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Sample records for radiolabeled nonspecific polyclonal

  1. Radiolabeled, nonspecific, polyclonal human immunoglobulin in the detection of focal inflammation by scintigraphy: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate and technetium-99m-labeled albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Needleman, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Hansen, W.P.; Kramer, P.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with 125 I or 111 In was compared to that of [ 67 Ga]citrate and [ 99m Tc]albumin in rats with deep thigh inflammation due to Escherichia coli infection. Serial scintigrams were acquired at 1, 3, 24, and in some cases, 48 hr after injection. As early as 3 hr postinjection, [ 111 In]IgG showed greater accumulation at the lesion than [ 99m Tc]HSA (p less than 0.01). Both [ 125 I]IgG and [ 111 In]IgG showed greater accumulation than [ 67 Ga]citrate (p less than 0.01). At 24 hr, IgG image definition increased, while HSA image definition decreased, and the intensity of accumulation of both IgG preparations was greater than that of [ 67 Ga]citrate or [ 99m Tc]HSA (p less than 0.01). At all imaging times, [ 67 Ga]citrate accumulation was surprisingly low. In inflammation produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, or turpentine, [ 111 In]IgG accumulation was similar to the results obtained with Escherichia coli. These studies suggest that focal sites of inflammation can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific human polyclonal IgG

  2. Detection of acute inflammation with 111In-labeled nonspecific polyclonal IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischman, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Khaw, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The detection of focal sites of inflammation is an integral part of the clinical evaluation of the febrile patient. When anatomically distinct abscesses are present, lesion detection can be accomplished by standard radiographic techniques, particularly in patients with normal anatomy. At the phlegmon stage, however, and in patients who have undergone surgery, these techniques are considerably less effective. While radionuclide methods, such as Gallium-67 (67Ga)-citrate and Indium-111 (111In)-labeled WBCs have been relatively successful for the detection of early inflammation, neither approach is ideal. In the course of studies addressing the use of specific organism-directed antibodies for imaging experimental infections in animals, we observed that nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) localized as well as specific antibodies. Preliminary experiments suggested that the Fc portion of IgG is necessary for effective inflammation localization. Since polyclonal IgG in gram quantities has been safely used for therapy in patients with immune deficiency states, we decided to test whether milligram quantities of radiolabeled IgG could image focal sites of inflammation in humans. Thus far, we have studied a series of 84 patients with suspected lesions in the abdomen, pelvis, vascular grafts, lungs, or bones/joints. In 48 of 52 patients with focal lesions detected by surgery, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound (US), the IgG scan correctly localized the site, while 31 patients without focal inflammation had no abnormal focal localization of the radiopharmaceutical. Four patients had false negative scans and one patient had a false positive scan. For this small series, the overall sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 95%, respectively. In this report, we review our experience with this exciting new agent

  3. Kinetics of antigen specific and non-specific polyclonal B-cell responses during lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rolland

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and composition of the polyclonal B-cell activation associated to malaria infection, antigen-specific and non-specific B-cell responses were evaluated in the spleens of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL or injected with lysed erythrocytes or plasma from P. yoelii infected mice or with P. falciparum culture supernatants. Spleen/body weigth ratio, numbers of nucleated spleen cells and Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells increased progressively during the course of infection,in parallel to the parasitemia. A different pattern of kinetics was observed when anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell plaque forming cells response were studied: maximum values were observed at early stages of infection, whereas the number of total Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells were not yet altered. Conversely, at the end of infection, when these latter values reached their maximum, the anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell specific responses were normal or even infranormal. In mice injected with Plasmodium-derived material, a higher increase in antigen-specific PFC was observed, as compared to the increase of Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cell numbers. This suggested a "preferential" (antigen-plus mitogen-induced stimulation of antigen-specific cells rather than a generalized non-specific (mitogen-induced triggering of B-lymphocytes. On the basis of these and previous results, it is suggested that polyclonal B-cell activation that takes place during the course of infection appears as a result of successive waves of antigen-specific B-cell activation.

