, and 13 mSv (Hp(0.07)), respectively, using a TLD dosimeter worn at eye level. In comparison, using the formalism and APDchest measurements, the respective doses were 2, 2, 2, and 16 mSv (Hp(3)). Conclusion: The formalism outlined in this work can be used to estimate the occupational eye lens dose from the response of an APD worn on the chest. The formalism is general and could be applied also to other types of dosimeters. However, the numerical value of the different factors may differ from those obtained with the APD’s used in this work due to differences in dosimeter properties

  20. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciraj-Bjelac Olivera F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to assess patient organ doses, effective doses and entrance surface doses in conventional diagnostic radiology procedures for standard adult patient. The survey consists of measurements of doses delivered to 239 patients in nine types of X-ray examinations. Three types of data were collected: X-ray machine data, patient data, and output measurements. Entrance surface dose was assessed based on the survey data and subsequently, using conversion coefficients, the organ doses and effective doses were calculated. Values of the entrance surface dose and the effective dose were estimated to be 0.4 to 5.8 mGy and 0.03 to 3.00 mSv for different examinations. Derived doses were compared with recommended general diagnostic reference levels. The impact of examination parameters on dose values was discussed. Except for posterior-anterior chest examination, all estimated doses are lower than stated reference levels. Survey data are aimed at helping development of national quality control and radiation protection programmed for medical exposures.

  1. Effective dose and dose to crystalline lens during angiographic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, J.

    1998-01-01

    The highest radiation doses levels received by radiologists are observed during interventional procedures. Doses to forehead and neck received by a radiologist executing angiographic examinations at the department of radiology at the academic hospital (AZ-VUB) have been measured for a group of 34 examinations. The doses to crystalline lens and the effective doses for a period of one year have been estimated. For the crystalline lens the maximum dose approaches the ICRP limit, that indicates the necessity for the radiologist to use leaded glasses. (N.C.)

  2. EcoDoses improving radiological assessment of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. A status report for the NKS-B project 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergan, T. [Lavrans Skuterud, Haevard Thoerring (Norway); Liland, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Denmark)] (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    The NKS B-programme EcoDoses project started in 2003 as a collaboration between all the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve the radiological assessments of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. The first part, conducted in 2003, has focussed on an extensive collation and review of both published and unpublished data from all the Nordic countries for the nuclear weapons fallout period and the post-Chemobyl period. This included data on radionuclides in air filters, precipitation, soil samples, milk and reindeer. Based on this, an improved model for estimating radioactive fallout based on precipitation data during the nuclear weapons fallout period has been developed. Effective ecological half- lives for 137Cs and 90Sr in milk have been calculated for the nuclear weapons fallout period. For reindeer the ecological half- lives for 137Cs have been calculated for both the nuclear weapons fallout period and the post-Chemobyl period. The data were also used to compare modelling results with observed concentrations. This was done at a workshop where the radioecological food-and-dose module in the ARGOS decision support system was used to predict transfer of deposited radionuclides to foodstuffs and subsequent radiation doses to man. The work conducted the first year is presented in this report and gives interesting, new results relevant for terrestrial radioecology. (au)

  3. Discharges of nuclear waste into the Kola Bay and its impact on human radiological doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, Genady G.; Matishov, Dimitry G.; Namjatov, Alexey A.; Carroll, JoLynn; Dahle, Salve

    2000-01-01

    The civilian nuclear icebreaker facility, RTP ''ATOMFLOT,'' is located in Kola Bay, Northwest Russia, as are several nuclear installations operated by the Russian Northern Fleet. A treatment plant at the Atomflot facility discharges purified nuclear waste into the bay at an annual rate of 500 m 3 . As a result of plant modifications this rate will soon increase to 5000 m 3 /yr. Evidence of minor leakages of 60 Co are reported by in the vicinity of Atomflot as well as near several military installations in Kola and the adjacent Motovsky Bays. 137 Cs levels reported in the present study for seawater and seaweed collected from locations within the bays are at expected levels except in the vicinity of Atomflot, where the 137 Cs level in a seaweed sample was 46±5 Bq/kg w.w. indicating significant uptake of radionuclides to biota. Uptake also may be occurring in higher trophic levels of the food web through environmental exchange and/or biotransformation. We consider the impact of the present and anticipated discharges from Atomflot through a radiological dose assessment for humans consuming fish from Kola Bay. Mixing and transport of nuclear waste is simulated using a simple box model. Maximum doses, assuming consumption of 100 kg/yr of fish, are below 10 -9 Sv/yr; the planned ten-fold increase in the discharge of treated waste will increase the doses to below 10 -8 Sv/yr. Using data on radionuclide levels in sediments and assuming equilibrium partitioning of radionuclides among sediment, seawater and fish, we estimate that the total doses to humans consuming fish from different areas of Kola and Motovsky Bays, including adjacent to military-controlled nuclear installations, are ∼10 -7 Sv/yr. Nuclear activities in Kola and Motovsky Bays thus far have had minimal impact on the environment. Discharges from the treatment plant currently account for less than 0.2% of the total dose predictions. The increase in discharges from the treatment plant is not expected to change

  4. A pilot experience launching a national dose protocol for vascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Segarra, A.; Fernandez, J. M.; Ordiales, J. M.; Simon, R.; Gallego, J. J.; Del Cerro, J.; Casasola, E.; Verdu, J. F.; Ballester, T.; Sotil, J.; Aspiazu, A.; Garcia, M. A.; Moreno, F.; Carreras, F.; Canis, M.; Soler, M. M.; Palmero, J.; Ciudad, J.; Diaz, F.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, M.; Rosales, P.

    2008-01-01

    The design of a national dose protocol for interventional radiology has been one of the tasks during the European SENTINEL Coordination Action. The present paper describes the pilot experience carried out in cooperation with the Spanish Society on Vascular and Interventional Radiology (SERVEI). A prospective sample of procedures was initially agreed. A common quality control of the X-ray systems was carried out, including calibration of the air kerma area product (KAP) meters. Occupational doses of the radiologists involved in the survey were also included in the survey. A total of 10 Spanish hospitals with interventional X-ray units were involved. Six hundred and sixty-four patient dose data were collected from 397 diagnostic and 267 therapeutic procedures. Occupational doses were evaluated in a sample of 635 values. The obtained KAP median/mean values (Gy.cm 2 ) for the gathered procedures were: biliary drainage (30.6/68.9), fistulography (4.5/9.8), lower limb arteriography (52.2/60.7), hepatic chemoembolisation (175.8/218.3), iliac stent (45.9/73.2) and renal arteriography (39.1/59.8). Occupational doses (mean monthly values, in mSv) were 1.9 (over apron); 0.3 (under apron) and 4.5 (on hands). With this National experience, a protocol was agreed among the SENTINEL partners to conduct future similar surveys in other European countries. (authors)

  5. Determination of organ doses in radiographic imaging and diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjen, M.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier publications on diagnostic radiation exposure commonly presented data on the gonadal dose. This emphasis on the genetic radiation risk is no longer valid in view of recent radiobiological findings; equal attention should be paid to the somatic radiation risk which is manifested by the induction of malignant neoplasms, e.g. in the lungs, red bone marrow, thyroid and female breast (ICRP 26). The permissible radiation doses for these organs and the gonals for routine diagnostic radiology are determined. A formula is established on the basis of terms from relevant publications (e.g. open-air dose, backscattering factor) and from the author's own measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom (depth dose curves, dose decrements). The measurements were carried out using CaP 2 thermoluminescence dosemeters, and the organ doses for the various techniques of X-ray examination were calculated by computer. Calculations of this type will enable the radiologist to determine the patient exposure quickly and easily from the records kept according to Sect. 29 of the X-ray Ordinance. Experimental value from relevant publications are compared with the author's own results. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Radiological safety assessment of transporting radioactive waste to the Gyeongju disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Ahn, Hong Joo; Hwang, Doo Seong; Hong, Dae Seok; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  7. Radiological Safety Assessment of Transporting Radioactive Wastes to the Gyeongju Disposal Facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongtae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1 operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2 decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  8. Additional radiation dose to population due to X-ray diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Discovery of X rays has revolutionised the medical diagnosis but the fact that the diagnostic radiological procedures contribute about 80 to 90 % of the radiation dose to population as compared to other man made radiation sources cannot be ignored especially when X ray diagnostic facilities are being made available to larger section of the society. The estimated frequency of radiological procedures in India is 12,000 procedures/ year/100,000 population, though it is quite less as compared to developed countries, its increasing day by day. As part of the project, a radiation protection survey of X ray installations and patient radiation dose measurement during various radiological procedures was undertaken. 193 X ray installations were surveyed and the radiation doses received by the patient during various radiological procedure was measured. For measurement of radiation doses, CaSO 4 : Dy thermoluminescence (T.L.) discs of size 13.3 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thickness were used. Pre annealed T.L. discs were fixed by adhesive tape on the patient skin at the center of entrance beam before the exposure. After exposure the T.L. discs were estimated f or entrance skin dose during that particular projection/ examination. 10,000 measurements at different centers during various radiological procedures were done. It was found that chest radiography accounts for 37 % of all radiological procedures and further it was observed that 70 % of the chest X rays were normal with out any pathology indicating scope for curtailing the unwarranted radiological procedures. The special investigations like barium swallow, barium meal and fallow through accounts for about 1.5 % of the total radiological procedures. The entrance skin dose [E.S.D.] during chest radiography was 0.3 + 0.1 mGy where as during K.U.B. and cervical spine radiography it was 6.2 + 1.1 mGy and 5.1 + 0.9 mGy respectively. The details of frequency of various radiological procedures and the

  9. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Boel [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Section, Bergen (Norway); Boye, Kjetil [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paediatric Section, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Section, Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  10. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives; Dosismonitoring in der Radiologie. Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Meineke, A. [Cerner Healthcare Services, Idstein (Germany); Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-05-15

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  11. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, K G; Mikkelsen, T; Astrup, P; Thykier-Nielsen, S; Jacobsen, L H; Hoe, S C; Nielsen, S P

    2009-12-01

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed.

  12. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  13. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; López-Rendón, X.; Rivera-Ordóñez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.

    2012-01-01

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 ×1 cm 2 of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15×15 cm 2 in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  14. Radiological assessments for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kou-John; Lazaro, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential radiological impacts of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a proposed facility for fusion ignition and high energy density experiments, were assessed for five candidate sites to assist in site selection. The GENII computer program was used to model releases of radionuclides during normal NIF operations and a postulated accident and to calculate radiation doses to the public. Health risks were estimated by converting the estimated doses into health effects using a standard cancer fatality risk factor. The greatest calculated radiation dose was less than one thousandth of a percent of the dose received from natural background radiation; no cancer fatalities would be expected to occur in the public as the result of normal operations. The highest dose conservatively estimated to result from a postulated accident could lead to one in one million risk of cancer

  15. Dose audit for patients undergoing two common radiography examinations with digital radiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Tolga; Ataç, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing general examinations using computed or digital radiography systems in Turkey. Radiographs of 20 patients undergoing posteroanterior chest X-ray and of 20 patients undergoing anteroposterior kidney-ureter-bladder radiography were evaluated in five X-ray rooms at four local hospitals in the Ankara region. Currently, almost all radiology departments in Turkey have switched from conventional radiography systems to computed radiography or digital radiography systems. Patient dose was measured for both systems. The results were compared with published diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the European Union and International Atomic Energy Agency. The average entrance surface doses (ESDs) for chest examinations exceeded established international DRLs at two of the X-ray rooms in a hospital with computed radiography. All of the other ESD measurements were approximately equal to or below the DRLs for both examinations in all of the remaining hospitals. Improper adjustment of the exposure parameters, uncalibrated automatic exposure control systems, and failure of the technologists to choose exposure parameters properly were problems we noticed during the study. This study is an initial attempt at establishing local DRL values for digital radiography systems, and will provide a benchmark so that the authorities can establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Turkey.

