WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiolanthanides labelled compounds

  1. Radiolanthanide labeled compounds as radiopharmaceuticals for radio-synoviorthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melichar, František; Kropáček, Martin; Šrank, Jiří; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Beran, Miloš; Zimová, Jana; Eigner-Henke, Kateřina; Forsterová, Michaela; Kraft, O.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2007), s. 45-45 ISSN 1450-1147 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiosynoviorthesis * holmium-166 Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  2. Development of radiolanthanide labeled porphyrin complexes as possible therapeutic agents in beast carcinoma xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahidfar, Nasim; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Beiki, Davood; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Alirezapour, Behrooz; Erfani, Mostafa [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiopharmacy Research Group

    2014-10-01

    Radiolabeled porphyrins are potential tumor avid radiopharmaceuticals because of their behaviour in the human body, ability to complex various radionuclides, water solubility, low toxicity etc., in this work radio ytterbium/samarium porphyrin complexes have been developed. {sup 175}Yb and {sup 153}Sm labeled 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) porphyrins ([{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP/[{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP) were prepared using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) porphyrin (H{sub 2}TDMPP) and [{sup 175}Yb]YbCl{sub 3} or [{sup 153}Sm]SmCl{sub 3} in 12-24 h at 60 C. Stability of the complexes were checked in final formulation and human serum for 24 h, followed by partition coefficient determination and biodistribution studies in wild type and breast carcinoma-bearing mice. The radiocomplexes were obtained with acceptable radiochemical purity (> 95% (paper chromatography) and > 96% (HPLC) for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and > 97% (paper chromatography) and > 98% (HPLC) for [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP) with specific activities of 12-15 GBq/mmol and 278 GBq/mmol at the end of bombardment for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP respectively. The partition coefficients were determined for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP (log P = 0.63 and log P = 0.96 respectively). The [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP complex is mostly washed out from the circulation through kidneys. Liver and spleen also demonstrated significant activity uptake in 72 h post injection. Also [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP, is mostly washed out from the circulation through kidneys, however lungs are the major accumulation sites. The [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP complex demonstrated significant targeted uptake in breast carcinoma xenografts with tumor: blood ratios of 10.67, 10.47 and 19.01 in 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Also interesting tumor: kidney/liver ratios were obtained. {sup 153}Sm-TDMPP properties suggest an efficient tumor targeting agent with high tumor-avidity. Further investigation on the therapeutic properties must be

  3. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  4. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  5. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  6. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  8. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  9. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  10. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  12. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  13. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  14. In vivo radiochemical properties of Tb-149: A new radiolanthanide for targeted cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Beyer, G.J.; Morel, C.H.; Aleksandrova, Y.; Jahn, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: 149 Tb (4.15 h) decays by the emission of both 3.9 MeV alpha particles (17% branching) and positrons (4% branch), and uniquely combines both therapeutic and PET diagnostic properties. In this paper we report the production route, systemic studies of radio-lanthanides with ethylenediaminetetra methylene phosphonate (EDTMP) ligand, and the first 149 Tb phantom studies using PET. The radio-lanthanides used in this study were produced at the ISOLDE (isotope separator on-line) facility at CERN. They are produced carrier free, isotopically and chemically separated (isobaric separation using cation exchange chromatography) in a form suitable for protein labelling. Batches up to 20 mCi of 1 4 9T b are available. We have established relationships between biokinetics, EDTMP concentration, and the ionic radius of the radiolanthanide used. The tumour to liver ratio in mice reaches a maximum value at 1 mM 10 mM and decreases from 10 by almost two decades according to the ionic radius of the lanthanide. For Tb, a tumour to liver ratio of 5 can be obtained, similar to Gd. No significant differences in the uptake in bone for all lanthanides in the EDTMP system were observed. A fast blood clearance allows clear bone images to be obtained via PET at 60-90 min post-injection, as shown with rabbits using 142 Sm-EDTMP. The first phantom PET studies with 149 Tb are also reported. We conclude that the fast biokinetics and the alpha decay mode open up new possibilities for a more efficient endo-radionuclide therapy using EDTMP. The high purity of the 149T b (isotopically separated and carrier free) produced in this way makes it very suitable for the labelling of octretides

  15. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds Pt.1. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    A simple method allowing the preparation of 82 Br labelled organic bromine compounds from olefins with chemical and radiochemical yields between 75 and 95% and the specific activities required, is described [fr

  16. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds. Pt. 2. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    Studies on isotopic exchange between organic bromine compounds and 82 Br labelled dioxane dibromide in the presence of AlCl 3 are described. The results obtained enable to develop a simple and quick preparation method for the labelling with 82 Br [fr

  17. Preparation of 125I labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Beiki, D.; Matlubi, M.; Jalilian, A.R.; Motamedi, F.; Karimian, A.R.; Najafi, R.; Babaei, M.; Kamali Dehghan, M.; Shah-Hossaini, G.R.; Shafahi, S.K.; Keshavarzi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Iodinated compounds with 131 I, 125 I and 123 I have been widely used for biochemical function studies. In conjunction with SPECT, [ 123 I] labelled proteins have various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. In this study, synthesis and quality control of [ 18 F]radiofluorinated and radioiodinated of some proteins and peptides as well as their biological behaviors are considered to be investigated. (author)

  18. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ( 13 C-labelled PCB congeners, 13 C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D 9 -clenbuterol, D 3 -clenbuterol, D 3 -zeramol and D 3 -dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG)

  19. Use of radiolanthanides in physiology of animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thewis, A.; Francois, E.

    1976-01-01

    A list of the properties of a good indigestible tracer was elaborated: a) to be absolutely inert; b) not to be absorbed, neither metabolized; c) not to affect absorption, secretion and digestion phenomena; d) to be easily and rapidly measurable. Radiolanthanides, particularly 144 Ce, being good tracers, have been used for the following research: 1. Study of alimentary tract working and measurement of gastrointestinal tract in ruminants and secondarily in monogastric animals. 2. Localization of phosphorus resorption and secretion in alimentary tract of the sheep. (J.C.)

  20. Gel chromatography of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilcek, S.; Machan, V.; Kalincak, M.

    1976-01-01

    The present state of gel chromatography of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds is reviewed. Examples are given of gel chromatography for preparing labelled compounds and for quality control analysis and the development of new types of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds. The factors which influence the gel chromatography of these compounds are discussed, i.e., the nature of the elution agent, the duration of the contact of the gel and the preparation the gel type, the nature of the labelled compound. The GCS method (gel chromatography scanning) is briefly described. The advantages of gel chromatography as compared with other chromatographic techniques for sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds are summarized. (author)

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  2. HAC and production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews different methods for the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds that make use of hot atom reactions. Subsequently he discusses the production of radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals; enrichment of (n,γ) products, recoil labelling and related methods (neutron reaction products, cyclotron production, excitation labelling, radiation and discharge induced labelling). The final section offers a survey of radioisotope production using accelerators. Only a selection of the various conditions used in practical RI production is considered. (Auth.)

  3. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  4. Tritium labeling of simple 7-membered ring compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.

    1990-01-01

    Seven-membered ring compounds, from cycloheptane to complex ring structures containing heteroatoms, substituents and fused phenyl rings, were labeled with tritium, using activated and adsorbed tritium. The 7-membered ring structures are generally stable towards reactions with tritium, which allows compounds like 1-benzosuberone, 1-aza-2-methoxy-1-cycloheptane, iminostilbene and clozapine to be labeled to reasonably high specific activities. The best method varies greatly from compound to compound. By optimizing the labeling conditions and use of efficient support exceptionally good results can be obtained. The Pd-on-alumina support gives consistently higher specific activity and less radioimpurity than other supports. Even molecules containing carbon-halogen bond and hydrogen bound to nitrogen can usually be labeled with tritium at stable positions and without dehalogenation. (author)

  5. Biokinetics and dosimetry of radioactively labelled organic C-14 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krins, A.; Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, T.

    2003-12-01

    The report starts with summarising research work and the resulting scientific information in connection with the dosimetry of C-14 labelled organic compounds. Biokinetic models are developed for compounds such as benzene, phenol, aniline, nitrobenzene, and a selection of pharmaceuticals, in order to show the radioactivity distribution after administration of the C-14 labelled substances. Based on the those models, dose coefficients and excretion rates are derived. The following synoptic view of the available data library leads on to a discussion of various aspects, as eg. the question of whether and how monitoring for detection of incorporation of C-14 administered with labelled organic compounds is possible. None of the questions and aspects arising in connection with this subject can be adequately dealt with in the present document, but concepts and methods are presented which permit an interpretation of radioactivity excretion data measured after incorporation of C-14 labelled organic substances. (orig./CB) [de

  6. 3. Production of radionuclides, preparation and handling of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of natural radioactive compounds and the manufacture of artificial radionuclides, the labelling of organic compounds, and the methods of radioactive substance separation are described. The principles are shown of handling radioactive materials and a brief description is given of the stability, packaging and storage of radiopharmaceuticals. (J.P.)

  7. Modern spectrometric methods for the analysis of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Wagenaars, G.N.; Jacobs, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    A proper analysis of chemical compounds should give information about the chemical identity (not only the structure but also enantiomeric form), the chemical purity and chemical composition (e.g. giving information about counter-ions, solvents of crystallization). For labelled compounds information is also needed about isotopic purity (defined as the % of isotope present in the compound), the position/distribution of the isotope in the molecule and degree of labelling/specific activity. In the past ten years the possibilities for spectrometric analyses of labelled compounds have increased enormously and this chapter will give an overview of these methods with the exception of (radio)chromatography that will be dealt with in another chapter. (author)

  8. labelling of some pharmaceutical compounds with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    electrophilic radioiodination of three of medically important compounds namely, pindolol (Pin) , benzamide (s(-)BZM) and lysuride (LIS) was carried out by using several oxidizing agents such as chloramine- T, iodogen, iodine monochloride at room temperature and hydrogen peroxide at 100 0 C. the factors affecting the percent radiochemical yield such as substrate concentration, Ph, oxidizing agent concentration , reaction time and the concentration of K1 carrier were studied. the conditions, which gave high radiochemical yield, were summarized in one reaction to give the optimum radiochemical yield . optimization of the radiochemical yield resulted in 90% for radioiodobenzamide ( * IBZM) when the reaction was carried out in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph-3) or in ammonium acetate buffer (ph=4) for 5 minutes reaction time . A radiochemical yield of 50% of * IPIN was obtained when the reaction was carried out in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph=7) for 30 min. a radiochemical yield of 70% of * ILIS was obtained when the reaction was affected in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph=7) within 30 min reaction time

  9. Labelled compounds for agrochemical residue studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential applications of stable and radioactive isotopic tracers for assessing undesirable contaminants in agriculture, fisheries and food are discussed as related to developing countries. Sources and types of residues are considered, and their local implications; also, the availability of suitably labelled compounds, including possible international cooperation to facilitate more centralized and economic preparation, and the distribution of labelled intermediates and compounds for use by local scientists. The provision of training courses and their syllabus are reviewed. Experience in the Joint FAO/IAEA chemical residue and pollution programme has indicated a need for longer-lived radioisotopically labelled pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, fumigants, etc.) for studying their behaviour. 15 N-, 13 C- or 2 H-labelled fertilizers and fertilizer additives such as nitrification inhibitors will shortly be needed, for studying the behaviour of fertilizer nitrogen residues, and their regulation and conservation, under conditions prevailing in the developing countries. Compounds labelled with stable isotopes are considered particularly valuable under field conditions. The report reviews the present situation and presents specific recommendations to the Directors General of FAO and IAEA

  10. Process for the production of 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, K.G.; Carr, N.G.

    1978-01-01

    The patent describes the production of 14 C-labelled compounds from solution with the aid of algae. A microorganism of the Anacystic species is used, preferably Anacystis nidulans which is also known as 'Indiana 625'. The experiments and their results are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  11. Improved quality control of carbon-14 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Fuchs, P.; Standtke, K.

    1997-01-01

    IUT Ltd is a producer of carbon-14 labelled organic compounds like benzene, methanol, phenol, formaldehyde, Na-acetates and also special ordered compounds. The quality control of these compounds is carried out by means of HPLC and GC-MS due to chemical purity. Molar activity was determined by Liquid Scintillation Counting and HPLC being equipped by a radioactivity detector. Unfortunately the accuracy of the activity determination was arrived only ±4% relatively. This error is too high because of the large dilution factors. In respect of the IUT accreditation as an analytical laboratory in Germany the accuracy had to be improved remarkably. Therefore the GC-MS-determination of molar activities of labelled compounds is used as the 14 C-labelled compound. A special evaluation code is used to determine the enrichment values relative to the unlabelled molecules. Taking into account the results of GC-MS the accuracy of molar activity determination is improved to ±2%. The spectra evaluation is demonstrated and some examples are discussed

  12. Clinical evaluation of the radiolanthanide terbium-152: first-in-human PET/CT with 152Tb-DOTATOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Richard P; Singh, Aviral; Benešová, Martina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Gnesin, Silvano; Köster, Ulli; Johnston, Karl; Müller, Dirk; Senftleben, Stefan; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; Prior, John O; van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Müller, Cristina

    2017-10-31

    The existence of theragnostic pairs of radionuclides allows the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Radiolanthanides, such as 177 Lu, are successfully used for therapeutic purposes; however, a perfect diagnostic match is currently not available for clinical use. A unique, multi-disciplinary study was performed using 152 Tb (T 1/2 = 17.5 h, Eβ + average = 1140 keV, Iβ + = 20.3%), which resulted in the first-in-human PET/CT images with this promising radionuclide. For this purpose, 152 Tb was produced via a spallation process followed by mass separation at ISOLDE, CERN. The chemical separation and quality control, performed at PSI, resulted in a pure product in sufficient yields. Clinical PET phantom studies revealed an increased image noise level, because of the smaller β + branching ratio of 152 Tb as compared to standard PET nuclides at matched activity concentrations; however, the expected recovery would be comparable at matched signal-to-noise ratios in clinical PET. 152 Tb was used for labeling DOTATOC, at Zentralklinik Bad Berka, and administered to a patient for a first-in-human clinical study. PET scans were performed over a period of 24 h, allowing the visualization of even small metastases with increased tumor-to-background contrast over time. Based on the results obtained in this work, it can be deduced that PET/CT imaging with 152 Tb-labeled targeting agents has promise for clinical application and may be particularly interesting for pre-therapeutic dosimetry.

  13. Radio-labelled quaternary compounds and their diagnostic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.

    1984-01-01

    Radio-labelled compounds having a lipophilic cation, which are quaternary ammonium, phosphonium or arsonium halides, in which the halide is a chloride, bromide or iodide, and in which the four quaternary substituents are independently selected from Csub(1-3) alkyl, phenyl and benzyl, at least two substituents being phenyl or benzyl, and one phenyl or benzyl substituent carrying a ring-substituent selected from 123 I, 125 I, 131 I, 77 Br, 82 Br and 18 F. Such compounds can be administered by injection, and a radio-image of the myocardium obtained. (author)

  14. Synthesis and analysis of 14C-labelled butyltin compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloetzer, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with methods for the synthesis of 14 C-labelled analoga of the important biocides tributyltin oxide, tributyltin benzoate, tributyltin salicylate and tributyltin fluoride as well as dibutyltin oxide. The radioactive starting substance butylbromide-1- 14 C is treated with sodium and monobutyltin chloride or tin tetrachloride to form a mixture of radioactive butyltin compounds from which the substance desired is separated. A system satisfactorily meeting the conditions for thin-layer radiochromatography is presented. (author)

  15. Some methods for labelling organic compounds by deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, C.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid growth of knowledge in the fields of biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology reflects to a considerable degree the utilization of stable isotopes (specially deuterium) in the study of chemical reactions and fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry, as well as in the pharmacological and biological studies. Organic compounds maybe labelled by deuterium through classic organic reactions by using special deuterated solvents and reagents. This article discusses some reactions, with examples on how to prepare labelled compounds with high isotopic purety. These reactions are: exchange reactions in acid and alkaline media (the exchange in the chromatographic column in liquid and gas phases, the exchange in homogenous medium), reduction reactions of functional groups as well as saturation of the double bounds by deuterium using hydrogenation catalystes, electrochemical reactions using KOLBE, and photochemical reactions. This article also deals with spectroscopic properties of deuterium and the methods which are used to identify its compounds such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. 37 refs., 2 figs

  16. The metabolism and dosimetry of carbon-14 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, F.E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The number of compounds labelled at high specific activity with carbon-14 has greatly increased over the last few years. There are limited biological data available to enable an assessment of the internal radiation dose and to identify the critical tissues after an intake of such compounds. The ICRP consider two Model Systems for deriving dose. Both Models assume a total elimination of the carbon-14 in the breath and only bone or whole body as critical tissues and are not representative of the majority of the compounds now available. A research programme has been established to study the rate of excretion and tissue distribution of selected carbon-14 labelled compounds in the rat after intravenous injection, pulmonary and gastric intubation and skin absorption. These metabolic data have been used to calculate the committed dose equivalent and maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) for various tissues in man on the assumption that the experimental data obtained in the rat are true for man. To date potassium 14 C-cyanide and 14 C-methanol have been studied. The values for the MPAI's derived from the doses to individual tissues are more restrictive than values calculated from the whole body doses. The MPAI calculated from excretion data in terms of whole body dose is 31 mCi for 14 C-cyanide and 25 mCi for 14 C-methanol. However, the critical tissue for 14 C-cyanide is the stomach with an MPAI of 1.5 mCi based on a dose of 10.7 rem mCi -1 . This was an order of magnitude greater than the dose to any other region of the GI tract and 5 times that to the testis. The critical organs for 14 C-methanol are the testis (MPAI 2.5 mCi) for males and the ovaries (MPAI 6.2 mCi) for females

  17. Synthesis of uniformly labelled organic compounds by polymerization of 14C ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, J.-F.

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of 14 C uniformly labelled compounds is described. By polymerization of 14 C ethylene, linear olefins with a double bond at α position were obtained. From these olefins, uniformly labelled alkanes, alcohols and acids were prepared [fr

  18. Studies on the preparation of radioactive labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Rok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Awh, Ok-Doo

    1985-04-01

    To deveolp 99 mTc instant labelling kits of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), glucoheptonic acid (GH), and tin colloid, molar ratios of the host compound to the stannous chloride, amount of the stannous chloride and pH were, respectively, controlled. The labelling yields and radiochemical purities were checked by means of a paper chromatography. Animal studies and clinical applications were also carried out. The results indicated that DMSA/SnCl 2 2H 2 O 3/1(mole/mole), SnCl 2 2H 2 O 410ug/ml/vial, pH 2.5, Ca GH/SnCl 2 2H 2 O 53/1(mole/mole), SnCl 2 2H 2 O 350 ug/ml/vial, pH 6.5, NaF 100ug/vial, SnCl 2 2H 2 O 150 ug/ml/vial, pH. 5.6 etc, were optimal conditions for the preparation of DMSA-, GH-, and tin colloid-kits, respectively. (Author)

  19. Endogenous compounds labeled with radionuclides of short half-life-some perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland Långström, Bengt; Karimi, F; Watanabe, Y

    2013-01-01

    In the article, the strategy and synthesis of some endogenous compounds labeled mainly with (11) C are presented. There are some examples illustrating how endogenous labeled compounds in connection with positron emission tomography have unique properties to describe various biological processes......, and a few examples of the use of tracers labeled with (13) N and (15) O are also discussed. Labeled endogenous compounds may be an important asset to describe the conditions and the status of biological systems and might therefore be a key for the future search of individualized medicine....

  20. Metabolism of [14C]bicarbonate by Streptococcus lactis: identification and distribution of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.J.; Jago, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis C10, grown in tryptone-yeast extract-lactose broth containing [ 14 C] bicarbonate, incorporated radioactivity into the protein and nucleic acid fractions of the cell as well as into compounds which were excreted by the organism into the growth medium. Aspartic acid was the first compound to be labelled and was the only amino acid labelled in the cell protein. All 4 bases were labelled in the cell RNA. Aspartic, succunuc and lactic acids were the radioactive compounds excreted into the growth medium. (U.K.)

  1. Abstracts of the papers presented at the workshop 'synthesis and application of radioactively labelled organic compounds'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    The abstracts of the 12 papers read at the Rossendorf workshop comprise syntheses and radioactive labelling of organic compounds such as herbicides, steroids, peptides and others and their application as tracers, above all in kinetic studies

  2. Production of radionuclides and preparation of labelled compounds. Nuclear chemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A general review is presented of methods of producing radionuclide preparations and labelled compounds, such as their production from natural raw materials, from a nuclear reactor, a particle accelerator, and using radioisotope generators. Also described are the fundamental kinetic relations of nuclear reactions. Basic methods are surveyed of obtaining labelled compounds by chemical synthesis, biosynthesis, exchange reactions, recoil reactions, by the Wilzbach method and the Szillard-Chalmers reaction. (L.K.)

  3. Radioisotope 45Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds and tracing calcium bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Niu Huisheng; Li Huaifen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To build up a new method of the radioisotope 45 Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds, observe and tracing bioavailability change of calcium labeled with radioisotope 45 Ca. Methods: The calcium gluconate (Ca-Glu), calcium citrate (Ca-Cit), calcium carbonate (Ca-Car) and calcium L-threonate (Ca-Thr)were labeled by radioisotope 45 Ca. Four calcium chemical compounds of 45 Ca labeling were used of calcium content 200 mg/kg in the rats and measure the absorption content and bioavailability of calcium in tissue of heart, lever spleen, stomach, kidney, brain, intestine, whole blood, urine, faeces. Results: 1) Radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compound has high radio intensity, more steady standard curve and recover rate. 2) The absorption of organic calcium chemical compounds is higher than the inorganic calcium chemical compound in the study of calcium bioavailability. Conclusion: The method of tracing with radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compounds has the characteristic of the sensitive, objective, accurate and steady in the study of calcium bioavailability

  4. Improvement of organic compounds labelling method with the use of thermally activated tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, L.A.; Smolyakov, V.S.; Antropova, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Use of a support (various types of papers) is recommended for organic compounds labelling by tritium gas activated at a hot tungsten filament. This improvement increases chemical and radiochemical yields and makes the experiment simpler and faster. Generally labelled triethyloxonium tetra-fluoroborate, ethyl-p-aminobenzoate, p-aminobenzoic acid (Na-salt), A-factor (a natural regulator of streptomycin biosynthesis), decapeptide angiotensin I, phospholipid 1, 2 - dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3--phosphocholine and E. coli tRNAs have been prepared by this method. Molar radioactivity of the labelled compounds is in the range of 1-200 GBg/mmole [ru

  5. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project; Syntese af deuterium-maerkede forbindelser til FOeTEK projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-06-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ({sup 13}C-labelled PCB congeners, {sup 13}C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D{sub 9}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-zeramol and D{sub 3}-dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG).

  6. Extraction of carbon 14-labeled compounds from plant tissue during processing for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, J.; van der Merwe, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Loss of 14 C-labeled compounds from bean leaf tissue was monitored during all the stages of routine specimen preparation. No significant differences in extraction were associated with the use of acetone, ethanol, or dioxane as dehydration fluids. Fixation at low temperature increased the loss of label. Prolonged fixation in glutaraldehyde increased the loss, but fixation in osmium solutions for periods as long as 4 hr had no influence on extraction. Buffer rinses and dehydration fluids caused appreciable amounts of label to be extracted. The use of propylene oxide as transition fluid resulted in low extraction. Some embedding media caused the loss of small amounts of labeled compounds, but one of the media tested (LR-white) extracted significant amounts of label

  7. Some aspects of the analysis of labelled organic compounds by gas radiochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, K.H.; Gorner, Ch.; Bubner, M.

    1977-01-01

    The first experience with the analysis of tritium-and 14 C-labelled compounds by gas radiochromatography are reported. The instrumental arrangement is described where, on the chromatograph output, the radioactive compounds are burnt, and the radioactive gases are measured by scintillation detectors in a coincidence circuit

  8. synthesis and labelling of some nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    the imidazole nucleus has wide range of pharmaceutical activities . also , radioiodinated compounds are used in nuclear medicine. this thesis deals with the synthesis of 2-(iodophenyl)-4-oxazoline-5-ons e, which are used as starting materials in the synthesis of the corresponding imidazolinone derivatives. also, it deals with radioiodination f the synthesized compounds to evaluate their application in nuclear medicine. interaction of o- iodo hippuric acid (I) with aromatic aldehydes (i.e., benzaldehyde, p- methoxybenzaldehyde and p- nitrobenzaldehyde) in acetic anhydride and in the presence of fused sodium acetate effected cyclization to afford the corresponding 2-(2-iodophenyl)-4-arylidene- 2-oxazoline-5-ones(l l a-c )

  9. Photolytic inhibition and labeling of proteins with aryl diazonium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tometsko, A.M.; Turula, J.; Comstock, J.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of preparing aryl azide derivatives for use as photoprobes, we have observed significant light sensitivity in the precursor aryl diazonium compounds. The photosensitive properties of this class of compounds are of interest since they will seek out cationic binding sites in biological targets, and can be employed to inhibit complementary targets at acid pH. The relationship between photolytic change in the structure of diazonium compounds and the corresponding change in function of a biological target are presented. Experiments are described in which the dark and light sensitive properties of a model diazonium compound, diazobenzene sulfonate (DBS), were determined. The ultraviolet spectra were used to evaluate the dark stability and light sensitivity og DBS. Chymotrypsin and trypsin served as functioning targets for further evaluation of the photochemical properties. Both enzymes are stable to the probe in the dark at acid pH. A rapid loss of enzyme activity was observed following flash photolysis of DBS-enzyme solutions. Photolytic incorporation of radioactive DBS into chymotrypsin was observed. Aryl diazonium salts can be employed to probe the availability of complementary sites in biological targets at different acid pH values. (Author)

  10. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.P.; Raghu, K.; Sherkhane, P.D.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14 C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14 C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14 C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14 C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14 C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14 C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14 C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14 C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  11. Studies on the preparation of sup(99m)Tc labelled medical tracer compounds: pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.R.; Park, K.B.; Shim, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    A crude extract from a Korean native plant, Banha (Pinellia ternata), has been known to agglutinate the erythrocytes of rabbit, mouse and especially erythrocytes of leukemic patients, Sarcoma-180 cell and Ehrlich ascite cell. The Banha lectin was labelled either with 125 with 125 I by means of chloramine-T method or with sup(99m)Tc by using aqueous sodium pertechnetate (- sup(99m)Tc) solution and stannous chloride as a reducing agent. Their labelling yield was 60% and 98%, respectively. These labelled compounds were administered to mice by intraperitoneal injections and their radioactivity distributions were measured after 3 hours. The uptake of 125 I labelled compound to tissue in mice appeared in the order of kidney, pancreas, spleen, liver, blood, and stomach, but in the case of sup(99m)Tc, it appeared in the order of kidney, pancreas, stomach, liver, spleen and blood

  12. Clinical estimation of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds produced by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsuji; Kawahira, Kenjiro; Kamoi, Itsuma; Morita, Kazunori

    1974-01-01

    Scintigrams were made using sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid, sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate, sup(99m)Tc-EDTA and sup(99m)Tc-albumin prepared by electrolysis, and a clinical evaluation was attempted. No side effects were recognized in 228 cases, therefore the object of this study could be attained. Future study was thought to be necessary because the pictures were somewhat indistinct. However, each sup(99m)Tc-labeled compound could be prepared very easily and was extremely convenient for daily use. sup(99m)Tc- is a nuclide which has many advantages for use with scintigrams. More useful sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds will be explored in the future and is expected that electrolysis has many possibilities for use in the preparation of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Studies on the preparation of labelled compounds for γ scintigraphy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Awh, Ok Doo; Park, Kyung Bae; Han, Kwang Hee; Park, Woong Woo

    1990-02-01

    To develop Tc-99m labelling kits of hepatobiliary agents such as IOTIDA and IODIDA, the raw materials were synthesized and the conditions for labelling were optimized. Similar experiments were also conducted for I-131 MIBG of diagnostic use and for stannous MDP, the typical in-vivo labelling agent for RBC. The synthesis yield of IOTIDA and IODIDA were 42 % and 50 %, respectively from the starting materials 2,3,6-trimethylaniline and 2,6-diethylaniline. It has been confirmed that Tc-99m labelling yield of IDA compounds were almost quantitative under optimized conditions and they were excreted mostly through hepatobiliary track. MIBG were synthesized 62 % yield from m-iodobenzylaminehydrochloride and labelled with I-131 almost quantitatively (>98 %). It has been confirmed that p-aminobenzoic acid is an effrective antioxidant for the Tc-99m-MDP. (author)

  14. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  15. Cu2+-labeled dansyl compounds as fluorescent and PET probes for imaging apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Wang, Xukui; Yu, MeiXiang

    2016-11-15

    Compound DNSTT-Cu 2+ , a novel chelate of Cu 2+ with DOTA conjugated to a fluorescent dansyl fragment, is developed for imaging cell apoptosis. Apoptotic U-87MG cells could be selectively visualized by the fluorescence of DNSTT-Cu 2+ from cytoplasm of cells, confirmed by the fluorescence of apoptosis cells co-labeled with Alexa Fluor 568-labeled annexin V, a conventional probe for selectively labeling membranes of apoptosis cells. A radioactive 64 Cu 2 + analog, DNSTT- 64 Cu 2+ , was easily synthesized, providing a potential PET probe for imaging apoptosis in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of Melamine-d6 and the Feasibility of Deuterium Labeled Compounds as Internal Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Yang-zhen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available S-triazine is an important chemical intermediate. Melamine belongs to s-triazine, which has been widely used as an additive in the food industry. To study the stable isotope labeling method of heterocyclic triazine compounds and its application, one step synthesis of melamine-d6 was achieved with a yield of 30% (calculate in ND4OD, which started from ND4OD by the reaction with cyanuric chloride. According to the exchange mechanism of H/D, the feasibility and the necessary conditions were discussed for applying deuterium labeled compounds in isotope dilution mass spectrometry method.