  4. Evaluation of 99Tcm nonspecific polyclonal IgG in the detection of rejection in a single lung transplant canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcos, G.; McLarty, A.J.; McGregor, C.G.A.; Brown, M.L.; Hung, J.C.; O'Connor, M.K.; Tazelaar, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Acute rejection is an important cause of graft failure in single lung transplantation, however, current noninvasive tests are neither sensitive nor specific for this diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether 99 Tc m -labelled human nonspecific polyclonal IgG ( 99 Tc m -IgG) may serve as a marker for acute pulmonary rejection following allotransplantation in a dog model. Seventeen mongrel dogs were studied, including four controls and thirteen dogs which underwent surgery [right autotransplant recipient right unmodified allotransplant recipient, and right immunosuppressed allotransplant recipient]. At 6 days following surgery, all dogs received 67 Ga-citrate and 99 Tc m -IgG. Two days later all dogs were sacrified. Post-mortem examination revealed acute lung rejection in nine animals. No significant difference was found in the percentage uptake of both 99 Tc m -IgG and 67 Ga-citrate per gram of tissue between rejecting and nonrejecting transplanted lungs. In cases of moderate to severe rejection, only 67 Ga-citrate showed a significant difference in uptake between rejecting and contralateral native lungs, respectively. We conclude that 99 Tc m -IgG does not accurately identify acute lung rejection in the early postoperative period. (author)

  5. Radiolabeled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies, in particular monoclonal antibodies, offer the potential for the specific nuclear imaging of malignant and benign diseases in man. If this imaging potential is realized, they may also have a large role in cancer treatment. This paper reviews: (1) what monoclonal antibodies are and how they differ from polyclonal antibodies, (2) how they are produced and radiolabeled, (3) the results of preclinical and clinical trials in cancer imaging, including the utility of SPECT and antibody fragments, (4) the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of benign diseases, (5) alternate routes of antibody delivery, (6) the role of these agents in therapy, and (7) whether this technology ''revolutionizes'' the practice of nuclear radiology, or has a more limited complementary role in the imaging department

  6. Quantitative imaging with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldofsky, P.J.; Hammond, N.D.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to image tumor by using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody products has been widely demonstrated. The questions of safety and efficacy remain open and require further experience, but at least in some clinical situations radioimmunoimaging has provided clinically useful information. Imaging tumor with radiolabeled monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies has been widely reported, and several summaries have recently appeared. For extensive review of recent clinical imaging the reader is referred to these excellent sources. Having demonstrated the possibility of imaging tumor with radiolabeled antibody, the question now apparent is: will the imaging modality provide information new and different from the already available with established techniques in computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and standard nuclear medicine?

  7. Radiolabeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Initial interest in developing techniques to radiolabel platelets was spurred by the lack of an accurate method for measuring platelet life span in both normals and in thrombocytopenic patients. Early investigators could obtain only rough estimates of platelet life spans by monitoring the platelet counts of thrombocytopenic patients undergoing platelet transfusions. Labels were also sought that would allow imaging of platelets in vivo in order to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, and clotting disorders, and to improve the clinical diagnosis of these diseases. Two types of platelet labels were investigated: cohort (pulse) labels and random labels. Cohort labels are taken up by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and incorporated in the DNA and other components of the forming platelet. In theory, only freshly released platelets of a uniform age are labeled. Random labels, on the other hand, tag platelets in the peripheral blood, labeling platelets of all ages