  16. Study of the variation of radiation dose in function of the radiological techniques used in X-ray diagnosis exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Reis, Charlene O.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Lima, Marcelo A.F.; Dalaqua, Fernando L.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper values the importance of the implantation of a quality control program in medical x-ray diagnosis services that it seeks mainly to the reduction of the radiation dose applied in the radiology exams, and attempt to the precepts of the Effective Legislation as for the Basic Guidelines of Radiological Protection (law decree MS no. 453 in June 1 st 1998). The study was accomplished Radiology Section of the Medicine Faculty - FMB (UNESP - Botucatu) and it consisted of the accomplishment of measures of the radiation dose applied in the radiological exams, taking as base the x-rays techniques realized by four technicians in radiology the service, using only one x-rays equipment. Was intended analyze the variation of the radiation dose in function of the different applied technical parameters, and this way, guide the professionals as for the possibility of obtaining of x-ray images of better quality and smaller patient exposition. For radiation dose measure a detector of solid state was utilized. During the accomplishment of the measures it was verified that there no a general consensus among the technicians of the section being observed differences of the order of 80% in the mAs. In terms of radiation dose measured, the largest value of verified was 4.752 mGy (exam of lateral lumbar column) and the smallest value of 0.165 mGy (child's thorax).The results showed that a standardization in the x-ray techniques executed by the professionals of the section will be able to reduce significantly the radiation exposition of the assisted patients. (author)

  17. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-01, which allows Radiological Effect Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft from (NUREG-0471 and -0473) for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. Also included for completeness are: (1) radiological environmental monitoring program guidance previously which had been available as a Branch Technical Position (Rev. 1, November 1979); (2) existing ODCM guidance; and (3) a reproduction of generic Letter 89-01

  18. Preliminary characterization of dose in personnel of interventional radiology; Caracterizacao preliminar da dose em profissionais de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolfim, Laura Larre; Anes, Mauricio; Bacelar, Alexandre; Lykawka, Rochelle [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to X-rays of Interventional Radiology professionals (IR) impacts in the high dose rate received by these individuals, and there are reports of biological effects of this professional activity. Therefore, it is fomented greater control over the doses received by these workers. This research intends to characterize the doses received by the professionals during IR procedures. We evaluated the doses of radiologists, anesthesiologists and nursing staff of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, through measures with dosimeters of the OSL type, distributed in up to six regions of the body of these professionals. Until now were accompanied 33 cholangiography procedures and 29 embolization procedures. As a preliminary result, it was possible to identify a wide variation between doses of the professionals of the same function in each procedure. In overview, the dose of the professionals presented in descending order as a radiologist 1> radiologist 2 > anesthetist > nursing. (author)

  19. The MIRD method of estimating absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters provides the information required to assess the radiation risk associated with the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system of dose calculation provides a systematic approach to combining the biologic distribution data and clearance data of radiopharmaceuticals and the physical properties of radionuclides to obtain dose estimates. This tutorial presents a review of the MIRD schema, the derivation of the equations used to calculate absorbed dose, and shows how the MIRD schema can be applied to estimate dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

  20. MO-DE-204-00: International Symposium: Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend

  1. MO-DE-204-00: International Symposium: Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend

  2. Comparison of the distribution of non-radiological and radiological fatal risk in Ontario industries (addendum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    Occupational limits for exposure to ionizing radiation, in force in Canada, are based on recommendations of international bodies, particularly the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To determine whether the ICRP assertions concerning the similarity of the distributions of occupational risk at the higher risk levels (from non-radiation and from radiation work) to Canada a study of the high end of the distributions of non-radiological risk of occupational fatalities in the province of Ontario was performed. For the present study total doses from exposure to sources of ionizing radiation for Ontario workers were converted to relative risk rates to allow direct comparison with the non-radiological results. In addition, absolute values for the radiological risk rates (RRR) were derived. The radiological risk estimates are based on workers who work both from nuclear reactions and from X-rays. The conclusion is made that the radiological and non-radiological risk rate (NRRR) distributions are similar in shape, but the RRR are approximately 1 to 27 percent of the NRRR, depending on the industry concerned

  3. 324 Building life cycle dose estimates for planned work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsman, S.D.; Peterson, C.A.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a tool for use by organizational management teams to plan, manage, and oversee personnel exposures within their organizations. The report encompasses personnel radiation exposures received from activities associated with the B-Cell Cleanout Project, Surveillance and Maintenance Project, the Mk-42 Project, and other minor activities. It is designed to provide verifiable Radiological Performance Reports. The primary area workers receive radiation exposure is the Radiochemical Engineering Complex airlock. Entry to the airlock is necessary for maintenance of cranes and other equipment, and to set up the rail system used to move large pieces of equipment and shipping casks into and out of the airlock. Transfers of equipment and materials from the hot cells in the complex to the airlock are required to allow dose profiles of waste containers, shuffling of waste containers to allow grouting activities to go on, and to allow maintenance of in-cell cranes. Both DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are currently investing in state-of-the-art decontamination equipment. Challenging goals for exposure reduction were established for several broad areas of activity. Exposure estimates and goals developed from these scheduled activities will be compared against actual exposures for scheduled and unscheduled activities that contributed to exposures received by personnel throughout the year. Included in this report are life cycle exposure estimates by calendar year for the B-Cell Cleanout project, a three-year estimate of exposures associated with Surveillance and Maintenance, and known activities for Calendar Year (CY) 1995 associated with several smaller projects. These reports are intended to provide a foundation for future dose estimates, by year, requiring updating as exposure conditions change or new avenues of approach to performing work are developed.

  4. 324 Building life cycle dose estimates for planned work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, S.D.; Peterson, C.A.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a tool for use by organizational management teams to plan, manage, and oversee personnel exposures within their organizations. The report encompasses personnel radiation exposures received from activities associated with the B-Cell Cleanout Project, Surveillance and Maintenance Project, the Mk-42 Project, and other minor activities. It is designed to provide verifiable Radiological Performance Reports. The primary area workers receive radiation exposure is the Radiochemical Engineering Complex airlock. Entry to the airlock is necessary for maintenance of cranes and other equipment, and to set up the rail system used to move large pieces of equipment and shipping casks into and out of the airlock. Transfers of equipment and materials from the hot cells in the complex to the airlock are required to allow dose profiles of waste containers, shuffling of waste containers to allow grouting activities to go on, and to allow maintenance of in-cell cranes. Both DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are currently investing in state-of-the-art decontamination equipment. Challenging goals for exposure reduction were established for several broad areas of activity. Exposure estimates and goals developed from these scheduled activities will be compared against actual exposures for scheduled and unscheduled activities that contributed to exposures received by personnel throughout the year. Included in this report are life cycle exposure estimates by calendar year for the B-Cell Cleanout project, a three-year estimate of exposures associated with Surveillance and Maintenance, and known activities for Calendar Year (CY) 1995 associated with several smaller projects. These reports are intended to provide a foundation for future dose estimates, by year, requiring updating as exposure conditions change or new avenues of approach to performing work are developed

  5. Staff extremity doses in interventional radiology. Results of the ORAMED measurement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemová, D.; Brodecki, M.; Carinou, E.; Domienik, J.; Donadille, L.; Koukorava, C.; Krim, S.; Ruiz-López, N.; Sans-Merce, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Zaknoune, R.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of interventional radiology (IR) procedures in the 20th century has demonstrated significant advantages over surgery procedures. As a result, their number is continuously rising in diagnostic, as well as, in therapy field and is connected with progress in highly sophisticated equipment used for these purposes. Nowadays, in the European countries more than 400 fluoroscopically guided IR procedures were identified with a 10–12% increase in the number of IR examinations every year (). Depending on the complexity of the different types of the interventions large differences in the radiation doses of the staff are observed. The staff that carries out IR procedures is likely to receive relatively high radiation doses, because IR procedures require the operator to remain close to the patient and close to the primary radiation beam. In spite of the fact that the operator is shielded by protective apron, the hands, eyes and legs remain practically unshielded. For this reason, one of the aims of the ORAMED project was to provide a set of standardized data on extremity doses for the personnel that are involved in IR procedures and to optimize their protection by evaluating the various factors that affect the doses. In the framework of work package 1 of the ORAMED project the impact of protective equipment, tube configuration and access routes were analyzed for the selected IR procedures. The position of maximum dose measured is also investigated. The results of the extremity doses in IR workplaces are presented in this study together with the influence of the above mentioned parameters on the doses. -- Highlights: ► We present a set of data on extremity doses for staff in selected interventional radiology procedures. ► We studied the influence of different parameters. ► The measured doses are analyzed according to the operators skill,his position during work, tube configuration, etc. ► Maximum doses recorded for all types of embolisation, in all

  6. Early estimates of UK radiation doses from the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Clarke, R.H.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The plume of radioactive material from the Chernobyl reactor accident passed over the United Kingdom and will increase the radiation dose to the population in the coming year. The increase above the normal annual dose from natural radiation, averaged over persons of all ages, will be about 15% in the north and 1% in the south of the country. Averaged over all ages and areas, the increase will be about 4%. This excess dose will decrease substantially in subsequent years. The accident at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl, near Kiev, on or after 26 April 1986, led to substantial quantities of radioactive material being released to the atmosphere. Wind initially transported the material towards northern and western Europe. Activity was first detected in the southern United Kingdom, some ∼ 2,000 km away, on 2 May. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), the operators of nuclear installations and the regulating authorities, had anticipated this eventuality and had intensified their normal programmes of environmental monitoring. During the following days many measurements were made and a considerable amount of data was generated throughout the country. NRPB was assigned responsibility for collating and evaluating these results; the initial information is used here to make a preliminary estimate of the radiation doses to the population of the United Kingdom

  7. Radiation exposures received by the staff in the interventional radiology unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekic, Branko; Miljanic, S.; Ban, R.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Stern-Padovan, R.; Basic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As a consequence of the highly nonuniform exposure conditions in the interventional radiology, a reliable estimation of the effective dose for occupationally exposed persons requires a number of dose measurements at various locations of the body. The nonuniform occupational exposure is mainly associated with the relatively short distance to the radiation source (the scattered radiation from the patient) and the attenuation of the scattered radiation by protective clothing and shielding. The staff who undertake these procedures may receive radiation doses approaching the dose limits suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1991) if there is a high patient workload, for extended period of time. According to the Croatian radiation protection regulations for the effective dose estimation it is mandatory to use one dosimeter placed at the left side of the chest under the protective apron. From the dosimeter reading (dosimeter is calibrated in term of H p (10)) the effective dose is estimated. If additional dosimeters are worn on different parts of the body, their results have to be recorded, but they are not used for effective dose estimations. In the University Hospital Zagreb the personnel performing interventional radiology procedures in addition to the dosimeter placed under the apron always wear another dosimeter placed on the apron at the neck or shoulder position. In this work, the results of recorded dosimetry measurements performed during the period of 10 years were analysed. Special attention was given to the evaluation of the effective dose. The results of only one dosimeter are compared with the results obtained with two dosimeters. In the later case the effective dose was evaluated using some proposed algorithms for double dosimetry. Since it is well known that the evaluation of effective dose from the reading (without any correction) of only one dosimeter placed under the apron usually underestimate the effective

  8. Initial radiation dose in critical organs el pediatric radiology in INEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, J. F.; Benavente, T.; Cisneros, F.

    2006-01-01

    The medical practices diagnostic, therapeutic and interventionists, the patients and professionals are exposed to a radiological risk that in many cases is a critic due to the severity of the damage that it might cause, for example for the cases of pregnant patients, children and in general in a the irradiation of organs of high risk as thyroid, gonads, crystalline, others. In this work I develop a methodology that allows determining the dose absorbed of the beam of X-ray. In the critical organs out of the region to examination in paediatric radiology of thorax, using a system shaped by detectors thermoluminescence of fluoride of lithium activated with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti), and of fluoride of calcium activated with disprosio (CaF2: Dy). The results show that by means of the implementation of this methodology it is possible to reduce up to 50% the dose received for the paediatric patients (in the critical organs thyroid, crystalline and gonads) in the diagnostic practices with X-ray. With this there would be to reducing up to 50% the possibility of appearance of an effect stochastic. (Author)

  9. Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1988-02-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10−3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10−3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal. PMID:27348624

  11. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10-3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10-3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal.

  12. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  13. Modification of the radiological technique of Parma for reduction of irradiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfel, G.; Ionesco-Farco, F.

    1982-04-01

    A modified radiological technique to demonstrate the temporo-mandibular joint is presented. An ordinary X-ray tube put on the skin is directed 10/sup 0/ dorso-ventrally and 10/sup 0/ caudo-cranially to the temporo-mandibular joint. The irradiation skin dose applied is ten times smaller than by using the conventional contact technique.

  14. Study of the variation of radiation dose in function of the radiological techniques used in X-ray diagnosis exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br [Faculty of Medicine. UNESP, Botucatu (FMB), SP (Brazil); Reis, Charlene O.; Garcia, Paulo L. [Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu. UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nucleate Radiometry Ltd., Aracatuba, SP (Brazil); Lima, Marcelo A.F.; Dalaqua, Fernando L.D. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Hospital. Radiology Service

    2011-07-01

    This paper values the importance of the implantation of a quality control program in medical x-ray diagnosis services that it seeks mainly to the reduction of the radiation dose applied in the radiology exams, and attempt to the precepts of the Effective Legislation as for the Basic Guidelines of Radiological Protection (law decree MS no. 453 in June 1{sup st} 1998). The study was accomplished Radiology Section of the Medicine Faculty - FMB (UNESP - Botucatu) and it consisted of the accomplishment of measures of the radiation dose applied in the radiological exams, taking as base the x-rays techniques realized by four technicians in radiology the service, using only one x-rays equipment. Was intended analyze the variation of the radiation dose in function of the different applied technical parameters, and this way, guide the professionals as for the possibility of obtaining of x-ray images of better quality and smaller patient exposition. For radiation dose measure a detector of solid state was utilized. During the accomplishment of the measures it was verified that there no a general consensus among the technicians of the section being observed differences of the order of 80% in the mAs. In terms of radiation dose measured, the largest value of verified was 4.752 mGy (exam of lateral lumbar column) and the smallest value of 0.165 mGy (child's thorax).The results showed that a standardization in the x-ray techniques executed by the professionals of the section will be able to reduce significantly the radiation exposition of the assisted patients. (author)

  15. Principles of the International Commission on Radiological Protection system of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation of a quantitative system of dose limitation based on ICRP principles of 'stochastic' and 'non-stochastic' effects requires that judgements be made on several factors including: relationships between radiation dose and the induction of deleterious effects for a variety of endpoints and radiation types; acceptable levels of risk for radiation workers and members of the public; and methods of assessing whether the cost of introducing protective measures is justified by the reduction in radiation detriment which they will provide. In the case of patients deliberately exposed to ionising radiations, the objectives of radiation protection differ somewhat from those applying to radiation workers and members of the public. For patients, risks and benefits relate to the same person and upper limits on acceptable risks may differ grossly from those appropriate to normal individuals. For these reasons, and because of its historical relationship with the International Congress of Radiology, the ICRP has given special consideration to radiation protection in medicine and has published reports on protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology and in radiation therapy. (author)