  17. Synthesis of Symmetrical Tetrameric Conjugates of the Radiolanthanide Chelator DOTPI for Application in Endoradiotherapy by Means of Click Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wurzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its 4 carbonic acid groups being available for bioconjugation, the cyclen tetraphosphinate chelator DOTPI, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetrakis[methylene(2-carboxyethylphosphinic acid], represents an ideal scaffold for synthesis of tetrameric bioconjugates for labeling with radiolanthanides, to be applied as endoradiotherapeuticals. We optimized a protocol for bio-orthogonal DOTPI conjugation via Cu(I-catalyzed Huisgen-cycloaddition of terminal azides and alkynes (CuAAC, based on the building block DOTPI(azide4. A detailed investigation of kinetic properties of Cu(II-DOTPI complexes aimed at optimization of removal of DOTPI-bound copper by transchelation. Protonation and equilibrium properties of Ca(II-, Zn(II, and Cu(II-complexes of DOTPI and its tetra-cyclohexylamide DOTPI(Chx4 (a model for DOTPI conjugates as well as kinetic inertness (transchelation challenge in the presence of 20 to 40-fold excess of EDTA were investigated by pH-potentiometry and spectrophotometry. Similar stability constants of CaII-, ZnII, and CuII-complexes of DOTPI (logK(CaL = 8.65, logK(ZnL = 15.40, logK(CuL = 20.30 and DOTPI(Chx4 (logK(CaL = 8.99, logK(ZnL = 15.13, logK(CuL = 20.42 were found. Transchelation of Cu(II-complexes occurs via proton-assisted dissociation, whereafter released Cu(II is scavenged by EDTA. The corresponding dissociation rates [kd = 25 × 10−7 and 5 × 10−7 s−1 for Cu(DOTPI and Cu(DOTPI(Chx4, respectively, at pH 4 and 298 K] indicate that conjugation increases the kinetic inertness by a factor of 5. However, demetallation is completed within 4.5 and 7.2 h at pH 2 and 25°C, respectively, indicating that Cu(II removal after formation of CuAAC can be achieved in an uncomplicated manner by addition of excess H4EDTA. For proof-of-principle, tetrameric DOTPI conjugates of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA targeting motif Lys-urea-Glu (KuE were synthesized via CuAAC as well as dibenzo-azacyclooctine (DBCO based

  18. Synthesis of Symmetrical Tetrameric Conjugates of the Radiolanthanide Chelator DOTPI for Application in Endoradiotherapy by Means of Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Alexander; Vágner, Adrienn; Horváth, Dávid; Fellegi, Flóra; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Kálmán, Ferenc K.; Notni, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Due to its 4 carbonic acid groups being available for bioconjugation, the cyclen tetraphosphinate chelator DOTPI, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetrakis[methylene(2-carboxyethylphosphinic acid)], represents an ideal scaffold for synthesis of tetrameric bioconjugates for labeling with radiolanthanides, to be applied as endoradiotherapeuticals. We optimized a protocol for bio-orthogonal DOTPI conjugation via Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen-cycloaddition of terminal azides and alkynes (CuAAC), based on the building block DOTPI(azide)4. A detailed investigation of kinetic properties of Cu(II)-DOTPI complexes aimed at optimization of removal of DOTPI-bound copper by transchelation. Protonation and equilibrium properties of Ca(II)-, Zn(II), and Cu(II)-complexes of DOTPI and its tetra-cyclohexylamide DOTPI(Chx)4 (a model for DOTPI conjugates) as well as kinetic inertness (transchelation challenge in the presence of 20 to 40-fold excess of EDTA) were investigated by pH-potentiometry and spectrophotometry. Similar stability constants of CaII-, ZnII, and CuII-complexes of DOTPI (logK(CaL) = 8.65, logK(ZnL = 15.40, logK(CuL) = 20.30) and DOTPI(Chx)4 (logK(CaL) = 8.99, logK(ZnL) = 15.13, logK(CuL) = 20.42) were found. Transchelation of Cu(II)-complexes occurs via proton-assisted dissociation, whereafter released Cu(II) is scavenged by EDTA. The corresponding dissociation rates [kd = 25 × 10−7 and 5 × 10−7 s−1 for Cu(DOTPI) and Cu(DOTPI(Chx)4), respectively, at pH 4 and 298 K] indicate that conjugation increases the kinetic inertness by a factor of 5. However, demetallation is completed within 4.5 and 7.2 h at pH 2 and 25°C, respectively, indicating that Cu(II) removal after formation of CuAAC can be achieved in an uncomplicated manner by addition of excess H4EDTA. For proof-of-principle, tetrameric DOTPI conjugates of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeting motif Lys-urea-Glu (KuE) were synthesized via CuAAC as well as dibenzo-azacyclooctine (DBCO

  19. Synthesis of symmetrical tetrameric conjugates of the radiolanthanide chelator DOTPI for application in endoradiotherapy by means of click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Alexander; Vágner, Adrienn; Horváth, Dávid; Fellegi, Flóra; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Kálmán, Ferenc K.; Notni, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Due to its 4 carbonic acid groups being available for bioconjugation, the cyclen tetraphosphinate chelator DOTPI, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakis[methylene(2-carboxyethylphosphinic acid)], represents an ideal scaffold for synthesis of tetrameric bioconjugates for labeling with radiolanthanides, to be applied as endoradiotherapeuticals. We optimized a protocol for bio-orthogonal DOTPI conjugation via Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen-cycloaddition of terminal azides and alkynes (CuAAC), based on the building block DOTPI(azide)4. A detailed investigation of kinetic properties of Cu(II)-DOTPI complexes aimed at optimization of removal of DOTPI-bound copper by transchelation. Protonation and equilibrium properties of Ca(II)-, Zn(II) and Cu(II)-complexes of DOTPI and its tetra-cyclohexylamide DOTPI(Chx)4 (a model for DOTPI conjugates) as well as kinetic inertness (transchelation challenge in the presence of 20 to 40-fold excess of EDTA) were investigated by pH-potentiometry and spectrophotometry. Similar stability constants of CaII-, ZnII and CuII-complexes of DOTPI (logK(CaL)=8.65, logK(ZnL=15.40, logK(CuL)=20.30) and DOTPI(Chx)4 (logK(CaL)=8.99, logK(ZnL)=15.13, logK(CuL)=20.42) were found. Transchelation of CuII-complexes occurs via proton-assisted dissociation, whereafter released Cu(II) is scavenged by EDTA. The corresponding dissociation rates (kd=25×10‑7 and 5×10‑7 s‑1 for Cu(DOTPI) and Cu(DOTPI(Chx)4), respectively, at pH 4 and 298 K) indicate that conjugation increases the kinetic inertness by a factor of 5. However demetallation is completed within 4.5 and 7.2 hours at pH 2 and 25 °C, respectively, indicating that CuII removal after formation of CuAAC can be achieved in an uncomplicated manner by addition of excess H4EDTA. For proof-of-principle, tetrameric DOTPI conjugates of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeting motif Lys-urea-Glu (KuE) were synthesized via CuAAC as well as dibenzo-cyclooctine (DBCO) based, strain

  20. Measurement of loss rates of organic compounds in snow using in situ experiments and isotopically labelled compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika von Schneidemesser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular marker compounds are widely used to identify emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic air pollution sources in atmospheric samples and in deposition. Specific organic compounds have been detected in polar regions, but their fate after deposition to snow is poorly characterized. Within this context, a series of exposure experiments were carried out to observe the post-depositional processing of organic compounds under real-world conditions in snow on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet, at the Summit research station. Snow was prepared from water spiked with isotopically labelled organic compounds, representative of typical molecular marker compounds emitted from anthropogenic activities. Reaction rate constants and reaction order were determined based on a decrease in concentration to a stable, non-zero, threshold concentration. Fluoranthene-d10, docosane-d46, hexadecanoic acid-d31, docosanoic acid-d43 and azelaic acid-d14 were estimated to have first order loss rates within surface snow with reaction rate constants of 0.068, 0.040, 0.070, 0.067 and 0.047 h−1, respectively. No loss of heptadecane-d36 was observed. Overall, these results suggest that organic contaminants are archived in polar snow, although significant post-depositional losses of specific organic compounds occur. This has implications for the environmental fate of organic contaminants, as well as for ice-core studies that seek to use organic molecular markers to infer past atmospheric loadings, and source emissions.

  1. Dynamics of growth/mature-related substances in vegetables using specific triple labeled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Yoichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    To progress physiological studies of vegetables, development of biosynthetic method for production of triple labeled compounds was attempted in this study and such method for vegetables using specifically labeled sugars was examined. As a sugar compound, 6-C 14 -glucose (14-CG) and 1-H 3 -glucose (3-HG) were given to culture medium for cells derived from tomato embryonic axis and the changes of these compounds were monitored. Tomato embryonic cells were harvested 20 and 44 hours after the addition of 14-CG or 3-CG into the culture medium the cells. The cells were homogenized and the supernatant after centrifugation was applied onto HPLC. Radio analyzer revealed major two peaks in the chromatography of the sugar fraction from the cells after 20 hours from the addition of 14-CG. One was the peak of glucose, itself and the other was estimated to be that of fructose based on the retention time. Whereas in the elution pattern of the sugar fraction after 44 hours from the addition, a peak of sucrose was found along with the peak of glucose. These results indicate that C 14 in 14-CG but not H 3 in 3-HG was transferred into fructose after the metabolism in tomato. Moreover, in both elution patterns, there was a peak positioned at the same retention time, indicating that the compound in this peak was produced from either of 14-CG or 3-HG. Therefore, it is thought that H 3 and C 14 double-labeled compound could be produced from the cell culture added with both labeled compounds; 14-CG and 3-HG. (M.N.)

  2. Anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy is more effective with the radiolanthanide terbium-161 compared to lutetium-177 in an ovarian cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberg, Juergen; Lindenblatt, Dennis; Cohrs, Susan; Fischer, Eliane; Dorrer, Holger; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Koester, Ulli; Tuerler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is considered a valuable target for therapeutic intervention in different types of cancer. Recent studies have shown that anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 67 Cu- and 177 Lu-labelled internalising monoclonal antibody (mAb) chCE7 was effective in the treatment of human ovarian cancer xenografts. In this study, we directly compared the therapeutic efficacy of anti-L1CAM RIT against human ovarian cancer under equitoxic conditions with the radiolanthanide 177 Lu and the potential alternative 161 Tb in an ovarian cancer therapy model. Tb was produced by neutron bombardment of enriched 160 Gd targets. 161 Tb and 177 Lu were used for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated antibodies. The in vivo behaviour of the radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) was assessed in IGROV1 tumour-bearing nude mice using biodistribution experiments and SPECT/CT imaging. After ascertaining the maximal tolerated doses (MTD) the therapeutic impact of 50 % MTD of 177 Lu- and 161 Tb-DOTA-chCE7 was evaluated in groups of ten mice by monitoring the tumour size of subcutaneous IGROV1 tumours. The average number of DOTA ligands per antibody was 2.5 and maximum specific activities of 600 MBq/mg were achieved under identical radiolabelling conditions. RICs were stable in human plasma for at least 48 h. 177 Lu- and 161 Tb-DOTA-chCE7 showed high tumour uptake (37.8-39.0 %IA/g, 144 h p.i.) with low levels in off-target organs. SPECT/CT images confirmed the biodistribution data. 161 Tb-labelled chCE7 revealed a higher radiotoxicity in nude mice (MTD: 10 MBq) than the 177 Lu-labelled counterpart (MTD: 12 MBq). In a comparative therapy study with equitoxic doses, tumour growth inhibition was better by 82.6 % for the 161 Tb-DOTA-chCE7 than the 177 Lu-DOTA-chCE7 RIT. Our study is the first to show that anti-L1CAM 161 Tb RIT is more effective compared to 177 Lu RIT in ovarian cancer xenografts. These results suggest that 161 Tb is a promising candidate for future clinical

  3. Anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy is more effective with the radiolanthanide terbium-161 compared to lutetium-177 in an ovarian cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenberg, Juergen; Lindenblatt, Dennis; Cohrs, Susan; Fischer, Eliane [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Dorrer, Holger [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Zhernosekov, Konstantin [ITG Isotope Technologies Garching GmbH, Garching (Germany); Koester, Ulli [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Tuerler, Andreas [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); University of Bern, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Berne (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is considered a valuable target for therapeutic intervention in different types of cancer. Recent studies have shown that anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with {sup 67}Cu- and {sup 177}Lu-labelled internalising monoclonal antibody (mAb) chCE7 was effective in the treatment of human ovarian cancer xenografts. In this study, we directly compared the therapeutic efficacy of anti-L1CAM RIT against human ovarian cancer under equitoxic conditions with the radiolanthanide {sup 177}Lu and the potential alternative {sup 161}Tb in an ovarian cancer therapy model. Tb was produced by neutron bombardment of enriched {sup 160}Gd targets. {sup 161}Tb and {sup 177}Lu were used for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated antibodies. The in vivo behaviour of the radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) was assessed in IGROV1 tumour-bearing nude mice using biodistribution experiments and SPECT/CT imaging. After ascertaining the maximal tolerated doses (MTD) the therapeutic impact of 50 % MTD of {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 161}Tb-DOTA-chCE7 was evaluated in groups of ten mice by monitoring the tumour size of subcutaneous IGROV1 tumours. The average number of DOTA ligands per antibody was 2.5 and maximum specific activities of 600 MBq/mg were achieved under identical radiolabelling conditions. RICs were stable in human plasma for at least 48 h. {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 161}Tb-DOTA-chCE7 showed high tumour uptake (37.8-39.0 %IA/g, 144 h p.i.) with low levels in off-target organs. SPECT/CT images confirmed the biodistribution data. {sup 161}Tb-labelled chCE7 revealed a higher radiotoxicity in nude mice (MTD: 10 MBq) than the {sup 177}Lu-labelled counterpart (MTD: 12 MBq). In a comparative therapy study with equitoxic doses, tumour growth inhibition was better by 82.6 % for the {sup 161}Tb-DOTA-chCE7 than the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-chCE7 RIT. Our study is the first to show that anti-L1CAM {sup 161}Tb RIT is more effective compared to {sup 177}Lu RIT in ovarian cancer xenografts

  4. Labelling of some organic compounds with radioiodine and technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumy, A A M

    1994-07-01

    Amino acids have received significant attention in the evaluation of serotonergic and dopaminergic functions in the central nervous system. the wide distribution of {gamma}-cameras and SPECT create an increasing need for appropriated labelled radiopharmaceuticals . {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I are the most important radionuclides for this purpose. In order to avoid pharmacological and toxicological effects, the radiolabelled compounds must be often produced with high specific activity. In the first part of this thesis, the work is therefore focused on labelling methods with no carrier added radioiodine. The radioiodinated analogues of two amino acids were chosen as model compounds of research. L-m-tyrosine is potentially useful for the evaluation of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease, while L -{alpha} -methyl tyrosine is a well known indicator of amino acid transport useful for tumor studies.

  5. Adsorption chromatographic separation of radioiodine-labelled compounds using binary eluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.

    1980-01-01

    An adsorption chromatographic method using Sephadex LH-20 dextran gel as adsorbent and water-organic solvent binary eluents was developed for the systematic separation of low molecular weight radioiodine-labelled substances like iodothyronines, iodobenzoic acids and iodotyrosine methyl ester derivatives of prostaglandins, steroids etc. The adsorbed iodine compounds were separated by water-organic solvent mixture, and the order of the compounds is in accordance with the increasing number of iodine substituents per molecule. A method is reported which enables the calculation of the eluent strength of the water-organic solvent eluents. (author)

  6. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G.; Ksenofontov, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  7. Possible application of labelled compounds in plant physiology, biochemistry and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, I. (Vyzkumne Ustavy Rostlinne Vyroby, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Ochrany Rostlin)

    1981-06-01

    Compounds labelled with /sup 14/C, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 65/Zn and /sup 86/Rb were used for the study of side effects of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and other substances used for the treatment of crop plants, of the effects of some plant diseases on biochemical processes in plants, and of the reasons of plant resistance to diseases, i.e., of factors responsible for this resistance.

  8. Possible application of labelled compounds in plant physiology, biochemistry and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanker, I.

    1981-01-01

    Compounds labelled with 14 C, 32 P, 35 S, 54 Mn, 45 Ca, 65 Zn and 86 Rb were used for the study of side effects of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and other substances used for the treatment of crop plants, of the effects of some plant diseases on biochemical processes in plants, and of the reasons of plant resistance to diseases, i.e., of factors responsible for this resistance. (author)

  9. Radioiodine-labelled compounds previously or currently used for tumour localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    131 I-labelled human serum albumin, though not used for tumour localization today, is an excellent ''standard'' with which to compare uptake of ''tumour-specific'' radiolabelled compounds. 131 I-labelled fibrinogen and antibodies to fibrinogen have a non-specific uptake in tumours. Nungester, Beierwaltes and Knorpp are credited by Mahaley as first treating a human for cancer with 131 I-labelled antibody globulins (malignant melanoma). Although many theoretical problems remain in obtaining diagnostic localization of 131 I-IgG, Quinones, Mizejewski and Beierwaltes demonstrated the uptake of 131 I-labelled immune antibodies in Syrian hamster cheeck pouch with chorionic gonadotropic hormone as the specific tumour-associated antigen. This model was then used successfully by Goldenberg and Hoffer for demonstrating colon carcinoma by using antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen. A 131 I-labelled chloroquine analogue, synthesized by Counsell, has been demonstrated by Beierwaltes et al. to concentrate diagnostically and therapeutically in the malignant melanotic melanoma. 131 I-19-iodocholesterol, synthesized by Counsell, has been demonstrated by Beierwaltes et al. to concentrate diagnostically in the human adrenal cortex. It has many unique diagnostic capabilities not available with other routine diagnostic methods available today. (author)

  10. submitter Clinical evaluation of the radiolanthanide terbium-152: first-in-human PET/CT with $^152$Tb-DOTATOC

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Richard P; Benešová, Martina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Gnesin, Silvano; Köster, Ulli; Johnston, Karl; Müller, Dirk; Senftleben, Stefan; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; Prior, John O; van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Müller, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The existence of theragnostic pairs of radionuclides allows the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Radiolanthanides, such as $^{177}$Lu, are successfully used for therapeutic purposes; however, a perfect diagnostic match is currently not available for clinical use. A unique, multi-disciplinary study was performed using $^{152}$Tb ($T_{1/2}$ = 17.5 h, E$\\beta ^+_{average}$ = 1140 keV, I$β^+$ = 20.3%), which resulted in the first-in-human PET/CT images with this promising radionuclide. For this purpose, $^{152}$Tb was produced via a spallation process followed by mass separation at ISOLDE, CERN. The chemical separation and quality control, performed at PSI, resulted in a pure product in sufficient yields. Clinical PET phantom studies revealed an increased image noise level, because of the smaller $\\beta^+$ branching ratio of $^{152}$Tb as compared to standard PET nuclides at matched activity concentrations; however, the expected recovery would be comparable at matched ...

  11. Copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization-oxygenation of thiocarbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen: an efficient method for the preparation of oxygen isotopically labeled carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Suenami, Aiko; Yoshida, Atsunori; Murai, Toshiaki

    2007-06-21

    A novel copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization reaction of thiocarbonyl compounds, using molecular oxygen as an oxidant and leading to formation of carbonyl compounds, has been developed, and the utility of the process is demonstrated by its application to the preparation of a carbonyl-18O labeled sialic acid derivative.

  12. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    Isotope exchange reactions between S-35-labeled sulfur compounds were studied in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries at 21-degrees-C and pH 7.4-7.7. Two experiments labeled with radioactive elemental sulfur (S-35-degrees) and one labeled with radioactive sulfate ((SO42-)-S-35) were performed as time......% of the total S-35 was recovered in the SIGMA-HS- pool in less than 1.5 h. With no detectable SIGMA-HS- (less than 1-mu-M) in the slurry, 58% of the total S-35 was observed in the pyrite pool within 1.5 h. The FeS pool received up to 31% of all S-35 added. The rapid S-35 incorporation from S-35-degrees...... into SIGMA-HS- and FeS pools was explained by isotope exchange reactions. In contrast, there was evidence that the radioactivity observed in the 'pyrite pool' was caused by adhesion of the added S-35-degrees to the FeS2 grains. In all S-35-degrees-labeled experiments we also observed oxidation...

  13. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of BIDA, DISIDA, DTPA and MDP in labelled compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Walt, T.N.; Coetzee, P.P. (Rand Afrikaans Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry); Fourie, P.J. (Atomic Energy Corp. of South Africa (Pty) Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa))

    1989-01-01

    N-(4-(n-butyl)acetanilide)iminodiacetic acid (BIDA), N-(2,6-diisopropylacetanilide)iminodiacetic acid (DISDA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) are used in labelling kits. The contents of BIDA, DISIDA or MDP of the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled compounds can be determined (indirectly) spectrophotometrically with copper, eriochrome cyanine R (ECC) and dodecyl-ethyldimethylammonium bromide (DEDA) in a sodium barbital buffered system at pH 8.5. The calibration curves obey Beer's Law from 0 to 40 {mu}g/25 mL for BIDA and DISIDA, 0 to 60 {mu}g/25 mL for DTPA and 0 to 100 {mu}g/10 mL for MDP. (author).

  14. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of BIDA, DISIDA, DTPA and MDP in labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, T.N.; Coetzee, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    N-(4-(n-butyl)acetanilide)iminodiacetic acid (BIDA), N-(2,6-diisopropylacetanilide)iminodiacetic acid (DISDA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) are used in labelling kits. The contents of BIDA, DISIDA or MDP of the 99m Tc-labelled compounds can be determined (indirectly) spectrophotometrically with copper, eriochrome cyanine R (ECC) and dodecyl-ethyldimethylammonium bromide (DEDA) in a sodium barbital buffered system at pH 8.5. The calibration curves obey Beer's Law from 0 to 40 μg/25 mL for BIDA and DISIDA, 0 to 60 μg/25 mL for DTPA and 0 to 100 μg/10 mL for MDP. (author)

  15. Labelling of some iodinated organic compounds by halogen exchange in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Suhybani, A.Al-; Khowaiter, S.Al-; Abdel-Wahid, M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a general method for labelling Rose Bengal in an organic medium. An isotopic exchange technique with interactive iodine as carrier for radioiodine is used. The effect of temperature, carrier, pH of the solvent and solvent are investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum yield of exchange are: .0.2 micro mole carrier inactive iodine per one micro mole of Rose Bengal, reaction mixture is 10ml ethyl alcohol 96% as a solvent for Rose Bengal and 3ml of ether or carbon tetrachloride containing the inactive and radioiodine. In case of ether, the reaction is slow and is completed in two hours with maximum yield of 90% at boiling temperature. Addition of 175 λ of 1 M acetate buffer with carbon tetrachloride gave a yield of 90% in one hour. This method can be applied successfully to label any iodinated organic compound, such as hypuran, thyroxine, tyrosine or aliphatic fatty acids, for application in nuclear medicine. 10 Ref

  16. Aziridines in the synthesis of {sup 11}C- and {sup 18}F-labelled compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillings, N.M

    1998-07-01

    Racemic [4-{sup 11}C]aspartic acid, [4-{sup 11}C]asparagine and 2,4-diamino[4-{sup 11}C]butyric acid were synthesised by the ring-opening of an N-activated aziridine-2-carboxylate with [{sup 11}C]cyanide, followed by preparative HPLC and hydrolysis/reduction. These labelled amino acids arise from nucleophilic attack at the {beta}-carbon of the aziridine ring. A radioactive by-product of ca. 25% was attributed to the product of {alpha}-attack. Several N-activated 2-aryl aziridines were synthesised for the attempted synthesis of {beta}-[{sup 18}F] fluorophenylalanine and {beta}-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopa. Ring-opening with [{sup 18}F]fluoride showed no evidence of {beta}-fluorinated products and it is proposed that attack occurs exclusively at the {alpha}-carbon, giving the corresponding {alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-{beta}-amino acids. Further evidence for this was the reaction of the {beta}-unsubstituted N-activated aziridine-2-carboxylate with [{sup 18}F]fluoride. This reaction was totally regiospecific and afforded exclusively the {alpha}-substituted product, {alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-{beta}-alanine. Aziridine precursors were resolved by chiral HPLC. On labelling the chiral aziridines, however, racemic {sup 11}C- and {sup 18}F-labelled amino acids were obtained. This was attributed to racemisation of the initially formed ring-opened products. The use of [{sup 11}C]methyl lithium as a nucleophile for aziridine ring-opening was investigated. Reaction was expected to occur at low temperature, thus potentially avoiding racemisation. No products corresponding to aziridine ring-opening with [{sup 11}C]methyl lithium were, however, observed. A difluorinated analogue of amphetamine was synthesised by fluorination of an azirine (via an aziridine). This racemic compound was resolved as its chiral tartarate salts and subsequently labelled by methylation with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide, giving the novel compound {beta}, {beta}-difluoro[N-methyl-{sup 11}C]methamphetamine in high

  17. Aziridines in the synthesis of 11C- and 18F-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillings, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Racemic [4- 11 C]aspartic acid, [4- 11 C]asparagine and 2,4-diamino[4- 11 C]butyric acid were synthesised by the ring-opening of an N-activated aziridine-2-carboxylate with 11 C]cyanide, followed by preparative HPLC and hydrolysis/reduction. These labelled amino acids arise from nucleophilic attack at the β-carbon of the aziridine ring. A radioactive by-product of ca. 25% was attributed to the product of α-attack. Several N-activated 2-aryl aziridines were synthesised for the attempted synthesis of β-[ 18 F] fluorophenylalanine and β-[ 18 F]fluorodopa. Ring-opening with [ 18 F]fluoride showed no evidence of β-fluorinated products and it is proposed that attack occurs exclusively at the α-carbon, giving the corresponding α-[ 18 F]fluoro-β-amino acids. Further evidence for this was the reaction of the β-unsubstituted N-activated aziridine-2-carboxylate with [ 18 F]fluoride. This reaction was totally regiospecific and afforded exclusively the α-substituted product, α-[ 18 F]fluoro-β-alanine. Aziridine precursors were resolved by chiral HPLC. On labelling the chiral aziridines, however, racemic 11 C- and 18 F-labelled amino acids were obtained. This was attributed to racemisation of the initially formed ring-opened products. The use of [ 11 C]methyl lithium as a nucleophile for aziridine ring-opening was investigated. Reaction was expected to occur at low temperature, thus potentially avoiding racemisation. No products corresponding to aziridine ring-opening with [ 11 C]methyl lithium were, however, observed. A difluorinated analogue of amphetamine was synthesised by fluorination of an azirine (via an aziridine). This racemic compound was resolved as its chiral tartarate salts and subsequently labelled by methylation with [ 11 C]methyl iodide, giving the novel compound β, β-difluoro[N-methyl- 11 C]methamphetamine in high specific activity for in vivo binding studies using positron emission tomography. The non-radioactive reference compound was also

  18. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of 211At-labelled compounds for α-particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The interest for α-particle emitters in internal radiotherapy is increasing due to improved conjugation chemistry. Experimental work has concentrated on 211 At and 212 Bi since these to nuclides have radiochemical and physical properties suitable for medical application. In this report it is demonstrated that biologically active 211 At-labelled compounds can be prepared within a relatively short time allowing utilization of this 7.2 h α-particle. It is further shown that 211 At-TP-3 treatment of human osteosarcoma in vitro gives promising therapeutic ratios. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of {sup 211}At-labelled compounds for {alpha}-particle radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R H

    1994-12-31

    The interest for {alpha}-particle emitters in internal radiotherapy is increasing due to improved conjugation chemistry. Experimental work has concentrated on {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Bi since these to nuclides have radiochemical and physical properties suitable for medical application. In this report it is demonstrated that biologically active {sup 211}At-labelled compounds can be prepared within a relatively short time allowing utilization of this 7.2 h {alpha}-particle. It is further shown that {sup 211}At-TP-3 treatment of human osteosarcoma in vitro gives promising therapeutic ratios. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Gel chromatographic behavior of Tc-99m-labeled compounds in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds (Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar, Tc-99m glucoheptonate, Tc-99m DTPA, Tc-99m disofenin) with the chromatographic gels, to determine their relative molecular sizes and molecular structures in aqueous solution, which are based on their biomenbrane transport mechanism and quality control analysis. Each Tc-99m-labeled compound was eluted and analyzed by three different gel chromatrography systems varying buffers: Sephadex G-25, Sephadex LH-20 and Bio-Gel P-4. The best separation between the elution peaks of all compounds except Tc-99m glucoheptonate was achieved on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCL buffer (pH 7.6) (1:1) which could avoid the aromatic interaction with the gels. Tc-99m glucoheptonate was well eluted only on a Bio-Gel P-4 column but its elution peak was not separated from other compounds' peaks. The elution of Tc-99m disofenin was delayed on Sephadex G-25 gel and Bio-Gel P-4 columns in 0.9% NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer(ph 7.6) and on Sephadex LH-20 column in methanol-Tris-HCl buffer, because of the aromatic ring interaction with the gels. The relative molecular size index ( Kav ) calculated from the elution volume of the gel chromatography. Kav of Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar(MW=163), Tc-99m DTPA (MW=492?) and TC-99m disofenin (MW=707) on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCl buffer(pH 7.6) (1:1), which was the most suitable combination of the gel and the buffer, were 0.976, 0.477 and 0.200, respectively. They inversely correlated with their estimated molecular weight. The interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds with the chromatographic gels should be considered in quality control procedure for Tc-99m radiopharamaceuticals

  1. Deuterium- and tritium-labelled compounds. Applications in the life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker; Kerr, William J.; Reid, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes are unique tools for identifying and understanding biological and chemical processes. Hydrogen isotope labelling allows for the traceless and direct incorporation of an additional mass or radioactive tag into an organic molecule with almost no changes in its chemical structure, physical properties, or biological activity. Using deuterium-labelled isotopologues to study the unique mass-spectrometric patterns generated from mixtures of biologically relevant molecules drastically simplifies analysis. Such methods are now providing unprecedented levels of insight in a wide and continuously growing range of applications in the life sciences and beyond. Tritium ( 3 H), in particular, has seen an increase in utilization, especially in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The efforts and costs associated with the synthesis of labelled compounds are more than compensated for by the enhanced molecular sensitivity during analysis and the high reliability of the data obtained. In this review, advances in the application of hydrogen isotopes in the life sciences are described. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Deuterium- and tritium-labelled compounds. Applications in the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker [Isotope Chemistry and Metabolite Synthesis, Integrated Drug Discovery, Medicinal Chemistry, Frankfurt (Germany); Kerr, William J.; Reid, Marc [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, WestCHEM, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2018-02-12

    Hydrogen isotopes are unique tools for identifying and understanding biological and chemical processes. Hydrogen isotope labelling allows for the traceless and direct incorporation of an additional mass or radioactive tag into an organic molecule with almost no changes in its chemical structure, physical properties, or biological activity. Using deuterium-labelled isotopologues to study the unique mass-spectrometric patterns generated from mixtures of biologically relevant molecules drastically simplifies analysis. Such methods are now providing unprecedented levels of insight in a wide and continuously growing range of applications in the life sciences and beyond. Tritium ({sup 3}H), in particular, has seen an increase in utilization, especially in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The efforts and costs associated with the synthesis of labelled compounds are more than compensated for by the enhanced molecular sensitivity during analysis and the high reliability of the data obtained. In this review, advances in the application of hydrogen isotopes in the life sciences are described. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The physical and chemical characteristics of 175Yb-EDTMP labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmairit Aziz; Marlina; Muhammad Basit Febrian

    2010-01-01

    Bone pain is a common complication for patient with bone metastases from breasts, prostate and lung cancers. The derivative of phosphonate groups, i.e. diphosphonate as well as poly phosphonate ligands e.g. EDTMP have high affinity in bone matrix. The labeled compound of 175 Yb-EDTMP can be used as an alternative radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation. The compound of 175 Yb-EDTMP can be produced by labeling of ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) with itterbium-175 ( 175 YbCl 3 ). Before 175 Yb-EDTMP is used for bone pain palliation in nuclear medicine, the compound have to be characterized to full fill the criteria of the good radiopharmaceutical. The physical and chemical characteristics of 175 Yb-EDTMP had been studied. It consists of: pH, solution clearity, the radiochemical purity that was determined by paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis techniques, electricity charge was determined by paper electrophoresis, stability, lipophilicity of 175 Yb-EDTMP was obtained by determination of octanol-water partition and the plasma binding protein was in-vitro investigated with precipitation method using 5% of trichloroacetic acid solution, and the binding to hydroxyapatite. From the experiment, it was obtained that the 175 Yb-EDTMP solution has the pH of 7, clear, the radiochemical purity of 98.66 ± 0.53%, and the negative electric charge. The compound of 175 Yb-EDTMP has lipophilicity (P) of 0.0135 ± 0.003%, the human plasma binding protein of 8.94 ± 0.66%, and the hydroxyapatite binding of 94.78 ± 2.16%. Stability evaluation indicated that 175 Yb-EDTMP solution was still stable for nine days at room temperature with the radiochemical purity more than 95% (98.62 ± 0.83%). This study expects that 175 Yb-EDTMP compound can fulfill the requirement as radiopharmaceutical for use in palliative treatment of painful bone metastases and supports the development of nuclear medicine in Indonesia. (author)

  4. Labelling of some organic compounds with radioactive iodine for medical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-tawoosy, M.E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Among all radioisotopes, radioiodine(i.e. 122 I, 123 I, 125 I. 131 I) is the most available tagging element when considering new radiopharmaceutical compounds intended for nuclear medicine uses for in -Vitro and in - vivo measurements. The aim of this work is to optimize and developed new methods of radioiodination of some organic molecules for use in nuclear medicine as diagnostic agents. Some trials for labelling of meta - iodo benzyl guanidine (MIBG), antipyrine (AP) and 3,5,3- tri - iodothyronine (T 3 ) will be done. In the present study, we will try to get easier, short time, high yield, high specific activity, high radiochemical purity and economic methods for the preparation of the following radiopharmaceutical compounds: 1- (m- 131 I) meat - iodo benzyl guanidine (m- 131 I) MIBG for adrenal medulla and myocardial measurements. 2-(4- 131 I) iodoantipyrine (4- 131 I) IAP for brain measurements. 3-( 131 I) tetra -iodothyronine ( 131 I) T 4 for thyroid gland function studies. The influence of substrate conc., reaction time, different oxidizing agents and catalyst concentrations will be investigated to elucidate the optimum methods suitable for preparation of these compounds. Chromatographic techniques such as paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be used for the identification, quality control, purification and quality assurance of the final product. 4.2 tabs., 4.5 figs., 204 refs