  8. Targeting of human glioma xenografts in vivo utilizing radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.A.; Wessels, B.W.; Wharam, M.D.; Order, S.E.; Wanek, P.M.; Poggenburg, J.K.; Klein, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies provide a potential basis for selective radiotherapy of human gliomas. We have measured tumor targeting by radiolabeled monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against neuroectodermal and tumor-associated antigens in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. Monoclonal P96.5, a mouse IgG2a immunoglobulin, defines an epitope of a human melanoma cell surface protein, and specifically binds the U-251 human glioma as measured by immunoperoxidase histochemistry. 111In-radiolabeled P96.5 specifically targets the U-251 human glioma xenograft and yields 87.0 microCuries (microCi) of tumor activity per gram per 100 microCi injected activity compared to 4.5 microCi following administration of radiolabeled irrelevant monoclonal antibody. Calculations of targeting ratios demonstrate deposited dose to be 11.6 times greater with radiolabeled P96.5 administration compared to irrelevant monoclonal antibody. The proportion of tumor dose found in normal organs is less than 10%, further supporting specific targeting of the human glioma xenograft by this antibody. Monoclonal antibody ZME018, which defines a second melanoma-associated antigen, and polyclonal rabbit antiferritin, which defines a tumor-associated antigen, demonstrate positive immunoperoxidase staining of the tumor, but comparatively decreased targeting. When compared to the 111In-radiolabeled antibody, 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5 demonstrates comparable tumor targeting and percentages of tumor dose found in normal organs. To test the therapeutic potential of 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, tumors and normal sites were implanted with miniature thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Seven days following administration of 100 microCi 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, average absorbed doses of 3770, 980, 353, and 274 cGy were observed in tumor, liver, contralateral control site, and total body, respectively

  9. Towards tumour targeting with copper-radiolabelled macrocycle-antibody conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphy, J.R.; Parker, David; Kataky, Ritu

    1989-01-01

    Tetraaza-macrocycles covalently attached to a monoclonal antibody may be efficiently radiolabelled with 64 Cu or 67 Cu at pH4, minimising non-specific binding to the protein, giving a kinetically stable conjugate in vivo. (author)

  10. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  11. Radiolabelled sucralfate compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, T.E.; Bridges, R.L.; Braunstein, P.; Jansholt, A.

    1984-01-01

    A novel radiopharmaceutical composition comprising an aqueous solution or suspension containing a radiolabelled sucralfate or sucralfate derivative or precursor is claimed. The composition is effective for in vivo scintigraphic imaging of the gastrointestinal muscosal areas in humans. The sucralfate is combined with a radiolabelled albumin or other protein or protein derivative under acidic conditions

  12. Biodistribution of radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.S.; Kuromoto, N.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that might affect the biodistribution and clinical utility of radiolabeled lymphocytes were evaluated in experimental animals. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, lymph node, or spleen were found in significant amounts in the lymphoid tissues of Lewis rats as early as 3 hours after infusion. A progressive increase in nodal activity with concomitant fall of activity in other organs followed, indicating active recirculation of the lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation of the In-111 labeled lymphocytes resulted in no detectable lymphocyte recirculation and/or reduced localization in lymphoid tissue. Splenectomized animals and those sensitized to an organ allograft before cell infusion showed increased activity in their bone marrow. These results suggest that the source of the injected cells, cell irradiation dose level and host sensitization should be considered when radiolabeled lymphocytes are being prepared for use in clinical diagnosis and therapy

  13. Radiolabeled antibodies in cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories through the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiolabeled antibodies--labeling and imaging techniques; Radiolabeled antibodies--carcinoembryonic antigen; Radiolabeled antibodies--alpha-fetoprotein; Radiolabeled antibodies--human chorionic gonadotropin; Radiolabeled antibodies--ferritin; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of colorectal tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of malignant melanoma; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of urogenital tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of thyroid tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--other clinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--selected preclinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--reviews

  14. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  15. Towards tumour targeting with copper-radiolabelled macrocycle-antibody conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morphy, J.R.; Parker, David; Kataky, Ritu; Harrison, Alice; Walker, Carole; Eaton, M.A.W.; Millican, Andrew; Phipps, Alison

    1989-06-15

    Tetraaza-macrocycles covalently attached to a monoclonal antibody may be efficiently radiolabelled with /sup 64/Cu or /sup 67/Cu at pH4, minimising non-specific binding to the protein, giving a kinetically stable conjugate in vivo. (author).

  16. Research Paper Polyclonal antibodies production against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this project is to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against the Staphylococcus aureus protein A and their use to appreciate bacteriological analysis of milk quality. In this context, an immunization produce was set up to test and detect in a batch of animals the convenient responder to the injected ...