  16. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 6. Doses due to radioactive materials present in the environment or released from the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    In the previous volumes of this Report the concentrations of residual radioactivity in the environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls have been described, and assessment made of the releases to the environment in the future. The further step in radiological assessment is the derivation of radiation doses that arise to actually or potentially exposed populations, from these concentrations and releases. These doses are estimated in this report. The existence of a hypothetical population resident on Mururoa is postulated as the group which would be most exposed. Doses to this group are estimated together with doses to maximally exposed residents on nearby South Pacific islands, and further afield. An assessment of the potential environmental impact of the residual contaminant radionuclides from the nuclear weapons testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa requires estimates of the incremental dose rates to a variety of marine organisms inhabiting a number of different ecological niches. These estimated dose rates provide the only secure basis for an assessment of the potential radiation effects in the organisms. The approach adopted for this assessment is that employed in a number of recent studies and adapts the dosimetry models for the particular organisms of interest in the atoll environment

  17. Oil wells and gas wells: aspects of radiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, S.M.V.O.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to present and analyse the main radiological protection problems associated with non destructive inspections of oil wells, with the view of minimizing the dose to members of the public living in nearby urban zones. Problems related to the surveillance of such activities and the need for well formulated procedures are also discussed based on specific Brasilian regulations. Finally, some examples of radiological accidents that have occured in urban zones are described including the methodology employed for the rescue of Iridium-192 sources and for the estimate of radiation doses for workers and general public. (author) [pt

  18. Dose audit for patients undergoing two common radiography examinations with digital radiology systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Tolga; Ataç, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing general examinations using computed or digital radiography systems in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS Radiographs of 20 patients undergoing posteroanterior chest X-ray and of 20 patients undergoing anteroposterior kidney-ureter-bladder radiography were evaluated in five X-ray rooms at four local hospitals in the Ankara region. Currently, almost all radiology departments in Turkey have switched from conventional radiography systems to computed radiography or digital radiography systems. Patient dose was measured for both systems. The results were compared with published diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the European Union and International Atomic Energy Agency. RESULTS The average entrance surface doses (ESDs) for chest examinations exceeded established international DRLs at two of the X-ray rooms in a hospital with computed radiography. All of the other ESD measurements were approximately equal to or below the DRLs for both examinations in all of the remaining hospitals. Improper adjustment of the exposure parameters, uncalibrated automatic exposure control systems, and failure of the technologists to choose exposure parameters properly were problems we noticed during the study. CONCLUSION This study is an initial attempt at establishing local DRL values for digital radiography systems, and will provide a benchmark so that the authorities can establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Turkey. PMID:24317331

  19. Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanca, F., E-mail: Federica.Zanca@med.kuleuven.be [Department of Radiology, Leuven University Center of Medical Physics in Radiology, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Imaging and Pathology Department, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 7003 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Jacobs, A. [Department of Radiology, Leuven University Center of Medical Physics in Radiology, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Crijns, W. [Department of Radiotherapy, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Wever, W. [Imaging and Pathology Department, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 7003 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure.

  20. Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanca, F.; Jacobs, A.; Crijns, W.; De Wever, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure

  1. Radiation safety concerns during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Raj, D.; Livingstone, Roshan Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures are on the increase by virtue of the fact that these procedures replace highly invasive surgical and other procedures. Radiation dose to patients and hospital workers are of significance since these procedures tend to impart large dose to them. Moreover, long term risk from radiation absorbed by patients is of concern since the life expectancy of major fraction of patients is long after undergoing the procedure. This study intends to measure radiation dose imparted to patients as well as personnel- radiologists, technologists, nurses, etc. and estimate the risk factor involved

  2. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  3. Development of a Real-time Hand Dose Monitor for Personnel in Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, N.; Nakaoka, H.; Haruta, R.; Murakami, Y.; Kubo, T.; Maeda, T.; Kusama, T

    2001-07-01

    Medical procedures denoted as interventional radiology require operation near an X ray beam, which brings high dose exposures to the operators' hands. For the effectual control of their extremity doses, a prototype of a real-time wrist dosemeter has been developed, hand dose monitor (HDM), based on a single silicon detector. Experiments were performed to test its response to diagnostic X rays. The HDM was highly sensitive and showed a linear response down to doses of a few tens of microsieverts. Though dose rate, energy and angular dependence of the response were observed in some extreme conditions, the HDM was proved to be of practical use if it was appropriately calibrated. Since an HDM enables personnel to check their hand doses on a real-time basis, it would enable medical staff to control the exposure themselves. (author)

  4. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  5. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M K A; Hashim, S; Bahruddin, N A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Bradley, D A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques. (paper)

  6. Estimated radiation dose from timepieces containing tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Luminescent timepieces containing radioactive tritium, either in elemental form or incorporated into paint, are available to the general public. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential radiation dose commitments received by the public annually as a result of exposure to tritium which may escape from the timepieces during their distribution, use, repair, and disposal. Much uncertainty is associated with final dose estimates due to limitations of empirical data from which exposure parameters were derived. Maximum individual dose estimates were generally less than 3 μSv/yr, but ranged up to 2 mSv under worst-case conditions postulated. Estimated annual collective (population) doses were less than 5 person/Sv per million timepieces distributed

  7. Development of a real-time extremity dose monitor for personnel in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Adachi, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    Protection of personnel in interventional radiology is one of the most important issues of radiological protection in medicine. Fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures require the operation near X-ray beam, which brings a considerable hand exposure to the operators. For the purpose of effectual control of their extremity doses, we have developed a real-time extremity dose monitor which is worn on a strap around the wrist. The monitor consists of a silicon semiconductor detector, thin lithium battery and a waterproof frame with a four-digit LED display. Experiment was carried out to examine a response of the monitor to diagnostic X-rays. A practical test was also performed to evaluate usability in the actual interventional procedures. In the experiment, the extremity dose monitor was placed on an arm phantom and exposed to diagnostic X-rays. Readings of the monitor were compared to those of Capintec PS-033 shallow chamber. The monitor was highly sensitive to diagnostic X-rays. It showed a linear response down to doses of a few tens of microsieverts. For high dose-rate exposure, however, a slight decrease in the response was observed, about 10% of counting loss for 80 kV, 40 mA X-ray at one meter from the focus. With regard to energy dependence, variation was within 20% for 60 to 100 kV X-rays. The monitor showed a good angular response in general, except lateral geometry facing the far side from a detector center. In the practical test, hand exposures of medical staff were measured with the extremity dose monitor. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding size and weight of the monitor, clarity of the display and usefulness. The subjects consisted of physicians, technicians and nurses who engaged in angiography, PTCD, CT-biopsy, barium enema and so on. The readings of the monitor were less than 1 mSv in most cases while 93 mSv was recorded in an extreme case due to direct-beam exposure. In some cases, TLD rings were used together with the

  8. Development of a real-time extremity dose monitor for personnel in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko [Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan); Adachi, Akiko [Oita Medical University, Oita (JP)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    Protection of personnel in interventional radiology is one of the most important issues of radiological protection in medicine. Fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures require the operation near X-ray beam, which brings a considerable hand exposure to the operators. For the purpose of effectual control of their extremity doses, we have developed a real-time extremity dose monitor which is worn on a strap around the wrist. The monitor consists of a silicon semiconductor detector, thin lithium battery and a waterproof frame with a four-digit LED display. Experiment was carried out to examine a response of the monitor to diagnostic X-rays. A practical test was also performed to evaluate usability in the actual interventional procedures. In the experiment, the extremity dose monitor was placed on an arm phantom and exposed to diagnostic X-rays. Readings of the monitor were compared to those of Capintec PS-033 shallow chamber. The monitor was highly sensitive to diagnostic X-rays. It showed a linear response down to doses of a few tens of microsieverts. For high dose-rate exposure, however, a slight decrease in the response was observed, about 10% of counting loss for 80 kV, 40 mA X-ray at one meter from the focus. With regard to energy dependence, variation was within 20% for 60 to 100 kV X-rays. The monitor showed a good angular response in general, except lateral geometry facing the far side from a detector center. In the practical test, hand exposures of medical staff were measured with the extremity dose monitor. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding size and weight of the monitor, clarity of the display and usefulness. The subjects consisted of physicians, technicians and nurses who engaged in angiography, PTCD, CT-biopsy, barium enema and so on. The readings of the monitor were less than 1 mSv in most cases while 93 mSv was recorded in an extreme case due to direct-beam exposure. In some cases, TLD rings were used together with the

  9. Estimated radiological effects of the normal discharge of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 3500 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugt, G. van der; Wijker, H.; Kema, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands discussions are going on about the installation of three nuclear power plants, leading with the two existing plants to a total capacity of 3500 MWe. To have an impression of the radiological impact of this program, calculations were carried out concerning the population doses due to the discharge of radioactivity from the plants during normal operation. The discharge via the ventilation stack gives doses due to noble gases, halogens and particulate material. The population dose due to the halogens in the grass-milk-man chain is estimated using the real distribution of grass-land around the reactor sites. It could be concluded that the population dose due to the contamination of crops and fruit is negligeable. A conservative estimation is made for the dose due to the discharge of tritium. The population dose due to the discharge in the cooling water is calculated using the following pathways: drinking water; consumption of fish; consumption of meat from animals fed with fish products. The individual doses caused by the normal discharge of a 1000 MWe plant appeared to be very low, mostly below 1 mrem/year. The population dose is in the order of some tens manrems. The total dose of the 5 nuclear power plants to the dutch population is not more than 70 manrem. Using a linear dose-effect relationship the health effects to the population are estimated and compared with the normal frequency

  10. Experimental method for calculation of effective doses in interventional radiology; Metodo experimental para calculo de dosis efectivas en radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz Lblanca, M. D.; Diaz Romero, F.; Casares Magaz, O.; Garrido Breton, C.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a method that allows you to calculate the effective dose in any interventional radiology procedure using an anthropomorphic mannequin Alderson RANDO and dosimeters TLD 100 chip. This method has been applied to an angio Radiology procedure: the biliary drainage. The objectives that have been proposed are: to) put together a method that, on an experimental basis, allows to know dosis en organs to calculate effective dose in complex procedures and b) apply the method to the calculation of the effective dose of biliary drainage. (Author)

  11. Application of work load spectra for estimative of the skin entrance dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, P.A.A.; Furquim, T.A.C.; Costa, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present work refers to obtaining data for the determination of workload spectra related to the use of different radiological equipment. The obtained information was stored in a data base developed for this working program. Values of skin entrance dose were obtained bu using the results of the field research (performed in radiological clinics and hospitals of Sao Paulo). (author)

  12. Automatic management system for dose parameters in interventional radiology and cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten, J. I.; Fernandez, J. M.; Vano, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an automatic management system to archive and analyse the major study parameters and patient doses for fluoroscopy guided procedures performed in cardiology and interventional radiology systems. The X-ray systems used for this trial have the capability to export at the end of the procedure and via e-mail the technical parameters of the study and the patient dose values. An application was developed to query and retrieve from a mail server, all study reports sent by the imaging modality and store them on a Microsoft SQL Server data base. The results from 3538 interventional study reports generated by 7 interventional systems were processed. In the case of some technical parameters and patient doses, alarms were added to receive malfunction alerts so as to immediately take appropriate corrective actions. (authors)

  13. Automatic management system for dose parameters in interventional radiology and cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, J I; Fernandez, J M; Vaño, E

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an automatic management system to archive and analyse the major study parameters and patient doses for fluoroscopy guided procedures performed in cardiology and interventional radiology systems. The X-ray systems used for this trial have the capability to export at the end of the procedure and via e-mail the technical parameters of the study and the patient dose values. An application was developed to query and retrieve from a mail server, all study reports sent by the imaging modality and store them on a Microsoft SQL Server data base. The results from 3538 interventional study reports generated by 7 interventional systems were processed. In the case of some technical parameters and patient doses, alarms were added to receive malfunction alerts so as to immediately take appropriate corrective actions.

  14. A frequency survey of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977 for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Harries, S.V.; Rae, S.

    1980-06-01

    Medical irradiation is the largest man-made contributor to the radiation dose received by the population of Great Britain, and diagnostic radiology is the most important component of medical irradiation. The work described here is a survey of the numbers and types of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977. The overall level of diagnostic radiology in Great Britain as a whole is reported and separate estimates for England, Wales and Scotland are given. Discussion of topics such as the frequency of particular types of examination, the number of films per examination and the use of gonad shields is included, and the results of the present survey are compared with those of the last national survey which was carried out in 1957. Also reported is an estimate of the amount of radiology undertaken outside the Health Service. The findings will be combined with estimates of gonadal doses from the different examinations and child expectancy data to estimate the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain. (author)

  15. Occupational exposure in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.J.; Lee, K.Y.; Cha, S.H.; Kang, Y.K.; Kim, H.J.; Oh, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to survey of radiation safety control and to measure occupational radiation exposure dose of staff in interventional radiology in Korea. Interventioanl radiology requires the operator and assisting personnel to remain close to the patient, and thus close to primary beams of radiation. Therefore exposure doses of these personnel are significant from a radiological protection point of view. We surveyed the status of radiation safety on interventional radiology of 72 hospitals. The result were that 119 radiation equipments are using in interventional radiology and 744 staffs are composed of 307 radiologists, 116 residents of radiology, 5 general physicians, 171 radiologic technologists and 145 nurses. 81.4% and 20.2 % of operating physicians are using neck collar protector and goggle respectively. The average radiation dose was measured 0.46±0.15 mSv/10 hours fluoroscopy inside examination room in radiation protection facilities. Occupational radiation exposure data on the staff were assessed in interventional radiology procedures from 8 interventional radiology equipments of 6 university hospitals. The dose measurements were made by placing a thermoluminesent dosimeter(TLD) on various body surface of operation and assistant staff during actual interventional radiology. The measured points were the corner of the eyes, neck(on the thyroid) , wrists, chest(outside and inside of the protector), and back. Average radiation equivalent dose of the corner of left eye and left wrist of operating physicians were 1.19 mSv(0.11∼4.13 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy and 4.32 mSv(0.16∼11.0 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy respectively. Average exposure dose may vary depending on the type of procedure, personal skills and the quality of equipment. These results will be contributed to prepare the guide line in interventional radiology in Korea

  16. Biological dose estimation for accidental supra-high dose gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Yan, X.K.; Du, J.; Wang, Z.D.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zeng, F.G.; Zhou, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    To correctly estimate the biological dose of victims accidentally exposed to a very high dose of 60 Co gamma-ray, a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics/multicentrics and rings in the supra-high dose range was established. Peripheral blood from two healthy men was irradiated in vitro with doses of 60 Co gamma-rays ranging from 6 to 22 Gy at a dose rate of 2.0 Gy/min. Lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured and harvested at 52 h, 68 h and 72 h. The numbers of dic + r were counted. The dose-effect curves were established and validated using comparisons with doses from the Tokai-mura accident and were then applied to two victims of supra-high dose exposure accident. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in chromosome aberration frequency among the different culture times from 52 h to 72 h. The 6-22 Gy dose-effect curve was fitted to a linear quadratic model Y = -2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x l0 -3 D 2 . Using this mathematic model, the dose estimates were similar to data from Tokai-mura which were estimated by PCC ring. Whole body average doses of 9.7 Gy and 18.1 Gy for two victims in the Jining accident were satisfactorily given. We established and successfully applied a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics plus ring (dic + r) after 6-22 Gy γ-irradiation from a supra-high dose 60 Co gamma-ray accident.