  5. Determination of one-dimensional distribution of 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexa, R.; Kron, I.; Kralik, P.; Tykva, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three methods used for the determination of one-dimensional distribution of 14 C-labelled compounds are compared: measurement with position-sensitive detector (LB 282/511), liquid scintillation counting (LSC), and autoradiography with densitometric quantification. For a mutual comparison of these methods samples of blood serum were used, in which the fractional esterification rate (FER) was determined by means of LCAT Test. The agreement of the methods of FER determination on the basis of the measurement with LB 282/511 or LSC was checked. In the case of autoradiography a correction for non-linearity between the blackening and the number of β-particles striking the area unit was necessary. (author) 5 refs.; 5 figs

  6. Real-time imaging of radioisotope labeled compounds in a living plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, S.; Ohya, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a quantitative, real-time imaging system of labeled compounds in a living plant. The system was composed of CsI scintillator to convert β-rays to visible light and an image intensifier unit (composed of GaAsP semiconductor and MCP; micro channel plate) to detect extremely weak light. When the sensitivity and resolution of the image of our system was compared with that of an imaging plate (IP), the sensitivity of our system (with 20 minutes) was higher than that of an IP, with similar quality to that of an IP. Using this system, the translocation of 32 P in a soybean plant tissue was shown in successive images. (author)

  7. Synthesis, evaluation and application of radioiodine labeled compounds in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study reviews synthesis, evaluation,diagnostic and therapeutic applications of iodine radiopharmaceutical especially with 13I I and 123 I in contemporary nuclear medicine. It is well Known that iodine is used in thyroid diagnostic and therapy with sodium iodide and played an important role in diagnostic procedures using single photon emission tomography (SPECT). The study covers the general chemistry of iodine, physical properties, biological role of iodine, general uses of iodine compounds , production and decay schemes of 131 I, 125 I and 123 I in the first chapter. Preparation of radioiodine labeled compounds, quality control of radiopharmaceuticals and safety of radioiodination are dealt with in detail in two chapters. These were followed by chapters dealing in length with the chemistry, preparation, quality control, pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of some iodine radiopharmaceuticals, and then current trends in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of iodine radiopharmaceuticals particularly 131 / 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-IMP. We found that the iodine radiopharmaceuticals are considered amongst principal indicators in single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 131 / 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-IMP appear to be appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic agents for variety of diseases.(Author)

  8. Practicality of the cyclotron production of radiolanthanide 142Pr. A potential for therapeutic applications and biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi Sadeghi; Bakht, M.K.; Leila Mokhtari

    2011-01-01

    Radiolanthanide praseodymium-142 (T 1/2 = 19.12 h, E β - = 2.162 MeV (96.3%), E γ = 1575 keV (3.7%)) due to its high β-emission and low specific γ-emission could not only be a therapeutic radionuclide, but also a suitable radionuclide in order for biodistribution studies. Conventionally, 142 Pr produces via 141 Pr(n,γ) 142 Pr reaction by irradiation in a low-fluence reactor and this study evaluates cyclotron reaction production of it. 142 Pr excitation function via nat La(α,n) 142 Pr, 142 Ce(p,n) 142 Pr, and nat Pr(d,p) 142 Pr reactions were calculated by TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-2.19beta codes, and with the data taken from the TENDL-2010 database. In addition, we compared them with the reported measurement by experimental data. Requisite thickness of targets was obtained by SRIM-2010 code for each reaction. The 142 Pr production yield was evaluated with attention to excitation function and stopping power. Similar to reactor produced 142 Pr; 141 Pr impurity exists in cyclotron produced 142 Pr while it could not be separated by chemical methods. Therefore, cyclotron and reactor produced 142 Pr will be in carrier added form. (author)

  9. Cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of the manufacture and use of stable isotopes and compounds thus labelled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, G.; Ewald, G.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution presents a survey of scientific-technical cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of stable isotopes, it deals with the specialization of stable isotope production and compounds thus labelled, and gives the prospects for further development of this cooperation. (HK) [de

  10. Separation-oriented derivatization of native fluorescent compounds through fluorous labeling followed by liquid chromatography with fluorous-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Nohta, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi

    2009-06-15

    We have developed a new and simple method based on "fluorous derivatization" for LC of native fluorescent compounds. This method involves the use of a column with a fluorous stationary phase. Native fluorescent analytes with target functional groups are precolumn derivatized with a nonfluorescent fluorous tag, and the fluorous-labeled analytes are retained in the column, whereas underivatized substances are not. Only the retained fluorescent analytes are detected fluorometrically at appropriate retention times, and retained substrates without fluorophores are not detected. In this study, biologically important carboxylic acids (homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) and drugs (naproxen, felbinac, flurbiprofen, and etodolac) were used as model native fluorescent compounds. Experimental results indicate that the fluorous-phase column can selectively retain fluorous compounds including fluorous-labeled analytes on the basis of fluorous separation. We believe that separation-oriented derivatization presented here is the first step toward the introduction of fluorous derivatization in quantitative LC analysis.

  11. New radioactively labelled amines, procedure of preparation of the new compounds as well as the diagnostic preparations based on these new compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-07

    This patent describes the composition and preparation of new radioactively labelled amine conpounds for use as radiopharmaceuticals, particularly for the detection and/or localization of thrombi in the body. They are not alien to the body, are used to trace the fibrin network, and lead to favourable ratios between the presence of radioactivity in the blood clot and that in the rest of the body. These new compounds have the general formula Y - (CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/-X-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ - NH/sub 2/ in which X is an oxygen or sulfur atom or a methylene, ethylene or trimethylene group and Y is an organic molecule labelled with radioactive iodine, or in which X is a radioactively labelled selenium or tellurium atom and Y is an organic molecule.

  12. Application of isotope-labelled compounds in the study of the chemical stability of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesseler, M.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.; Koch, H.

    1980-01-01

    The user of pesticides requires specific biological modes of action from the corresponding commercial products. Impurities and degradation products may cause uncontrollable toxicological reactions. Profound knowledge of the chemical stability of the effective substance in question and its formulations under storage conditions as well as under those of analytical sample preparation and detection is required. Radioisotope labelled effective substances dimethoate and 1-butyl-amino-cyclohexane-phosphonic acid dibutyl ester are used to study storage stability of the pure effective substance and its formulations; effects of selected impurities, such as technical by-products, moisture or water content, binding or carrier materials, organic solvents, chemical stabilizers and other formulation components on storage properties; temperature dependence of storage stability; selection of suitable analytical techniques for quantitative determination of the effective substance without interference effects from any by-product; reduction of the necessary analytical expense; disclosure of sources of error in the application of usual analytical techniques; improvement of possibilities of an immediate and clearer discrimination between types and amounts of compounds in a chemical system consisting of one pesticide and its degradation or reaction products at the beginning and at the end of an experimental or reaction period. Radiochemical analytical techniques, such as radio thin-layer chromatography (also combined with liquid scintillation counting), radio gas chromatography, autoradiography and isotope dilution analysis were used. Results are discussed, especially of experiments on dimethoate and its technical by-products

  13. Investigations on the production of labelled organic compounds by recoil labelling with gamma,n-produced 11-C-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenbach, U.

    1981-01-01

    ''Hot'' 11 C atoms are produced from 12 C(γ,n) 11 C nuclear reactions by bremsstrahlung at the 65 MeV electron linear accelerator in Giessen. The relative retention in various C-atoms of the amino acid, methionine, is determined by splitting of the terminal C-atoms of the molecule and by independent determination of the content of 11 C in the isolated and derived fragments. The terminal groups (thiomethyl or carboxyl groups) each carry approx. 25% of the total retained radioactivity, the remaining 50% being spread over the three inner carbon atoms. The activation of alkylamines, crystallised as hydrochlorides, hydrofluorides, oxalates and sulphates, leads to similar yields of direct labelling from 5 to 15%. Amines activated in the liquid state show a retention of less than 5%. The yields for labelled synthetic products are between 10 and 15% for amino acids and are often higher for crystallised amines. Amines activated in the liquid state produced greater yields of synthesis products but at the same time an increase in the product range. The labelled synthesis products can be separated faster by suitable methods such as preparative HPLC and are then available for carrier-free studies in the life sciences. (orig./EF) [de

  14. Electrolytic 99mTcO4- reduction: a different pathway to obtain 99mTc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.; Leon, A.

    1991-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of 99m TcO 4 - at inert electrodes to obtain 99m Tc cationic complexes and in vitro stability of labelled compounds were studied. Amines were used as neutral N-donor ligands and a systematic analysis of various parameters involved in the reduction process was performed. Usefulness of electrolytic reduction was proved as an alternative 99m Tc-labelling method. Its most important advantages are: production of complexes with a high radiochemical purity, negligible presence of red-hyd- 99m Tc, lack of foreign materials, simplicity of development and possibility of further applications. (author)

  15. Biosynthesis of gallic and ellagic acids with 14C-labeled compounds in Acer and Rhus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Nariyuki; Hayashida, Shunzo; Tazaki, Kiyoshi

    1984-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for gallic and ellagic acids in young, mature and autumn leaves of Acer buergerianum and Rhus succedanea was examined by tracer experiments, and also by isotope competition, with D-shikimic acid- 14 C, L-phenylalanine-U- 14 C, L-phenyllactic acid-U- 14 C, gallic acid-G- 14 C and their unlabeled compounds. In young leaves of both plants, the incorporation rate of labeled shikimic acid into gallic acid was significantly higher than that of labeled phenylalanine, whereas in the mature and autumn leaves the latter was a good precursor rather than the former for the gallic acid biosynthesis. Therefore, two pathways for gallic acid formation, through β-oxidation of phenylpropanoid and through dehydrogenation of shikimic acid, could be operating in Acer and Rhus leaves, and the preferential pathway is altered by leaf age. In both plants, the incorporation rate of labeled phenyllactic acid during a 24 hr metabolic period was almost the same as that of labeled phenylalanine. The incorporation of D-shikimic acid-G- 14 C, L-phenylalanine-U- 14 C and L-phenyllactic acid-U- 14 C into ellagic acid was very similar to the case of the radioactive gallic acid formation. Furthermore, regardless of the presence of unlabeled shikimic acid and/or phenylalanine, incorporation of the radioactivity of labeled gallic acid into ellagic acid occurred at a very high rate, suggesting the reciprocal radical reaction of gallic acid for the ellagic acid formation. The incorporation of labeled compounds into ellagitannins was also examined and their biosynthesis discussed further. (author)

  16. Bismuth absorption from sup 205 Bi-labelled pharmaceutical bismuth compounds used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresow, B.; Fischer, R.; Gabbe, E.E.; Wendel, J.; Heinrich, H.C. (Eppendorf University Hospital, Hamburg (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    The absorption of bismuth from five {sup 205}Bi-labelled pharmaceutically used bismuth compounds was studied in man. From single oral doses of all compounds under investigation only <0.1% bismuth was absorbed and excreted with the urine. A significantly higher absorption was observed from the colloidal bismuth subcitrate and the basic bismuth gallate than from the basic bismuth salicylate, nitrate and aluminate. No retention of bismuth in the whole body was found from the single dose experiment. The biologic fast-term half-lives of absorbed bismuth were calculated to be 0.12 and 1.5 days. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Studies on the preparation of labelled compounds for γ-scintigraphy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Awh, Ok Doo

    1991-03-01

    To develop 99m Tc instant labelling kit of d,1-HMPAO and 131 I labelled IMP for the regional cerebral blood flow scintigraphic use, d,1-HMPAO and IMP were synthesized. The former was prepared from 2,3-butadione monoxim and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine in the presence of cation exchange resin, and then selective reduction of imine bond with sodium borohydride followed by fractional crystallization of diastereometric mixture of HMPAO. The latter was prepared by condensation of p-iodophenylpropanone with isopropylamine, and then reduction of double bond with sodium borohydride. For the preparation of 99m Tc labelled HSA, experiments on incorporation of bifunctional chelating agent of DTPA to HSA, establishment of optimal conditions of 99m Tc labelling, determination of labelling yield and radiochemical purity, and examination of stability were carried out. (Author)

  18. Some chemical synthesis of 14C labelled compounds of pharmaceutical or biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, I.; Baret, C.; Audinot, M.; Herbert, M.; Lambin, J.

    1955-01-01

    The recent discovery of the tuberculostatic properties of the hydrazide of isonicotinic acid (so-called 'Isoniazide', 'Rimifon') has raised considerably its interest, as for metabolic studies which it is more interesting to have it labelled with 14 C. We describe in this report the chemical synthesis of 14 C carboxyl labelled isoniazide which were done in the pyridine ring to highlight his metabolic function on the Koch's bacillus. (M.B.)

  19. Some chemical synthesis of {sup 14}C labelled compounds of pharmaceutical or biological interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, I; Baret, C; Audinot, M; Herbert, M; Lambin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The recent discovery of the tuberculostatic properties of the hydrazide of isonicotinic acid (so-called 'Isoniazide', 'Rimifon') has raised considerably its interest, as for metabolic studies which it is more interesting to have it labelled with {sup 14}C. We describe in this report the chemical synthesis of {sup 14}C carboxyl labelled isoniazide which were done in the pyridine ring to highlight his metabolic function on the Koch's bacillus. (M.B.)

  20. Combining position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific isotope analysis: first steps towards soil fluxomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics is one of the most important challenges in soil science. Transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) is a key step in biogeochemical cycles because 1) all high molecular substances pass this stage during their decomposition and 2) only LMWOS will be taken up by microorganisms. Previous studies on LMWOS were focused on determining net fluxes through the LMWOS pool, but they rarely identified transformations. As LMWOS are the preferred C and energy source for microorganisms, the transformations of LMWOS are dominated by biochemical pathways of the soil microorganisms. Thus, understanding fluxes and transformations in soils requires a detailed knowledge on the biochemical pathways and its controlling factors. Tracing C fate in soil by isotopes became on of the most applied and promising biogeochemistry tools. Up to now, studies on LMWOS were nearly exclusively based on uniformly labeled organic substances i.e. all C atoms in the molecules were labeled with 13C or 14C. However, this classical approach did not allow the differentiation between use of intact initial substances in any process, or whether they were transformed to metabolites. The novel tool of position-specific labeling enables to trace molecule atoms separately and thus to determine the cleavage of molecules - a prerequisite for metabolic tracing. Position-specific labeling of LMWOS and quantification of 13CO2 and 13C in bulk soil enabled following the basic metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms. However, only the combination of position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific isotope analysis of microbial biomarkers and metabolites allowed 1) tracing specific anabolic pathways in diverse microbial communities in soils and 2) identification of specific pathways of individual functional microbial groups. So, these are the prerequisites for soil fluxomics. Our studies combining position-specific labeled glucose with amino

  1. Development and evaluation of electro chemical methods for the separation of Tc-99m labelled compounds of medical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, R.S.

    1978-03-01

    The preparation of sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals using the electrolytic reduction of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate was investigated. The effect of current intensity, amount of current, pH and applied voltage on the reduction of the Tc-VII and its incorporation into the radiopharmaceuticals was evaluated. The results indicate that the electrolytic method gives high and reproducible labelling yields and compounds with good radiochemical purity. Procedures for the preparation and control of the following sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals were standardized by the authors: Tc-tin colloid, Tc-red blood cells, Tc-HSA, Tc-albumin microspheres, Tc-EHDP, Tc-gluconate and Tc-glucoheptonate. A portable electrolytic labelling instrument was designed for use in hospitals

  2. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrand, J.

    1964-07-01

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [fr

  3. Studies on the preparation of labelled compounds for γ-scintigraphy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Kim, Jae Rok; Awh, Ok Doo; Sin, Byung Cheul; Park, Woong Woo; Han, Kwang Hee

    1992-03-01

    1. Development of 165 Dy-HMA for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis 1) Irradiation of twelve mg of 164 Dy 2 O 3 showing specific activity of 2x10 13 n/cm 2 sec for four hours gave 165 Dy 2 O 3 showing specific activity(∼480 mCi/mg Dy 2 O 3 ) and radionuclidic purity(>99.9%). 2) 165 Dy-HMA was prepared in yield of 80 - 85% from the 165 DyCl 3 solution which was made by dissolving 165 Dy 2 O 3 with hydrochloric acid and adjusting pH to 3.0, and then followed by the treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. 3) Serial filtration using polycarbonate filter (1 - 10μm) of 165 Dy-HMA suspension in saline after treatment with sonificator exhibited that the majority of particles are in the 3 - 8μm range. 4) Even though the 165 Dy-HMA suspension in saline was left to stand for 24 hours at room temperature, there was no significant change in particle size resulting in high stability of 165 Dy-HMA. 2. Study on the 99mTc labelling of bioactive material 1) The labelling of antibody [F(ab') 2 ] coupled to DTPA with Na99mTcO 4 in the presence of sodium dithionite(μg) gave labelling yield of 40% determined by ITLC-SG. 2) The labelling of 500μl of antibody solution in phosphate buffer(0.2M, pH 7.4, 1.5mg antibody/ml) with Na 131 I(3 - 5mCi) in the presence of chloramine-T(0.14mg) for 30minutes at room temperature exibited labelling yield of 60 - 70%, radiochemical purity of 97%, specific activity of 1.2 - 3.5 mCi/mg, respectively, determined by ITLC-SG. 3) The results obtained from the animal experiment in rabbit to study the specificity and sensitivity of 131 I labelled antibody exhibited hot uptake until 72 hours in the case of tuberculous infection, with the highest target/background ratio(2.52) at 24 hours after injection of 131 I-F(ab') 2 4) In the case of rabbit infected with syphilitic orchitis, it exhibited the highest target/background ratio(3.51) at 2 hours after injection and showed fast decrease after 24 hours. (Author)

  4. Synthesis of labelled compound of ferulic acid and caffeic acid with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Mingguang; Wang Caiyun

    1986-01-01

    Effective components of Chinese traditional herbs consist of many compounds, but some of the compounds usually contain unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds. The unsaturated organic compounds 3 H-Ferulic acid and 3 H-Caffeic acid are prepared with their tritiated intermediates made by electric-dischange exposure method, which ensures the compounds contaning double bonds not hydrogenated. The 3 H-Ferulic acid is composed of 3 H-vanillin and Malonic acid. The 3 H-Caffeic acid is composed of 3 H-protocatechuyl aldehyde and Malonic acid and the specific activity of the products is 0.2 mCi/mg. The radiochemicaly purity is greater than 90%

  5. Carbon transfer in soil - plant system. Molecular labelling utilization for determining rhizosphere compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguay, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The growing up of the bacteria developing in the rhizosphere of plants is dependent on the compounds exudation by plant roots. Even the bacterial genetics use has permitted to identify diverse functions involved in the process of the rhizosphere colonisation ( mobility, heterotrophic bacteria, growing rate, antibiotics production), there is a big delay in vegetal partners. To decrease this delay we tried to characterize the interactions between a plant model, Arabidopsis thaliana and the rhizosphere bacteria. An experimental device has been conceived for measuring the transfer of carbon issued from the photosynthesis to roots and soil. The exudation by roots has been studied. The analysis of rhizospheric compounds in situ pose some methodological problems, especially, the rhizospheric compounds must be extracted from the soil matrix. we suggest an analysis method of rhizospheric compound and of their dynamics. (F.M.)

  6. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of 211At-labelled compounds for α-particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The present work demonstrate that significant therapeutic gain can be achieved with 211 At-labelled MoAbs on single tumour cells and microscopic disease. Β-emitters are less effective on microscopic disease because of radiation dispersion, while longer halflives (e.g., 90 Y and 131 I) allow favourable therapeutic ratios to be reached in larger tumors. 211 At-labelled MoAbs may therefore possibly be used in combination with β-emitting RIC in systemically delivered radioimunnotherapy. Larger tumor nodules are then irradiated effectively due to cross-fire of the longer ranged β-particles while the fraction of tumour cells distributed as single cells and micrometastases may be more effectively radiated with 211 At-RIC. 76 refs

  7. Radiochemical study on preparation and quality control of 1-125/1-131 labelled some organic compounds for medical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-azoney, K.M.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the optimum condition for the radioiodination of some organic compounds which find wide applications in nuclear medicine. Iodine-131 (T 1 /2= 8.04 d) which is of great importance in the field, are used for this purpose. long chain fatty acids such as 16-Bromo-hexadecanoic (16-brHDA) and -phenyl -fatty acids such as 15-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (p-IPPA) will be used as model substrates. 1- Labelling of 16-Br-HDA with Na 131 I. Labelling of 16-BrHDA will be investigated via the non-isotopic exchange between 16-Br HDA and Na 131 I to give 16- 131 IHDA. In order to obtain a high radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity for the product 16- 131 IHDA, simple and fast methods will be followed. The influence of reagents concentrations, time, temperature, solvents and four quaternary ammonium salts as phase transfer catalysts with only one crown ether will be studied. The determination of reaction velocities and activation energies of catalysed systems was effected and compared with results on the dry state system. 2- Labelling of p-Ipa with Na 131 I. Radioiodination of 15-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid is investigated by the nucleophilic substitution reaction via the isotopic exchange between p-Ipa and Na 131 I. As with 16-BrHDA, factors affecting the labelling yield such as reagent concentrations, solvents, reaction time, temperature and catalyst, is examine. The effect of different temperatures on the radiochemical yield of P- 131 Ipa is studied to determine the activation energy of the exchange reaction. Because of the necessity to separate the iodinated products from the starting materials, high performance liquid chromatographic techniques were applied for this purpose. 3.15 figs., 3.2 tabs., 179 refs

  8. Rapid radiochemical methods for preparation of sup(99m)Tc labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Banodkar, S.M.; Kothari, K.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Several inorganic and organic compounds incorporating sup( 99 m)Tc are being extensively used for imaging various body organs. The preparation of these sup( 99 m)Tc compounds with the necessary purity requirements is carried out by controlled reduction of sup( 99 m)Tc-pertechnetate using Sn(II) ions as the reducing agent followed by complexation with various active ingredients. The authors here present procedures developed at Radiopharmaceuticals Section of BARC for preparing sup( 99 m)Tc-diphosphonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-glucoheptonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-albumin microspheres and sup( 99 m)Tc-phytate with high radiochemical purity. The paper also describes procedures for the preparation of freeze-dried kits for single step preparation of these compounds. The paper also describes the authors' experience with various analytical procedures for the determination of radiochemical purity of these preparations. (author)

  9. Supercritical fluid synthesis inthe preparation of β+-emitting labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, G.; Markides, K.E.; Laangstroem, B.

    1994-01-01

    A system for synthesis in supercritical fluids has been developed for the microscale synthesis of pharmaceuticals labelled with 11 C. Supercritical ammonia was selected as the reaction medium and the following variables were studied in detail: trapping efficiency, cell design, substrate concentration, operation design, and temperature and pressure conditions. Alkylation of phenol by [ 11 C]methyl iodide to yield [methyl- 11 C]anisole was used as a model reaction for evaluation of the system. The results show an increased radiochemical yield in the highly compressible near-critical region. (au) (40 refs.)

  10. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  11. Sulfonyl fluoride-based prosthetic compounds as potential 18F labelling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkster, James A H; Liu, Kate; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Schaffer, Paul; Guérin, Brigitte; Ruth, Thomas J; Storr, Tim

    2012-08-27

    Nucleophilic incorporation of [(18)F]F(-) under aqueous conditions holds several advantages in radiopharmaceutical development, especially with the advent of complex biological pharmacophores. Sulfonyl fluorides can be prepared in water at room temperature, yet they have not been assayed as a potential means to (18)F-labelled biomarkers for PET chemistry. We developed a general route to prepare bifunctional 4-formyl-, 3-formyl-, 4-maleimido- and 4-oxylalkynl-arylsulfonyl [(18)F]fluorides from their sulfonyl chloride analogues in 1:1 mixtures of acetonitrile, THF, or tBuOH and Cs[(18)F]F/Cs(2)CO(3(aq.)) in a reaction time of 15 min at room temperature. With the exception of 4-N-maleimide-benzenesulfonyl fluoride (3), pyridine could be used to simplify radiotracer purification by selectively degrading the precursor without significantly affecting observed yields. The addition of pyridine at the start of [(18)F]fluorination (1:1:0.8 tBuOH/Cs(2)CO(3(aq.))/pyridine) did not negatively affect yields of 3-formyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl [(18)F]fluoride (2) and dramatically improved the yields of 4-(prop-2-ynyloxy)benzenesulfonyl [(18)F]fluoride (4). The N-arylsulfonyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium derivative of 4 (14) can be prepared and incorporates (18)F efficiently in solutions of 100 % aqueous Cs(2)CO(3) (10 mg mL(-1)). As proof-of-principle, [(18)F]2 was synthesised in a preparative fashion [88(±8) % decay corrected (n=6) from start-of-synthesis] and used to radioactively label an oxyamino-modified bombesin(6-14) analogue [35(±6) % decay corrected (n=4) from start-of-synthesis]. Total preparation time was 105-109 min from start-of-synthesis. Although the (18)F-peptide exhibited evidence of proteolytic defluorination and modification, our study is the first step in developing an aqueous, room temperature (18)F labelling strategy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quantitative chromatography in the analysis of labelled compounds 1. Quantitative paper chromotography of amino acids by A spot comparison technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Farag, A.N.; El-Gharbawy, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    For the determination of the specific activity of labelled compounds separated by paper sheet chromatography, it was found essential to perfect the quantitative aspect of the paper chromatographic technique. Actually, so far paper chromatography has been used as a separation tool mainly and its use in quantification of the separated materials is by far less studied. In the present work, the quantitative analysis of amino acids by paper sheet chromatography has been carried out by methods, depending on the use of the relative spot area values for correcting the experimental data obtained. The results obtained were good and reproducible. The main advantage of the proposed technique is its extreme simplicity. No complicated equipment of procedures are necessary

  13. Attomole detection of isotope-labeled compounds in chemical defense research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; Buchholz, B.A.; Pawley, N.H.; Mauthe, R.E.; Dingley, K.; Turteltaub, K.

    1996-11-01

    AMS detects 14C at zeptomole to femtomole sensitivities. We detected the effect of ChE-blocking pyridostigmine bromide on the CNS uptake of a pyrethroid insecticide at scaled human-equivalent exposures in rats. Significant blood to brain protection from permethrin dosed at 5mg/kg is seen in the CNS of rats receiving pyridostigmine bromide pretreatments in chow at 2mg/kg/day. The synergy of these compounds was suggested as a precursor to some symptoms of `Gulf War Syndrome`.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetium-99m and samarium-153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borda O, L.B.; Torres L, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and samarium-153. These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use. Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. A biodistribution study in quadruplicate and/or quintuplicate was conducted for each radiopharmaceutical, data was was obtained in injection dose percentages. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals (rats or mice), which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages. Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. 1, which is written in C language and works in windows. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. 1 program for a bi compartmental analysis allowed us to obtain reliable pharmacokinetic parameters which describe what happens in the organism when the radiopharmaceutical passes from the central compartment to the peripheral one and vice versa

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-18 labelled compounds for imaging of bacterial infections with pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, S.; Gunawan, J.; Freytag, C.; Burchert, W.

    2006-01-01

    Syntheses of no carrier added (n.c.a.) 6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-1-cyclopropyl-4-oxo-7-[4-[ 18 F]fluoro-phenacyl -1-piperacinyl]-chinolincarboxylic acid ([ 18 F]COPCA) and n.c.a. 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-benzoyl-ubiquicidin 29-41 ([ 18 F]UBI 29-41) are described. [ 18 F]COPCA was synthesised within 120 min with a radiochemical yield of 9-12%. [ 18 F]UBI 29-41 was synthesised within 150 min with a radiochemical yield of 15-20%. Both compounds had a specific activity of more than 35 GBq/μ mol. The biological activity was verified by measuring its binding to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Specific binding was found for [ 18 F]UBI 29-41 (12-17%), whereas no specific binding for [ 18 F]COPCA was found

  16. Applicability of Activated Carbon to Treatment of Waste Containing Iodine-Labeled Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.; El-Mouhty, N.R.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of activated carbon prepared from sawdust (SD) by one-step chemical activation process using H 3 PO 4 (H) to treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with iodine-labeled prolactin (I-PRL) has been investigated. Treatment processes were performed under the varying conditions; contact time, temperature, carbon type, carbon dosage, and different particle size of activated carbon (SDH). Effect of aqueous waste volume has been investigated to calculate the batch factor (V/M) and the distribution coefficient (K d ). The used activated carbon (SDH) was characterized by N 2 adsorption, FTIR, density, ph, point of zero charge ph p zc, moisture and ash content. Methylene blue (MB) and iodine number was calculated by adsorption from solution. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption and potential rate controlling steps, pseudo first- and second-order equations, intra particle diffusion equation and the Elovich equation have been used to test experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the four models has been carried out for system variables in order to assess which model provides the best fit predicted data with experimental results. 7 M NaOH can be used for regeneration of spent SDH activated carbon with the efficiency of 99.6% and the regenerated carbon can be reused for five cycles effectively. The prospect of applying the SDH activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product, sawdust, to treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with I-PRL appears promising and is considered highly applicable because of its high adsorption capacity, available at low cost, easily regenerated and reused

  17. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  18. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  19. Investigation into reaction of heterogenous isotopic exchange with gaseoUs tritium in solution for preparation labelled lipid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    The applicability of the method of heterogeneous catalytic isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium in the solution for the production of labelled lipide preparations is studied. Labelled saturated and unsaturated aliphatic acids, prostaglandins, phospholipides and sphingolipides are prepared

  20. Multi-label classifier based on histogram of gradients for predicting the anatomical therapeutic chemical class/classes of a given compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl

    2017-09-15

    Given an unknown compound, is it possible to predict its Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical class/classes? This is a challenging yet important problem since such a prediction could be used to deduce not only a compound's possible active ingredients but also its therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties, thereby substantially expediting the pace of drug development. The problem is challenging because some drugs and compounds belong to two or more ATC classes, making machine learning extremely difficult. In this article a multi-label classifier system is proposed that incorporates information about a compound's chemical-chemical interaction and its structural and fingerprint similarities to other compounds belonging to the different ATC classes. The proposed system reshapes a 1D feature vector to obtain a 2D matrix representation of the compound. This matrix is then described by a histogram of gradients that is fed into a Multi-Label Learning with Label-Specific Features classifier. Rigorous cross-validations demonstrate the superior prediction quality of this method compared with other state-of-the-art approaches developed for this problem, a superiority that is reflected particularly in the absolute true rate, the most important and harshest metric for assessing multi-label systems. The MATLAB code for replicating the experiments presented in this article is available at https://www.dropbox.com/s/7v1mey48tl9bfgz/ToolPaperATC.rar?dl=0 . loris.nanni@unipd.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Development of pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium for cancer therapy. Production of {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, synthesis of labeled compounds and their biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Production of the radioactive rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, and synthesis of their labeled compounds have been studied together with the biodistributions of the compounds. This work was carried out by the Working Group on Radioactive Rhenium, consisting of researchers of JAERI and some universities, in the Subcommittee for Production and Radiolabeling under the Consultative Committee of Research on Radioisotopes. For {sup 186}Re, production methods by the {sup 185}Re(n,{gamma}){sup 186}Re reaction in a reactor and by the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction with an accelerator, which can produce nocarrier-added {sup 186}Re, have been established. For {sup 188}Re, a production method by the double neutron capture reaction of {sup 186}W, which produces a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator, has been established. For labeling of bisphosphonate, DMSA, DTPA, DADS, aminomethylenephosphonate and some monoclonal antibodies with the radioactive rhenium isotopes, the optimum conditions, including pH, the amounts of reagents and so on, have been determined for each compound. The biodistributions of each of the labeled compounds in mice have been also obtained. (author)

  2. High Throughput, Label-free Screening Small Molecule Compound Libraries for Protein-Ligands using Combination of Small Molecule Microarrays and a Special Ellipsometry-based Optical Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, James P; Fei, Yiyan; Zhu, X D

    2011-12-01

    Small-molecule compounds remain the major source of therapeutic and preventative drugs. Developing new drugs against a protein target often requires screening large collections of compounds with diverse structures for ligands or ligand fragments that exhibit sufficiently affinity and desirable inhibition effect on the target before further optimization and development. Since the number of small molecule compounds is large, high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are needed. Small-molecule microarrays (SMM) on a solid support in combination with a suitable binding assay form a viable HTS platform. We demonstrate that by combining an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference optical scanner with SMM we can screen 10,000 small-molecule compounds on a single glass slide for protein ligands without fluorescence labeling. Furthermore using such a label-free assay platform we can simultaneously acquire binding curves of a solution-phase protein to over 10,000 immobilized compounds, thus enabling full characterization of protein-ligand interactions over a wide range of affinity constants.