  17. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  18. Estimation of patient dose in mammography screening examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Fujii, S.; Orito, T.; Asada, Y.; Koga, S.; Horita, K.; Kido, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mammography is one of the most effective examinations for detecting breast carcinoma. Although the dose is usually much higher than that in other types of X-ray examination, that is accepted by the patient because for fears of suffering cancer. Benefit of relatively high doses derived from mammographic examinations is considered to well exceed the risk of cancer induction by radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate patient dose of mammography in Japan by questionnaire sent to 531 institutions selected from whole Japan and direct measurements carried out in 28 hospitals in Aichi Prefecture. The user's guide in mammography published by NCRP and Quality Assurance Program of American College of Radiology were used to assess the exposure and image quality of mammogram. (author)

  19. A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee

    2007-01-01

    A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment, METRO-K has been developed. Characteristics of the model are as follows ; 1) mathematical structures are simple (i.e. simplified input parameters) and easy to understand due to get the results by analytical methods using experimental and empirical data, 2) complex urban environment can easily be made up using only 5 types of basic surfaces, 3) various remediation measures can be applied to different surfaces by evaluating the exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface. Exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface at a particular location of a receptor were evaluated using the data library of kerma values as a function of gamma energy and contamination surface. A kerma data library was prepared for 7 representative types of Korean urban building by extending those data given for 4 representative types of European urban buildings. Initial input data are daily radionuclide concentration in air and precipitation, and fraction of chemical type. Final outputs are absorbed dose rate in air contributing from the basic surfaces as a function of time following a radionuclide deposition, and exposure dose rate contributing from various surfaces constituting the urban environment at a particular location of a receptor. As the result of a contaminative scenario for an apartment built-up area, exposure dose rates show a distinct difference for surrounding environment as well as locations of a receptor

  20. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran AB Majid; Aznan Fazli Ismail; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg -1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year -1 ) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  1. Estimating collective dose in nuclear facilities, with emphasis on the design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Mann, B.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a more accurate, systematic method than has been available previously for predicting worker doses which might be incurred during routine and non-routine work in radioactive areas. Besides assisting regulators with an analysis of the ''potential impact on radiological exposures of facility employees'' now required under the new backfit rule (10 CFR 50.109c), this predictive model will also help licensees conserve dollars as well as dose because it can be employed very early in the engineering design phase of a modification, when adjustments can still be made easily to change orders. Such early estimates make good business sense because they will facilitate planning, labor loading, costing, resource and equipment scheduling, and overall coordination of both single and repetitive projects. Also, with the support of corporate management, radiation protection coordinators can introduce the model into training programs to acquaint design engineers and others with dose calculation techniques. The importance assigned by nuclear industry senior management to the principle of ALARA and the reduction of collective worker dose is measured, in large part, by demonstrated efforts to integrate the control of radiation exposure fully into the overall planning function of nuclear facility management. That integration will be fostered through the use of this approach

  2. Radiation dose evaluation in patients submitted to conventional radiological examinations; Avaliacoes de doses de radiacao em pacientes submetidos a exames radiologicos convencionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilly, Junior, Joao G

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the results of the evaluation of radiation dose delivered to the patients undergoing conventional radiological procedures. Based in the realized measurement some indicators are settled to quantitative appraisal of the radiological protection conditions offered to the population. Data assessment was done in the county of Curitiba, in Parana State, Brazil, from 12/95 to 04/96, in ten rooms of three different institutions, under 101 patients, adults with 70 {+-} 10 kg, during real examinations of chest PA, chest LAT and abdomen AP. (author)

  3. A virtual environment for simulation of radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tadeu Augusto de Almeida; Farias, Oscar Luiz Monteiro de

    2013-01-01

    A virtual environment is a computer environment, representative of a subset of the real world, and where models of the real world entities, process and events are included in a virtual (three-dimensional) space. Virtual environments are ideal tools for simulation of certain critical processes, such as radiological accidents, where human beings or properties can suffer irreversible or long term damages. Radiological accidents are characterized by the significant exposure to radiation of specialized workers and general public. The early detection of a radiological accident and the determination of its possible extension are essential factors for the planning of prompt answers and emergency actions. This paper proposes the integration of georeferenced representation of the three-dimensional space and agent-based models, with the objective to construct virtual environments that have the capacity to simulate radiological accidents. The three-dimensional georeferenced representations of space candidates are: 1) the spatial representation of traditional geographical information systems (GIS); 2) the representation adopted by Google Maps®. Adding agents to these spatial representations allow us to simulate radiological accidents, quantify the doses received by members of the public, obtain a possible spatial distribution of people contaminated, estimate the number of contaminated individuals, estimate the impact on the health-network, estimate environmental impacts, generate exclusion zones, build alternative scenarios and train staff to deal with radiological accidents. (author)

  4. A virtual environment for simulation of radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tadeu Augusto de Almeida, E-mail: tedsilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farias, Oscar Luiz Monteiro de, E-mail: fariasol@eng.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A virtual environment is a computer environment, representative of a subset of the real world, and where models of the real world entities, process and events are included in a virtual (three-dimensional) space. Virtual environments are ideal tools for simulation of certain critical processes, such as radiological accidents, where human beings or properties can suffer irreversible or long term damages. Radiological accidents are characterized by the significant exposure to radiation of specialized workers and general public. The early detection of a radiological accident and the determination of its possible extension are essential factors for the planning of prompt answers and emergency actions. This paper proposes the integration of georeferenced representation of the three-dimensional space and agent-based models, with the objective to construct virtual environments that have the capacity to simulate radiological accidents. The three-dimensional georeferenced representations of space candidates are: 1) the spatial representation of traditional geographical information systems (GIS); 2) the representation adopted by Google Maps®. Adding agents to these spatial representations allow us to simulate radiological accidents, quantify the doses received by members of the public, obtain a possible spatial distribution of people contaminated, estimate the number of contaminated individuals, estimate the impact on the health-network, estimate environmental impacts, generate exclusion zones, build alternative scenarios and train staff to deal with radiological accidents. (author)

  5. The methodology proposed to estimate the absorbed dose at the entrance of the labyrinth in HDR brachytherapy facilities with IR-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M. C.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of procedure for evaluating the design of a brachytherapy (BT) vault with maze from the point of view of radiation protection, usually formalism of external radiation is adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the methodology described by the National council on Radiological Protection and Measurements Report 151 (NCRP 151). Structural Shielding Design for megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy facilities, for estimating dose at the door in BT and its comparison with the results megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, for estimating dose at the door in BT and its comparison with the results obtained by the method of Monte Carlo (MC) for a special case of bunker. (Author) 17 refs.

  6. Patient radiation doses and reference levels in pediatric interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Geryes, Bouchra; Lachaux, Julie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brunelle, Francis [Hopital Universitaire Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Bak, Adeline; Ozanne, Augustin; Saliou, Guillaume [Hopital Bicetre, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Naggara, Olivier [Hopital Universitaire Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Universite Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cite, Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, INSERM S894, DHU Neurovasculaire, Paris (France); Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR894, Paris (France)

    2017-09-15

    To describe, in a multicentric paediatric population, reference levels (RLs) for three interventional radiological procedures. From January 2012 to March 2015, children scheduled for an interventional radiological procedure in two French tertiary centres were retrospectively included and divided into four groups according to age: children younger than 2 years (A1), aged 2-7 years (A5), 8-12 years (A10) and 13-18 years (A15). Three procedures were identified: cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) embolization, and head and neck superficial vascular malformation (SVM) percutaneous sclerotherapy. Demographic and dosimetric data, including dose area product (DAP), were collected. 550 procedures were included. For DSA (162 procedures), the proposed RL values in DAP were 4, 18, 12 and 32 Gy.cm{sup 2} in groups A1, A5, A10 and A15, respectively. For bAVM embolization (258 procedures), values were 33, 70, 105 and 88 Gy.cm{sup 2} in groups A1, A5, A10 and A15, respectively. For SVM sclerotherapy (130 procedures), values were 350, 790, 490 and 248 mGy.cm{sup 2} in groups A1, A5, A10 and A15, respectively. Consecutive data were available to permit a proposal of reference levels for three major paediatric interventional radiology procedures. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  8. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 6. Doses due to radioactive materials present in the environment or released from the atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International Advisory Committee, Task Group A

    1998-08-01

    In the previous volumes of this Report the concentrations of residual radioactivity in the environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls have been described, and assessment made of the releases to the environment in the future. The further step in radiological assessment is the derivation of radiation doses that arise to actually or potentially exposed populations, from these concentrations and releases. These doses are estimated in this report. The existence of a hypothetical population resident on Mururoa is postulated as the group which would be most exposed. Doses to this group are estimated together with doses to maximally exposed residents on nearby South Pacific islands, and further afield. An assessment of the potential environmental impact of the residual contaminant radionuclides from the nuclear weapons testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa requires estimates of the incremental dose rates to a variety of marine organisms inhabiting a number of different ecological niches. These estimated dose rates provide the only secure basis for an assessment of the potential radiation effects in the organisms. The approach adopted for this assessment is that employed in a number of recent studies and adapts the dosimetry models for the particular organisms of interest in the atoll environment Refs, figs, tabs. In six volumes

  9. Product kerma air area and effective dose in dental radiology; Produto kerma no ar-area e dose efetiva em radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Rodrigo A.P.; Souza, M. Daiane M.; Costa, Alessandro M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. The use of the air kerma-area product, P{sub KA}, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of P{sub KA} and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  10. Product kerma air area and effective dose in dental radiology; Produto kerma no ar area e dose efetiva em radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Rodrigo A.P.; Souza, Daiane M.; Costa, Alessandro M., E-mail: rodrigomauro@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. The use of the air kerma-area product, P{sub KA}, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of P{sub KA} and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  11. The role of the dose-area product in the determination of doses to patients in diagnostic radiology. Experiences and current understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.

    1995-01-01

    Described are systems and procedures developed to assess the radiation exposure of patients. They may at the same time be used to reduce the doses to patients undergoing radiological examinations. As the digitalization of state-of-the-art X-ray equipments permits the technical data of any radiographic procedure to be retrieved, it is requested that these are fed into appropriate data systems so that information about any inadequate strategies or technical misfunctions would be available in due course. This request implies the general requirement of an automatic documentation of data relevant to radiological protection. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiation dose monitoring in the clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika [UK Essen (Germany). Radiology

    2017-04-15

    Here we describe the first clinical experiences regarding the use of an automated radiation dose management software to monitor the radiation dose of patients during routine examinations. Many software solutions for monitoring radiation dose have emerged in the last decade. The continuous progress in radiological techniques, new scan features, scanner generations and protocols are the primary challenge for radiation dose monitoring software systems. To simulate valid dose calculations, radiation dose monitoring systems have to follow current trends and stay constantly up-to-date. The dose management software is connected to all devices at our institute and conducts automatic data acquisition and radiation dose calculation. The system incorporates 18 virtual phantoms based on the Cristy phantom family, estimating doses in newborns to adults. Dose calculation relies on a Monte Carlo simulation engine. Our first practical experiences demonstrate that the software is capable of dose estimation in the clinical routine. Its implementation and use have some limitations that can be overcome. The software is promising and allows assessment of radiation doses, like organ and effective doses according to ICRP 60 and ICRP 103, patient radiation dose history and cumulative radiation doses. Furthermore, we are able to determine local diagnostic reference doses. The radiation dose monitoring software systems can facilitate networking between hospitals and radiological departments, thus refining radiation doses and implementing reference doses at substantially lower levels.

  13. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  14. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing

  15. Evaluation system for the analysis of the radiological consequences (RASCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel Martinez, M. J. de

    2011-01-01

    The code currently employed by the Spanish Nuclear power is the IRDAM (Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model). This code will now be replaced by the RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis) version 4.0. This is a significant improvement in dose calculation for escapes to the atmosphere for radioactive emergencies. The main objective is to highlight the most significant changes introduced in the RASCAL when performing these dose estimates.

  16. Occupational exposure for workers in interventional radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An interventional radiological examination is a diagnostic or therapeutic in any organ or anatomical region using images acquired with ionizing radiation. Compared to other radiological acquisition, personnel who perform interventional procedures, which involve long fluoroscopy times and a high workload may receive radiation doses comparable to the dose limits. Therefore to ensure that no person be subjected to an unacceptable risk from radiation, that need for accurate individual monitoring has arisen. In this work, the doses received by physician in cardiac angiography were evaluated and the results of two months were presented. Only 7 physicians were monitored. Hence the data available is presented, and it is hoped to provide some information on the assessment of occupational exposure in interventional radiological examination. Measurements were done using Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and a calibrated Harshaw Reader. Two TLDs were used by each physician, one worn under a protective apron at the waist (H W ) and the other worn outside and above the apron at the neck (H N ). The effective dose E was estimated from the formula: E (estimated) = 0.5 H W + 0.025 H N . From the result obtained it was concluded that, the weak point of radiation protection philosophy in medical application is in the work of interventional physicians who have no full time decision like the radiologist physicians and therefore haven't enough knowledge about the radiation and radiation protection. So they are the highest risk group among physicians and to whom the efforts must be directed. (author)

  17. Estimates of the radiological dose to people living on Bikini Island for two weeks while diving in and around the sunken ships in Bikini Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.

    1990-09-01

    Bikini Island and Bikini Lagoon were contaminated by fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the atoll by the United States from 1946 to 1958. The second test, Baker, of the Crossroads series was an underwater detonation in 1946 that sank several ships in the lagoon, including the USS Saratoga and the Japanese battleship Nagato. The ships received high-intensity gamma-ray and neutron bombardment from the Baker test, which induced radioactivity in the metal structures. Some of the tests conducted after the Baker shot (there were 21 tests in all) injected contaminated carbonate particles into the air, some of which were deposited across the lagoon surface. Most of this contaminated soil then settled onto the ships' decks and other structures and on the lagoon bottom. These sunken ships provide an interesting location for divers. Recreational diving and swimming in and around the ships raises the question of the potential radiological dose from the radionuclides present in or on the ships and in the lagoon sediments. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present an analysis of the potential radiological dose to persons who would dive near the sunken ships and live on Bikini Island for a short period of time

  18. Radiological and environmental studies at uranium mills: a comparison of theoretical and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Kisieleski, W.E.; Yuan, Y.; Roberts, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of radiological risk of uranium milling is based on identification and quantification of sources of release and consideration of dynamic coupling among the meteorological, physiographical, hydrological environments and the affected individuals. Dispersion pathways of radionuclides are through air, soil, and water, each demanding locally tailored procedures for estimation of the rate of release of radioactivity and the pattern of biological uptake and exposure. The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry Code (UDAD), a comprehensive method for estimating the concentrations of the released radionuclides, dose rates, doses, and radiological health effects, is described. Predicted concentrations and exposure rates are compared with experimental data obtained from field research at active mills and abandoned tailings

  19. Science and values in radiological protection: impact on radiological protection decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, Sisko; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work summarises the main ideas and achievements of the Science and Values in Radiological Protection Workshop that was held on 15-17 January 2008 in Helsinki, Finland. In the view of developing of new radiological applications and emerging scientific phenomena it has been recognized a need to develop a shared understanding of emerging challenges for radiological protection among scientific and regulatory communities, public and other concerned stake holders. In response to this the Committee of Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland tried to initiate a process of longer-term reflection on scientific and societal issues that might challenge radiological protection in the coming years. Among general issues like radiological policy issues, improvement of understanding between research and policy communities, sharing views on emerging scientific issues, there were addressed several scientific issues, like non-targeted effects, individual sensitivity; and circulatory diseases. The main focus of these discussions was to elaborate potential 'what if' scenarios and propose feasible solutions at various levels. These discussions addressed effects that are not direct and evident consequence of the initial lesions produced at the cellular and DNA level like bystander responses, genomic instability, gene induction, adaptive responses and low dose. Particular interest was paid to an extrapolation of risk estimates to low doses and role of Linear Non-Threshold theory in setting regulatory principles. Individual radio-sensitivity and identification of genes that are suspected of having an influence on it were also discussed in one of the Breakout Sessions. Another Breakout Session addressed circulatory diseases. There is emerging evidence in the A-bomb survivors and in other exposed groups that ionising radiation also causes other diseases than cancer, such as circulatory

  20. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a first assessment of the radiological situation and the test-related radiation doses in the surrounding territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, B I; Abylkassimova, Z N; Apsalikov, K N

    1997-09-01

    As a result of atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site 'Polygon', adjacent territories were contaminated by radionuclide fallout. The population of some districts in the Semipalatinsk oblast were exposed to elevated levels of radiation. Contamination and exposure mostly resulted from early atmospheric tests. The radiological situation of the Semipalatinsk oblast is described. Effective dose estimates due to external and internal exposure attributable to the 1949 and 1953 tests in villages near the Polygon range from 70 mSv to 4470 mSv.

  1. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  2. Estimation of dose from chromosome aberration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping

    1990-01-01

    The methods and skills of evaluating dose from correctly scored shromsome aberration rate are presented, and supplemented with corresponding BASIC computer code. The possibility and preventive measures of excessive probability of missing score of the aberrations in some of the current routine score methods are discussed. The use of dose-effect relationship with exposure time correction factor G in evaluating doses and their confidence intervals, dose estimation in mixed n-γ exposure, and identification of high by nonuniform acute exposure to low LET radiation and its dose estimation are discussed in more detail. The difference of estimated dose due to whether the interaction between subleisoms produced by n and γ have been taken into account is examined. In fitting the standard dose-aberration rate curve, proper weighing of experiment points and comparison with commonly accepted values are emphasised, and the coefficient of variation σ y √y of the aberration rate y as a function of dose and exposure time is given. In appendix I and II, the dose-aberration rate formula is derived from dual action theory, and the time variation of subleisom is illustrated and in appendix III, the estimation of dose from scores of two different types of aberrations (of other related score) is illustrated. Two computer codes are given in appendix IV, one is a simple code, the other a complete code, including the fitting of standard curve. the skills of using compressed data storage, and the production of simulated 'data ' for testing the curve fitting procedure are also given

  3. Management of patient dose in radiology in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Programmes to manage patient dose in radiology are becoming a higher priority as the number of imaging examinations and the proportion of higher dose computed tomography (CT) and complex interventional procedures all continue to rise. Such programmes have a number of components and their implementation in UK hospitals, which have been developing such programmes over two decades, is described. As part of any programme to manage patient doses, elements should be in place for both justification and optimisation. The system for justification needs to be robust in order to minimise the number of unnecessary procedures and requires the provision of training in radiation protection for medical and other staff to ensure that they understand the risks. Optimisation of X-ray techniques requires performance tests on equipment at installation and regularly thereafter, linked to surveys of patient doses. Confirming the performance of the available options on fluoroscopy and CT equipment is essential and the information obtained should be available to radiographers and radiologists, so they can make informed choices in developing imaging protocols. Patient doses should be compared with diagnostic reference levels set in terms of measured dose quantities to allow the identification of equipment that is giving higher doses. Taking the next step of analysing results to determine the reasons for high doses is crucial and requires a link with the equipment performance tests and an understanding of the underlying physics. Medical physics services play an important role at the hub of the dose management programme for carrying out tests, organising surveys, making recommendations on optimisation strategies and training other staff in radiation protection, performance testing and dose reduction. Programmes for management of patient doses in UK hospitals were first set up in the late 1980's by medical physicists and have been developed since that time to keep pace with the developments in

  4. Radiological Consequence Analyses Following a Hypothetical Severe Accident in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a simulator which is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator) for overseas nuclear accident has been developed. It is composed of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. For the source-term estimation module, the representative reactor types were selected as CPR1000, BWR5 and BWR6 for China, Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Considering the design characteristics of each reactor type, the source-term estimation module simulates the transient of design basis accident and severe accident. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials and prints out the air and ground concentration. Using the concentration result, the dose assessment module calculates effective dose and thyroid dose in the Korean Peninsula region. In this study, a hypothetical severe accident in Japan was simulated to demonstrate the function of NANAS. As a result, the radiological consequence to Korea was estimated from the accident. PC-based nuclear accident simulator, NANAS, has been developed. NANAS contains three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. The source-term estimation module simulates a nuclear accident for the representative reactor types in China, Japan and Taiwan. Since the maximum calculation speed is 16 times than real time, it is possible to estimate the source-term release swiftly in case of the emergency. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials in wide range including the Northeast Asia. Final results of the dose assessment module are a map projection and time chart of effective dose and thyroid dose. A hypothetical accident in Japan was simulated by NANAS. The radioactive materials were released during the first 24 hours and the source

  5. Characterization of a MOSkin detector for in vivo skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Ng, K. H., E-mail: ngkh@um.edu.my [Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia and University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Jong, W. L. [Clinical Oncology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Cutajar, D. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The MOSkin is a MOSFET detector designed especially for skin dose measurements. This detector has been characterized for various factors affecting its response for megavoltage photon beams and has been used for patient dose measurements during radiotherapy procedures. However, the characteristics of this detector in kilovoltage photon beams and low dose ranges have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to characterize the MOSkin detector to determine its suitability for in vivo entrance skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures. Methods: The calibration and reproducibility of the MOSkin detector and its dependency on different radiation beam qualities were carried out using RQR standard radiation qualities in free-in-air geometry. Studies of the other characterization parameters, such as the dose linearity and dependency on exposure angle, field size, frame rate, depth-dose, and source-to-surface distance (SSD), were carried out using a solid water phantom under a clinical x-ray unit. Results: The MOSkin detector showed good reproducibility (94%) and dose linearity (99%) for the dose range of 2 to 213 cGy. The sensitivity did not significantly change with the variation of SSD (±1%), field size (±1%), frame rate (±3%), or beam energy (±5%). The detector angular dependence was within ±5% over 360° and the dose recorded by the MOSkin detector in different depths of a solid water phantom was in good agreement with the Markus parallel plate ionization chamber to within ±3%. Conclusions: The MOSkin detector proved to be reliable when exposed to different field sizes, SSDs, depths in solid water, dose rates, frame rates, and radiation incident angles within a clinical x-ray beam. The MOSkin detector with water equivalent depth equal to 0.07 mm is a suitable detector for in vivo skin dosimetry during interventional radiology procedures.

  6. Estimation of dose to the unborn child at diagnostic X-ray examinations based on data registered in RIS/PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, Ebba; Pettersson, Haakan; Sandborg, Michael; Alten, Jonas Nilsson

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine mean absorbed doses to the unborn child in common conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations and to find an approach for estimating foetal dose based on data registered in the Radiological Information System/Picture Archive and Communication System (RIS/PACS). The kerma-area product (KAP) and CT dose index (CTDI vol ) in common examinations were registered using a human-shaped female dosimetry phantom. Foetal doses, D f , were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed inside the phantom and compared with calculated values. Measured foetal doses were given in relation to the KAP and the CTDI vol values, respectively. Conversion factor D f /KAP varies between 0.01 and 3.8 mGy/Gycm 2 , depending on primary beam position, foetus age and beam quality (tube voltage and filtration). Conversion factors D f /CTDI vol are in the range 0.02 - 1.2 mGy/mGy, in which the foetus is outside or within the primary beam. We conclude that dose conversion factors based on KAP or CTDI vol values automatically generated by the RIS/PACS system can be used for rapid estimations of foetal dose for common examination techniques. (orig.)

  7. An assessment of the radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a study which investigated the regional radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. The study was performed by IEC Beak Consultants Ltd. under a contract awarded by Environment Canada in partnership with the Atomic Energy Control Board. This preliminary assessment suggests there is a negligible combined regional radiological impact from simultaneous operation of the three operating mines investigated as part of the present study. The mines are spaced too far apart for any superposition of emissions to be significantly greater than a small fraction of background levels. The most exposed individual not directly associated with any of the mining operations is estimated to receive a total radiation dose equal to about 3% of the dose due to natural background radiations. This increment is equivalent to the increment in natural background that would be received by an individual moving from Vancouver to Wollaston Post, before mining began in the area, as a result of reduced atmospheric shielding from cosmic radiation. Radiological impacts on biota are estimated to have insignficant effects on natural populations in all cases. However, since the study only investigates the effects of operational releases of radionuclides, the results do not imply that uranium mining developments will or will not have significant long-term radiological impact on northern Saskatchewan. Radiological impact assessments described in this report are estimates only. There are some uncertainties in the available data and modelling methodology. The radiological impact of abandoned tailings areas was not included in this study

  8. Estimation of population dose from all sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Takeo; Kai, Michiaki; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of estimation of population doses are to understand the per-caput doses of the public member from each artificial radiation source and to determine the proportion contributed of the doses from each individual source to the total irradiated population. We divided the population doses into two categories: individual-related and source-related population doses. The individual-related population dose is estimated based on the maximum assumption for use in allocation of the dose limits for members of the public. The source-related population dose is estimated both to justify the sources and practices and to optimize radiation protection. The source-related population dose, therefore, should be estimated as realistically as possible. We investigated all sources that caused exposure to the population in Japan from the above points of view

  9. Estimation of patient dose in abdominal CT examination in some Sudanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ebthal Adam Shikhalden

    2016-04-01

    The use of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patients that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. The aim of this study was to estimate radiation doses in abdomen CT examinations of patients in two Sudanese hospitals. Details were obtained from approximately 80 CT examinations and included all age groups ( adults and pediatric). The results from the two hospitals were compared with each other as well as with the IAEA guidance level for this particular investigation. The estimation of radiation doses were carried out by calculating volume dose index (CTD1vol), dose length product (DLP), doses to some organs of interest and effective dose (E) using the software program "CT EXPO V2.1". The study showed that the mean DLP of the one hospitals ASH is 1736.7 mGy.cm which is by far much higher than that for the other hospital NMDC which stands at 185.3 mGy.cm, as well as higher than the IAEA level which is 696 mGy.cm. The study showed that the mean CTD1vol for patients in ASH is 36.2 mGy which again higher than that for the other hospital which is 3.9 mGy and higher than the IAEA level which is 10.9 mGy calculating the effective dose for patients in the two hospitals reveals that the mean effective dose of patient in one hospital (ASH) is 26.25 mSv, which is quite high compared with other hospital (NMDC), which has the mean value of 2.8 mGv and also higher than the IAEA level from this investigation which is 7.6 mSv. Regarding organ doses, the study showed that organ doses in hospital ASH are always higher than that calculated in hospital NMDC and the highest doses in both hospital were delivered to the kidneys with mean values of 50.24 mGy and 5045 mGy for the two hospitals respectively. The study showed that there is an urgent need for optimizing patient doses in such CT examinations. This can be ensured by providing training and retraining for workers and conducting quality control measurements and preventive maintenance regularly so

  10. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  11. Optimization of radiological protection and dose constraints in the new draft ICRP Recommendations 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    2007-01-01

    The overall concept of the new ICRP Recommendations 2006 is analyzed, the concept of dose constraints as a basic tool of radiological protection management is described, arguments and criticisms against the current proposal are cited and points of dispute highlighted, and perspectives of the Recommendations are assessed. (author)

  12. Assessing radiological impacts (exposures and doses) associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basic units and concepts applicable to radiological assessment are presented. Data relevant to the assessment of radiological exposures from the mining and milling phases of uranium and thorium ores are discussed. As a guide to the assessment of environmental exposures to members of the public, concepts such as the critical group are defined. Environmental transport and exposure pathways are presented in general terms, together with a discussion of the use of mathematical models. The dose assessment procedures defined in the 1987 Code of Practice are described. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Image Quality in Vascular Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.