  3. Increase of the radiochemical purity of aqueous solutions of compounds labelled with 131I using a ClAg sterile column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliego, O.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a C1Ag sterile column that may be easily assembled at any nuclear medical center is proposed. The column is easy to handle and allows to obtain aqueous solutions of compounds labelled with radioactive iodine, with a radiochemical purity greater than 99%, conserving pH values, activity concentration, apyretogenia and sterility, the controls of toxicity and presence of heavy metals being negative. (C.A.K) [es

  4. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 1. in vivo labelling of monoclonal antibodies with radio-lanthanides and $^{225}$Ac

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS330 \\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate} \\item The aim of this study was to contribute to developments of new radiopharmaceuticals for tumour diagnosis and therapy. CERN-ISOLDE is the leading facility in the world to provide radioactive ion beams with high selectivity, purity and intensity. Radioisotope production by spallation makes available a complete range of rare earth isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. The availability of exotic nuclei, e.g. radionuclides of rare earth elements and $^{225}$Ac, opens new possibilities for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy.\\\\ \\\\ \\item Two approaches were followed within the experimental program. The radioactive metal ions are bound either to bio-specific ligands (monoclonal antibodies or peptides) or to unspecific low molecular weight form. The aim of the experimental program is to evaluate relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the tracer m...

  5. Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling for quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds in thyroid tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ruo-Jing; Guan, Qing; Zhang, Fang; Leng, Jia-Peng; Sun, Tuan-Qi; Guo, Yin-Long

    2016-01-01

    Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) was explored to quantify the guanidino and ureido compounds (GCs and UCs). This method employed a common reagent, benzil, to label the guanidino and ureido groups through nucleophilic attacking then benzylic migrating. The use of BRSIL was investigated in the analysis of five GCs (creatine, L-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, and methylguanidine) and two UCs (urea and citrulline). The labeling was found simple and specific. The introduction of bi-phenyl group and the generation of nitrogen heterocyclic ring in the benzil-d0/d5 labeled GCs and UCs improved the retention behaviors in liquid chromatography (LC) and increased the sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) detection. The fragment ion pairs of m/z 182/187 and m/z 210/215 from the benzil-d0/d5 tags facilitated the discovery of potential GCs and UCs candidates residing in biological matrices. The use of BRSIL combined with LC-ESI MS was applied for simultaneously quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues. It was demonstrated that nine GCs and UCs were detected, six of which were further quantified based on corresponding standards. It was concluded that five GCs and UCs (L-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, methylguanidine, and citrulline) were statistically significantly different (p < 0.05) between the para-carcinoma and carcinoma thyroid tissue samples. - Highlights: • A common reagent, benzil-d0/d5 was employed to label the GCs and UCs through BRSIL. • The benzil-d0/d5 labeling improved the retention behavior in RPLC and increased the sensitivity by ESI MS detection. • BRSIL coupled with LC-ESI MS was applied to the qualitation and quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues.

  6. Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling for quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds in thyroid tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ruo-Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Zhang, Fang, E-mail: fzhang@sioc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Leng, Jia-Peng [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Sun, Tuan-Qi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Guo, Yin-Long, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China)

    2016-02-18

    Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) was explored to quantify the guanidino and ureido compounds (GCs and UCs). This method employed a common reagent, benzil, to label the guanidino and ureido groups through nucleophilic attacking then benzylic migrating. The use of BRSIL was investigated in the analysis of five GCs (creatine, L-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, and methylguanidine) and two UCs (urea and citrulline). The labeling was found simple and specific. The introduction of bi-phenyl group and the generation of nitrogen heterocyclic ring in the benzil-d0/d5 labeled GCs and UCs improved the retention behaviors in liquid chromatography (LC) and increased the sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) detection. The fragment ion pairs of m/z 182/187 and m/z 210/215 from the benzil-d0/d5 tags facilitated the discovery of potential GCs and UCs candidates residing in biological matrices. The use of BRSIL combined with LC-ESI MS was applied for simultaneously quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues. It was demonstrated that nine GCs and UCs were detected, six of which were further quantified based on corresponding standards. It was concluded that five GCs and UCs (L-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, methylguanidine, and citrulline) were statistically significantly different (p < 0.05) between the para-carcinoma and carcinoma thyroid tissue samples. - Highlights: • A common reagent, benzil-d0/d5 was employed to label the GCs and UCs through BRSIL. • The benzil-d0/d5 labeling improved the retention behavior in RPLC and increased the sensitivity by ESI MS detection. • BRSIL coupled with LC-ESI MS was applied to the qualitation and quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues.

  7. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  8. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with 99m-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-01-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with 99m Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the 99m Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex 99m Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with 99m Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex 99m Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain for enough period

  9. Screening small-molecule compound microarrays for protein ligands without fluorescence labeling with a high-throughput scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P; Sun, Yungshin; Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Xiaobing; Luo, Juntao; Wu, Chun-Yi; Lam, Kit S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput scanning optical microscope for detecting small-molecule compound microarrays on functionalized glass slides. It is based on measurements of oblique-incidence reflectivity difference and employs a combination of a y-scan galvometer mirror and an x-scan translation stage with an effective field of view of 2 cm x 4 cm. Such a field of view can accommodate a printed small-molecule compound microarray with as many as 10,000 to 20,000 targets. The scanning microscope is capable of measuring kinetics as well as endpoints of protein-ligand reactions simultaneously. We present the experimental results on solution-phase protein reactions with small-molecule compound microarrays synthesized from one-bead, one-compound combinatorial chemistry and immobilized on a streptavidin-functionalized glass slide.

  10. Isotopically labeled sulfur compounds and synthetic selenium and tellurium analogues to study sulfur metabolism in marine bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson L. Brock

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the marine Roseobacter clade can degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP via competing pathways releasing either methanethiol (MeSH or dimethyl sulfide (DMS. Deuterium-labeled [2H6]DMSP and the synthetic DMSP analogue dimethyltelluriopropionate (DMTeP were used in feeding experiments with the Roseobacter clade members Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 and Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, and their volatile metabolites were analyzed by closed-loop stripping and solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC–MS. Feeding experiments with [2H6]DMSP resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium label into MeSH and DMS. Knockout of relevant genes from the known DMSP demethylation pathway to MeSH showed in both species a residual production of [2H3]MeSH, suggesting that a second demethylation pathway is active. The role of DMSP degradation pathways for MeSH and DMS formation was further investigated by using the synthetic analogue DMTeP as a probe in feeding experiments with the wild-type strain and knockout mutants. Feeding of DMTeP to the R. pomeroyi knockout mutant resulted in a diminished, but not abolished production of demethylation pathway products. These results further corroborated the proposed second demethylation activity in R. pomeroyi. Isotopically labeled [2H3]methionine and 34SO42−, synthesized from elemental 34S8, were tested to identify alternative sulfur sources besides DMSP for the MeSH production in P. gallaeciensis. Methionine proved to be a viable sulfur source for the MeSH volatiles, whereas incorporation of labeling from sulfate was not observed. Moreover, the utilization of selenite and selenate salts by marine alphaproteobacteria for the production of methylated selenium volatiles was explored and resulted in the production of numerous methaneselenol-derived volatiles via reduction and methylation. The pathway of selenate/selenite reduction, however, proved to be strictly separated from sulfate reduction.

  11. Quantitation of biotinylated compounds by a solid-phase assay using a /sup 125/I-labelled biotin derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P J; Warren, R M; Holt, C von

    1987-05-11

    The biotin analogue biotinylglycyltyrosine has been synthesized and labelled to a specific activity of 2000 Ci/mmol with /sup 125/I. This analogue has been used in conjunction with immobilized streptavidin in an assay which detects as little as 1 fmol biotin or biotinylated molecules in solution. The determination of biotinylated insulin in a tissue extract and the quantitation of a transcription assay are given as examples. (Auth.). 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs.

  12. Preparation of sup(113m)In-labelled compounds of radiopharmaceutical interest. Part of a coordinated programme on radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servian, J.; Robles, A.

    1975-06-01

    Techniques for the preparation and control of already known and new sup(113m)In-radiopharmaceuticals were investigated. New rapid procedures for the control and preparation of a number of radiopharmaceuticals were developed and standardized. After biological distribution studies and clinical tests, new techniques for the preparation of the following indium-113 radiopharmaceuticals were adopted: a) Indium - labelled colloids of: S, Al(OH) 3 , Fe(OH) 3 and AlPO 4 for liver and spleen scintigraphy. b) Indium labelled chelates using the ligands EDTA, DTPA, TTHA (Triethylene-tetramine-hexaacetic acid) and DHPTA (Diamino-hydroxy-propane-tetraacetic acid) for brain scintigraphy. c) Indium labelled Fe(OH) 3 macroaggregates and microspheres for lung scintigraphy. d) Several complexes of sup(113m)In with different ligands (fluoride, tartrate, pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate, trimetaphosphate, EHDP (or ethane-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate), ethylendiamine-pyrophosphate were synthesized and its potential use as bone-scanning agents were evaluated. It was found that the complexes with tartrate, tripolyphosphate and EHDP show appreciable skeletal uptake (bone/muscle ratio are 9.0, 5.5, and 4.7 respectively), although they are inferior to the sup(99m)Tc bone-scanning agents. e) A new simple technique is proposed for the preparation of highly concentrated sup(113m)In solutions. The technique is based on the precipitation of In(OH) 3 , millipore filtration and redissolution in a small volume of 0.05 N HCl

  13. Preparation of 99mTc-thiourea complex as a precursor for Tc(III) labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Teran, M.; Molina, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1996-01-01

    Ligand exchange is one of the possible synthetic routes to obtain 99m Tc coordination compounds. However, the success of this route depends on the availability of good precursors. The objective of this work is the preparation of the complex [ 99m Tc (tu) 6 ] 3+ (tu = thiourea), as a potential precursor for 99m Tc(III) coordination compounds. The preparation was successfully performed in acidic conditions, the excess of tu serving as reducing agent. At pH values higher than 3, the compound becomes unstable and on addition of polydentate ligands new Tc(III) complexes are formed. With edta, the complex 99m Tc(III)-edta was obtained in high yield. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Screening small-molecule compound microarrays for protein ligands without fluorescence labeling with a high-throughput scanning microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Sun, Yungshin; Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Xiaobing; Luo, Juntao; Wu, Chun-Yi; Lam, Kit S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput scanning optical microscope for detecting small-molecule compound microarrays on functionalized glass slides. It is based on measurements of oblique-incidence reflectivity difference and employs a combination of a y-scan galvometer mirror and an x-scan translation stage with an effective field of view of 2 cm×4 cm. Such a field of view can accommodate a printed small-molecule compound microarray with as many as 10,000 to 20,000 targets. The scanning microscope is...

  15. In vivo TLD-measurement of the radiation burden after intake of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.; Dudczak, R.; Nowotny, R.

    1978-01-01

    Organ and whole-body radiation doses by sup(99m)Tc labelled preparations were measured on patients subjected to scintigraphy of liver (+spleen), thyroid of kidneys. Body surface doses were determined by means of TLD-100 (LiF) dosimeters. From these values organ doses were calculated by inference from surface and organ measurements on a Remcal - Alderson phantom which also served to examine the influence of variable fat layers on the surface doses. The results were compared with data calculated from pharmacokinetic measurements of organ uptake as well as blood and urine activity. Both methods gave corresponding results. (author)

  16. Development of new and improved labelling procedures for introducing isotopic hydrogen and carbon-11 into organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qahtani, M.H.S.

    1999-10-01

    New and improved methods for introducing radioisotopic hydrogen (tritium) and carbon (positron-emitting short-lived carbon-11, t 1/ 2 = 20.4 min) into organic molecules for application in biological research have been explored. In Chapter 1 the applications of radioactive isotopes in biological and clinical research is surveyed, with particular emphasis on the value of β-emitting tritium and positron-emitting carbon-11. In Chapter 2 we report the use of the non-radioactive hydrogen isotope, deuterium, as a surrogate for tritium in the development of microwave-enhanced labelling procedures, based on catalytic hydrogen transfer to olefins (e.g. styrene, styrene derivatives, cinnamic acid and its derivatives). Hydrogen or deuterium donors (e.g. formate salts) were used alone or in combination with other sources (e.g. D 2 O). The method was found to give fully hydrogenated products using very short microwave irradiation times (∼ 2 min) and was highly reproducible. Importantly, the method is environmentally clean, as when extended to tritiated formates little or no radioactive waste is produced. In Chapter 3 we explored the labelling of CGP 62349 {3-[1-(R)-[3-(4-methoxybenzyl)phosphinyl-2-(S)-hydroxy-propyl- amino]ethyl]benzoic acid}, a γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA B ) receptor antagonist, with carbon-11 in order to provide a prospective radioligand for medical imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Labelling agents, [ 11 C]iodomethane and [ 11 C]methyl triflate, prepared by improved methods, were used in the rapid methylation of desmethyl-CGP 62349. Substantially higher radiochemical yields (78%) of [ 11 C]CGP 62349 were achieved by the new methods compared to that produced in a previously published procedure (9%). In addition, the use of [ 11 C]methyl triflate rather than [ 11 C]iodomethane has the advantage of giving a high radiochemical yield and a lower amount of carrier. In Chapter 4 we report on the use of [ 11 C]carbon monoxide as a labelling

  17. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several 99 mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O] +3 , [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc≡N]+2 and [Tc(CO 3 )] +1 . In this study, we evaluated the influence of 99 mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc≡N] +2 core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of 99 mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl 2 and PDTA to obtain the intermediate 99 mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O] +3 core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the 99 mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound in all the studied conditions. Partition coefficient assay resulted in

  18. Study of the behaviour of P-oxides produced in the combustion of phosphorus-bearing organic compounds and their absorption on suitable substances by means of compounds labelled with 32P. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkowski, J.; Gizinski, S.; Kaminski, R.; Reimschuessel, W.

    1976-01-01

    During the pyrolytic reaction of phosphorus-bearing compounds in an atmosphere of oxygen, there are produced P-oxides, which interfere in the determination of carbon and hydrogen. The behaviour of these P-oxides was studied intensively in the empty combustion tube in dependence on temperature, velocity of the carrier gas, the nature of the combustion and the positioning of the tube. The P-oxides were determined by the employment of 32 P-labelled aniline phosphate and by activation measurement of the 32 P directly through the tube walls as well as in the finely divided material. In conventional combustions the P-oxides separate abundantly on the walls of the tube provided that the gas velocity is low, especially in those zones of the tube where there is marked temperature lowering, or where very high temperature prevail. Deposited P-oxides are swept out of the tube only in the course of a very long time. Consequently a tube in which the P-bearing compounds have been burned will interfere because of the eluted P-oxides and hence will interfere also if P-free compounds are burned in this same tube

  19. Studies in the preparation of /sup 32/P labelled compounds from high grade rock phosphate with high fluorine content. [Water soluble P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, acidulation, curing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, T S; Cherian, S; Shivarudrappa, V; Subramanian, T K; Achari, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Primary Isotopes Section

    1981-01-01

    The labelled phosphate to be used for crop evaluation studies should have characteristics exactly similar to the industrial product employed in agriculture. For the preparation of /sup 32/P labelled compound from rock phosphate with high fluorine content, a number of parameters have been studied like particle size of the rock, temperature and amount of acid required, the curing time, etc. Because of the high reaction temperature, the curing time is reduced to experimental limits compared to the commercial product. This paper describes a method for the preparation of such a labelled phosphate and this yields a product with about 95% of the phosphate in the water soluble form.

  20. Sensitive electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of one-bead-one-compound peptide libraries labeled by quaternary ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąchor, Remigiusz; Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Kluczyk, Alicja; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and straightforward method for high-throughput analysis of single resin beads from one-bead-one-compound combinatorial libraries with high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS/MS) is presented. The application of an efficient method of peptide derivatization by quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) formation increases ionization efficiency and reduces the detection limit, allowing analysis of trace amounts of compounds by ESI-MS. Peptides, synthesized on solid support, contain a new cleavable linker composed of a Peg spacer (9-aza-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-10-on-heptadecanoic acid), lysine with ɛ-amino group marked by the N,N,N-triethylglycine salt, and methionine, which makes possible the selective cleavage by cyanogen bromide. Even a small portion of peptides derivatized by QAS cleaved from a single resin bead is sufficient for sequencing by HR ESI-MS/MS experiments. The developed strategy was applied to a small training library of α chymotrypsin substrates. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the proposed method in combinatorial chemistry.

  1. Metabolic and improved organ scan studies. II. Nitrogen-13 labeled compounds used as in-vivo probes for enzyme therapy and as tumor localizing and organ imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A number of 13 N-labeled compounds have been enzymatically synthesized and are being evaluated as tumor and/or organ localizing agents. 13 N-Ammonia, produced after cyclotron generation of 13 N-nitrate and subsequent reduction was used to enzymatically aminate the appropriate substrate to yield 13 N-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, L-asparagine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-alanine. The use of 13 N-asparagine as a myocardial scanning agent and as a tumor localizing agent in asparaginase-sensitive tumors is discussed. Two imaging devices were used to study the effectiveness of the compounds as localizing agents. For static whole body distribution studies, a dual-detector high energy gamma ray (HEG) rectilinear scanner, equipped with constant response collimators was employed. The uniformity of response of this system permits quantitative determination of the amount of 13 N activity present in the organ or tumor of interest. The total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system was used for dynamic studies covering smaller areas of the subject's body

  2. Direct determination of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone metabolites in urine by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS/MS using deuterium-labeled compounds as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yoko; Ogawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Shinobu; Takeuchi, Akito; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Onda, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-01

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) has been used in many industries and biological monitoring of NMP exposure is preferred to atmospheric monitoring in occupational health. We developed an analytical method that did not include solid phase extraction (SPE) but utilized deuterium-labeled compounds as internal standard for high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using a C30 column. Urinary concentrations of NMP and its known metabolites 5-hydoxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP), N-methyl-succinimide (MSI), and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) were determined in a single run. The method provided baseline separation of these compounds. Their limits of detection in 10-fold diluted urine were 0.0001, 0.006, 0.008, and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Linear calibration covered a biological exposure index (BEI) for urinary concentration. The within-run and total precisions (CV, %) were 5.6% and 9.2% for NMP, 3.4% and 4.2% for 5-HNMP, 3.7% and 6.0% for MSI, and 6.5% and 6.9% for 2-HMSI. The method was evaluated using international external quality assessment samples, and urine samples from workers exposed to NMP in an occupational area.

  3. The development of a highly specific radiochemical compound based on labeled 99mtc recombinant molecules for targeted imaging of cells with the overexpression of Her-2 / neu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Bragina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a urgent need to search for new diagnostic methods that allow us to reveal malignant tumors with the overexpression of Her-2/neu with high accuracy. In recent years radioisotope methods have been actively developing to identify specific tumor targets, with antibodies being the “targeting” module.The purpose of the study. Creation of a chemically stable radiochemical compound for the imaging of cells with the overexpression of Her-2/neu.Materials and methods. The study was conducted using two human adenocarcinoma cell lines with expression (BT-474 and without expression (MCF-7 Her-2/neu. The specificity of the binding of the test complex with Her-2/neu receptor was determined by direct radiometric and planar scintigraphy. To evaluate the differences in quantitative characteristics between the groups a non-parametric Mann – Whitney test was used.Results. The yield of the labeled complex was more than 91% and the radiochemical frequency was more than 94%. When performing a visual scintigraphic evaluation, a much higher accumulation rate of the studied radiopharmaceutical preparation (RFP was observed in the culture of cells with overexpression of the surface Her-2/neu receptor. Direct radiometric results also demonstrated a higher accumulation of RFPs in the human BT-474 mammary adenocarcinoma cell line with Her-2/neu overexpression in comparison with the control group.Conclusion. Preclinical studies demonstrated high stability of the test compound, as well as its accumulation in the group of cells with Her-2/neu overexpression

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compound and respiratory CO2 emissions after 13C-labeling: online tracing of C translocation dynamics in poplar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Gutknecht, Jessica; Zimmer, Ina; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2011-02-28

    Globally plants are the primary sink of atmospheric CO(2), but are also the major contributor of a large spectrum of atmospheric reactive hydrocarbons such as terpenes (e.g. isoprene) and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). The prediction of plant carbon (C) uptake and atmospheric oxidation capacity are crucial to define the trajectory and consequences of global environmental changes. To achieve this, the biosynthesis of BVOC and the dynamics of C allocation and translocation in both plants and ecosystems are important. We combined tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for studying isoprene biosynthesis and following C fluxes within grey poplar (Populus x canescens) saplings. This was achieved by feeding either (13)CO(2) to leaves or (13)C-glucose to shoots via xylem uptake. The translocation of (13)CO(2) from the source to other plant parts could be traced by (13)C-labeled isoprene and respiratory (13)CO(2) emission. In intact plants, assimilated (13)CO(2) was rapidly translocated via the phloem to the roots within 1 hour, with an average phloem transport velocity of 20.3±2.5 cm h(-1). (13)C label was stored in the roots and partially reallocated to the plants' apical part one day after labeling, particularly in the absence of photosynthesis. The daily C loss as BVOC ranged between 1.6% in mature leaves and 7.0% in young leaves. Non-isoprene BVOC accounted under light conditions for half of the BVOC C loss in young leaves and one-third in mature leaves. The C loss as isoprene originated mainly (76-78%) from recently fixed CO(2), to a minor extent from xylem-transported sugars (7-11%) and from photosynthetic intermediates with slower turnover rates (8-11%). We quantified the plants' C loss as respiratory CO(2) and BVOC emissions, allowing in tandem with metabolic analysis to deepen our understanding of ecosystem C flux.

  5. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction using stable isotope labeled compounds as template and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of bisphenol A in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Migaku; Hayatsu, Yoshio; Nakata, Hisao; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) using a stable isotope labeled compound as the template molecule and called it the ''isotope molecularly imprinted polymer'' (IMIP). In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) was used as the model compound. None imprinted polymer (NIP), MIP, dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (DMIP) and IMIP were prepared by the suspension polymerization method using without template, BPA, 4-tert-butylphenol (BP) and bisphenol A-d 16 (BPA-d 16 ), respectively. The polymers were subjected to molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MI-SPE), and the extracted samples were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Although the leakage of BPA-d 16 from the IMIP was observed and that of BPA was not observed. The selectivity factors of MIP and IMIP for BPA were 4.45 and 4.43, respectively. Therefore, IMIP had the same molecular recognition ability as MIP. When MI-SPE with IMIP was used and followed by LC-MS in the analysis of river water sample, the detection limit of BPA was 1 ppt with high sensitivity. Moreover, the average recovery was higher than 99.8% (R.S.D.: 3.7%) by using bisphenol A- 13 C 12 (BPA- 13 C 12 ) as the surrogate standard. In addition, the IMIP were employed in MI-SPE of BPA in river water sample by LC-MS. The concentration of BPA in the river water sample was determined to be 32 pg ml -1 . We confirmed that it was possible to measure trace amounts of a target analyte by MI-SPE using IMIP

  6. Stable isotope applications in biomolecular structure and mechanisms. A meeting to bring together producers and users of stable-isotope-labeled compounds to assess current and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trewhella, J.; Cross, T.A.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Knowledge of biomolecular structure is a prerequisite for understanding biomolecular function, and stable isotopes play an increasingly important role in structure determination of biological molecules. The first Conference on Stable Isotope Applications in Biomolecular Structure and Mechanisms was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 27--31, 1994. More than 120 participants from 8 countries and 44 institutions reviewed significant developments, discussed the most promising applications for stable isotopes, and addressed future needs and challenges. Participants focused on applications of stable isotopes for studies of the structure and function of proteins, peptides, RNA, and DNA. Recent advances in NMR techniques neutron scattering, EPR, and vibrational spectroscopy were highlighted in addition to the production and synthesis of labeled compounds. This volume includes invited speaker and poster presentations as well as a set of reports from discussion panels that focused on the needs of the scientific community and the potential roles of private industry, the National Stable Isotope Resource, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in serving those needs. This is the leading abstract. Individual papers are processed separately for the database

  7. Stable isotope applications in biomolecular structure and mechanisms. A meeting to bring together producers and users of stable-isotope-labeled compounds to assess current and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J.; Cross, T.A.; Unkefer, C.J. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    Knowledge of biomolecular structure is a prerequisite for understanding biomolecular function, and stable isotopes play an increasingly important role in structure determination of biological molecules. The first Conference on Stable Isotope Applications in Biomolecular Structure and Mechanisms was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 27--31, 1994. More than 120 participants from 8 countries and 44 institutions reviewed significant developments, discussed the most promising applications for stable isotopes, and addressed future needs and challenges. Participants focused on applications of stable isotopes for studies of the structure and function of proteins, peptides, RNA, and DNA. Recent advances in NMR techniques neutron scattering, EPR, and vibrational spectroscopy were highlighted in addition to the production and synthesis of labeled compounds. This volume includes invited speaker and poster presentations as well as a set of reports from discussion panels that focused on the needs of the scientific community and the potential roles of private industry, the National Stable Isotope Resource, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in serving those needs. This is the leading abstract. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  8. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  9. In vitro evaluation of a specific radiochemical compound based on 99mTc-labeled DARPinG3 for radionuclide imaging of tumors overexpressing Her-2/neu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, O.; Larkina, M.; Stasyuk, E.; Chernov, V.; Zelchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Yusubov, M.; Skuridin, V.; Deyev, S.; Buldakov, M.

    2017-09-01

    It is still necessary to search for new informative diagnostic methods to detect malignant tumors with overexpression of Her-2/neu, which are characterized by the aggressive course of the disease, rapid rate of tumor growth and low rates of relapse-free and overall survival. In recent years, the radioisotope techniques for detection of specific tumor targets have been developing actively. Purpose: to develop a chemically stable radiochemical compound for the targeted imaging of cells overexpressing Her-2/neu. Material and methods: The study was performed using 2 cell lines. The human breast adenocarcinoma HER2-overexpressing cell line BT-474 was chosen to detect specific binding. As a control, HER2-negative human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 was used. The human breast adenocarcinoma BT-474 and MCF-7 cell lines were seeded in chamber-slides at the density of 35,000 cells/ml in trypsin-EDTA (PanEco) medium and grown overnight at 37°C. After that both cell lines were washed with Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and distributed into test tubes to 1 ml (5 millions cells in each). After adding 100 µl (70 MBq) studied complex of 99mTc-DPAH- DARPinG3 was incubated for 40 min at +4°C. Washing was performed three times with buffer PBS and 5% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The characteristics of the binding specificity of the test set with the HER-2/neu receptor were determined by direct radiometric and planar scintigraphy. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the differences in the quantitative characteristics between groups. Results: The output of the labeled complex was more than 91%, with a radiochemical purity of more than 94%. When carrying out a visual scintigraphic assessment much greater intensity accumulation of radiotracer was observed in the studied cell culture surface receptor overexpressing Her-2/neu. The results of direct radiometric also showed higher accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the adenocarcinoma cell line BT-474 human breast

  10. Design and Synthesis of 11C-Labelled Compound Libraries for the Molecular Imaging of EGFr, VEGFr-2, AT1 and AT2 Receptors: Transition-Metal Mediated Carbonylations Using [11C]Carbon Monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Ola

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with radiochemistry and new approaches to develop novel PET tracers labelled with the radionuclide 11 C. Two methods for the synthesis of 11 C-labelled acrylamides have been explored. First, [1- 11 C]-acrylic acid was obtained from a palladium(0)-mediated 11 C-carboxylation of acetylene with [ 11 C]carbon monoxide; this could be converted to the corresponding acyl chloride and then combined with benzylamine to form N-benzyl[carbonyl- 11 C]acrylamide. In the second method, the palladium(0)-mediated carbonylation of vinyl halides with [ 11 C]carbon monoxide was explored. This latter method, yielded labelled acrylamides in a single step with retention of configuration at the C=C double bond, and required less amine compared to the acetylene method. The vinyl halide method was used to synthesize a library of 11 C-labelled EGFr-inhibitors in 7-61% decay corrected radiochemical yield via a combinatorial approach. The compounds were designed to target either the active or the inactive form of EGFr, following computational docking studies. The rhodium(I)-mediated carbonylative cross-coupling of an azide and an amine was shown to be a very general reaction and was used to synthesize a library of dual VEGFr-2/PDGFrβ inhibitors that were 11 C-labelled at the urea position in 38-78% dc rcy. The angiotensin II AT 1 receptor antagonist eprosartan was 11 C-labelled at one of the carboxyl groups in one step using a palladium(0)-mediated carboxylation. Autoradiography shows specific binding in rat kidney, lung and adrenal cortex, and organ distribution shows a high accumulation in the intestines, kidneys and liver. Specific binding in frozen sections of human adrenal incidentalomas warrants further investigations of this tracer. Three angiotensin II AT 2 ligands were 11 C-labelled at the amide group in a palladium(0)-mediated aminocarbonylation in 16-36% dc rcy. One of the compounds was evaluated using in vitro using autoradiography, and in vivo using organ

  11. Development of new methods for the radioactive labelling of compounds useful in biology. Application to the study of digestive tract hormones and their analogues (gastrine, pentagastrine, cholecystokinine, pancreozymine, caeruleine, somatostatine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girma, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    To establish the kinetics of fixation on receptor sites, tissular distribution and metabolism of hormones, it is necessary to obtain high specific activity labelled hormones possessing biological activities identical with those of the originals. In this context two aims were pursued: hormonal peptide labelling at high specific radioactivity; research on the biological fate of the intermediate compounds involved in the preparations. This research was centred chiefly on gastrine, caeruleine, cholecystokinine and pentagastrine, structural analogues representing one of the two groups of digestive tract hormones (the gastrine family). After a brief review of present knowledge on the gastro-intestinal system; the hormones selected are situated in their biological context. Part two is devoted mainly to the study of iodine and tritium labelling of peptides and includes the adaptation of an existing method to the problem of gastrine labelling and the development of two new tritium-labelling methods, one specific to tryptophanyl residues and the other to tyrosyl residues. Finally the separation of modified hormones during the preparations offered the occasion to develop a study of the biological behavior of these analogues [fr

  12. 13C- and 15N-labelled non-biogenic compounds used as stable isotope drugs for human liver function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of liver diseases, the elimination of certain drugs is retarded. After labelling a suitable drug with 13 C, the 13 CO 2 elimination rate serves as a liver function parameter. Current contributions to the 13 CO 2 breath test method are reviewed and related to the 14 CO 2 breath test proposals. In spite of several advantages of 13 C-labelled agents, some dissatisfaction has remained with the tests, especially at using them with infants. It is the necessity of face masks and the uncertainty to consider endogeneous CO 2 contributions diluting the exhaled 13 CO 2 . The problems are avoided if the other molecule site of the drug is labelled which is known to be eliminated via urine. With 15 N as a tracer, a suitable urine test using [ 15 N]-methacetin as agent has been proposed and put into practice. (author)

  13. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  14. Biodegradable polymersomes as carriers and release systems for paclitaxel using Oregon Green® 488 labeled paclitaxel as a model compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jung Seok; Feijen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oregon Green® 488 labeled paclitaxel (Flutax) loaded biodegradable polymersomes (Flutax-Ps) based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide) (mPEG-PDLLA), methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) or a mixture of the block copolymers (50:50, w/w) were prepared

  15. Use of liquid chromatography for separation and determination of carrier species associated with the synthesis of no carrier-added sup(11)C labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emran, Ali M.; Boothe, Th.E.; Finn, R.D.; Vora, M.M.; Kothari, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique using reversed-phase liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of urea at quantities as low as 1 ng to quantitate the amount of non-labelled urea produced during the synthesis of no-carrier-added [sup(11)C] urea starting from sup(11)CNsup(-). As a result, the specific activity of the [sup(11)C] urea thus prepared was calculated to be as high as 3.5+-0.8 Ci/μmol. (author)

  16. Tracing in situ amino acid uptake in plants and microbes with15N13C labelled compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    amino acids. Furthermore, tannin addition tended to reduce plant uptake of label. By combining data on 15N recovery after 1 day in shoots and roots (fine and coarse) of the dominant heathland plants: the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the graminoid Deschampsia flexuosa, in soil...... microorganisms (chloroform fumigation extraction) and in soil water, we discuss the relative importance of free amino acids and ammonium as plant nutrients and microbial substrates in natural N-limited ecosystems with a high proportion of soil N held in tannin-N complexes. ...

  17. Conjugated polymer with carboxylate groups-Hg2 + system as a turn-on fluorescence probe for label-free detection of cysteine-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Hongyu; Guan, Mingming; Liu, Jilin; Shan, Hongyan; Fei, Qiang; Huan, Yanfu; Feng, Guodong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a turn on fluorescent sensor, based on Hg2 + coordination conjugated polymer, was developed to detect cysteine-containing compounds. The fluorescence of conjugated polymer (poly(2,5-bis (sodium 4-oxybutyrate) -1,4 - phenylethynylene-alt-1,4-phenyleneethynylene; PPE-OBS) would be quenched by Hg2 + because of the coordination-induced aggregation and electron transfers of PPE-OBS toward Hg2 +. When there were some cysteine-containing compounds in PPE-OBS-Hg2 + system, the fluorescence of PPE-OBS would be recovered. It indicated that the PPE-OBS-Hg2 + system could be used to detect cysteine-containing compounds. Under the optimized conditions, the experiment results showed that there were particularly linear range, high sensitivity and selectivity over other amino acids. The limit of detection (LOD) of cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) were 0.725 μmol L- 1, 0.982 μmol L- 1 and 1.21 μmol L- 1 by using this sensor. In addition, Cys standard recovery in several green tea drink and honey samples was also demonstrated. The recovery of Cys was range from 96.3 to 105.0% and RSD was less than 3.25%. The satisfactory results demonstrated that the proposed method could be as a potential fluorescent method for determining cysteine-containing compounds in real samples.

  18. labeling of some organic compounds of expected biological activity with Tc-99m eluted from a chromatographic column packed with zirconium molybdate containing mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elaal, M.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of nuclear medicine has been due mainly to the availability of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals; this single isotope is used in over 80% of all diagnostic procedures. Each year, roughly 25 million procedures are carried out with 99m Tc-radio-pharmaceuticals, the universal use of this radioisotope (Technetium-99m, t 1/2 = 6.02 h) is due to its advantageous properties such as suitable half-life (it is short enough to save the patient from high radiation dose, and long enough to carry out labeling and scintigraphic measurements), γ-ray energy (140 keV; 89.4%) reasonable for SPECT, and very low abundance β - emission. Technetium-99m is readily available in a sterile, pyrogen free, and no-carrier added state from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators.The selection of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives to target 99m Tc as radioactive element to the hepatobiliary system is based on the reported finding that iminodiacetic acid capable of complexing reduced Tc-99m and easily incorporated into biologically active molecules. 99m Tc labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives offer a high degree of specificity for localization in the gallbladder with rapid extraction by the polygonal cells of the liver and very low urinary excretion. Various diseases related to liver function, such as jaundice and biliary obstruction, are diagnosed by the use of 99m Tc-labeled IDA derivatives. Chronic and acute cholecystitis can be differentiated with 99m Tc-IDA derivatives.In the presented work, 99m Tc in an acceptable radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity using an easy and cheap method was produced. The produced 99m Tc was suitable to be used in the labeling techniques and in studying of the biological behavior of some synthesized iminodiacetic acid derivatives (1-naphthyl carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), Diphenyl methyl carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (DMIDA) and Biphenyl-2-yl carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (BPIDA)). NIDA, DMIDA and BPIDA were synthesized and well

  19. Generator 113Sn- 113mIn. Study of the most important characteristics in the evaluate composition for the preparation of clinical labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adan, L.; Rebollo, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The design for the construction of a generator 113 S n -113m l n is described. A systematic assay for de adequate adsorbents has been made, to obtain solutions of high radiochemical purity, as it is required for the radiopharmaceutical preparations. The control of purity is carried on by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the solutions, complemented by radiochemical techniques. The following physico-chemical parameters has been determinate; consecutive equilibrium constants, pH, distribution constants, separation factors and electrophoretic factors. It has been considered the measure of these parameters for the best quality In the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. (Author) 53 refs

  20. Tritium and other radionuclide labeled organic compounds incorporated in genetic material. NCRP report No. 63: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This book has as its subject the radiation dose to cells from incorporated radioactive material. According to the authors, NCRP Scientific Committee 24, the most sensitive cellular material is the genetic material of DNA and RNA in the nucleus. The biological effects of exposure are examined, since each cell line has its own sensitivities and hazards, which must be taken into account when a particular radioactive material is considered. The various kinds of radiation injury may lead to cell death, failure to mature, tumor genesis, transmutation of nuclides leading to DNA breaks, and gene mutation. Some of these injuries are no more potent when the source is external, whereas others, such as transmutation, occur only inside cells. The method for dose calculation is based upon the concern for doses coming from heterogeneously distributed beta emitters. The critical volume is the nucleus of stem cells, since injury to stem cells leads to late somatic and genetic effects. The dose at issue is that to labeled stem cells, not the whole population of stem cells. On this basis a maximum permissible intake of the material in question is calculated

  1. Preliminary studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of THIP in animal and man using 14C-labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, B.; Aaes-Joergensen, T.; Boegesoe, K.P.; Joergensen, A.

    1981-01-01

    Distribution of radioactivity in rats, serum levels in human volunteers and rats and elimination of radioactivity in volunteers, rats, and mice following oral administration of 14 C-labelled THIP have been investigated. Peak values of radioactivity in the organs and in serum were seen half an hour after administration, indicating a rapid absorption. Highest concentrations of radioactivity were found in the kidneys, but radioactivity was seen in all investigated tissues including the brain. The radioactivity was mainly excreted with urine (84-93%). Thin-layer chromatography of urine from volunteers, rats, and mice showed that most of the excreted radioactivity corresponds to unchanged THIP. Three metabolites were found in urine from rats each in amounts of 2-7% of the total dose given. Two of these metabolites were also found in urine from the volunteers in amounts of 30-35% and <2%, respectively, and in urine from mice in amounts of 21% and 6% of the total dose, respectively. No radioactivity corresponding to unchanged THIP was found in faeces indicating complete absorption of THIP following oral administration. One of the metabolites, the main one in man and mouse, seemed to be a glucuronic acid conjugate of THIP, but the chemical structure of the metabolites has not yet been established. (author)

  2. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetium-99m and samarium-153; Farmacocinetica de compuestos marcados con tecnecio-99m y samario-153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda O, L B; Torres L, M N

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and samarium-153. These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use. Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. A biodistribution study in quadruplicate and/or quintuplicate was conducted for each radiopharmaceutical, data was was obtained in injection dose percentages. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals (rats or mice), which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages. Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. 1, which is written in C language and works in windows. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. 1 program for a bi compartmental analysis allowed us to obtain reliable pharmacokinetic parameters which describe what happens in the organism when the radiopharmaceutical passes from the central compartment to the peripheral one and vice versa.

  3. Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jin; Zhang Xueqin; Yan Qiusheng; Chen Zhangliang; You Chongbiao

    1993-08-01

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with α- 32 P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with γ- 32 P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

  4. Basic study on a diagnostic method for breast cancer using a novel radio-labelled compound and the therapeutic method with it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Saito, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Toichi; Tejima, Reiko; Sawada, Junichi

    1999-01-01

    In the previous studies of this project, binding activities and growth inhibitory effects of estrogen-related compounds (EC) were investigated in breast cancer cell lines, FCM-7 and MDA-MS-231. It was shown that EC such as 2-hydroxy estron, 2-hydroxy estrogen and estrogen significantly inhibited the growth of these cells and had highly binding activities to their estrogen receptors. Here, an investigation was made on the involvement of these compounds in intracellular signaling pathways. Mitogen activated protein (MAP)-kinase cascade is regarded as one of the important intracellular signaling pathways and MAPK-kinase positioned at the most downstream region has been known to migrate from cytoplasm to the nucleus associating with progressing of a cell growth and differentiation. So, correlation of MAP-kinase with the binding activity of ERC onto breast cells or with the growth repression was investigated. Since it has been shown that MAP.- and MAPK-kinase were activated in FCM-7 cells cultured with EGF, the binding activity of ERC was assessed in the presence of EGF. The binding activities to FCM-7 cells were, however, not affected by the addition of MAP-kinase. Although significant growth inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy estron and 2-hydroxy estrogen on FCM-7 cells were confirmed as shown in the previous study, either of treatment with PD98059, an inhibitor for MAPK-kinase or expression of MKP3, a specific phosphatase for MAPK-kinase caused a repression of cell growth. These results suggest that MAP-kinase might be involved in the growth of breast cancer cells and cancer cell growth would be also affected by activation of MAP-kinase cascade. (M.N.)

  5. Synthesis and application of labelled growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the investigation of the metabolism both of phytoeffectors like herbicides and plant growth regulators such compounds are needed in radioactive labelled form. The synthesis of radioactive labelled fluorodifen, nitrofen, ethephon, diphenylic acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, abscisic acid, hydroxybenzoic acids and different conjugates are described. Some examples of these compounds metabolism in plants are discussed [ru

  6. Risks in production and utilisation of labelled compounds for nuclear medicine. 2. Benefits and risks of utilization of 99mTc generator in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu-Chiper, D.; Barna, C.; Gard, E.; Negoita, N.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, imposed the reduction of the radiation effects and so, the reduction of associated risk of these applications. The utilization of radioactive isotopes for investigations in nuclear medicine is conditioned by the chemical behaviour and the means of detection of the emitted radiation on one hand, and by the radiation doses received by the patient, on the other hand. In these conditions, the nuclear medicine uses only the radioisotopes which are short half-time and low radiation energy, but high enough to be detected from the exterior of human body, 99m Tc being the most favourable for utilization in diagnostic purpose. This advantage is increased by the multiple possibilities to obtain different chemical forms with 99m Tc included, which permit the production of a large variety of radiopharmaceutical products, having a specific localization in the human body (organ-targets), thus allowing the diagnosis of numerous diseases. In the work the benefits and risks of the 99m Tc-Generator utilization in the nuclear medicine are shown and the utilization technique in these applications is presented . The 99m Tc-Generator is a compact chromatographic system, with lead shielding, which permits the elution of a sterile, pyrogen-free, injectable sodium pertechnetate solution, from an aluminium chromatographic column which keeps the 99 Mo. The 99m Tc-Generator system ensures the operator protection. The radioactive solution with 99m Tc is obtained in a closed vial, within lead shielding, the irradiation or contamination risks being mostly reduced. The utilization of 99m Tc in scintigraphic exam for diagnostic medicine implies a labelling operation with 99m Tc chemically bounded in forms appropriate to the target-organ and than the intravenously injection in doses dependent on the specific scintigraphic investigation or examination. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of Effective Parameters on Labeling of Hydroxyapatite Compound with 90Y and Introducing the Best Method to Produce 90Y-HAp Radiopharmaceutical for Radio synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davarpanah, M. R.; Khoshhosn, H. A.; Attar Nosrati, S.; Harati, S. M.; Aghamiri, S. M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radio synovectomy is a local intra-articular injection of radionuclides in colloidal form for treatment of articular inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia or orthopedic troubles. β-emitting radionuclides can be used for various joints based on radiation energy. 90 Y is a pure β-emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours that is used for treatment of the knee joint. β-radiation of this radionuclide possesses maximum energy of 2.281 MeV (99.98%), mean pathway of 3.6 mm in the soft tissue and maximum 11 mm. In this project, hydroxyapatite (HAp) is applied as a colloid maker agent that interacts with 90 Y 3+ ions via ion-dipole bonds and produces 90 Y-HAp. The colloidal pharmaceutical is produced by adding an acidic solution of 90 YCl 3 to an HAp suspension in saline. Effective parameters within which the colloid is applied, such as the volume of diluent, HAp particle size and sonication effect were evaluated and tested. First, these determinative parameters were optimized in the simulated conditions and then examined in the active phase. Finally, the best procedure was determined for the production of the radiopharmaceutical. Radionuclide purity of the radiopharmaceutical according to the primary 90 YCl 3 solution was over 99.9%. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were obtained over 99% using TLC method in saline solvent up to three days after production of radiopharmaceutical. Radiochemical purity of 90 Y-HAp colloid was also evaluated in human serum albumin solution for three days at room temperature. The amount of released activity was between 0.3 to 2%.

  8. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  9. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  10. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  11. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium {sup 51}Cr; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes biologiques des composes marques au radiochrome {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingrand, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [French] Parmi les radioisotopes d'utilisation courants en biologie et en medecine qui sont l'objet d'un controle particulier dans le Departement des Radioelements du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay avant leur diffusion aux utilisateurs, l'auteur a choisi le chrome 51 incorpore a des sels mineraux ou a des substrats organiques, afin d'en etudier les proprietes biologiques. Dans la premiere partie, il a compare le sort du chromate de sodium et du chlorure chromique radioactifs melanges a du sang ou administres a l'animal entier en s'efforcant de mettre en evidence une reduction du chrome hexavalent aussi bien in vitro qu'in vivo. Dans la deuxieme partie, il a cherche a etablir la validite de l'emploi de differents substrats marques au chrome 51, l'hematie, l'hemoglobine, les proteines plasmatiques et le cytochrome c. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de souligner le reel interet des applications biologiques des composes marques par le radioisotope. (auteur)

  12. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium {sup 51}Cr; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes biologiques des composes marques au radiochrome {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingrand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [French] Parmi les radioisotopes d'utilisation courants en biologie et en medecine qui sont l'objet d'un controle particulier dans le Departement des Radioelements du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay avant leur diffusion aux utilisateurs, l'auteur a choisi le chrome 51 incorpore a des sels mineraux ou a des substrats organiques, afin d'en etudier les proprietes biologiques. Dans la premiere partie, il a compare le sort du chromate de sodium et du chlorure chromique radioactifs melanges a du sang ou administres a l'animal entier en s'efforcant de mettre en evidence une reduction du chrome hexavalent aussi bien in vitro qu'in vivo. Dans la deuxieme partie, il a cherche a etablir la validite de l'emploi de differents substrats marques au chrome 51, l'hematie, l'hemoglobine, les proteines plasmatiques et le cytochrome c. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de souligner le reel interet des applications biologiques des composes marques par le radioisotope. (auteur)

  13. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented

  14. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  15. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  16. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  17. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E. (NutraSweet Company, Mt. Prospect, IL (United States)); Williams, D.S. (Amersham International plc, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Cardiff Labs.); Gresk, C.J.; Markos, C.S. (Searle Research and Development, Skokie, IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author).

  18. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E.; Williams, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author)

  19. Characterisation of selenium compounds in rye seedling biomass using {sup 75}Se-labelling/SDS-PAGE separation/{gamma}-scintillation counting, and HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of a range of enzymatic digests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A. [Technical University of Lodz (Poland). Institute of General Food Chemistry; Ambroziak, Wojciech [Technical University of Lodz (Poland). Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology; Rudzinski, Juliusz [Technical University of Lodz (Poland). Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry; Lewis, D. John [Central Science Laboratory, York (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, selenium-enriched plant biomass was investigated to evaluate the ability of rye seedlings to take up, and assimilate, inorganic selenium. Two different analytical approaches were used. Electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) of proteins extracted from {sup 75}Se-labelled biomass was used to investigate the biotransformation of selenite into organic forms of the element. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with ICP-MS detection was chosen for the analysis of selenium species, enzymatically extracted from the plant biomass. The results of three enzymatic hydrolysis procedures and three sequential enzymatic extractions procedures are compared. The most effective single extraction was proteolysis (using protease type XIV), giving an overall extraction efficiency of 48%. However, for combinations of enzymes, the most effective was cellulase (Trichoderma viride) followed by sequential extraction of the solid pellet using protease type XIV, giving an extraction efficiency of 70%. The complementary data from the electrophoretic fractionation of proteins, and the HPLC separation of Se-species in the proteolytic digests, reveal the existence of large number of selenium-containing compounds in the rye seedling plant biomass. The results showed the complete biotransformation of inorganic selenium into organic forms during germination of the rye seedlings. HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of extracts from the plant biomass did not show the presence of selenate or selenite. At the time of this study, the lack of suitable organic-MS facilities meant that it was not possible to characterise them fully. However, the data does show that a combination of different enzymes, rather than just the commonly-used protease, should be considered when developing an extraction strategy for selenium in different food types to those already reported in the literature. (orig.)

  20. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  1. Isotopic labelling with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general methods of isotopic labelling with 14 C and with 3 H are briefly reviewed with special attention to examples of compounds likely to be of wide interest in biological research. (author)

  2. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  3. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  4. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  5. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the possibilities of 3 H NMR in the characterisation of 3 H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author)

  6. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  7. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  8. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter ( 11 C, 18 F, 13 N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with 11 C) is discussed in particular

  9. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  10. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  11. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with {sup 99m}-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes; Conjuntos de reativos liofilizados de compostos diaminoditiolicos para marcacao com tecnecio-99m. Estudo farmacocinetico e elaboracao de modelos compartimentalizados dos respectivos complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-07-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with {sup 99m}Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain

  12. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  13. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  14. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Esteban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3 H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF 3 -Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3 H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 70 0 C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  15. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  16. Isotopically labelled vitamin D derivatives and processes for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.R.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 compounds, including radiolabelled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity, methods for their preparation, and intermediates obtained in their synthesis. The method involves reacting an ester of a 26,27-dinor-vitamin D-25-carboxylic acid with an isotopically labelled methyl Grignard reagent or methyl lithium reagent to obtain a 26,27-isotopically labelled compound in which at least some of the H atoms and/or C atoms are heavy isotopes. (author)

  17. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  18. 99mTc labeling of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Ying; Li Qingnuan; Li Wenxin; Li Yufeng; Zhang Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The effects of experimental conditions on preparation of 99m Tc-labeled carbon nanotubes and nanocarbon blacks by SnCl 2 were investigated. At given conditions the labeling yields were over 90%. In a culture medium, the radiochemical purity of the labeling compounds kept (86 ± 4)% within 2.5 h. The 99m Tc-labeled MWNTs and NCBs obtained in this work meet satisfactory experimental demands for study of cellular uptake and toxicity. The experiments showed that labeling process was based on physical adsorption of low valent technetium resulted from reduction reaction on the surface of the carbon nanomaterials. (authors)

  19. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  20. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  1. Radio-labelling of long-lasting erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoxia; Zeng Xianyin; Bao Lun; Xu Xiankun; Chen Zhiyu; Liu Xianyi

    2004-01-01

    The study is designed to investigate the labelling of LL-EPO, purification of labelled compound, and therefore, to prepare the labelled LL-EPO with high purity and biological activity. LL-EPO was labelled with 125 I by the common used chloramine-T and the modified two-phase chloramine-T method, respectively. The labelled compound was purified by both gel filtration and ultrafiltration method, respectively. The purity of the labelled LL-EPO was determined by both trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and SDS-PAGE method, and the biological activity was determined by the reticulocyte counting method. The results demonstrated that the iodine incorporation and specific radioactivities were 89% and 5.82 x 10 5 Bq·μg -1 for LL-EPO labelled by the modified two-phase chloramine-T method and were 20.65% and 3.62 x 10 5 Bq·μg -1 for LL-EPO labelled by the common used chloramine-T method, respectively. The purity of labelled LL-EPO purified by both gel filtration and ultrafiltration were over 96% with TCA method purification. The labelled LL-EPO showed two bands with Rf of 0.28 and 0.49, respectively, which is identical to that of standard LL-EPO through SDS-PAGE. There was no loss of biological activity of LL-EPO after labelling as determined by reticulocyte counting method

  2. Photoaffinity labeling of the oxysterol binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.R.; Kandutsch, A.A.; Anzalone, L.; Spencer, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic receptor protein for oxygenated sterols, that is thought to be involved in the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol biosynthesis, can be labeled covalently by the photoactivated affinity compound [5,6- 3 H]-7,7'-azocholestane-3β,25-diol (I). Several other compounds were tested including 25-hydroxycholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, 25-azido-27-norcholest-5-en-3β-ol,3β,25-dihydroxycholest-5-en-7-one and 3β-hydroxycholesta-8(14),9(11)-dien-15-one. However, these sterols either did not bind to the receptor with adequate affinity or did not react covalently with the receptor during photolysis. Compound I binds to the receptor with very high affinity (K/sub d/ = 30 nM). After activation with long wavelength UV, two tritium labeled proteins, M/sub r/ approximately 95K and 65K daltons, are found upon SDS gel electrophoresis. No labeling occurs when the binding reaction is carried out in the presence of a large excess of 25-hydroxycholesterol. It is possible that the smaller polypeptide is a degradation product. Under the reaction conditions investigated so far labeling is relatively inefficient (< 1% of bound sterol). These results are generally consistent with previous information suggesting that the M/sub r/ of the receptor subunit is 97,000. Covalent labeling of the receptor should greatly facilitate its further purification and characterization

  3. The preparation of 32P labelled phosphorous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.; Jenkinson, A.; Sorby, P.

    1986-11-01

    Phosphorous acid labelled with 32 P has been prepared, on a small scale, starting from neutron-irradiated phosphorus. The compound is intended for tracer studies in the development of novel fungicides

  4. The tritium labelling of ibuprofen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Estaban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium labelling of 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid (ibuprofen) was performed. The method employed was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between ibuprofen and tritiated water. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of ibuprofen was studied. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labelled compound were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  5. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  6. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  12. Direct isotope determination of isotopically labelled lipids by field desorption mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, W.D.; Kessler, M.

    1982-01-01

    Lipids labelled with deuterium or carbon-14 have been investigated by field desorption mass spectrometry for determination of their degree of labelling. This application is demonstrated for free fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and L-α-phosphatidylcholines. Comparison of the molecular ion groups of the non-labelled and of the labelled compounds enables a fast and reliable determination of the degree of labelling. For multiply labelled compounds the label distribution is also obtained from the molecular ion group. In addition, for cholesteryl esters and for phosphatidylcholines structurally significant fragment ions provide information about the position of the label. Several hundred nanograms of the compound are typically required for a single analysis with a relative standard error of 0.5-2% in the value calculated for atom% hydrogen-2 or for the specific carbon-14 activity. (orig.) [de

  13. Determination of Radiotracer Stability of Tritium-Labelled Compounds in Biological Studies; Determination de la Stabilite des Composes Trities Employes comme Indicateurs en Biologie; 041e 043f 0440 0435 0434 0414 043b ; Determinacion de la Estabilidad de los Compuestos Tritiados en los Estudios Biologicos Mediante Indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, G. T.; Spratt, J. L. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Pharmacology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-02-15

    The recent extensive use of tritium-labelled compounds in biological studies makes it imperative that investigators verify the radiotracer stability of tritiated compounds. Even purification of labelled compounds to constant specific activity does not preclude the possibility of the tritium atom exchanging with hydrogen within a biological system. Radiotracer stability can be demonstrated by various methods once, meticulous radiochemical purification of the labelled material has been effected. In this report three different methods for establishing radiotracer stability of tritiated compounds are described. One approach is to compare the biological half-life of a H{sup 3}-compound to that of a similar compound labelled with C{sup 14}. This method is especially applicable to endogenous substances which undergo isotopic dilution when administered to animals. Stability of exogenous compounds can be verified by a second method. Here it is only necessary to demonstrate no diminution in specific activity when the labelled material is re-isolated from biological samples. A third method, less time-consuming than the first, and applicable to both endogenous and exogenous material is the determination of H{sup 3} to C{sup 14} isotope ratio in a mixture of the same compound labelled with both isotopes. Identical isotope ratios before administration of the double-labelled material and after re-isolation from organs or excreta demonstrate radiotracer stability. This method is particularly applicable where isolation of minute amounts of material necessitates the use of non-radioactive carrier. Data demonstrating the use of these methods for the verification of radiotracer stability will be presented with special reference to labelled cholesterol, morphine and digitoxin as examples for the three respective methods. (author) [French] L'emploi, repandu depuis peu, de composes trities dans les etudes biologiques, impose aux chercheurs la necessite de verifier la stabilite de ces

  14. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  15. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  8. Efficient method of enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides labelled with 14C and 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejedly, Z.; Filip, J.

    1988-01-01

    The method is presented of enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides labelled with 14 C or 3 H either uniformly or specifically in the base or the deoxyribosyl or ribosyl moiety. The method is based on the ribosylation or deoxyribosylation of the nucleic acid bases (non-labelled or labelled with 14 C or 3 H) by the catalytic effect of enzymes occurring in the supernatant fractions of non-purified homogenates of Escherichia coli B. bacteria. The non-labelled and labelled nucleosides are used as donors of ribosyl or deoxyribosyl groups. The HPLC method is used for separating labelled nucleosides. The radiochemical purity of the labelled nucleosides is higher than 98%, molar activity ranges from 9.2 to 18.5 GBq.mmol -1 ( 14 C-labelled compounds) and from 0.6 to 1.9 TBq.mmol -1 (3H-labelled compounds). (author). 4 figs., 8 refs

  9. Labelled chemotherapeutic drugs and neurotransmitter precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diksic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have synthesized several chemotherapeutic drugs and their analogs labelled with 11 C or 18 F positron emitting radionuclides. The pharmacokinetics of several of these, 1,3-bis-2-chloroethylnitroso [ 11 C] urea [ 11 C-BCNU] and sarcosinamide congenerate of BCNU [SarCNU] were studied in animals and humans. This evaluation permitted them to have a better understanding of the tissue trapping of nitrosoureas and also the opportunity to do biological modelling permitting a better schedule of chemotherapy for these drugs. They have also been working on an analog of tryptophan, α-methyl-L-tryptophan, the compound studied for the past 15 years. An introduction of 11 C-label permitted in vivo evaluation of that compound and in conjunction with biochemical measurements done with 14 C-compound estimates of the rate of the brain serotonin synthesis without any metabolic manipulation

  10. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  11. Labeling and stability of radiolabeled antibody fragments by a direct 99mTc-labeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, K.Y.; Nedelman, M.A.; Tam, S.H.; Wilson, E.; Daddona, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro labeling and stability of 99m Tc-labeled antibody Fab' fragments prepared by a direct labeling technique were evaluated. Eight antibody fragments derived from murine IgG1 (N = 5), IgG2a (N = 2) and IgG3 (N = 1) isotypes were labeled with a preformed 99m Tc-D-glucarate complex. No loss of radioactivity incorporation was observed for all the 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments after 24 h incubation at 37 o C. 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments (IgG1, N = 2; IgG2a, n = 2; IgG3, N = 1) were stable upon challenge with DTPA, EDTA or acidic pH. Using the affinity chromatography technique, two of the 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments displayed no loss of immunoreactivity after prolonged incubation in phosphate buffer up to 24 h at 37 o C. Bonding between 99m Tc and antibody fragments was elucidated by challenging with a diamide ditholate (N 2 S 2 ) compound. The Fab' with IgG2a isotype displayed tighter binding to 99m Tc in comparison to Fab' from IgG1 and IgG3 isotype in N 2 S 2 challenge and incubation with human plasma. The in vivo biodistribution of five 99m Tc-labeled fragments were evaluated in normal mice. (Author)

  12. Technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical, chemical and pharmacological investigations on the development and application of carrier-free sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals are comprehensively reported. The radiopharmaceutical section deals with the elaboration of labelling methods. The influence of different factors on the kit production and the sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceutical preparation is discussed. The relationship between the chemical structure and the biodistribution is in the centre of the radiopharmalogical section. (author)

  13. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  14. 15N-labelled pyrazines of triterpenic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlk, Martin; Micolova, Petra; Sarek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenoid pyrazines from our research group were found selectively cytotoxic on several cancer cell lines with IC 50 in low micromolar range. This sparked our interest in preparing their labeled analogs for metabolic studies. In this work, we prepared a set of non-labeled pyrazines from seven triterpenoid skeletal types along with their 15 N labelled analogs. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of the target 15 N labelled pyrazines. Currently, these compounds are being studied in complex metabolic studies. (author)

  15. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  16. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  17. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  18. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  19. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  20. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  1. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  2. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  5. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. 131/123 iodine labeled benzamides for the detection of melanomas and metastases. Synthesis, labeling, animal experiences and preliminary clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Oscar R.; Edreira, Martin M.; Castiglia, Silvia G.; Soroa, Victoria E.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine labeled benzamides are being studied as radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of melanomas and metastases. With this purpose the synthesis and labeling of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[ 131 I]-4-methoxybenzamide (IMBA) has been carried out. Tissue distribution of the labeled compound has been studied in C 57 mice, showing a fast renal excretion. The labeled benzamide was also injected in mice with previously induced subcutaneous melanomas and lung metastases using B 16-F0 murine melanoma cells. The tumors show a good uptake of the labeled benzamide. The melanoma/other tissues uptake ratio is suitable for scintigraphic detection. Clinical studies in patients are under way. (author)

  8. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  9. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Pedersen, M. H. F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2015), s. 917-921 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : frustrated Lewis pairs * hydrogen activation * benzyl alcohol * tritium labeling * labeled compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  10. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  11. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  12. Labelling strategies for enhanced application of ICPMS in protein analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmer, J.; Kutscher, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quantitative protein analysis is one of today's challenges in analytical chemistry. Herein, mass spectrometric techniques play an important role with the use of both label-free and labelling approaches. In the field of ICPMS, the latter approach is attractive as it can provide highly sensitive detection of proteins after labelling with metal-containing compounds. Following a brief introduction to the different strategies described in the literature, this presentation will be focussed on protein labelling using a mercury compound (p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid, pHMB). Besides fundamental studies on the derivatization process itself, a strategy will be presented in which absolute protein quantification can be achieved. Finally, the potential, but also limitations of the technique will be highlighted. (author)

  13. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  14. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  15. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  16. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  17. A system for oxygen-15 labeled blood for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyam, R.; Bucelewicz, W.M.; Hoop, B. Jr.; Jones, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Oxygen-15 labeled compounds in blood have been used successfully for cerebral circulation and cerebral oxygen metabolism measurements. The present paper describes a system for the rapid sequential production of 15 O-HgB, C 15 O-Hgb and H 2 15 O in blood under sterile and pyrogen-free conditions. A tonometer has been adopted for labeling blood without hemolysis and foam production. (author)

  18. Preparation of 19-iodocholesterol labelled with 125 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Rebollo, D. V.; Ruiz, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a new method of synthesis of 19-iodo cholesterol labelled with ''125 I, from commercial cholesterol, is described. Its high chemical (96%) and radiochemical (99.9%) purities high yield and short time of preparation permit us to dispose or a more accessible labelled compound, which results appropriates for clinical investigations and in the diagnosis of disturbances of the suprarenal glands. (Author) 9 refs

  19. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  20. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  1. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  2. Fluorinated Compounds Labelled with F-18 as Radiopharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Libor; Kropáček, Martin; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Zimová, Jana; Forsterová, Michaela; Švecová, Helena; Melichar, František; Bělohlávek, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 12 (2009), s. 1017-1021 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : POSITRON - EMISSION - TOMOGRAPHY * TUMOR HYPOXIA * PET Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 0.717, year: 2009

  3. Synthesis and applications of isotopically labeled compounds 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucino, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the typescript texts of six plenary lectures plus short (ca. 2 pp) versions of a very large number of papers from the Second International Symposium, held in Kansas City in 1985; author and subject indexes

  4. Synthesis and applications of isotopically labeled compounds 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccino, R.R. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    The typescript texts of six plenary lectures plus short (ca. 2 pp) versions of a very large number of papers from the Second International Symposium, held in Kansas City in 1985 are presented. Author and subject indexes are included.