    2005-01-01

    In vascular radiology, the radiologists use the radiological image to diagnose or treat a specific vascular structure. From literature, we know that related doses are high and that large dose variability exists between different hospitals. The application of the optimization principle is therefore necessary and is obliged by the new legislation. So far, very little fieldwork has been performed and no practical instructions are available to do the necessary work. It's indisputable that obtaining quantitative data is of great interest for optimization purposes. In order to gain insight into these doses and the possible measures for dose reduction, we performed a comparative study in 7 hospitals. Patient doses will be measured and calculated for specific procedures in vascular radiology and evaluated against their most influencing parameters. In view of optimization purposes, a protocol for dose audit will be set-up. From the results and conclusions in this study, experimentally based guidelines will be proposed, in order to improve clinical practice in vascular radiology

  14. Analysis of occupational doses in interventional radiology and cardiology installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Ten, J.I.; Guibelalde, E.; Fernandez, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between patient dose (PD) and occupational dose (OD) is not easily predictable in interventional radiology installations due to a large number of factors which can modify the occupational risk (OR). In the present work an analysis is made of the four main aspects which influence OR, namely, x-ray beam used, radiation protection (RP) tools available (aprons, thyroid protectors, gloves, screens, etc) and their regular use, type and number of procedures performed (diagnostic or therapeutic, complexity level, etc), and RP training level of the specialists. High filtration x-ray beams can entail a decrease of 20% in OD. A regular use of ceiling mounted faceplates can involve dose savings up to 65%. Mean values of dose per procedure for interventional radiologists are something greater (about 15%) than those recorded for cardiologists, except for the dosimeters placed on left forearm and shoulder. The ratio between OD and PD range around 100 μSv/1,000 cGy.cm 2 . The influence of the staff RP training level on OD is difficult to assess. In the IC Service from the Madrid San Carlos University Hospital (SCUH), PD have been reduced in above 30% and OD in a factor of 3, after running some training programmes. (author)

  15. Analysis of records of external occupational dose records in Brazil; Analise dos registros de dose ocupacional externa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Herica L.R. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: herica@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Claudio Ribeiro da, E-mail: claudio@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Brazil, a continental country, with actually more than 150,000 workers under individual monitoring for ionizing radiation, has implemented in 1987 a centralized system for storage of external occupational dose. This database has been improved over the years and is now a web-based information system called Brazilian External Occupational Dose Management Database System - GDOSE. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian external occupational dose over the years. The estimated annual average effective dose shows a decrease from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, having been a marked reduction from 1987 to 1990. Analyzing by type of controlled practice, one sees that the medical and dental radiology is the area with the largest number of users of individual monitors (70%); followed by education practices (8%) and the industrial radiography (7%). Additionally to photon whole body monitoring; neutron monitors are used in maintenance (36%), reactor (30%) and education (27%); and extremity monitors, in education (27%), nuclear medicine (22%) and radiology (19%). In terms of collective dose, the highest values are also found in conventional radiology, but the highest average dose values are those of interventional radiology. Nuclear medicine, R and D and radiotherapy also have average annual effective dose higher than 1 mSv. However, there is some very high dose values registered in GDOSE that give false information. This should be better analyzed in the future. Annual doses above 500 are certainly not realistic. (author)

  16. About the necessity to update the Radiological safety and protection regulations of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    It is argued the necessity to update the Radiological safety and Protection regulations (Review 3) of ININ, with the purpose that it implements the ICRU operative magnitudes system. Such a system used with radiological protection purposes. The objective of this system is to do an estimation of the effective equivalent dose H E and/or the Effective dose E, proposed in the ICRP 26 and ICRU 60 dose limits systems respectively. (Author)

  17. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ''source term'' means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements

  18. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.C.; Graf, J.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Wenzel, W.J.; Walker, L.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs

  19. An education and training programme for radiological institutes: impact on the reduction of the CT radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindera, Sebastian T.; Allmen, Gabriel von; Vock, Peter; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Treier, Reto; Trueb, Philipp R.; Nauer, Claude

    2011-01-01

    To establish an education and training programme for the reduction of CT radiation doses and to assess this programme's efficacy. Ten radiological institutes were counselled. The optimisation programme included a small group workshop and a lecture on radiation dose reduction strategies. The radiation dose used for five CT protocols (paranasal sinuses, brain, chest, pulmonary angiography and abdomen) was assessed using the dose-length product (DLP) before and after the optimisation programme. The mean DLP values were compared with national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The average reduction of the DLP after optimisation was 37% for the sinuses (180 vs. 113 mGycm, P < 0.001), 9% for the brain (982 vs. 896 mGycm, P < 0.05), 24% for the chest (425 vs. 322 mGycm, P < 0.05) and 42% for the pulmonary arteries (352 vs. 203 mGycm, P < 0.001). No significant change in DLP was found for abdominal CT. The post-optimisation DLP values of the sinuses, brain, chest, pulmonary arteries and abdomen were 68%, 10%, 20%, 55% and 15% below the DRL, respectively. The education and training programme for radiological institutes is effective in achieving a substantial reduction in CT radiation dose. (orig.)

  20. Doses to patients from diagnostic radiology in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.

    2001-01-01

    Effective doses to over 2400 patients undergoing 20 of the most important types of X-ray examinations have been estimated from entrance surface doses or dose-area products, measured in 27 X-ray departments, and the appropriate conversion coefficients calculated by the NRPB for six mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 year old children and the adult. The patient-weighted mean effective dose from X-ray examinations performed annually in Romania is 1.32 mSv, with 1.40 mSv for the average adult patient and 0,59 mSv for the average paediatric patient. The corresponding annual collective effective dose is about 13,430 man Sv, with the main contribution belonging to adult patients (95%), the remainder of 5 percent - to paediatric patients. (author)

  1. Fetal dose in radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy; Dosis fetal en radiodiagnostico, medicina nuclear y radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, F. J.; Martinez, L. C.; Candela, C.

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes irradiation of the fetus in the mother's womb is inevitable in the field of diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, either through ignorance a priori status of this pregnancy, either because for clinical reasons it is necessary to perform the radiological study or treatment. In the first cases, know the dose at which it has exposed the fetus is essential when assessing the associated risk, while in the second it is when assessing the justification of the test. (Author)

  2. Estimation of health hazards resulting from a radiological terrorist attack in a city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2008-01-01

    on accidental exposure. The aim of the present study was to illustrate issues that need to be considered in evaluating the radiological consequences of a 'dirty bomb' explosion. This is done through a worked example of simplified calculations of relative dose contributions for a specific 'dirty bomb' scenario...

  3. Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected

  4. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  5. Finger doses during interventional radiology: The value of flexible protective gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, T.

    1991-01-01

    Finger doses of radiologists and assistants during 19 interventional radiological procedures were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and two types of flexible protective gloves were compared with each other. There were considerable differences in doses between different sites of TLDs on fingers. The exact site of TLDs on hands/fingers should thus be reported in papers. Both gloves were also irradiated through an Alderson phantom and the attenuation values were measured. The gloves with slightly greater attenuation proved to be significantly less comfortable to use. Wearing flexible protective gloves did not lengthen screening times as compared to a previous study in the same department. Various aspects of using such gloves are discussed. The attenuation values of gloves reported by the manufacturers may not apply under all clinical circumstances. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation dosimetry for medical management in nuclear/radiological disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Medical Management of radiation exposed victims depends on the amount of radiation doses received in their body and individual organs. The severity of radiation sickness; and early/late biological effects of radiation can be judged on the basis of absorbed dose level of the exposed individual. Radiation Dosimetry is a scientific technique for estimating radiation doses in material and living being. It is an important task for managing radiation effects/injuries to the living being in case of radiological accidents/disasters. In such scenario occupational radiation workers as well as public in general may be exposed with ionizing radiations such as; gamma, alpha, beta and neutron. Radiation dosimetric equipment's are available for occupational radiation workers, however, public in general may not have any dosimetry system with them. Therefore, absorbed dose estimation to the public on individual basis is a challenge to the society. The ambient environment materials in close proximity to the exposed individual may be analyzed using scientific techniques to estimate their personal radiation doses. The blood sample from exposed individual can be examined in laboratory using citometry techniques for dose estimation, however these techniques are very time consuming and may not be suitable for quick radiation management. The other human biological material such as; tooth, hair, and bone etc., can be examined using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry techniques. This technique is very efficient and capable in measuring radiation doses of the order of 20-30 mGy in very less time typically 2-3 min. In reality, this technique is costly affair and available mostly in developed countries. Thermoluminescence (TL) technique is very versatile and cost effective for routine personal dose estimation, This technique has been found suitable for measuring TL in many accidentally exposed environmental materials. The radiation exposed natural environmental materials, such as

  7. Correlation between radiological, scintigraphic and histological changes in bone in rabbits following irradiation with single and fractionated doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgener, F.A.; King, M.A.; Weber, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the left hind legs of eight rabbits were irradiated with 1,750 rad in a single dose or with 4,650 rad divided over a period of three weeks. These animals, as well as four who had not been irradiated, were examined periodically radiologically and with 99 mTechnetium pyrophosphate scintigrams during one year. No difference could be detected between the results of the single and fractionated doses. Scintigraphically there was a biphasic increase in uptake, the first peak co-inciding with the irradiation and of vascular origin, whereas the second peak occured at four months and was due to a change in bone metabolism. At the end of a year uptake in the irradiated limb was slightly reduced. The earliest radiological changes were found after six months, at the end of the second scintigraphic peak; they consisted of coarsening and blurring of the trabeculae, non-homogeneous spotty mineralisation and endosteal scalloping. Six animals developed a radiation-induced bone sarcoma, first demonstrated either by scintigraphy or radiology depending on its histology. The value of combining radiological and scintigraphic examinations for the early detection of post-radiation abnormalities is stressed. (orig.) [de

  8. A Computer Program Method for Estimation of Entrance Skin Dose for some Individuals Undergoing X-ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Allehyani, S.

    2012-01-01

    A computer program depends on practical measurements of entrance skin dose patients undergoing radiological examinations. Physical parameters such as field size, half value layer, backscatter factor, dose output, focal film distance, focal skin distance, normal operating conditions were taken into consideration for calculation entrance skin dose. It was measured by many techniques such as Thermo-luminescence dosimeters, ionization chambers. TLD technique characterized by high precision and reproducibility of dose measurement is checked by addressing pre-readout annealing, group sorting, dose evaluation, Fifty TLD chips were annealed for 1 hour at 400 degree C followed by 2 h at 100 degree C. After exposure to constant dose from X-ray generator. 0.6 cc Ionization chamber was located at surface of water chest phantom that has dimensions of 40 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm and connected with farmer dose master. Entrance Skin Dose was calculated using the generated software by changing the physical parameters and using the measured output doses. The obtained results were compared with the reference levels of International Atomic Energy Authority. The constructed computer program provides an easy and more practical mean of estimating skin dose even before exposure. They also provide the easiest and cheapest technique can be employed in any entrance skin dose measurement

  9. Assessment of radiation dose awareness among pediatricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Parnell-Parmley, June E.; Charkot, Ellen; BenDavid, Guila; Krajewski, Connie; Haidar, Salwa; Moineddin, Rahim

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing awareness among pediatric radiologists of the potential risks associated with ionizing radiation in medical imaging. However, it is not known whether there has been a corresponding increase in awareness among pediatricians. To establish the level of awareness among pediatricians of the recent publicity on radiation risks in children, knowledge of the relative doses of radiological investigations, current practice regarding parent/patient discussions, and the sources of educational input. Multiple-choice survey. Of 220 respondents, 105 (48%) were aware of the 2001 American Journal of Roentgenology articles on pediatric CT and radiation, though only 6% were correct in their estimate of the quoted lifetime excess cancer risk associated with radiation doses equivalent to pediatric CT. A sustained or transient increase in parent questioning regarding radiation doses had been noticed by 31%. When estimating the effective doses of various pediatric radiological investigations in chest radiograph (CXR) equivalents, 87% of all responses (and 94% of CT estimates) were underestimates. Only 15% of respondents were familiar with the ALARA principle. Only 14% of pediatricians recalled any relevant formal teaching during their specialty training. The survey response rate was 40%. Awareness of radiation protection issues among pediatricians is generally low, with widespread underestimation of relative doses and risks. (orig.)