  5. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  6. Preparation of 199Tl and its labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dehai; Guan Changtian; Kuang Anren

    1991-10-01

    Usually, 199 Ti is obtained by the nuclear reaction of 197 Au(α, 2n) 199 Tl. A gold target with 50±0.1 mm in diameter, 0.8 mm in thickness and 99.99% in purity was mounted in a cyclotron beam line. The target was bombarded by α particles with the energy of 25∼27 MeV and the beam current of 15∼20μA. The irradiated gold target was dissolved by aqua regia. Then the saturated aqueous solution of SO 2 was added. The 199 Tl(III)reduced to 199 Tl(I). The deposit of gold was removed. For separation of 199 Tl)I), about 5 mL of raw material solution obtained was transferred to 201 x 8 type anion exchange resin column which had been equilibrated with 4 mol/L HCl. The 199 Tl(I) and Au(III) were desorbed separately with the eluants (90% of aqueous diamide solution,, and 2 mol/L HCL∼5% thiourea) at the flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After separation, the 10 mL concentrated nitric acid was added to the 199 Tl collected solution to destroy and remove the aqueous diamide solution, then 4 mol/L HCl was added and heated up to remove NO 3 - . The TlCl injection with pH = 5 was made up by using physiological saline. After filtering the 199 TlCl injection was sterilized at 137.3 kPa, 120 deg C about 30 min in an autoclave. The 199 TlCl injection was used in the animal pyrogen, a bacterial, safety, dispensation and myocardial imaging experiments. The good results have been obtained. Now it has undergone clinical experiments

  7. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Lee, Jong Sup

    2005-01-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer

  8. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, P.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated methyl iodide of high specific activity is synthetized by Fischer-Tropsch reaction of tritium with carbon monoxide, tritiated methanol obtained is reacted with hydriodic acid. It is used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl L-methionine 3 H-methyl and of diazepam 3 H-methyl derivatives. Synthesis of 3-PPP 3 H: (hydroxy-3 phenyl)-3N-n propyl [ 3 H-2.3] piperidine [ 3 H-2.3] with a specific activity of 4.25 T Bq/mM (115 Ci/mM) and of baclofene 3 H with a specific activity of 0.925 TBq (25 Ci/mM) are also described [fr

  9. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  11. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  12. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  13. Development of a general methodology for labelling peptide-morpholino oligonucleotide conjugates using alkyne-azide click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Gait, Michael J

    2013-11-11

    We describe a general methodology for fluorescent labelling of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) by alkyne functionalization of peptides, subsequent conjugation to PMOs and labelling with a fluorescent compound (Cy5-azide). Two peptide-PMO (PPMO) examples are shown. No detrimental effect of such labelled PMOs was seen in a biological assay.

  14. The tritium labelling of organic molecules by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoso, M.; Kaiser, F.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the temperature at 65degC and 120degC on the labelling of three organic molecules with tritium was studied. The compounds were: benzoic acid, diphenyl glioxal and 2,3-tetramethylene-4-phenylthien-7-oxodiacetin. The method employed was the heterogeneous catalytic exchange between tritiaded water and the organic compound. The purification was made by thin-layer chromatography and the concentration, purity and specific activity of the products were determined by counting and ultraviolet techniques. The thermal stability and the radiolitic effects on labelled benzoic acid were also considered. (author) [es

  15. The tritium labelling of organic molecules by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoso Marina, M.; Kaiser Ruiz del Olmo, F.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the temperature at 65 degree centigree and 120 degree centigree on the labelling of three organic molecules with tritium was studied. The compounds were: benzoic acid, de phenyl glyoxal and 2,3-tetramethylene-4-pantothenyl-7-oxo diacetin.The method employed was the heterogeneous catalytic exchange between tritiated water and the organic compound. The purification was made by thin-layer chromatography and the concentration, purity and specific activity of the products were determined by counting and ultraviolet techniques. The thermal stability and the radiolytic effects on labelled benzoic acid were also considered. (Author) 9 refs

  16. Syntheses with isotopically labelled carbon. Methyl iodide, formaldehyde and cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Boothe, T.E.; Vora, M.M.; Hildner, J.C.; Emran, A.M.; Kothari, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Many of the uniquely labelled synthetic precursors currently employed in the design of sophisticated radiolabelled compounds have their origins in the field of hot atom chemistry. Particularly, the development during the past few years of automated, on-line synthetic procedures which combine the nuclear reaction, hot atom and classical chemistry, and rapid purification methods has allowed the incorporation of useful radionuclides into suitable compounds of chemical and biochemical interest. The application of isotopically labelled methyl iodide, formaldehyde, and cyanide anion as synthetic intermediates in research involving human physiology and nuclear medicine, as well as their contributions to other scientific methodology, is reviewed. (author)

  17. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  18. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  19. Nomenclature and spelling rules of chemistry in Hungary Pt. 1 Nomenclature of elements and inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodorne Csanyi, P.

    1982-01-01

    The part of the updated edition of 'Nomenclature and spelling rules of chemistry in Hungary' (Budapest, 1972), referring to the isotopically modified inorganic compounds is presented. The rules are based on the proposals of IUPAC (1981). Spelling rules concerning the isotopically substituted, isotopically labelled, specifically labelled, selectively and non-selectively labelled compounds, and the positional and numbering rules of nuclides are treated. (Sz.J.)

  20. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...... concerning the relations between semantics and pragmatics, as well as system and usage, and psycholinguistic issues concerning the processing of NNCs. New insights and methodological tools are also provided for supporting future best practices in the field of food naming and labelling...

  1. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  2. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  3. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  4. Analysis of fluorescently labeled glycosphingolipid-derived oligosaccharides following ceramide glycanase digestion and anthranilic acid labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David C A; Coquard, Virginie; Priestman, David A; te Vruchte, Danielle J M; Sillence, Daniel J; Dwek, Raymond A; Platt, Frances M; Butters, Terry D

    2004-08-15

    Interest in cellular glycosphingolipid (GSL) function has necessitated the development of a rapid and sensitive method to both analyze and characterize the full complement of structures present in various cells and tissues. An optimized method to characterize oligosaccharides released from glycosphingolipids following ceramide glycanase digestion has been developed. The procedure uses the fluorescent compound anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid; 2-AA) to label oligosaccharides prior to analysis using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The labeling procedure is rapid, selective, and easy to perform and is based on the published method of Anumula and Dhume [Glycobiology 8 (1998) 685], originally used to analyze N-linked oligosaccharides. It is less time consuming than a previously published 2-aminobenzamide labeling method [Anal. Biochem. 298 (2001) 207] for analyzing GSL-derived oligosaccharides, as the fluorescent labeling is performed on the enzyme reaction mixture. The purification of 2-AA-labeled products has been improved to ensure recovery of oligosaccharides containing one to four monosaccharide units, which was not previously possible using the Anumula and Dhume post-derivatization purification procedure. This new approach may also be used to analyze both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides.

  5. The fluorodediazonation - a method for n.c.a.-18F-labelling of aromatic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwernemann, O.

    1991-06-01

    For the positron emission tomography (PET) applications, radiopharmaceuticals are required that are labelled with short-lived positron emitters. Fluorine-18 has become the leading radionuclide used for PET, due to its favourable physical properties. However, the labelling of aromatic substances with fluorine-18 with the methods available presents problems not encountered with aliphatic compounds. The decomposition of aromatic diazonium salts opens up feasible ways of preparing a broad range of labelled compounds. The dissertation investigated the possibilities of labelling with fluorine-18 by way of dediazonation on the standard substrate p-Toluidyl diazonium ion. The results reported show that the method of fluorodediazonation is an interesting further method for F-18 labelling of aromatic substrates in addition to the hitherto applied techniques. It allows carrier-free labelling of a large group of substances which cannot be fluorinated via direct nucleophilicity. (BBR) [de

  6. Direct labeling of doxorubicin with technetium-99m. Its optimization, characterization and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, F.A.; Bokhari, T.H.; Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antineoplastic and one of the most potent and widely used drugs in clinical oncology. It is used in the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. The aim of this study was the direct labeling of DOX with 99m Tc; its optimization, characterization and quality control of the radiolabeled DOX. Labeling efficiency was determined by paper chromatography. More than 92% labeling was obtained at pH 6-7, 10-12 μg stannous chloride and 200 μg of DOX. The stability of 99m Tc-DOX was studied up to 5 h. All the experiments were performed at room temperature (25 ± 2 deg C). The characterization of the labeling compound was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis. Electrophoresis indicates that labeled DOX has no charge and HPLC shows single specie of labeled compound. (author)

  7. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  8. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  9. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  11. Mineralization of 14C-labeled agrochemicals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin; Huang Xiaohua; Hu Xiuqing; Zhang Yongxi

    2001-01-01

    14 C-labeled compounds were used to study the mineralization of methamidophos, 2,4-D and metsulfuron in soil. Mineralization rate was influenced by the type of soil, concentration of chemical in the soil, the initial soil microbial population and the nature of the chemical. (author)

  12. Food and Drug Labeling and the Adult Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Michael C.; Aker, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Full disclosure of ingredients on food, drugs, and cosmetic labels is really non-disclosure where the chemical formulation has no common name or where one generic name covers a variety of formations. The Food and Drug Administration offers suggestions for adult education programs in consumer awareness, understanding compound nomenclature, and…

  13. 40 CFR 59.103 - Container labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.103... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.103 Container... automobile refinish coating or coating component container or package, the day, month, and year on which the...

  14. 40 CFR 59.405 - Container labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.405... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.405 Container... section on the coating container in which the coating is sold or distributed. (1) The date the coating was...

  15. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew [Port Jefferson, NY; Schonberger, Matthias [Mains, DE; Schieferstein, Hanno [Aabergen, DE; Fowler, Joanna S [Bellport, NY

    2011-10-04

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  16. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  17. New compounds as potential radio diagnosticians Alzheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Marrero, S.; Sablón Carrazana, M.; Bencomo Martinez, A.; Merceron Martínez, D.; Jimenez Martín, J.; Pérez Perera, R.; Díaz García, O.; Rodríguez Tanty, Ch.; Prats Capote, A.; Perera Pintado, A; Fernández Maza, L.; Balcerzyk, M; Fernández Gómez, I.; Parrado Gallego, Á; León Chaviano, S.; Acosta Medina, E.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in Cuba and all over the World. According to demographic trends it has been called the epidemic of the century. It is characterized by the presence of neuropathological brain deposits: senile plaques, formed by neurofibrillary tangles (NT) and deposits of β-amyloid protein (Aß). Aß plaques could appear even 20 years before the establishment of first clinical symptoms of the disease. The aim of this study was to synthesize new naphthalene derivatives, feasible to be labeled with radionuclides emitters of either gamma radiation or positrons. These labeled compounds should be able to cross blood–brain barrier (BBB) in healthy and AD transgenic animals. As a result of this work, several synthetic precursors were synthesized, which were labeled with iodine-131, carbon-11 and fluorine-18 with a satisfactory radiochemical purity. The corresponding non-radioactive control compounds were also synthesized.In in vitro and in silico studies, obtained compounds showed affinity for the β-amyloid protein. According to SPECT and PET-CT images in healthy laboratory animals, obtained labeled compounds crossed BBB in a bi-directional way without any sign of brain uptake.Furthermore, evaluation of the biodistribution of the [ 18 F] -2- (3-fluoropropyl) -6-methoxynaphthalene ([[ 18 F] Amyloid® was performed in healthy animals.[[ 18 F]Amylovis crossed blood brain barrier. Renal and hepatic pathways were the main excretion routes. On the other hand, in transgenic mice with AD, its uptake and its retention time were higher in comparison with healthy mice. Immunohistochemistry and Congo red staining of control and transgenic mice brain slices were performed to identify β-amyloid plaques.Conclusions: Obtained compounds were able to bi-directionally cross BBB.[[ 18 F]Amylovis® could be a promising PET radiotracer for amyloid plaques visualization. (author)

  18. Synthesis of deuterium labelled cocaine and pseudococaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, J.F.; Raney, H.T. (State Bureau of Investigation, Raleigh, NC (USA). Drug Chemistry Lab.); Lewin, A.H. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); Cooper, D.A. (Drug Enforcement Administration, McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Cocaine and pseudococaine were mass-labelled with deuterium at various positions on the tropane ring. The synthetic procedures followed were adaptations of those previously published for the unlabelled compounds. The isotopic purity was greater than 95% for 2-({sup 2}H)-, 4,4-({sup 2}H2)-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-({sup 2}H6)-cocaine and 3-({sup 2}H)-, 4,4-({sup 2}H2)-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-({sup 2}H6)-pseudococaine, while that of 3-({sup 2}H)-cocaine exceeded 90%. (author).

  19. Synthesis of deuterium labelled cocaine and pseudococaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, J.F.; Raney, H.T.; Cooper, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Cocaine and pseudococaine were mass-labelled with deuterium at various positions on the tropane ring. The synthetic procedures followed were adaptations of those previously published for the unlabelled compounds. The isotopic purity was greater than 95% for 2-[ 2 H]-, 4,4-[ 2 H2]-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-[ 2 H6]-cocaine and 3-[ 2 H]-, 4,4-[ 2 H2]-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-[ 2 H6]-pseudococaine, while that of 3-[ 2 H]-cocaine exceeded 90%. (author)

  20. Synthesis of 14C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, J.B.A.; Janssen, C.G.M.; Verluyten, W.L.M.; Heykants, J.J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1- 14 C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems. (author)

  1. Labelling aflatoxine-B1 by radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.; Park, K.B.; Sung, H.K.; Ryu, Y.W.

    1977-01-01

    Labelling aflatoxines, the potential carcinogenic compounds, by radioactive iodine has been studied. The auflatoxine-B 1 , which is known to be the most abundant components of auflatoxines in the nature, was labelled by radioactive iodine-125 through an acid catalyst chloroamine-T procedure. The radiochemical yield was amounted to 63.6%. The chemical structure of the labelled product was proved to be 6-iodo 5-methoxy coumarine structure of auflatoxine-B 1 molecule by means of I.R. and N.M.R. spectroscopy. The labelled product was orally administered in a test animal (rat) and examined the accumulation of radioactivity in the body at the definite time interval. The accumulation of the radioactivity was pronounced at the blood and the liver. There was no indication of the decomposition of auflatoxine-B 1 - 125 I in the organs of the test animal. (author)

  2. Astatine-211 labelled proteins and their stability in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Changhou; Jin Jannan; Zhang Shuyuan; Wang Ketai; Zhang Dayuan; Zhou Maolun

    1989-01-01

    211 At or 131 I labelled proteins, e.g. 211 At-IgG or 211 At-BSA (bovine serum albumin) were prepared by 211 At reaction with the diazo-compound of para-aminobenzoic acid, which is then conjugated with IgG or BSA via an acylation reaction. The 211 At-carbon bond was found metabolically stable under in vivo conditions. For the labelling of proteins with 211 At or 131 I, other methods of direct oxidation are also described. The results show that for the labelling of proteins with 211 At, high rate of incorporation can be obtained with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, but the labelling of proteins with 131 I is more favourable with the strong oxidant Chloramine-T. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  4. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  5. Compounds Labelled with Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Emitters for Medical Isotope Scanning; Gammagraphie au Moyen de Composes Marques avec des Emetteurs Gamma de Faible Energie; Soedineniya, ispol'zuemye pri meditsinskom izotopnom skennirovanii, mechennye s pomoshch'yu gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj ehnergii; Compuestos Marcados con Emisores Gamma de Baja Energia para la Exploracion Medica Mediante Isotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, K. E.; Zum Winkel, K.; Georgi, M. [Czerny-Krankenhaus der Universitat Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-10-15

    Low-energy gamma emitters have a special merit for medical scintillation scanning for the following reasons: (1) The lead shielding of the collimators is much more effective. Multiple focusing thin-walled hole collimators can therefore be used, making a higher geometrical resolution possible and, therefore, the detection of smaller lesions. (2) The absorption of the radiation within the body tissue limits the depth of visibility of lesions. In extended organs like the liver, the superposition of radiation originating from the back of the organ is avoided. This allows a better detection of more superficial lesions. The most important low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide is I{sup 125}. For thyroid scanning, it is used in the form of iodide. A suitable compound for liver scanning is I{sup 125}-labelled Rose Bengal. An alternative compound is I{sup 125} -CAI (heat denatured albumin). For kidney scanning I{sup 125}-Hippuran was found to be suitable when injected intramuscularly with hyaluronidase to ensure a uniform level of radioactivity in the kidneys. Another useful low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide for medical scanning is Hg{sup 197} which may be used as chloride for kidney and spleen scanning. Special precautions must be taken to avoid overlying of kidney and spleen. A higher quality scan is obtained with Hg{sup 197}-labelled Neohydrin. This compound is also useful for brain-tumour localization. Typical scans of thyroid, liver, spleen, kidney and brain tumours obtained with low-energy gamma emitters and conventional nuclides and compounds are presented and the merits of the former are discussed. (author) [French] Les emetteurs gamma de faible energie presentent un interet particulier en gammagraphie, pour les raisons suivantes: 1. L'ecran en plomb des collimateurs est beaucoup plus efficace. On peut donc utiliser des collimateurs a focalisation a canaux multiples, et a parois minces, qui permettent d'avoir un excellent pouvoir de resolution et, par consequent, de

  6. [13N]ammonia in organic solvents; a potent synthetic precursor for 13N-labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Toshiyoshi; Hirobe, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    13 NH 3 in an organic solvent was prepared and its utility as a labeling precursor was studied. [ 13 N]adenine ([ 13 N]ADN), [ 13 N]nicotinamide ([ 13 N]NAM), [ 13 N]p-nitrophenyl carbamate ([ 13 N]NPC), and [ 13 N]L-glutamine ([ 13 N]Gln) were labeled utilizing this precursor. [ 13 N]ADN and [ 13 N]NAM were labeled in much better yields than from an aqueous solution of 13 NH 3 . [ 13 N]NPC and [ 13 N]Gln, which could not be labeled in an aqueous solution, were labeled in high radiochemical yields. Thus, the advantages of this precursor are the improvement of the labeling yield and the feasibility of labeling compounds unstable in aqueous conditions. (author)

  7. Synthesis of isotopically labelled angiotensin II receptor antagonist GR138950X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.M.; Cable, K.M.; Newman, J.J.; Sutherland, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Syntheses of [ 13 C] and [ 14 C]-labelled versions of angiotensin II receptor antagonist GR138950X, labelled in the imidazole carboxamide residue, are described. These involved preparation of an iodoimidazole substrate by a novel iododecarboxylation procedure, followed by cyanation with a mixture of carbon-labelled potassium cyanide and copper (l) iodide in DMF at high temperature. The preparation of a mass-labelled (M+5) version of GR138950X is also described. This involved the synthesis of an [ 13 C 3 , 15 N 2 ]-labelled imidazole from a 1,2,3-tricarbonyl compound, [ 13 C 3 ]propionaldehyde and [ 15 N]ammonia. The labelled imidazole was further elaborated into multiply-labelled GR138950X. (Author)

  8. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Lanreotide is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype I with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125 I-Lanreotide and 188 Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125 I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C 18 Cartridge. (C) The stability of 125 I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188 Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  9. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  10. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  11. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  12. 15N-labelled glycine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Claudineia R.O.; Bendassolli, Jose A.; Sant'Ana Filho, Carlos R.; Prestes, Clelber V.; Coelho, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a method for 15 N-isotope-labeled glycine synthesis, as well as details about a recovery line for nitrogen residues. To that effect, amination of α-haloacids was performed, using carboxylic chloroacetic acid and labeled aqueous ammonia ( 15 NH 3 ). Special care was taken to avoid possible 15 NH 3 losses, since its production cost is high. In that respect, although the purchase cost of the 13 N-labeled compound (radioactive) is lower, the stable tracer produced constitutes an important tool for N cycling studies in living organisms, also minimizing labor and environmental hazards, as well as time limitation problems in field studies. The tests were carried out with three replications, and variable 15 NH 3(aq) volumes in the reaction were used (50, 100, and 150 mL), in order to calibrate the best operational condition; glycine masses obtained were 1.7, 2, and 3.2 g, respectively. With the development of a system for 15 NH 3 recovery, it was possible to recover 71, 83, and 87% of the ammonia initially used in the synthesis. With the required adaptations, the same system was used to recover methanol, and 75% of the methanol initially used in the amino acid purification process were recovered. (author)

  13. Development of Tc-99m labeled myocardial imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. M.; Jang, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Ray, G.; Lee, M. S.

    2006-02-01

    Lipophilic cations have been widely used for myocardial SPECT. We synthesized novel +1 charged lipophilic Tc-99m-labeled N,N'-disubstituted N2S2 derivatives and investigated their biodistribution. The N,N'-dimethyl-, N,N'-diethyl-, N,N'-bis(methoxyethyl)-, and N,N'-bis(ethoxyethyl)N2S2 derivatives were synthesized by alkylating disulfide form of N2S2 with corresponding alkyl halides and subsequently reduced with LAH in THF. To label with Tc-99m, 50% gluconic acid (0.1 ml), SnCl2·2H2O (10 μg), Tc-99m-pertechnetate (370 MBq/2.5 ml) and 0.5 M Na2CO3 (0.3 ml) were added to the compounds. These mixtures were reacted in boiling water bath for 30∼60 min. Radiochemical purities were checked by Whatman No.1 chromatography (normal saline, Rf 0.3∼0.4). Biodistribution of each compound was investigated after injecting 74 kBq (0.1 ml) of each Tc-99m-labeled compound to ICR-mice through the tail vein. Chemical structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by GC-MSD and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. All of the Tc-99m-labeled compound showed labeling efficiencies of higher than 93%. In biodistribution study, the myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-N,N'-dimethylN2S2, Tc-99m-N,N'-diethylN2S2, Tc-99m-N,N'-bis(methoxyethyl)N2S2 and Tc-99m-N,N'-bis(ethoxyethyl)N2S2 were 5.38 ±0.96, 2.98 ±0.16, 4.27 ±0.47, 7.24 ±1.01% ID/g at 10 min and 5.34 ±1.57, 2.05 ±0.40, 1.02 ±0.16, 1.69 ±0.04% ID/g at 2 hr, respectively. We successfully synthesized Tc-99m-labeled N,N-disubstituted N2S2 derivatives that are novel lipophilic +1 charged compounds. We thought our results prove the feasibility of these compounds to use for myocardial SPECT agent

  14. A spin labelling study of immunomodulating peptidoglycan monomer and adamantyltripeptides entrapped into liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Ruza; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna; Vranesić, Branka; Mirosavljević, Krunoslav; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-04-01

    The interaction of immunostimulating compounds, the peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) and structurally related adamantyltripeptides (AdTP1 and AdTP2), respectively, with phospholipids in liposomal bilayers were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. (1). The fatty acids bearing the nitroxide spin label at different positions along the acyl chain were used to investigate the interaction of tested compounds with negatively charged multilamellar liposomes. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were studied at 290 and 310 K. The entrapment of the adamantyltripeptides affected the motional properties of all spin labelled lipids, while the entrapment of PGM had no effect. (2). Spin labelled PGM was prepared and the novel compound bearing the spin label attached via the amino group of diaminopimelic acid was chromatographically purified and chemically characterized. The rotational correlation time of the spin labelled molecule dissolved in buffer at pH 7.4 was studied as a function of temperature. The conformational change was observed above 300 K. The same effect was observed with the spin labelled PGM incorporated into liposomes. Such effect was not observed when the spin labelled PGM was studied at alkaline pH, probably due to the hydrolysis of PGM molecule. The study of possible interaction with liposomal membrane is relevant to the use of tested compounds incorporated into liposomes, as adjuvants in vivo.

  15. Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluations of Fluorescent or 149Promethium Labeled Trastuzumab-Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fitzsimmons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radioimmunotherapy utilize a targeting antibody coupled to a therapeutic isotope to target and treat a tumor or disease. In this study we examine the synthesis and cell binding of a polymer scaffold containing a radiotherapeutic isotope and a targeting antibody. Methods: The multistep synthesis of a fluorescent or 149Promethium-labeled Trastuzumab-polyethyleneimine (PEI, Trastuzumab, or PEI is described. In vitro uptake, internalization and/or the binding affinity to the Her2/neu expressing human breast adenocarcinoma SKBr3 cells was investigated with the labeled compounds. Results: Fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab-PEI was internalized more into cells at 2 and 18 h than fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab or PEI. The fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab was concentrated on the cell surface at 2 and 18 h and the labeled PEI had minimal uptake. DOTA-PEI was prepared and contained an average of 16 chelates per PEI; the compound was radio-labeled with 149Promethium and conjugated to Trastuzumab. The purified 149Pm-DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab had a radiochemical purity of 96.7% and a specific activity of 0.118 TBq/g. The compound demonstrated a dissociation constant for the Her2/neu receptor of 20.30 ± 6.91 nM. Conclusion: The results indicate the DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab compound has potential as a targeted therapeutic carrier, and future in vivo studies should be performed.

  16. Labeling of monoclonal antibody conjugates with 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta-Hennessy, Cecilia; Sharkey, R.M.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    An anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody, NP-4, was labeled with 90 Y using p-isothiocyanatobenzyl DTPA (SCN-Bz-DTPA) and its derivatives 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-3-methyl-DTPA (1B3M), 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-4-methyl-DTPA (1M3B), 1-(2)-methyl-4-isothiocyanatobenzyl-DTPA (MX-DTPA) as the chelating agents. The 90 Y conjugates were purified from unbound 90 Y by two different methods, HPLC or acrylamide size exclusion gel chromatography, in order to evaluate the best purification method. Labeling efficiency, reaction kinetics and immunoreactivity were compared to the same antibodies labeled with [ 111 In]citrate. Labeling efficiency, as determined by either HPLC or ITLC (instant thin layer chromatography), was consistently higher by ITLC than HPLC for 90 Y-labeled MAb, but equal for 111 In-labeled MAbs. Discrepancies between the 2 methods were linked to impurities in the 90 Y that remained at the origin of ITLC plates. After purification by acrylamide gel filtration, recovery was 50-60% of loaded 90 Y activity, but was more than 87% for the 111 In compounds. Using HPLC, the recovery measured 85% for 90 Y-labeled MAb and more than 93% for 111 In-labeled conjugates. Immunoreactivity of the [ 90 Y]MAb was comparable to the 111 In-labeled conjugates. These studies indicate that HPLC purification of the [ 90 Y] MAbs improves recovery of activity, and suggests that impurities found in the 90 Y and metal-binding properties of acrylamide may have contributed to the poor recoveries from acrylamide gels. (author)

  17. Labeling of monoclonal antibody conjugates with sup 90 Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta-Hennessy, Cecilia; Sharkey, R.M.; Goldenberg, D.M. (Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Newark, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    An anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody, NP-4, was labeled with {sup 90}Y using p-isothiocyanatobenzyl DTPA (SCN-Bz-DTPA) and its derivatives 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-3-methyl-DTPA (1B3M), 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-4-methyl-DTPA (1M3B), 1-(2)-methyl-4-isothiocyanatobenzyl-DTPA (MX-DTPA) as the chelating agents. The {sup 90}Y conjugates were purified from unbound {sup 90}Y by two different methods, HPLC or acrylamide size exclusion gel chromatography, in order to evaluate the best purification method. Labeling efficiency, reaction kinetics and immunoreactivity were compared to the same antibodies labeled with ({sup 111}In)citrate. Labeling efficiency, as determined by either HPLC or ITLC (instant thin layer chromatography), was consistently higher by ITLC than HPLC for {sup 90}Y-labeled MAb, but equal for {sup 111}In-labeled MAbs. Discrepancies between the 2 methods were linked to impurities in the {sup 90}Y that remained at the origin of ITLC plates. After purification by acrylamide gel filtration, recovery was 50-60% of loaded {sup 90}Y activity, but was more than 87% for the {sup 111}In compounds. Using HPLC, the recovery measured 85% for {sup 90}Y-labeled MAb and more than 93% for {sup 111}In-labeled conjugates. Immunoreactivity of the ({sup 90}Y)MAb was comparable to the {sup 111}In-labeled conjugates. These studies indicate that HPLC purification of the ({sup 90}Y) MAbs improves recovery of activity, and suggests that impurities found in the {sup 90}Y and metal-binding properties of acrylamide may have contributed to the poor recoveries from acrylamide gels. (author).

  18. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  19. Fate of 15N and 14C from labelled plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Gjettermann, Birgitte; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    strength of labelled plant residues in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and dissolved organic N (DON) in pore water from the plough layer, and (ii) the plant uptake of organically bound N. Litterbags containing 14C- and 15N-labelled ryegrass or clover roots or leaves were inserted into the sward of a ryegrass......–clover mixture in early spring. The fate of the released 14C and 15N was monitored in harvested biomass, roots, soil, and pore water percolating from the plough layer. No evidence of plant uptake of dual-labelled organic compounds from the dual-labelled residues could be observed. N in pore water from the plough...

  20. Study of the biogenesis of flavones and cinnamic acids by using molecules labelled with carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabannes, Bernard

    1970-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of flavones, flavonoid compounds and cinnamic acids which are very common as natural pigments in plant species. The author first reports the study of the synthesis of shikimic acid labelled with carbon 14 (biological methods of preparation, synthesis), and then the synthesis of prunin labelled with carbon 14. The next part reports the study of the transformation of prunin labelled with carbon 14 into cosmosiine in flowers with white cosmos. The author finally compares the introduction of cinnamic acid and of shikimic acid (both labelled with carbon 14) into the sinapic acid of red cabbage leaves

  1. In vivo stability and inertness of various direct labelled and chelate-tagged protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoki, A.; Korosi, L.; Klivenyi, G.; Spett, B.

    1987-01-01

    There were looking for methods giving precise information about composition and activity distribution of protein components, both in the initial samples and serum samples after intravenous administration. It was tested the applicability of electroimmunoassay, polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for the assessment of in vivo stability and labelled proteins. The model compound was human serum albumin (HSA) labelled with 99m Tc and 125 I, respectively. Bifunctional chelate labelling was done with desferrioxamine, in this case protein was labelled with 67 Ga. Biodistribution of the labelled compounds and their elimination from the blood were studied in rabbits. Experience with various labelling proteins, especially with Tc-Sn-HSA system indicate that in vivo stability of this compounds are generally low. Following intravenous injection of proteins labelled with metal isotopes, due to dilution and to the presence of considerable amount of compatitive protein in the serum, part of the label is being detached from the carrier protein. Distribution of the detached metal is different from the original distribution of the protein. This problem arises also with radiopharmaceuticals based on monoclonal antibodies. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  3. Synthesis of 15N isotope labeled alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Sant'Ana, Carlos Roberto; Tagliassachi, Romulo Barbieri; Maximo, Everaldo; Prestes, Clelber Vieira

    2005-01-01

    The application of light chemical elements and their stable isotopes in biological studies have been increased over the last years. The use of 15 N labeled amino acids is an important tool for elucidation of peptides structures. This paper describe a method for the synthesis of 15 N isotope labeled alanine at lower costs than international ones, as well as the details of the recovery system of the nitrogen residues. In the present work an amination of α-haloacids, with the bromopropionic carboxylic acid and labeled aqua ammonia ( 15 NH 3 aq) was carried out. In order to avoid eventually losses of 15 NH 3 , special cares were adopted, since the production cost is high. Although the acquisition cost of the 13 N (radioactive) labeled compounds is lower, the obtained stable tracer will allow the accomplishment of important studies of the nitrogen cycling in living things, less occupational and environment hazards, and the time limitation problems in field studies. The tests took place in triplicates with NH 3 (aq) being employed. With the establishment of the system for 15 NH 3 recovery, an average of 94 % of the ammonia employed in the synthesis process was recovered. The purity of the amino acid was state determined by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) with a fluorescence detector. The Rf and the retention time of the synthesized sample were similar the sigma standard. Finally, regarding the established conditions, it was possible to obtain the alanine with a production cost about 40 % lower than the international price. (author)

  4. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  5. preparation of some radiopharmaceutical compounds for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-shaboury, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis investigations were carried out aiming to elaboration of a new improved and short time techniques to prepare some radioiodinated labelled organic compounds having high chemical and radiochemical purity and with high specific activity for clinical use in nuclear medicine as diagnostic aids. The labelled compounds were the following: 1. radioiodinated rose bengal ( tetra-chloro-tetraiodo-fluorescein) for liver function studies. 2. radioiodinated long chain fatty acids. 2.1 16-1-hexadecanoic acid. 2.2 17-1-heptadecanoic acid. for myocardial infarction studies

  6. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  7. N-13 labeled amino acids: biodistribution, metabolism and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Gelbard, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    With the growing interest in metabolic imaging and with the increasing number of cyclotron/PET facilities, more studies are being performed in animal and humans using short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides. Amino acids labeled either with N-13 or C-11 are one group of compounds being used to study in vivo regional organ (i.e., brain and heart) or tumor metabolism. Of the studies previously reported using C-11 or N-13 labeled amino acids (methionine, alanine, valine, glutamate, glutamine and tryptophan), imaging was restricted mainly to the organ or tissue of interest with little information obtained about the whole-bode distribution of the label. Such data are important for studying interorgan transport of amino acids and for determining accurate dosimetric measurements after intravenous injection of labeled amino acids. The goals of the authors study were to compare the distribution of several N-13 L-amino acids and N-13 ammonia in tumor-bearing mice and to determine the metabolic fate of the label in vivo. The following amino acids were enzymatically labeled using N-13 ammonia: glutamine, glutamate, methionine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine. 30 references, 2 figures, 14 tables

  8. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  9. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments.

  10. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments

  11. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  12. Technetium complexation by macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fan Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Research in nuclear medicine are directed towards the labelling of biological molecules, however, sup(99m)Tc does not show sufficient affinity for these molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of macrocyclic compounds to bind strongly technetium in order to be used as complexation intermediate. The reducing agents used were a stannous complex and sodium dithionite. Cryptates and polyesters are not good complexing agents. They form two complexes: a 2:1 sandwich complex or 3:2 and a 1:1 complex. Cyclams are good complexing agents for technetium their complexations strength was determined by competition with pyrophosphate, gluconate and DTPA. Using the method of ligand exchange, the oxidation state of technetium in the Tc-cyclam complex was IV or V. They are 1:1 cationic complexes, the complex charge is +1. The biodistribution in rats of labelling solutions containing (cyclam 14 ane N 4 ) C 12 H 25 shows a good urinary excretion without intoxication risks [fr

  13. Labelling of TTHA coupled IgG and MCAb with rare earth radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Younghui; Zhang Yulei; Wu Chuanchu; Wang Xiangyun; Liu Yuanfang

    1988-07-01

    This article expands a process of labelling G-immunoglobulin (IgG) and monoclonal antibody (MCAb) with rare earth radionuclides. In this labelling process, cycloanhydride (CTTHAA) of Tri-ethyl Tetra-amine Hexa-acetic Acid (TTHA) is employed as a bifunctional chelating conjugate, the metal chelation takes place after CTTHAA has first been linked to IgG, followed by chemical reaction with rare earth radionuclides. Detailed investigations have been carried out to examine the influencing parameters of labelling globulins with rare earth, such as metal to CTTHAA mole-ratio, pH value and labelling time. The immunoreactivity of the labelled compound (RE-TTHA-IgG) has been retained throughout the whole labelling process

  14. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  15. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  16. Synthetic routes to some isotopically labelled intermediates for diterpenoid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, R.M.; Godfrey, I.M.; Hogg, R.W.; Knox, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The exo-15-hydrogen of ent-kaurene can be exchanged through a reversible ene reaction in a convenient and efficient procedure which has the potential for giving high specific activity 3 H-labelling. Copalol, the (Z)-double bond stereoisomer, and the allylic alcohol isomers ent-manool and ent-epimanool have been obtained through divergent synthetic pathways involving a 15,16-bisnor ketone intermediate. These pathways have also allowed the four compounds to be obtained with 14 C-labelling. A method, involving a Wittig reaction to form a vinyl bromide intermediate, has been developed for obtaining copalol, as the trityl ether derivative, with stereospecific isotopic labelling of one or the other of the hydrogens of the exocyclic methylene group. 27 refs., figs

  17. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  18. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  19. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  20. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  1. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  2. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  3. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  4. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  5. Synthesis of pyridine and isoquinoline labelled with 14C on the nitrogen heterocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robveille, Jacques

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the synthesis of derivatives of pyridine and isoquinoline labelled with carbon 14 ( 14 C) in the nitrogenated heterocycle as these compounds are of biological and pharmacological interest. The author aimed at developing rather general synthesis schemes which could be easily applied to the synthesis of radioactive compounds, and could produce, through a given synthesis way, the largest as possible family of differently substituted compounds. Different sources for labelled pyridine and isoquinoline have been used: dioxo-1,5 or their corresponding dioxins, substituted pentadienoic acids, derivatives of acrylic acid, and derivatives of cinnamic acid. Thus, three different synthesis processes have been developed to obtain 14 C labelled pyridine, and one of them is applied to the preparation of 14 C labelled isoquinoline. These synthesis processes can have a very general application, and allow different 14 C labelling positions to be envisaged. The possibility to obtain the same compounds but labelled with tritium can also be envisaged to obtain much higher specific activities [fr

  6. 131I labeling of tamoxifen and biodistribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Unak, P.; Teksoz, S.; Acar, C.; Yolcular, S.; Yuerekli, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Tamoxifen [TAM ([Z]-2-[4-(1,2-diphenyl-1-di-butenyl)-phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylethanamine)] has been used as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. Tamoxifen was labeled with 131 I using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Mass spectroscopy of the cold standard showed that the labeling occurs in ortho position to the phenyl ether position of TAM as expected. Quality control, radiochemical yield and stability were established using the radioelectrophoresis method. The radiolabeled compound maintained its stability throughout working period of 24 h. Scintigraphic imaging was performed and tissue distribution was determined in Albino Wistar rats. According to biodistribution and imaging experiments the radiolabeled compound presented estrogen receptor (ER) specificity and it was uptaken by endometrium as well as breast tissue

  7. Comparison of Two Kinds of 64Cu Labelled Octreotide Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Zhen-yi1;LIANG Ji-xin1;HU Ji2;LUO Hong-yi1;QING Jing2;CHEN Yu-qing2;LI Guang2;LI Hong-yu1,2

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Octreotide analogues DOTA-TOC and DOTA-TATE were labeled with 64Cu. The influences of the ratio of peptide mass to 64Cu activity, pH value, temperature and reaction time on labeling yield were investigated. The optimum labeling was determined. In vitro stability tests in saline and 10% bovine serum had been carried out. Biodistribution of the two radiolabelled compounds in normal mice and Micro PET imaging in nude mice bearing U87MG tumor had been evaluated. The results showed that the labeling yields of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE were higher than 95%. Two kinds of octreotide analogues labeled with 64Cu were quite stable in saline and decomposed slowly in 10% bovine serum at 37 ℃. Biodistribution results in normal mice showed that two 64Cu labelled tracers had similar profiles. Both of the compounds washed out from the blood quickly. High uptake of radioactivity in liver and kidneys indicated the tracers were excreted via both hepatobiliary system and renal system. At the same time, compared to 64Cu-DOTA-TOC, higher radioactivity accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in liver and kidneys was observed. Micro PET images of U87MG tumor-bearing nude mice with 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE showed the tumors very clearly. The radioactivity uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in tumor was higher than that of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC. This work has paved the way for further preclinical and clinical application of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE as PET tumor imaging agents.

  8. Studies on 14C labelled chlorpyrifos in model marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.; Mohan Rao, A.M.; Kale, S.P.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Raghu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is one of the widely used organophosphorus insecticides in tropical countries. Experiments were conducted with 14 C labelled chlorpyrifos to study the distribution of this compound in model marine ecosystem. Less than 50 per cent of the applied activity remained in water in 24 h. Major portion of the applied chlorpyrifos (about 4.2 % residue per g) accumulated into the clams with sediment containing a maximum of 5 to 6 per cent of applied compound. No degradation of chlorpyrifos was observed in water or sediment samples. However, metabolic products were formed in clams. (author). 4 refs., 3 tabs

  9. /sup 99m/Tc-labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, G.; Maini, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the last 15 years many compounds labelled with /sup 99m/Tc have been proposed for use in cholescintigraphy. A short chronological list includes: toluidine blue, penicillamine, tetracycline, dihydrothioctic acid, mercaptoisubutyric acid, pyridoxals, pyridoxylideneaminates, carboxyl-hydroxyquinoline, substituted acetanilide iminodiacetates (so called IDAs), ethylenediamine-N, N-diacetate derivatives (such as sulfonyl-EDDA and benzoyl-EDDA), and orthoiodohippurate analogues. Among all these compounds the IDAs have been those most extensively used for basic and clinical research. A large series of IDA derivatives has been developed, and the properties of 33 of them have recently been tested

  10. Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by labelling with fluorophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moersel, J.T.; Schmiedl, D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiolysis of triglycerides results in radiolytic formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanone. Identification of such radiolysis products is attractive for both the detection of irradiation treatment of food and for quality assurance of irradiated foods. The authors demonstrated the model compound 2-dodecylcyclobutanone by the key compound 1-bromo-1-ethoxycyclopropane. Detection was effected by labelling the cyclobutanone with suitable fluorescent dies and by tracing them analytically by fluorescence detection using HPLC. 1-Pyrene-butyryl acid hydrazide (P-101) and 7-diethylaminecumarine-3-carbonylazide (D-1446) were used as fluorophores. Suitable model matrices resulted in a sensitive detection of dodecylcyclobutanone. (orig./UHE) [de

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  13. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  15. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  16. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  17. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  6. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA

  7. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  8. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  9. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  10. Tritium labelling of testosteron by selective hydrogenation of dihydrotestosteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Simion, Elena; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It might be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it might be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic value. Labelling of testosteron with tritium was necessary for the carrying out of radiometric and molecular biology studies concerning androgen dependent diseases. Testosteron was labelled by selective hydrogenation of 1,2 dihydrotestosteron acetate. The forerunner was synthesized in two steps: 1) esterification of testosteron using acetic anhydride, and 2) selective dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosteron acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The dehydrogenation process was characterized by yields of 82% for synthesis and 33% for purification. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained in two steps: 1) selective hydrogenation of Δ 1 - testosteron acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and 2) hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH. The raw product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. The physical and chemical characterization of labelled testosteron reveals a radiochemical purity higher than 98% and a specific activity of 53.4 Ci/mmol. (authors)

  11. (/sup 13/N)ammonia in organic solvents; a potent synthetic precursor for /sup 13/N-labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, Toshiyoshi; Hirobe, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Osamu; Irie, Toshiaki; Yamasaki, Toshio

    1987-01-01

    /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ in an organic solvent was prepared and its utility as a labeling precursor was studied. (/sup 13/N)adenine ((/sup 13/N)ADN), (/sup 13/N)nicotinamide ((/sup 13/N)NAM), (/sup 13/N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((/sup 13/N)NPC), and (/sup 13/N)L-glutamine ((/sup 13/N)Gln) were labeled utilizing this precursor. (/sup 13/N)ADN and (/sup 13/N)NAM were labeled in much better yields than from an aqueous solution of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/. (/sup 13/N)NPC and (/sup 13/N)Gln, which could not be labeled in an aqueous solution, were labeled in high radiochemical yields. Thus, the advantages of this precursor are the improvement of the labeling yield and the feasibility of labeling compounds unstable in aqueous conditions.

  12. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  13. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.; Gil, M.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Goldman, A.G.; Richards, P.

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image

  14. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  15. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  16. The method of obtaining of sodium orthoiodohippurate labelled with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, D.; Abdukayumov, M.; Shukurov, A.Sh.

    1994-01-01

    The method of labelling of sodium orthoiodohippurate was elaborated with the purpose of increasing the preparation quality. Method includes the reaction of isotopic exchange between orthoiodhippur acid and sodium iodide solution labelled with iodine-131 with volume activity 150-200 mCu/mL and pH=6,5-7,0. Reaction occurs at temperature 120-130 C during 1,1-1,3 hours and the compound obtained is dissolved in 1% sodium bicarbonate solution. (author)

  17. Laboratory of radioisotopes of IOCB ASCR - recent results of labeling by 3H and 125I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Veselá, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 7/8 (2009), s. 253-254 ISSN 0362-4803. [15th Workshop of the International Isotope Society - Central European Division: The synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds. 12.06.2009-13.06.2008, Bad Soden] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tritium * 125-I labeled peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. No-carrier-added labeling of the neuroprotective Ebselen with selenium-73 and selenium-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Andreas; Ermert, Johannes; Humpert, Sven; Coenen, Heinz H

    2015-03-01

    Selenium-73 is a positron emitting non-standard radionuclide, which is suitable for positron emission tomography. A copper-catalyzed reaction allowed no-carrier-added labeling of the anti-inflammatory seleno-organic compound Ebselen with (73) Se and (75) Se under addition of sulfur carrier in a one-step reaction. The new authentically labeled radioselenium molecule is thus available for preclinical evaluation and positron emission tomography studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preparation of 2H- and 13C-labelled precursors of 2-hydroxy-1, 3-butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecek, F.

    1987-01-01

    2-exo-Vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ols, specifically labelled with 2 H at C-3 and in the vinyl group were prepared from bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-one in several steps. [4- 13 C]oct-1-en-3-one was prepared in five steps from 13 CO 2 . These compounds serve as precursors for the preparation of specifically labelled neutral and ionized 2-hydroxy-1, 3-butadienes. (author)

  20. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  1. Study of the transport of mercurial compounds by seric proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien-Saint Guily, Nicole

    1970-01-01

    A bond between the seric proteins and various mercurial compounds labeled with the radioisotopes 203 Hg and 197 Hg was demonstrated by means of research methods specific to radioactivity combined with protein separation techniques. In the course of this study it was shown how strongly the composition of the buffer during electrophoretic migration influences the transport of certain organo-mercurial compounds by the seric proteins. By means of a thioloprive: N - ethyl - maleimide, labeled with 14 C, it was proved that the bonding sites between the proteins and the mercurial compounds were the thiol groups of the proteins but that other bonding sites, in particular the amino groups, could also be involved. (author) [fr

  2. Stability of compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jesse; Brown, Stacy

    2017-10-01

    Trilostane is a synthetic steroid analog used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. For small dogs, the dose found in commercially available dosage forms of trilostane is sometimes too high. Compounding trilostane in a liquid diluent provides an option for more precise dosing and adjustments, and can be easier to administer, versus a tablet or capsule. Trilostane suspends well in cod liver oil, which is generally palatable to dogs. The stability of a compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil stored at room temperature was investigated for 90 days. Compounded trilostane retained stability, defined as maintaining 90-105% labeled value, for 60 days when stored in amber glass bottles. However, drug potency fell >10% below the labeled value when stored in amber plastic bottles after 7 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative study on the iodine-labeled methods of protein and polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaifen; Niu Huisheng; Yuan Mingyue; Yu Jinghua

    1994-01-01

    There are three methods: chloramine-T, Iodogen and lactoperoxidase(LPO). 125 I-ACTH, 125 I-insulin and 125 I-HSA are prepared by these techniques. The results show that lactoperoxidase is isolated and purified from fresh milk, meanwhile, the enzyme is used in experiments of 125 I-labeled protein, peptide hormone and mono-clone antibody, etc. LPO is a very successful method for it's mild, complete reaction, controllable, high labelling yield, higher purity of iodine-labeled compound and so on. It remains biological activation and stable character more than other two techniques

  4. A comparative study on the iodine-labeled methods of protein and polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huaifen, Li; Huisheng, Niu; Mingyue, Yuan; Jinghua, Yu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin (China). Inst. of Radiation Medicine

    1994-02-01

    There are three methods: chloramine-T, Iodogen and lactoperoxidase(LPO). [sup 125]I-ACTH, [sup 125]I-insulin and [sup 125]I-HSA are prepared by these techniques. The results show that lactoperoxidase is isolated and purified from fresh milk, meanwhile, the enzyme is used in experiments of [sup 125]I-labeled protein, peptide hormone and mono-clone antibody, etc. LPO is a very successful method for it's mild, complete reaction, controllable, high labelling yield, higher purity of iodine-labeled compound and so on. It remains biological activation and stable character more than other two techniques.

  5. A study of the mechanism of certain heterogeneous catalytic processes using C{sup 14}-labelled compounds; Utilisation de composes marques au carbone-14 pour l'etude du mecanisme de certains processus catalytiques heterogenes; Issledovanie mekhanizma nekotorykh geterogenno-kataliticheskikh protsessov s primeneniem soedinenij, mechennykh uglerodom-14; Estudio del mecanismo de algunos procesos de catalisis heterogenea con ayuda de compuestos marcados con carbono-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isagulyants, G V; Balandin, A A

    1962-03-15

    An investigation is made of the method of calculating individual phase velocities for parallel, consecutive and parallel-consecutive reactions from kinetic data obtained by the use of labelled atoms. The method is used for calculating individual phase velocities in the decomposition reaction of isopropyl alcohol into vanadium trioxides, dehydrogenations of butane-butylene mixtures and dehydrations of ethyl alcohol. Compounds containing C{sup 14} were used in this study. (author) [French] Le memoire expose une methode par laquelle on calcule les vitesses a differents stades dans les reactions paralleles, consecutives et paralleles-consecutives en se servant de donnees cinetiques obtenues par l'utilisation d'atomes indicateurs. Cette methode est utilisee pour le calcul des vitesses a differents stades de la decomposition de l'alcool isopropylique par le trioxyde de vanadium, de la deshydrogenation des melanges butane-butylene et de la deshydratation de l'alcool ethylique. Pour ces travaux, on a utilise des composes contenant du carbone-14. (author) [Spanish] Se describe un metodo de calculo de las velocidades correspondientes a las distintas etapas de una serie de reacciones paralelas, consecutivas y paralelo-consecutivas, partiendo de datos cineticos obtenidos mediante atomos marcados. El metodo se aplica a la determinacion de las velocidades de las reacciones de descomposicion del alcohol isopropilico por el trioxido de vanadio, de deshidrogenacion de mezclas de butano y buteno y de deshidratacion del alcohol etilico. El trabajo se llevo a cabo con ayuda de compuestos marcados con carbono-14. (author) [Russian] Rassmotren metod rascheta skorostej otdel'nykh stadij dlya parallel'nykh, konsekutivnykh i parallel'no-konsekutivnykh reaktsij, iskhodya iz kineticheskikh dannykh, poluchennykh s primeneniem mechenykh atomov. Metod primenen k raschetu skorostej otdel'nykh stadij v reaktsii razlozheniya izopropilovogo spirta na trekhokisi vanadiya, degidrogenizatsii butan

  6. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  7. Labelling of m-trimethyl silylphenyl-ethylidene-1, i-bisphosphonate with /sup 99m/Tc and its evaluation as an imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, K.M.; Mahmood, R.

    2012-01-01

    Technetium-99m labeled phosphates and phosphonates have since long been in use for bone imaging to diagnose bone infection, bone metastasis and bone fracture. /sup 131/ I -labeled bisphosphonates have also been prepared for targeted radiotherapy of bone metastasis. Although animal experiments show good accumulation of bisphosphonates in bone. The agent has never been tried in humans because of high gamma and beta energy. The agent must first be tested in humans using a relatively safe radioisotope. Technitium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) a radioisotope with relatively low gamma energy 99m and short half-life can serve as a good label. Whether /sup 99m/Tc-labeled bisphosphonates can be used as good imaging agents is another aspect that needs further investigation. A study was therefore, conducted to label m-trimethyl silylphenyl)-ethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate with /sup 99m/Tc and standardize the labeling procedure. The labeling procedure - involved reduction of technetium (TcO/sub 4/) with stannous chloride followed by chelation of technetium with bisphosphonates. Radiochemical purity was checked by paper chromatography. Pyrogenicity was checked by administration of the labeled compound into rabbits. The stability of the compound was determined by noting the radiochemical binding at several intervals of half an hour after preparation. Biodistribution of the agent was studied by injecting the labeled compound into rabbits. The results showed that the compound could be labeled with /sup 99m/Tc without any difficulty. The ease of binding was excellent. There was more than 95% binding of technetium with the compound and the labelled compound was reasonably stable for 5 hours after labeling. The rectal temperature remained stable during this period, which showed that the animal accepted the compound and there were no pyrogenic reactions. Biodistribution studies on rabbit showed that accumulation of agent was poor in bones and the labeled compound remains in blood even after 4

  8. Labelling by deuteration and nitroxide radicals of mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides (cellulose and amylose)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odier, L

    1975-01-01

    The application of NMR and deuteration labelling to the investigation of polysaccharides has led to considerable progress in recent years in the knowledge of these compounds. Although far more recent, the introduction of spin labelling techniques in the investigation of polymers, has given rise to interesting EPR studies of synthetic and natural macromolecules, but nothing appears to have been accomplished in the area of spin labelling of polysaccharides. This work was aimed at applying these two techniques to the study of glucose derivatives and of some of its oligomers (low molecular weight polymers): cellobiose, maltose and cyclodextrins; and its polymers: cellulose and amylose. Irrespective of the technique employed, the complexity of the polymers and problems connected with handling them always require the same procedure: an initial study of a model compound generally prepared from the monomer or an oligomer (dimer), followed by the oligomers, and finally the polymer. Part 1 is devoted to the deuteration labelling of mono- and oligosaccharides. Part 2 concerns spin labelling of cellulose acetate. In part 3, an attempt is made to apply the spin labelling technique to the determination of conformations of two disaccharides of different glycosidic configurations: cellobiose and maltose. Part 4 is devoted to spin and deuteration labelling of ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. cyclodextrins.

  9. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  10. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  11. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  12. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  13. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  14. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  15. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  16. Synthesis of selectively 13C-labelled benzoic acid for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurement of glycine conjugation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Shigeo

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of [4- 13 C]benzoic acid (BA) labelled in a single protonated carbon, for use as a probe to measure glycine conjugation activity by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, has been reported. The labelled compound was prepared by a seven-step synthetic scheme on a relatively small scale using [2- 13 C] acetone as the source of label in overall yield of 16%. The usefulness of [4- 13 C]BA was demonstrated by the NMR spectroscopic monitoring of urinary excretion of [4- 13 C]hippuric acid in the rat administered with the labelled BA. (Author)

  17. Self-decomposition components generated from [sup 35]S-labeled amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takahisa; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    We examined the fragment molecules in the gaseous components generated from [sup 35]S-amino acids with high specific radioactivity. The self-decomposition mode of a molecule labeled with a [beta]-emitter was similar to the fragmentation mode of organic compounds impacted by accelerated electrons as in organic mass spectrometry. Degradation products of unlabeled amino acids irradiated by [sup 60]Co [gamma]-ray indicated that the degradation mode induced by external [gamma]-rays irradiation was different from the self-decomposition mode of labeled compounds. (Author).

  18. Synthesis of canrenone and related steroids labelled with tritium, carbon-14, and sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.; Zitzwitz, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The syntheses of [1- 3 H]canrenone, [1- 3 H]spironolactone, [1- 3 H] potassium canrenoate, [22- 14 C]canrenone, [22- 14 C]spironolactone, [22- 14 C]potassium canrenoate, and [ 35 S]spironolactone are reported. Tritium labelled compounds were obtained by catalytic reduction of a 3-keto-1, 4-diene precursor followed by exchange of enolizable label. Carbon-14 compounds were obtained by reaction of a 17-ethynyl steroid with 14 CO 2 . Sulfur-35 spironolactone was synthesized by the in-situ generation of [ 35 S]thiolacetic acid from [ 35 S]sodium sulfide. (author)

  19. Synthesis of 14C- and 3H-labelled 4-(4-nitrophenyl)aminophenylisothiocyanate (Go 9333/CGP 4540; amoscanate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Maller, R.K.; Nagarajan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Amoscanate, a broad spectrum anthelmintic, labelled with carbon-14 on the isothiocyanate carbon atom was prepared in an overall yield of 13% at a specific activity of 4.13 μCi/mg from potassium [ 14 C]thiocyanate. The 4-nitro[U- 14 C]phenyl ring labelled compound was synthesized in 20.4% overall yield from [U- 14 C]aniline at a specific activity of 12.2 μCi/mg. The corresponding tritiated compound was prepared from 4-amino[2- 3 H]acetanilide at 112 μCi/mg. Labelling with tritium in the aromatic ring bearing the isothiocyanate group was achieved by catalysed halogen-tritium replacement. However, for pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies in experimental animals, the 14 C- and 3 H-labels associated with the phenylisothiocyanate moiety subsequently proved disadvantageous because of the instability of the labels in vivo. (author)

  20. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  1. Synthesis of analogues of purine nucleotides selectively labeled by tritium on the C-8 of the purine ring and evaluation of the stability of tritium label

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2010), s. 156-157 ISSN 0362-4803. [Workshop of the International Isotope Society - Central European Division. The Synthesis and applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labelled Compounds /16./. 01.10.2009-02.10.2009, Bad Soden] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleotide analogues * tritium Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  3. Ferrocene, ruthenocene or rhodocene analogues of Haloperidol. Synthesis and organ distribution after labelling with 103Ru or 103mRh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Ferrocene-Haloperidol was synthesized by N-alkylation of 4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine with 1-ferrocenyl-4-chlor-butan-1-on. By heating the ferrocene-haloperidol with 103 RuCl 3 the 103 Ru-labelled ruthenocene-haloperidol was obtained. This compound showed a high affinity for lung but not for brain in rats and mice. The decay of the 103 Ru labelled compound results in the formation of the 103m Rh labelled rhodocene-haloperidol, which is rapidly oxidized by air to the corresponding rhodocinium-haloperidol. This compound can be separated by extraction and TLC. (author)

  4. Ferrocene, ruthenocene or rhodocene analogues of Haloperidol. Synthesis and organ distribution after labelling with /sup 103/Ru or /sup 103m/Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, M; Wu, Y

    1988-01-01

    Ferrocene-Haloperidol was synthesized by N-alkylation of 4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine with 1-ferrocenyl-4-chlor-butan-1-on. By heating the ferrocene-haloperidol with /sup 103/RuCl/sub 3/ the /sup 103/Ru-labelled ruthenocene-haloperidol was obtained. This compound showed a high affinity for lung but not for brain in rats and mice. The decay of the /sup 103/Ru labelled compound results in the formation of the /sup 103m/Rh labelled rhodocene-haloperidol, which is rapidly oxidized by air to the corresponding rhodocinium-haloperidol. This compound can be separated by extraction and TLC.

  5. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  6. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  7. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  8. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  9. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  10. [(64) Cu]-labelled trastuzumab: optimisation of labelling by DOTA and NODAGA conjugation and initial evaluation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoeth-Eskesen, Christina; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Heissel, Søren; Højrup, Peter; Hansen, Paul Robert; Gillings, Nic; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-05-30

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-30% of all breast cancer cases, leading to increased cell proliferation, growth and migration. The monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, binds to HER2 and is used for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab has previously been labelled with copper-64 by conjugation of a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator. The aim of this study was to optimise the (64) Cu-labelling of DOTA-trastuzumab and as the first to produce and compare with its 1,4,7-triazacyclononane, 1-glutaric acid-5,7 acetic acid (NODAGA) analogue in a preliminary HER2 tumour mouse model. The chelators were conjugated to trastuzumab using the activated esters DOTA mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and NODAGA-NHS. (64) Cu-labelling of DOTA-trastuzumab was studied by varying the amount of DOTA-trastuzumab used, reaction temperature and time. Full (64) Cu incorporation could be achieved using a minimum of 10-µg DOTA-trastuzumab, but the fastest labelling was obtained after 15 min at room temperature using 25 µg of DOTA-trastuzumab. In comparison, 80% incorporation was achieved for (64) Cu-labelling of NODAGA-trastuzumab. Both [(64) Cu]DOTA-trastuzumab and [(64) Cu]NODAGA-trastuzumab were produced after purification with radiochemical purities of >97%. The tracers were injected into mice with HER2 expressing tumours. The mice were imaged by positron emission tomography and showed high tumour uptake of 3-9% ID/g for both tracers. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  12. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  13. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  14. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  15. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  16. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  17. Radioiodine-labeling of EGCG and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Yao; Zhao Wenjin; Liu Jie; Zhao Xun; Yu Chengguo; Cui Zeshi; Liu Xinning; Lan Zhenhe; Ma Jing

    2013-01-01

    To establish the 125 I-EGCG labeling method and investigate the biodistribution of 125 I-EGCG in mice, 125 I-EGCG was prepared by Iodogen solid labeling method, and were isolated and purified by Sephadex-G25 agarose. The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 125 I-EGCG was analyzed by polyamide TLC. The labeling yield of 125 I-EGCG was 89.4% and its radiochemical purity (RCP) were 96.4%. The Biodistribution of 125 I-EGCG in mice was measured at different times after caudal vein injection with 185 kBq for each mice. The biodistribution in mice demonstrated that 125 I-EGCG was distributed into broad organs and tissues, especially in the Stomach, Small intestine and Submaxillay gland, and the biggest uptake of 125 I-EGCG in there organs was 15.92, 5.83 and 11.56 %ID · g -1 respectively at 15 min post injection. In addition, 125 I-EGCG was cleared out from blood quickly, and the uptake of 131 I-EGCG in blood was 11.95 at 5 min, and decreased to 1.25 at 4 h post injection. Therefore, 125 I-EGCG was stable and it was metabolized mainly in Stomach, Small intestine, Submaxillay gland, worthy of further investigation to trace the compound in vivo and in vitro. (authors)

  18. Preparation of labelled lipids by the use of plant cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation of some radioacitvely labelled lipids by the use of plant cell cultures is discussed and further applications of the new method are suggested. Cell suspension cultures of rape (Brassica napus) and soya (Glycine max) have been used for the preparation of lipids labelled with radioisotopes. Radioactive acetic acid as well as various long-chain fatty acids are readily incorporated into the neutral and ionic lipids of plant cell cultures. In addition, 14 C-labelled glycerol, ethanolamine and choline are well utilized by the cells. Randomly labelled lipids have been obtained by incubating cell suspension cultures of rape and soya with [1- 14 C] acetic acid, and uniformly labelled lipids have been isolated from cultures that had been incubated with a mixture of [1- 14 C] acetic acid plus [2- 14 C] acetic acid. The use of techniques of plant cell cultures for the preparation of lipds labelled with stable or radioactive isotopesappears particularly rewarding because the uptake of precursors by the cells and their incorporation into various lipid compounds proceeds rapidly and often quanitatively.This new approach should be useful also for the biosynthesis of lipids whose acyl moieties contain a spn radical, a fluorescent group, or a light-sensitive label. Thus, plant cell cultures constitute valuable new tools for the biosynthetic preparation of a great variety of labelled lipids. (A.G.)