  10. Dose estimation in the crystalline lens of industrial radiography personnel using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alexandre Roza de

    2014-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, in its publication 103, reviewed recent epidemiological evidence and indicated that, for the eye lens, the absorbed dose threshold for induction of late detriment is around 0.5 Gy. On this basis, on April 21, 2011, the ICRP recommended changes to the occupational dose limit in planned exposure situations, reducing the eye lens equivalent dose limit from 150 mSv to 20 mSv per year, on average, during the period of 5 years, with exposure not to exceed 50 mSv in a single year. This paper presents the dose estimation to eye lens, H p (10), effective dose and doses to important organs in the body, received by industrial gamma radiography workers, during planned or accidental exposure situations. The computer program Visual Monte Carlo was used and two relevant scenarios were postulated. The first is a planned exposure situation scenario where the operator is directly exposed to radiation during the operation. 12 radiographic exposures per day for 250 days per year, which leads to an exposure of 36,000 seconds or 10 hours per year were considered. The simulation was carried out using the following parameters: a 192 Ir source with 1.0 TBq of activity, the source/operator distance varying from 5 m to 10 m at three different heights of 0.2 m, 1.0 m and 2.0 m. The eyes lens doses were estimated as being between 16.9 mSv/year and 66.9 mSv/year and for H p (10) the doses were between 17.7 mSv/year and 74.2 mSv/year. For the accidental exposure situation scenario, the same radionuclide and activity were used, but in this case the doses were calculated with and without a collimator. The heights above ground considered were 1.0 m, 1.5 m e 2.0 m, the source/operator distance was 40 cm and, the exposure time 74 seconds. The eyes lens doses, for 1.5 m, were 12.3 mGy and 0.28 mGy without and with a collimator, respectively. Three conclusions resulted from this work. The first was that the estimated doses show that the new

  11. Individual monitoring of medical staff working in interventional radiology in Switzerland using double dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damet, J.; Bailat, C.; Bize, P.; Buchillier, Th.; Tosic, M.; Verdun, F.R.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    Physicians who frequently perform fluoroscopic examinations are exposed to high intensity radiation fields. The exposure monitoring is performed with a regular personal dosimeter under the apron in order to estimate the effective dose. However, large parts of the body are not protected by the apron (e.g. arms, head). Therefore, it is recommended to wear a supplemental dosimeter over the apron to obtain a better representative estimate of the effective dose. The over-apron dosimeter can also be used to estimate the eye lens dose. The goal of this study was to investigate the relevance of double dosimetry in interventional radiology. First the calibration procedure of the dosimeters placed over the apron was tested. Then, results of double dosimetry during the last five years were analyzed. We found that the personal dose equivalent measured over a lead apron was underestimated by ∼20% to ∼40% for X-ray beam qualities used in radiology. Measurements made over five-year period confirm that the use of a single under-apron dosimeter is inadequate for personnel monitoring. Relatively high skin dose (>10 mSv/month) would have remained undetected without a second dosimeter placed on the apron.

  12. Avoidance of unnecessary dose to patients while transitioning from analogue to digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    Agency, Pan American Health Organization, United Nations Environment Programme and World Health Organization, require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and through optimization. In keeping with its responsibility for the application of standards, the IAEA programme on radiological protection of patients encourages the reduction of patient doses in diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures. This monograph, including data from a coordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, is a further contribution to the resources provided by the IAEA in support of implementation of the BSS. The International Action Plan for the Radiological Protection of Patients, approved by the General Conference of the IAEA in September 2002, requires that: 'The practice-specific documents under preparation should be finalized as guidance rather than regulations, and they should include input from professional bodies, from international organizations and from authorities with responsibility for radiation protection and medical care.' This monograph is prepared and issued in this spirit. In the first instance, it provides advice for those involved in one of the more dose intensive areas developing in radiology today.

  13. Occupational dose estimates for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    Occupational doses were estimated for radiation workers at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study provides an estimate of the occupational dose based on the current MRS facility design, examines the extent that various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates, and identifies the areas and activities where exposures can be reduced most effectively. Occupational doses were estimated for both the primary storage concept and the alternate storage concept. The dose estimates indicate the annual dose to all radiation workers will be below the 5 rem/yr federal dose equivalent limit. However, the estimated dose to most of the receiving and storage crew (the workers responsible for the receipt, storage, and surveillance of the spent fuel and its subsequent retrieval), to the crane maintenance technicians, and to the cold and remote maintenance technicians is above the design objective of 1 rem/yr. The highest annual dose is received by the riggers (4.7 rem) in the receiving and storage crew. An indication of the extent to which various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates was obtained by changing various design-based assumptions such as work procedures, background dose rates in radiation zones, and the amount of fuel received and stored annually. The study indicated that a combination of remote operations, increased shielding, and additional personnel (for specific jobs) or changes in operating procedures will be necessary to reduce worker doses below 1.0 rem/yr. Operations that could be made at least partially remote include the removal and replacement of the tiedowns, impact limiters, and personnel barriers from the shipping casks and the removal or installation of the inner closure bolts. Reductions of the background dose rates in the receiving/shipping and the transfer/discharge areas may be accomplished with additional shielding

  14. Managing patient dose in digital radiology; Gestión de la dosis al paciente en radiología digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Digital techniques have the potential to improve the practice of radiology but they also risk the overuse of radiation. The main advantages of digital imaging, i.e. wide dynamic range, post processing, multiple viewing options, and electronic transfer and archiving possibilities, are clear but overexposures can occur without an adverse impact on image quality. In conventional radiography, excessive exposure produces a black film. In digital systems, good images are obtained for a large range of doses. It is very easy to obtain (and delete) images with digital fluoroscopy systems, and there may be a tendency to obtain more images than necessary. In digital radiology, higher patient dose usually means improved image quality, so a tendency to use higher patient doses than necessary could occur. Different medical imaging tasks require different levels of image quality, and doses that have no additional benefit for the clinical purpose should be avoided. Image quality can be compromised by inappropriate levels of data compression and/or post processing techniques. All these new challenges should be part of the optimisation process and should be included in clinical and technical protocols. Local diagnostic reference levels should be re-evaluated for digital imaging, and patient dose parameters should be displayed at the operator console. Frequent patient dose audits should occur when digital techniques are introduced. Training in the management of image quality and patient dose in digital radiology is necessary. Digital radiology will involve new regulations and invoke new challenges for practitioners. As digital images are easier to obtain and transmit, the justification criteria should be reinforced. Commissioning of digital systems should involve clinical specialists, medical physicists, and radiographers to ensure that imaging capability and radiation dose management are integrated. Quality control requires new procedures and protocols (visualisation, transmission

  15. Sample Based Unit Liter Dose Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Tank Waste Characterization Program has taken many core samples, grab samples, and auger samples from the single-shell and double-shell tanks during the past 10 years. Consequently, the amount of sample data available has increased, both in terms of quantity of sample results and the number of tanks characterized. More and better data is available than when the current radiological and toxicological source terms used in the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (FDH 1999a) and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (FDH 1999b) were developed. The Nuclear Safety and Licensing (NS and L) organization wants to use the new data to upgrade the radiological and toxicological source terms used in the BIO and FSAR. The NS and L organization requested assistance in producing a statistically based process for developing the source terms. This report describes the statistical techniques used and the assumptions made to support the development of a new radiological source term for liquid and solid wastes stored in single-shell and double-shell tanks. The results given in this report are a revision to similar results given in an earlier version of the document (Jensen and Wilmarth 1999). The main difference between the results in this document and the earlier version is that the dose conversion factors (DCF) for converting μCi/g or μCi/L to Sv/L (sieverts per liter) have changed. There are now two DCFs, one based on ICRP-68 and one based on ICW-71 (Brevick 2000)

  16. EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-12-21

    This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.

  17. The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements): Its contribution to dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Zoetelief, J.; Menzel, H. G.; Paretzke, H.

    2005-01-01

    The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements was created to develop a coherent system of quantities and units, universally accepted in all fields where ionizing radiation is used. Although the accuracy of dose or kerma may be low for most radiological applications, the quantity which is measured must be clearly specified. Radiological dosimetry instruments are generally calibrated free-in-air in terms of air kerma. However, to estimate the probability of harm at low dose, the mean absorbed dose for organs is used. In contrast, at high doses, the likelihood of harm is related to the absorbed dose at the site receiving the highest dose. Therefore, to assess the risk of deterministic and stochastic effects, a detailed knowledge of absorbed dose distribution, organ doses, patient age and gender is required. For interventional radiology, where the avoidance of deterministic effects becomes important, dose conversion coefficients are generally not yet developed. (authors)

  18. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recent surveys in the UK and New Zealand have shown that although the number of CT examinations small compared to conventional Radiology, CT contributes about 20% to the overall dose from diagnostic radiology. In view of these findings and the rapid increase in the number of CT facilities in recent years, a survey of the number of facilities, frequency of examination, techniques and patient doses has been performed. Australia, with 329 units is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European Countries and New Zealand. For many examinations a wide range was found in the number of slices and slice widths used and this led to a large spread in the corresponding doses. Assuming the practices of the non-responders are statistically similar to those who responded, some preliminary estimates of population doses can be made. There could be as many as 1.1 million CT examinations each year in Australia resulting in a per capur effectie dose of 0.36 mSv. Although the results of this survey are still subject to some refinement, they indicate that CT is a major, and possibly the dominant, contributor to doses from diagnostic radiology in Australia. (author)

  19. Image and dose quality in selected studies of conventional radiology in designed hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas H, J.; Martinez G, A.; Machado T, A.; Mora M, R. de la; Pedroso, L.; Villa Z, R.; Sotolongo C, J.A.; Rodriguez S, R.M.; Martinez A, U.; Figueroa G, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The medical exposures have a significant contribution to the received doses by the population. As they generally contribute to the patient's direct benefit during a lot of time has been paid smaller attention that to other exposure forms, in spite of existing potentialities of reducing dose to the patients as consequence of these applications. In such sense in the last years the scientific community and international organizations have defined requirements to contribute to that the doses to the patients are the minimum ones necessary to achieve its diagnostic objective. The work exposes the results obtained in the evaluation of the image quality and dose in studies of radiology of thorax posteroanterior and of lumbosacral column anteroposterior and lateral, carried out in 2 university hospitals of La Havana, as well as the contribution of this investigation to the establishment of guidance levels in our country. (Author)

  20. Review and evaluation of principles used in the estimation of radiation doses associated with the practice of deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Templeton, W.L.; Soldat, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    The relevant national and international guidance concerning the estimation of radiological doses from the practice of deepsea disposal of radioactive waste was reviewed. The review includes the dose limitation guidance of the various national and international bodies, especially that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Pathway modeling is discussed as well as the oceanographic models of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Included in the discussion are the recommendations for the definition of high-level waste by the IAEA for use by the London Dumping Convention (LDC) in setting limits for ocean disposal of waste. An assessment of the ICRP's radiological protection system using the effective whole-body dose methodology is made. Present models, which should continue to be improved as the research data becomes available, do provide an adequate basis for regulatory authorities to decide whether authorization for a proposed disposal can be granted, since they provide a means of indicating whether maximum individual (critical groups) exposure limits are likely to be exceeded. However, new models and information are continuously being developed by the international community to assess ocean disposal of radioactive waste in comparison to land disposal and to compare one site against another. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Dose rate estimation of the Tohoku hynobiid salamander, Hynobius lichenatus, in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao; Kawaguchi, Isao; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Youji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Aono, Tatsuo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Soeda, Haruhi; Matsui, Kumi; Une, Yumi; Minamiya, Yukio; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    The radiological risks to the Tohoku hynobiid salamanders (class Amphibia), Hynobius lichenatus due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were assessed in Fukushima Prefecture, including evacuation areas. Aquatic egg clutches (n = 1 for each sampling date and site; n = 4 in total), overwintering larvae (n = 1-5 for each sampling date and site; n = 17 in total), and terrestrial juveniles or adults (n = 1 or 3 for each sampling date and site; n = 12 in total) of H. lichenatus were collected from the end of April 2011 to April 2013. Environmental media such as litter (n = 1-5 for each sampling date and site; n = 30 in total), soil (n = 1-8 for each sampling date and site; n = 31 in total), water (n = 1 for each sampling date and site; n = 17 in total), and sediment (n = 1 for each sampling date and site; n = 17 in total) were also collected. Activity concentrations of (134)Cs + (137)Cs were 1.9-2800, 0.13-320, and 0.51-220 kBq (dry kg) (-1) in the litter, soil, and sediment samples, respectively, and were 0.31-220 and <0.29-40 kBq (wet kg)(-1) in the adult and larval salamanders, respectively. External and internal absorbed dose rates to H. lichenatus were calculated from these activity concentration data, using the ERICA Assessment Tool methodology. External dose rates were also measured in situ with glass dosimeters. There was agreement within a factor of 2 between the calculated and measured external dose rates. In the most severely contaminated habitat of this salamander, a northern part of Abukuma Mountains, the highest total dose rates were estimated to be 50 and 15 μGy h(-1) for the adults and overwintering larvae, respectively. Growth and survival of H. lichenatus was not affected at a dose rate of up to 490 μGy h(-1) in the previous laboratory chronic gamma-irradiation experiment, and thus growth and survival of this salamander would not be affected, even in the most severely contaminated habitat in Fukushima Prefecture. However, further