  19. Imaging of Enzymes in the Steroid Biosynthetic Pathway: Synthesis of 18F-Labelled Tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the synthesis and development of 18 F-labelled alkyl etomidate and vorozole analogues, and their use as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of the steroid enzymes 11β-hydroxylase and aromatase. Two synthetic 18 F-labelling approaches to the etomidate and vorozole analogues were developed, and the analogues were evaluated in some biological assays. The two-step labelling method was used to synthesise many compounds for biological evaluation. In the first step, a 18 F-labelled intermediate based on a ditosylate or a halogenated diethyl ether was synthesised and used directly in the next alkylation step. The decay-corrected (d.c.) radiochemical yield was higher compared to other known two-step labelling methods. Once an appropriate candidate has been chosen for clinical evaluation, a one-step labelling method will be more suitable. We therefore developed a method based on precursors that had leaving groups at the end of their alkyl chains, and used these directly in the 18 F-labelling synthesis. The one-step 18 F-labelling synthesis required less reaction time and produced higher specific radioactivity and d.c. radiochemical yield than our two-step synthesis. With microwave heating, the reaction time was reduced to seconds and the d.c. radiochemical yield was better than that obtained with conventional heating. The one-step synthesis simplified the technical handling by allowing the tracer syntheses to be automated on the TRACERLab FX FN

  20. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in seagrasses C-labeling evidence for the c(3) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T J; Abel, K M

    1979-04-01

    The delta(13)C values of several seagrasses were considerably less negative than those of terrestrial C(3) plants and tended toward those of terrestrial C(4) plants. However, for Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers and Halophila spinulosa (R. Br.) Aschers, phosphoglycerate and other C(3) cycle intermediates predominated among the early labeled products of photosynthesis in (14)C-labeled seawater (more than 90% at the earliest times) and the labeling pattern at longer times was brought about by the operation of the C(3) pathway. Malate and aspartate together accounted for only a minor fraction of the total fixed label at all times and the kinetic data of this labeling were not at all consistent with these compounds being early intermediates in seagrass photosynthesis. Pulse-chase (14)C-labeling studies further substantiated these conclusions. Significant labeling of photorespiratory intermediates was observed in all experiments. The kinetics of total fixation of label during some steady-state and pulse-chase experiments suggested that there may be an intermediate pool of inorganic carbon of variable size closely associated with the leaves, either externally or internally. Such a pool may be one cause for the C(4)-like carbon isotope ratios of seagrasses.

  1. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  2. Modulating effect of new potential antimelanomic agents, spin-labeled triazenes and nitrosoureas on the DOPA-oxidase activity of tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadjeva, V; Zheleva, A; Raikova, E

    1999-07-01

    The modulating effect of newly synthesized alkylating spin labeled triazene and spin labeled nitrosourea derivatives on the DOPA-oxidase activity of mushroom tyrosinase has been investigated by Bumett's spectrophotometric method (Burnett et al., 1967). All spin labeled triazenes have exhibited activating effect on DOPA-oxidase activity of tyrosinase, whereas clinically used triazene (DTIC), which does not contain nitroxide moiety, have showed inhibiting effect. At the same experimental conditions the spin labeled aminoacid nitrosoureas have showed dual effect - activating, in the beginning of the enzyme reaction and inhibiting later on. It is deduced that the activating effect of the spin labeled compounds is due to the nitroxide moiety and the inhibiting effect of all compounds depends on their half-life time. This study might contribute to make more clear the mechanism of action of the new compounds and on the other hand would come in quite useful as a preliminary prognosis for their antimelanomic activity.

  3. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  4. A new technique of ion beam tritium labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nianbao; Sheng Shugang; Yao Fuzeng

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new technique is reported for tritium labelling of proteins, peptides and other nonvolatile organic compounds. A tritium ion beam is accelerated to bombard solid sample target for producing tritium exchange with hydrogen. The tritium labelling method has been applied to tritiated soybean trypsin inhibitor, ribonuclease A, elastin, pachyman and others totalled 11. After purifying by dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the tritiated proteins and polysaccharide were obtained with specific activity over 37 GBq/mmol, without decomposition and with biological activity well preserved. By amino acid analysis of tritiated protein it was shown that the relative specific radioactivities for His., Tyr. and Phe. residues were higher while those for Val., Ile. and Ser. residues were lower

  5. A new technique for ion beam tritium labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nianbao; Sheng Shugang; Yao Fuzeng

    1990-06-01

    An advanced technique, the ion beam tritium labelling method (IBTL), used for labelling proteins, peptides and other nonvolatile organic compounds is introduced. In this method the excited tritium ion beam is accelerated and then bombs a solid sample target in which tritium exchanging for hydrogen is taken place. The IBTL has been used for preparation of tritiated soybean trypsin inhibitor, ribonuclease A, elastin and pachyman etc. After purifing by dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the tritiated proteins and polysaccharide were obtained with the specific activity over 37 GBq/mmol, the function of tritiated decomposition products was not found. The product was shown to have native biological activity. Amino acid analysis of tritiated protein showed that the relative specific radioactivities were higher for His., Tyr. and Phe. but lower for Val., Ile. and Ser

  6. Liver and kidney imaging with Ga-68-labeled dihydroxyanthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, J.; Maier-Borst, W.; Wellman, H.N.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation of alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and alizarin red S (sodium 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulfonate) labeled with Ga-68, which is obtained from a new high-yield Ge-68 → Ga-68 generator. The uptake of Ga-68 alizarin by liver and spleen RES was studied in rats, dogs, and humans, and amounted to 80 to 85% of the administered dose within 5 min after i.v. injection. Gallium-68 alizarin red S was preferentially accumulated in the renal parenchyma to an extent of 70% within 2 hr after i.v. administration. Complete labeling of 1 mCi Ga-68 was achieved by 100 μg of each compound, amounts that are without any known measurable harm to humans

  7. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  8. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  9. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  10. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  11. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  12. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  13. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  14. Extensions of the techniques for the accelerated unspecific isotopic labelling of organic compounds; Applications nouvelles des techniques accelererees du marquage non specifique de composes organiques; Rasprostranenie metodov uskoreniya mecheniya nespetsifichnymi izotopami organicheskikh slozhnykh soedinenij; Nuevas aplicaciones de las tecnicas de marcacion inespecifica acelerada de compuestos organicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, N A [National Research Centre, El-Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Westermark, T [Division of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 70 (Sweden)

    1962-03-15

    The paper aims at reviewing new means of obtaining acceleration in the reaction of a radioactive gas with a target material to be labelled and examples of successful cases. The techniques include the use of microwave and radiowave discharges, glow discharges affected through DC or AC sources, and simply ultraviolet radiation. Specific activities of more than 100 mc/g in purified significant quantities of products were obtained. Periods of exposure to discharge were of the order of one minute and decomposition was limited in most cases. Calculations of utilization of the energy absorbed during the labelling process were compared with the energy from ionizing radiation used by Wilzbach and others, and G values for isotope replacement are given. In polystyrene labelling, evidence is found that the mechanisms is governed by an atom-molecule reaction. (author) [French] Les auteurs passent en revue des methodes recentes visant a accelerer la reaction d'un gaz radioactif avec des matieres a marquer; ils citent des cas de reussite. Les techniques etudiees comportent l'emploi de decharges de micro-ondes et d'ondes hertziennes, de decharges luminescentes par des sources de courant continu ou alternatif et de simples rayons ultraviolets. On a obtenu des activites specifiques superieures a 100 mc/g dans des quantites importantes de produits purifies. Les temps d'exposition a la decharge etaient de l'ordre d'une minute; dans la plupart des cas, la decomposition etait limitee. Les auteurs comparent la quantite d'energie absorbee au cours du marquage a celle qui est necessaire lorsqu'on emploie des rayonnements ionisants, comme l'ont fait Wilzbach et autres; ils donnent les valeurs G de remplacement des isotopes. Dans le marquage du polystyrene, il semble bien que le processus soit regi par une reaction atome-molecule. (author) [Spanish] El objeto de la memoria es pasar revista a nuevos metodos para acelerar la reaccion de un gas radiactivo con el material de blanco que se desea

  15. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  16. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  17. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  18. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  19. Hydrogen sulfide deactivates common nitrobenzofurazan-based fluorescent thiol labeling reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-06-17

    Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including thiols and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), play important but differential roles in biological structure and function. One major challenge in separating the biological roles of thiols and H2S is developing tools to effectively separate the reactivity of these sulfhydryl-containing compounds. To address this challenge, we report the differential responses of common electrophilic fluorescent thiol labeling reagents, including nitrobenzofurazan-based scaffolds, maleimides, alkylating agents, and electrophilic aldehydes, toward cysteine and H2S. Although H2S reacted with all of the investigated scaffolds, the photophysical response to each scaffold was significantly different. Maleimide-based, alkylating, and aldehydic thiol labeling reagents provided a diminished fluorescence response when treated with H2S. By contrast, nitrobenzofurazan-based labeling reagents were deactivated by H2S addition. Furthermore, the addition of H2S to thiol-activated nitrobenzofurazan-based reagents reduced the fluorescence signal, thus establishing the incompatibility of nitrobenzofurazan-based thiol labeling reagents in the presence of H2S. Taken together, these studies highlight the differential reactivity of thiols and H2S toward common thiol-labeling reagents and suggest that sufficient care must be taken when labeling or measuring thiols in cellular environments that produce H2S due to the potential for both false-positive and eroded responses.

  20. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  1. 131/123 iodine labeled benzamides for the detection of melanomas and metastases. Synthesis, labeling, animal experiences and preliminary clinical studies; Benzamidas marcadas con 131/123 iodo para deteccion de melanomas y metastasis. Sintesis, marcacion, estudio en animales y primeros estudios clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Oscar R; Edreira, Martin M; Castiglia, Silvia G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Dept. de Radioquimica; Zarlenga, Ana C; Arashiro, Jorge G; Parma, P [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soroa, Victoria E [Hospital Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-07-01

    Radioiodine labeled benzamides are being studied as radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of melanomas and metastases. With this purpose the synthesis and labeling of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[{sup 131}I]-4-methoxybenzamide (IMBA) has been carried out. Tissue distribution of the labeled compound has been studied in C 57 mice, showing a fast renal excretion. The labeled benzamide was also injected in mice with previously induced subcutaneous melanomas and lung metastases using B 16-F0 murine melanoma cells. The tumors show a good uptake of the labeled benzamide. The melanoma/other tissues uptake ratio is suitable for scintigraphic detection. Clinical studies in patients are under way. (author)

  2. Preparation of {sup 35}SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} and of some other {sup 35}S labeled mineral compounds; Preparation de {sup 35}SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} et de quelques autres composes mineraux simples marques a {sup 35}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Gueronniere, E; Henry, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Methods of preparation, from pile irradiated KCI, of the following labeled molecules are described: - carrier free H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - SCd (100 m curies/milli mole) - solution of SNa{sub 2} (100 m curies/milli mole) - solution of SK{sub 2} (100 m curies/milli mole) - S metalloid (100 m curies/milli mole) - SO{sub 3}Na{sub 2} (90 m curies/milli mole) - S{sub 2}C{sub 3}Na{sub 2} (50 m curies/mammalia). (author) [French] On decrit les methodes de preparation, a partir de KCl irradie dans les piles, des molecules suivantes marquees au {sup 35}S: - SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} (sans entraineur) - SCd (100 mcuries/millimole) - solution de SNa{sub 2} (100 mcuries/millimole) - solution de SK{sub 2} (100 mcuries/millimole) - S metalloide (100 mcuries/millimole) - Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} (90 mcuries/millimole) - Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}C{sub 3} (50 mcuries/milIimole). (auteur)

  3. Synthesis of deuterium labeled perillyl alcohol and dual C-13 and deuterium labeled perillic acid, major metabolites of d-limonene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haitao; Chan, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Dual C-13 and deuterium labeled perillic acid, [(1,1-dideuterio-1- 13 C-2-methyl)ethenyl]-1-cyclohexene -1-carboxylic acid (6) and deuterated perillyl alcohol, [(2,2-dideuterio-1-methyl)ethenyl]-1-deuteriohydroxymethyl-1-cyclo -hexene (9) were synthesized from commercially available (4S)-(-)-perillaidehyde (1). Compound 1 was first protected with ethylene glycol to yield the ethylene ketal followed by oxidation with OsO 4 /NalO 4 to cleave the terminal double bond to afford the key intermediate ketone, 4-acetyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde ethylene ketal (3). 3 was then converted to the labeled perillyl aldehyde by Wittig reaction with prepared Ph 3 P 13 CD 3 l or Ph 3 PCD 3 l. Followed by deprotection to give the labeled perillaldehydes, [(2,2-dideuterio-2- 13 C-1-methyl)ethenyl] -1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde-1-carboxaldehyde (5) or [(2,2-dideuterio-1-methyl)ethenyl] -1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (8). 5 was further oxidized by freshly prepared Ag 2 O to give the desired compound 6. 8 was reduced by LiAID 4 to afford the desired compound 9. The same synthetic procedure may be adopted to synthesize the radioactive isotope labeled perillic acid and perilly alcohol. (author)

  4. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-06-01

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Unlabelled and radioactive labelled derivatives of butylamino propiophenone and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, J.W.A.; Butz, R.F.; Welch, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to new unlabelled and radioactive labelled derivatives of butylamino propiophenone and their preparation. This invention is primarily directed to a radioimmunoassay for clinical or experimental testing for the presence of and quantitation of bupropion, a pharmacologically active antidepressant compound, in biological fluids

  6. A facile method for steroid labeling by heavy isotopes of hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Klepetářová, Blanka; Elbert, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 29 (2015), s. 4874-4882 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : brassinosteroids * alpha-hydroxy ketones * reductive dehalogenation * tritium * labeled compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  7. Determination of the isotope distribution in 14C-labelled hydrocarbons by thermal fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopinke, F.D.; Dermietzel, J.; Jockisch, W.; Raeuber, G.

    1986-01-01

    The gas chromatographic analysis of pyrolysis products of properly labelled hydrocarbons allows a definite and quantitative determination of the 14 C-distribution in those compounds. For this purpose a simple, fast, and versatilely applicable method has been developed and described

  8. Measurement of renal glomerular filtration rate using labelled substances with compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    Using a model for the two-compartmental open system and experiments on animals (rabbits and dogs) as well as on human healthy volunteers, an attempt was made to study the advantages and limitations of different radionuclide methods for glomerular filtration rate determination. Labelled compounds used in different combinations were: 3 H-inulin, sup(113m)In-EDTA, 131 I-iothalamate, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and 14 C-creatinine. The results of the study lead to some working hypotheses concerning the value of creatinine and other labelled substances in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. The advantages and disadvantages of individual methods summarized in the final report are generally in agreement with the present views of many research workers. Also the hypothesis can be justified that the different labelled compounds which have been studied might be handled independently by the membranes involved but at the long run produce similar homeostatic balance

  9. A facile synthesis of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) regio-selectively labeled with 13C and direct observation of enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaya, Katsuyuki; Okazaki, Takeo; Seido, Nobuo; Akasaka, Yuzuru; Kawajiri, Yoshiki; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Kondo, Masao

    1989-01-01

    δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), labeled with 13 C at position 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, was synthesized from 13 C-labeled glycine, Meldrum's acid, or bromoacetate. The latter compounds were prepared from 13 C-sodium acetate or 13 C-acetic acid. Enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG) was directly observed by 13 C-NMR. (author)

  10. Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotesbury S

    2014-12-01

    mass spectra from the labelled compounds and their natural counterparts, the major degradation products from the labelled compounds could be readily identified in the chromatograms of the corresponding smoke extracts. Evidence of some degradation at above the transfer temperature was indicated for both additives. The amount of degradation was found to be less than 1% for p-anisaldehyde and only 0.1% for vanillin. This low level of degradation was acceptably consistent with the intact transfer values of 97% and 100%, respectively, obtained by pyrolysis.

  11. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  14. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  16. Different approaches to labelling parasitoids using strontium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Wäckers, F.L.; Steindl, P.; Günther, D.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    Labelling parasitoids with trace elements is a potentially powerful technique for studying dispersal and trophic interactions in these usually small insects. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of different methods for trace element labelling of the

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  18. Acridinium esters as high-specific-activity labels in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, I.; Beheshti, I.; McCapra, F.; Campbell, A.K.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent acridinium ester has been synthesized that reacts spontaneously with proteins to yield stable, immunoreactive derivatives of high specific activity. The compound has been used to prepare chemiluminescent monoclonal antibodies to human alpha 1-fetoprotein having average incorporation ratios as great as 2.8 mol of label per mole of antibody, which corresponds to a detection limit of approximately 8 X 10(-19) mol. These antibodies have been used in the preliminary development of a two-site immunochemiluminometric assay for human alpha 1-fetoprotein, which requires only a 30-min incubation and a quantification time of 5 s per sample

  19. Synthesis and labelling of 19-iodocholesterol 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Considering the increasing interest in obtaining agents for vizualization of the adrenal gland with radioisotopic techniques, 19-iodocholesterol was prepared by means of chemical synthesis and radioiodine ( 131 I) introduced by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction product was identified by determination of the melting point and elementary spectroscopic analysis (infra-red absorption and magnetic nuclear ressonance). Radiochemical analysis of the labelled compound was performed by means of then-layer cromatography in silica-gel. In order to confirm its capacity of concentration in the adrenal gland, the distribution of 19-iodocholesterol 131 I, after intravenous injection, was tested in rats. (Author) [pt

  20. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thijssen, J.B.A.; Janssen, C.G.M.; Verluyten, W.L.M.; Heykants, J.J.P.

    1986-02-01

    Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1-/sup 14/C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems.

  1. Evaluation of radiolabeled ruthenium compounds as tumor-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.; Rasey, J.S.; Clarke, M.H.; Dowling, M.

    1979-01-01

    This work introduces a new class of radiopharmaceuticals based on ruthenium-97. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97, the high chemical reactivity of Ru, the potential antitumor activity of several Ru coordination compounds, and BLIP production of Ru-97, provide a unique combination for the application of this isotope in nuclear oncology. A systematic study was undertaken on the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a number of ruthenium-labeled compounds. In a variety of animal tumor models, several compounds show considerable promise as tumor-localizing agents when compared to gallium-67 citrate. The compounds studied (with Ru in different oxidation states) include ionic Ru, a number of hydrophilic and lipophilic chelates, and various ammine derivatives

  2. Influence of bone affinity on the skeletal distribution of fluorescently labeled bisphosphonates in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Anke J; Stewart, Charlotte A; Sun, Shuting; Błażewska, Katarzyna M; Kashemirov, Boris A; McKenna, Charles E; Russell, R Graham G; Rogers, Michael J; Lundy, Mark W; Ebetino, Frank H; Coxon, Fraser P

    2012-04-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used antiresorptive drugs that bind to calcium. It has become evident that these drugs have differing affinities for bone mineral; however, it is unclear whether such differences affect their distribution on mineral surfaces. In this study, fluorescent conjugates of risedronate, and its lower-affinity analogues deoxy-risedronate and 3-PEHPC, were used to compare the localization of compounds with differing mineral affinities in vivo. Binding to dentine in vitro confirmed differences in mineral binding between compounds, which was influenced predominantly by the characteristics of the parent compound but also by the choice of fluorescent tag. In growing rats, all compounds preferentially bound to forming endocortical as opposed to resorbing periosteal surfaces in cortical bone, 1 day after administration. At resorbing surfaces, lower-affinity compounds showed preferential binding to resorption lacunae, whereas the highest-affinity compound showed more uniform labeling. At forming surfaces, penetration into the mineralizing osteoid was found to inversely correlate with mineral affinity. These differences in distribution at resorbing and forming surfaces were not observed at quiescent surfaces. Lower-affinity compounds also showed a relatively higher degree of labeling of osteocyte lacunar walls and labeled lacunae deeper within cortical bone, indicating increased penetration of the osteocyte canalicular network. Similar differences in mineralizing surface and osteocyte network penetration between high- and low-affinity compounds were evident 7 days after administration, with fluorescent conjugates at forming surfaces buried under a new layer of bone. Fluorescent compounds were incorporated into these areas of newly formed bone, indicating that "recycling" had occurred, albeit at very low levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that the bone mineral affinity of bisphosphonates is likely to influence their distribution within the

  3. Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of {sup 14}C-Labelled Dichlobenil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, D. A.; Funderburk, Jr., H. H. [Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, AL (United States)

    1966-05-15

    Autoradiographs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) indicated that {sup 14}C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) was slightly absorbed by the leaf and some translocation occurred following foliar application. Plants with roots submersed in radioactive aqueous solution absorbed and translocated the {sup 14}C throughout the plant. An investigation of some of the chemical and physical properties of {sup 14}C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil was conducted. Loss because of volatilization from counting planchets was considerably reduced by application of acrylic plastic immediately after the solution dried. The plastic coating also eliminated contamination of counting chambers and windows. Two higher plants (bean and alligatorweed ) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) were selected for metabolism studies. Dichlobenil- {sup 14}C was added to Hoagland and Arnon's nutrient solution containing beans or alligatorweed and to liquid cultures containing the other organisms for 12 to 120 h. Extracts from the plants or fungi were chromatographed on silica gel thin-layers. Autoradiographs of the thin-layer chromatographed aqueous extracts revealed a {sup C}-labelled compound of Rf 0.25 that differed from that of dichlobenil, which was 0.6. After esterification of the extracts, a {sup 14}C-labelled compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the {sup 14}C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of {sup 14}C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil {sup

  4. Compounding and Extralabel Use of Drugs in Exotic Animal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lauren V; Davidson, Gigi

    2018-05-01

    Extralabel drug use is the use of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug in a manner different from what is stipulated on the approved label. Compounding is the process of preparing a medication in a manner not indicated on the label to create a formulation specifically tailored to the needs of an individual patient. Extralabel drug use and compounding are vital aspects of safe and effective drug delivery to patients in exotic animal practice. There are few FDA-approved drugs for exotic animal species, and many approved drugs for other species are not available in suitable formulations for use in exotic animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of nitrogen-13 from labeled nitrate (13NO3-) in humans and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, J.P.; Gatley, S.J.; Balish, E.

    1979-01-01

    The body distribution of gavaged or intravenously administered nitrate labeled with nitrogen-13 was studied in humans and rats with the following results: (1) the labeled compound is not quickly absorbed from the stomach; (2) the concentration of the label increases inside the lower intestinal tract (cecum and large intestine) when ingested or intravenously injected; and (3) humans and rats have the capacity to store a portion of the label in their bodies. These observations indicate that depletion of body stores, the passage of nitrate down the gut, or the secretion of nitrate into the intestinal lumen may be a better explanation of the urinary, ileal, and fecal concentrations of nitrate and nitrate recently measured in humans than a bacterial nitrification reaction in the intestines, as suggested by Tannenbaum, et al

  6. The synthesis of Org 3770 labelled with 3H, 13C and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Rooij, F.A.M. van; Sperling, E.G.M.; Wieringa, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The syntheses of 1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2-methylpyrazino[2,1-a]pyrido[2,3-c][2]benazepine (Org 3770) labelled with 3 H (and 2 H), 13 C and 14 C are described. Tritiated Org 3770 was prepared either by exchange under alkaline conditions with tritiated water or catalytic reductive dehalogenation of a chloro analogue with 3 H 2 . 13 C-labelled material was obtained in a seven-step synthesis starting from 13 C-labelled benzene whereas 14 C-Org 3770 was prepared in a three-step synthesis starting with 14 CO 2 . All labelled compounds were analyzed by TLC, HPLC, MS and NMR. (author)

  7. Synthesis of tritium-labelled isopenicillin N, penicillin N and 6-aminopenicillanic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.J.; Loder, B.; Abraham, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    1. Phenoxymethylpenicillin sulphoxide 4-methoxybenzyl ester was labelled with 3 H in its 2-β-methyl group. Its specific radioactivity was 362mCi/mmol. 2. Removal of the side chain of this compound yielded the corresponding ester of 6-aminopenicillanic acid sulphoxide and coupling of the latter with the appropriate protected α-aminoadipic acid gave 4-methoxybenzyloxycarbonylisopenicillin N sulphoxide di-4-methoxybenzyl ester or the corresponding derivative of penicillin N. 3. Removal of the protective groups by hydrogenolysis and reduction of the sulphoxide group yielded 3 H-labelled isopenicillin N or penicillin N. 4. 3 H-labelled phenoxymethylpenicillin sulphoxide was obtained by hydrogenolysis from its 4-methoxybenzyl ester. Reducton of its sulphoxide group and subsequent removal of the side chain gave 3 H-labelled 6-aminopenicillanic acid. (author)

  8. Labeling of receptor ligands with bromine radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1981-10-01

    In recent years there has been an interest in the use of various radioisotopes of bromine as labels for radiopharmaceuticals. Although radioisotopes of iodine have been used extensively as radiopharmaceutical labels, there are several advantages associated with the use of radiobromine as a label, due primarily to increased stability of bonds to the radiohalide and smaller steric perturbation resulting from substitution of the radiohalide. Methods of attaching radiobromine to receptor ligands with the potential of mapping estrogen receptors in mammary tumors and uteri were studied. Two ligands were studied extensively in vitro and in animal models; preliminary studies were also carried out in humans. To date, the only radioisotope of bromine used was bromine-77. In addition, a series of model compounds were labeled with bromine-77 using a recently described method for rapid bromination; the scope and limitations of this new rapid radiobromination technique were evaluated

  9. Chemical method of labelling proteins with the radionuclides of technetium at physiological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A novel rapid chemical method of labeling plasma proteins, other compounds and/or substances containing protein with radionuclides of technetium such as sup(95m)Tc, sup(99m)Tc or sup(99)Tc at physiologic pH 7.4 condition, producing a sterile non-pyrogenic radioactive tracer material suitable for biological and medical uses. These radiolabeled protein substances are not denatured by the labeling process but retain their natural physiological and immunological properties. This novel labeling technique provides a simple and rapid means of labeling plasma proteins such as human serum albumin, fibrinogen, antibodies, hormones and enzymes with sup(95m)Tc or sup(99m)Tc for scintigraphic imaging which may allow visualization of thrombi, emboli, myocardial infarcts, infectious lesions or tumors

  10. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  11. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  12. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  13. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.

  14. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod

    2016-01-01

    such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other

  15. Three rules suffice for good label placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Kapoor, V.; Strijk, T.

    2001-01-01

    The general label-placement problem consists in labeling a set of features (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each feature. The problem arises when annotating classical cartographical maps, diagrams, or graph drawings.

  16. A combinatorial framework for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Whitesides, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general map labeling problem consists in labeling a set of sites (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each site. A map can be a classical cartographical map, a diagram, a graph or any other figure that needs to be

  17. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issued a final rule defining “gluten-free” for food labeling, which will help consumers, especially those living with ... free” label on foods. Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling: FDA’s Regulation of “Gluten-Free” Claims Blog: A ...

  18. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  19. Predictive labeling with dependency pairs using SAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koprowski, A.; Middeldorp, A.; Pfenning, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines predictive labeling with dependency pairs and reports on its implementation. Our starting point is the method of proving termination of rewrite systems using semantic labeling with infinite models in combination with lexicographic path orders. We replace semantic labeling with

  20. On the Lucky labeling of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi, Arash; Dehghan, Ali; Mollaahmadi, Esmael

    2010-01-01

    Suppose the vertices of a graph $G$ were labeled arbitrarily by positive integers, and let $Sum(v)$ denote the sum of labels over all neighbors of vertex $v$. A labeling is lucky if the function $Sum$ is a proper coloring of $G$, that is, if we have $Sum(u) \

  1. 27 CFR 19.604 - Caution label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caution label. 19.604... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.604 Caution label... denaturer may be printed on such label, but no other extraneous matter will be permitted thereon without the...

  2. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labelling requirements. 15.19 Section 15.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.19 Labelling... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the unique...

  3. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 26.39 Section 26.39 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  4. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and...

  5. 27 CFR 19.704 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 19.704 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Samples of Spirits § 19.704 Labels. (a) On each container of spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of § 19.701, the proprietor shall affix a label showing the...

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-37 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Label. 188.10-37 Section 188.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-37 Label. This term means the label required by 49 CFR part 172...

  7. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  8. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  9. Synthesis and animal experiment of 99mTc-labeled hepatobiliary imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xirui; Chen Shaoliang; Chen Guohui; Xu Qinfeng

    1993-01-01

    Six new compounds based on the principle of isosterism and hybridization had been synthesized. Methobrofenin was prepared by reduction of nitro mesitylene, followed by bromination and acylation with nitrilotriacetic acid. The 99m Tc-complexes of these compounds were prepared by stannous chloride reduction of sodium pertechnetate in aqueous solution. These labeled compounds, being similar to 99m Tc-mebrofenin, all were quick in the uptake by the liver cells, rapidly cleared off from the blood in mice, and had higher cumulative hepatobiliary excretion rates than Tc-99m-EHIDA

  10. Synthesis of isotopically labeled ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    In this work were synthesized ketamine isotopomers. Ketamine is used in human medicine and veterinary sectors. It has very broad spectrum of pharmacological effects: anesthetic, analgesic, hallucinogenic, bronchodilator, cardiovascular and antidepressive, which is currently in the research. At first was synthesized precursor of ketamine, N- desmethylketamine which was subsequently labeled the deuterium, tritium and carbon- 14. For the determination of purity and identity mass spectrometry and...

  11. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  12. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  13. Menakar Label Fundamentalisme Untuk Muslim

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Susilo

    2014-01-01

    This study was developed referring to the negative connotation in using the word “fundamentalism ” and its using as an individual or group label. The method used in this study were literature review using many literatures about Islam and fundamentalism in any perspectives. Based on psychology perspective, it said that fundamentalism is an individual psychological construct associated with beliefs and individual interpretation of something, such as ideology, nationality, and religion. Accordin...

  14. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  15. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  16. Preparation and quality control of 186Re compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, M.G.; Amor, R.A.; Caviglia, D.A.; Ratner, M.T.; Schroder, A.M.; Rocco, J.C.; Mancini, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal conditions were investigated in order to label the methylendiphosphonate (MDP), hydroxyethylendiphosphonate (HEDP), pyrophosphonate (PYP) and ethylendiaminotetramethylenphosphoric (EDTMP) with 186 Re. The biodistribution of these compounds in experimental animals were studied to determine the most suitable therapeutic agent for its eventual use as pain palliative in patients with bone metastases. The biodistribution assays were performed in Wistar rats, and the 186 Re HEDP was finally chosen. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Cyclotrons, radionuclides, precursors, and demands for routine versus research compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerators for producing commonly used short-lived positron emitters for positron emission tomography are addressed in the context of their use for the preparation of labeled compounds for research and routine biomedical applications. Progress and direction in the preparation and use of radiotracers for studies of the brain are discussed. Advancement to complete automation is stressed as an important factor for the eventual use of positron emission tomography as a routine clinical tool in universities and major medical centers

  18. New bisphosphonate labeled with Iodine-131 for the palliative therapy for bone metastases pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prats Capote, Anaís; Perera Pintado, Alejandro; León, Mariela; Hernández González, Ignacio; Leyva Montaña, René; Mocelo Castell, Raúl; O'Reilly, Beatriz; Calderón, Osmar; Griffith Pérez, Yoel; García Batle, Marisé; Rodríguez Tanty, Chryslaine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain new bisphosphonate marked with 131I suitable for palliative treatment of bone metastases pain characteristics. Materials and Methods: It started with aromatic amino acids and the synthesis consisted of three stages: 1) Protection of amino groups by acetylation; 2) phosphonation protected amino acids with a mixture of phosphorous acid and phosphorus pentachloride; 3) Lack of protection of the amino groups by basic hydrolysis. The compounds obtained were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, RMN13-C mass. Los spectrometry bisphosphonic acids obtained were labeled with 131I using chloramine T and iodogen as oxidants. Stability of labeled compounds in aqueous solution was studied serum. 3 mg of 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid labeled of 131I were administered to male wistar rats (170-190 g) through a lateral tail vein. The scintigraphic study was conducted at 2, 6 and 12 hours. Results: The yield of the reactions of the amino group protection four compounds ranged from 75 to 80%, while the phosphonation was between 50 and 60%. The radiochemical purity of 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1- bisphosphonic acid labeled with 131I was (91.5 ± 1.4)% and its stability was satisfactory for 72h. Scintigraphic images suggest excretion by the kidneys of the compound and from 12 h post-administration begin to visualize bone structures of the animal, suggesting that the compound exhibits affinity for these tissues. Conclusions: A novel synthesis method with modifications that yielded the sodium salts of bisphosphonic acids starting from the respective aromatic amino acids was developed. 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid 131I labeled was stable up to 72h and showed affinity for bone tissue. (author)

  19. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, Valeria Viorica; Mihailescu, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O 4 - stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)