  2. Dosimetric evaluation program for dental radiology practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, B.; Milat, J.; Fernandez, J.; Micinquevich, S.; Andrieu, J.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary results of a program undertaken to estimate the doses to patients associated with dental radiology practices in Argentine, are presented. Information collected from the search demonstrated that the Dieck and coronal techniques are the most commonly used practices, while all the examinations are performed by using a circular collimator. For both practices, the dosimetric studies were carried out on a Rando Alderson phantom. All dose measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors LiF and Ca 2 F. In addition, a mathematical model was developed by applying the Monte Carlo method to a MIRD-V phantom. Circular and rectangular collimators were used. Absorbed dose distribution on head and neck, as well as surface dose distribution, were estimated. The comparison of the performance of both collimators shows that the use of the rectangular one allows for a dose reduction of 80%. Besides, a good correlation between the physical and mathematical models applied was found. (author)

  3. Transmission dose estimation algorithm for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Shin, Kyo Chul; Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of transmission dose is useful for in vivo dosimetry of QA purpose. The objective of this study is to develope an algorithm for estimation of tumor dose using measured transmission dose for open radiation field. Transmission dose was measured with various field size (FS), phantom thickness (Tp), and phantom chamber distance (PCD) with an acrylic phantom for 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray. Source to chamber distance (SCD) was set to 150 cm. Measurement was conducted with a 0.6 cc Farmer type ion chamber. Using measured data and regression analysis, an algorithm was developed for estimation of expected reading of transmission dose. Accuracy of the algorithm was tested with flat solid phantom with various settings. The algorithm consisted of quadratic function of log(A/P) (where A/P is area-perimeter ratio) and tertiary function of PCD. The algorithm could estimate dose with very high accuracy for open square field, with errors within ±0.5%. For elongated radiation field, the errors were limited to ±1.0%. The developed algorithm can accurately estimate the transmission dose in open radiation fields with various treatment settings

  4. Transmission dose estimation algorithm for in vivo dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Shin, Kyo Chul [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung Koo [Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Measurement of transmission dose is useful for in vivo dosimetry of QA purpose. The objective of this study is to develope an algorithm for estimation of tumor dose using measured transmission dose for open radiation field. Transmission dose was measured with various field size (FS), phantom thickness (Tp), and phantom chamber distance (PCD) with an acrylic phantom for 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray. Source to chamber distance (SCD) was set to 150 cm. Measurement was conducted with a 0.6 cc Farmer type ion chamber. Using measured data and regression analysis, an algorithm was developed for estimation of expected reading of transmission dose. Accuracy of the algorithm was tested with flat solid phantom with various settings. The algorithm consisted of quadratic function of log(A/P) (where A/P is area-perimeter ratio) and tertiary function of PCD. The algorithm could estimate dose with very high accuracy for open square field, with errors within {+-}0.5%. For elongated radiation field, the errors were limited to {+-}1.0%. The developed algorithm can accurately estimate the transmission dose in open radiation fields with various treatment settings.

  5. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures; Estimación de dosis efectiva durante los procedimientos hysterosalpingography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M. [King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, (Saudi Arabia); Sulieman, A. [Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O. Box 422, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia); Alsafi, K. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiology Department, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Omer, H., E-mail: kalzimami@ksu.edu.sa [Dammam University, Faculty of Medicine, Dammam Khobar Coastal Rd, Khobar 31982 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-15

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  6. Considerations on absorbed dose estimates based on different β-dose point kernels in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Isao; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Yamashita, Takashi; Okigaki, Shigeyasu; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru; Ito, Akira.

    1995-01-01

    In radiotherapy with radiopharmaceuticals, more accurate estimates of the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of absorbed dose is important in specifying the activity to be administered to patients to deliver a prescribed absorbed dose to target volumes without exceeding the toxicity limit of normal tissues in the body. A calculation algorithm for the purpose has already been developed by the authors. An accurate 3-D distribution of absorbed dose based on the algorithm is given by convolution of the 3-D dose matrix for a unit cubic voxel containing unit cumulated activity, which is obtained by transforming a dose point kernel into a 3-D cubic dose matrix, with the 3-D cumulated activity distribution given by the same voxel size. However, beta-dose point kernels affecting accurate estimates of the 3-D absorbed dose distribution have been different among the investigators. The purpose of this study is to elucidate how different beta-dose point kernels in water influence on the estimates of the absorbed dose distribution due to the dose point kernel convolution method by the authors. Computer simulations were performed using the MIRD thyroid and lung phantoms under assumption of uniform activity distribution of 32 P. Using beta-dose point kernels derived from Monte Carlo simulations (EGS-4 or ACCEPT computer code), the differences among their point kernels gave little differences for the mean and maximum absorbed dose estimates for the MIRD phantoms used. In the estimates of mean and maximum absorbed doses calculated using different cubic voxel sizes (4x4x4 mm and 8x8x8 mm) for the MIRD thyroid phantom, the maximum absorbed doses for the 4x4x4 mm-voxel were estimated approximately 7% greater than the cases of the 8x8x8 mm-voxel. They were found in every beta-dose point kernel used in this study. On the other hand, the percentage difference of the mean absorbed doses in the both voxel sizes for each beta-dose point kernel was less than approximately 0.6%. (author)

  7. SU-F-I-36: In-Utero Dose Measurements Within Postmortem Subjects for Estimating Fetal Doses in Pregnant Patients Examined with Pulmonary Embolism, Trauma, and Appendicitis CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Carranza, C; Correa, N; Bidari, S; Bickelhaup, M; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. Method: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice. Exams were performed both with and without iterative reconstruction to highlight the dose savings potential. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were inserted into the uterus in order to approximate fetal doses. Results: In the pulmonary embolism CT protocol, the uterus is outside of the primary beam, and the dose to the uterus was under 1 mGy. In the trauma and appendicitis protocols, the uterus is in the primary beam, the fetal dose estimates were 30.5 mGy for the trauma protocol, and 20.6 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Iterative reconstruction reduced fetal doses by 30%, with uterine doses at 21.3 for the trauma and 14.3 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Conclusion: Fetal doses were under 1 mGy when exposed to scatter radiation, and under 50 mGy when exposed to primary radiation with the trauma and appendicitis protocols. Consistent with the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these doses exhibit a negligible risk to the fetus, with only a small increased risk of cancer. Still, CT scans are not recommended during pregnancy unless the benefits of the exam clearly outweigh the potential risk. Furthermore, when possible, pregnant patients should be examined on CT scanners equipped with iterative reconstruction in order to keep patient doses as low as reasonable achievable.

  8. SU-F-I-36: In-Utero Dose Measurements Within Postmortem Subjects for Estimating Fetal Doses in Pregnant Patients Examined with Pulmonary Embolism, Trauma, and Appendicitis CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Carranza, C; Correa, N; Bidari, S; Bickelhaup, M; Rill, L; Arreola, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. Method: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice. Exams were performed both with and without iterative reconstruction to highlight the dose savings potential. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were inserted into the uterus in order to approximate fetal doses. Results: In the pulmonary embolism CT protocol, the uterus is outside of the primary beam, and the dose to the uterus was under 1 mGy. In the trauma and appendicitis protocols, the uterus is in the primary beam, the fetal dose estimates were 30.5 mGy for the trauma protocol, and 20.6 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Iterative reconstruction reduced fetal doses by 30%, with uterine doses at 21.3 for the trauma and 14.3 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Conclusion: Fetal doses were under 1 mGy when exposed to scatter radiation, and under 50 mGy when exposed to primary radiation with the trauma and appendicitis protocols. Consistent with the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these doses exhibit a negligible risk to the fetus, with only a small increased risk of cancer. Still, CT scans are not recommended during pregnancy unless the benefits of the exam clearly outweigh the potential risk. Furthermore, when possible, pregnant patients should be examined on CT scanners equipped with iterative reconstruction in order to keep patient doses as low as reasonable achievable.

  9. Collective effective dose equivalent, population doses and risk estimates from occupational exposures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Nishizawa, Kanae; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwai, Kazuo; Mase, Naomichi.

    1993-01-01

    Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation work for about 0.21 million workers except for the workers in nuclear power stations. The data on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official report of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers including nuclear power stations was estimated to be about 0.26 million. Radiation works were subdivided as follows: medical works including dental; non-atomic energy industry; research and education; atomic energy industry and nuclear power station. For the determination of effective dose equivalent and population dose, organ or tissue doses were measured with a phantom experiment. The resultant doses were compared with the doses previously calculated using a chord length technique and with data from ICRP publications. The annual collective effective dose equivalent were estimated to be about 21.94 person·Sv for medical workers, 7.73 person·Sv for industrial workers, 0.75 person·Sv for research and educational workers, 2.48 person·Sv for atomic energy industry and 84.4 person ·Sv for workers in nuclear power station. The population doses were calculated to be about 1.07 Sv for genetically significant dose, 0.89 Sv for leukemia significant dose and 0.42 Sv for malignant significant dose. The population risks were estimated using these population doses. (author)

  10. The role and impact of reference doses on diagnostic radiology, how to use them at the national level?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.; Karkus, R.

    2003-01-01

    Results of patient dose audits reported in this paper for several types of examinations and various technical units have shown the importance of applications of reference dose levels in radiological practice. On the basis of national surveys slightly lower or higher standard dose reference levels (DRL) values could be justified. Continuing revision of DRL values and their extension to other types of radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations is needed

  11. Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional radiology and cardiology: Final results of the ORAMED project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Carinou, E.; Domienik, J.; Donadille, L.; Ginjaume, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Koukorava, C.; Krim, S.; Nikodemova, D.; Ruiz-Lopez, N.; Sans-Merce, M.; Struelens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the ORAMED project (Optimization of Radiation Protection of Medical Staff) a coordinated measurement program for occupationally exposed medical staff was performed in different hospitals in Europe ( (www.oramed-fp7.eu)). The main objective was to obtain a set of standardized data on extremity and eye lens doses for staff involved in interventional radiology and cardiology and to optimize radiation protection. Special attention was given to the measurement of the doses to the eye lenses. In this paper an overview will be given of the measured eye lens doses and the main influence factors for these doses. The measured eye lens doses are extrapolated to annual doses. The extrapolations showed that monitoring of the eye lens should be performed on routine basis.

  12. Prenatal radiation doses from radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.M.; Di Trano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author) [es

  13. Organ-specific external dose coefficients and protective apron transmission factors for historical dose reconstruction for medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L

    2011-07-01

    While radiation absorbed dose (Gy) to the skin or other organs is sometimes estimated for patients from diagnostic radiologic examinations or therapeutic procedures, rarely is occupationally-received radiation absorbed dose to individual organs/tissues estimated for medical personnel; e.g., radiologic technologists or radiologists. Generally, for medical personnel, equivalent or effective radiation doses are estimated for compliance purposes. In the very few cases when organ doses to medical personnel are reconstructed, the data is usually for the purpose of epidemiologic studies; e.g., a study of historical doses and risks to a cohort of about 110,000 radiologic technologists presently underway at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. While ICRP and ICRU have published organ-specific external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) (i.e., absorbed dose to organs and tissues per unit air kerma and dose equivalent per unit air kerma), those factors have been published primarily for mono-energetic photons at selected energies. This presents two related problems for historical dose reconstruction, both of which are addressed here. It is necessary to derive conversion factor values for (1) continuous distributions of energy typical of diagnostic medical x-rays (bremsstrahlung radiation), and (2) energies of particular radioisotopes used in medical procedures, neither of which are presented in published tables. For derivation of DCCs for bremsstrahlung radiation, combinations of x-ray tube potentials and filtrations were derived for different time periods based on a review of relevant literature. Three peak tube potentials (70 kV, 80 kV, and 90 kV) with four different amounts of beam filtration were determined to be applicable for historic dose reconstruction. The probabilities of these machine settings were assigned to each of the four time periods (earlier than 1949, 1949-1954, 1955-1968, and after 1968). Continuous functions were fit to each set of discrete values of the

  14. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  15. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Caramella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Medical students tend to overstate their knowledge of radiation protection (RP). • Overall RP knowledge of young doctors and students is suboptimal. • RP teaching to undergraduates and postgraduates needs to be substantially improved. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. Material and methods: A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Results: Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P < 0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P < 0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Conclusions: Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological

  16. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo, E-mail: lfaggioni@sirm.org [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Paolicchi, Fabio [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Bastiani, Luca [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa (Italy); Guido, Davide [Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 2, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Caramella, Davide [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Medical students tend to overstate their knowledge of radiation protection (RP). • Overall RP knowledge of young doctors and students is suboptimal. • RP teaching to undergraduates and postgraduates needs to be substantially improved. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. Material and methods: A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Results: Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P < 0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P < 0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Conclusions: Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological

  17. Adult head CT scans: the uncertainties of effective dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text: CT scanning is a high dose imaging modality. Effective dose estimates from CT scans can provide important information to patients and medical professionals. For example, medical practitioners can use the dose to estimate the risk to the patient, and judge whether this risk is outweighed by the benefits of the CT examination, while radiographers can gauge the effect of different scanning protocols on the patient effective dose, and take this into consideration when establishing routine scan settings. Dose estimates also form an important part of epidemiological studies examining the health effects of medical radiation exposures on the wider population. Medical physicists have been devoting significant effort towards estimating patient radiation doses from diagnostic CT scans for some years. The question arises: How accurate are these effective dose estimates? The need for a greater understanding and improvement of the uncertainties in CT dose estimates is now gaining recognition as an important issue (BEIR VII 2006). This study is an attempt to analyse and quantify the uncertainty components relating to effective dose estimates from adult head CT examinations that are calculated with four commonly used methods. The dose estimation methods analysed are the Nagel method, the ImpaCT method, the Wellhoefer method and the Dose-Length Product (DLP) method. The analysis of the uncertainties was performed in accordance with the International Standards Organisation's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement as discussed in Gregory et al (Australas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med., 28: 131-139, 2005). The uncertainty components vary, depending on the method used to deri