  17. Polyclonal antibodies of Ganoderma boninense isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyclonal antibodies of Ganoderma boninense isolated from Malaysian oil palm for detection of basal stem rot disease. ... ELISA-PAb shows better detection as compared to cultural-based method, Ganoderma selective medium (GSM) with an improvement of 18% at nursery trial. The present study also demonstrates ...

  18. Comparative Immunologic Activities of Polyclonal Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three types of Vibrio cholerae (El tor, Ogawa) whole cell antigens constituted with liquid paraffin adjuvant (LPA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) and physiological saline (SA) were used for polyclonal antisera production in adult rabbits. Antisera were compared for serologic reactivities with homologous and ...

  19. A novel polyclonal antibody against human cytomegalovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Future research should be directed to epitope screening of synthetic HMCV peptides, which could help to understand HCMV infection and virus-neutralising antibodies more fully and to prepare HCMV vaccines and antiviral drugs. Key words: Human cytomegalovirus, AD169 strain, Towne strains, polyclonal antibody.

  20. Methods to obtain radiolabelled monocrotaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Crotalaria spectabilis, a plant found in many areas of the world is associated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Monocrotaline when injected subcutaneously in Sprague Dawley rats has been utilized for years to create a condition known to mimic pulmonary hypertension in humans. We attempted to determine the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline. Our work describes the plant growth conditions and the time periods associated with the production of radiolabelled monocrotaline. In addition, the incorporation of 14 CO 2 or [2,3- 3 H]-putrescine dihydrochloride and the specific activity plus the amount(s) of recovered radiolabelled monocrotaline are discussed. We conclude that the most efficient and cost effective method for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline is still the utilization of 14 CO 2 . (author)

  1. Methods to obtain radiolabelled monocrotaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Crotalaria spectabilis, a plant found in many areas of the world is associated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Monocrotaline when injected subcutaneously in Sprague Dawley rats has been utilized for years to create a condition known to mimic pulmonary hypertension in humans. We attempted to determine the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline. Our work describes the plant growth conditions and the time periods associated with the production of radiolabelled monocrotaline. In addition, the incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} or [2,3-{sup 3}H]-putrescine dihydrochloride and the specific activity plus the amount(s) of recovered radiolabelled monocrotaline are discussed. We conclude that the most efficient and cost effective method for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline is still the utilization of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. (author).

  2. Radiolabelling of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.G.; Neves, Nicoli M.J. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Abdalla, L.F.; Brandao, R.L.; Etchehebehere, L. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Microorganismos; Lima, M.E. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Nicoli, J.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Microbiologia

    1999-11-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to ganglioside receptors of enterocyte microvilli catalyzes the activation of adenylate cyclase causing a rise in cAMP which final result is a copious diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast has been used to prevent diarrhea. Although the antidiarrheic properties of S. boulardii are widely recognized, this yeast has been used on empirical basis, and the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The addition of cholera toxin to S. boulardii induces the raising of cAMP that triggers the activation of neutral trehalase. This suggests that toxin specifically binding to cells, is internalized and active the protein phosphorylation cascade. Our objective is labeling the cholera toxin to verify the presence of binding sites on yeast cell surfaces for the cholera toxin. Cholera toxin was radiolabelled with Na {sup 125} I by a chloramine-T method modified from Cuatrecasas and Griffiths et alii. The {sup 125} I-Cholera toxin showed a specific radioactivity at about 1000 cpm/fmol toxin. Biological activity of labeled cholera toxin measured by trehalase activation was similar to the native toxin. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: nevesmj at urano.cdtn.br

  3. Radiolabelled blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    After the introduction of gamma-emitting labels for blood-cells the use of radio-labelled blood cells is not only limited to kinetics of blood cells but it is also possible to localise inflammations, abscesses and thrombus. The most commonly applied label for red cells is Tc-99m. The most widely used technique for labelling granulocytes or platelets is In-111-oxine. In future the labelling of blood cells will be more simple and more specific due to monoclonal antibodies onto the platelet or the granulocyte cell surface. Labelled red cells have their main application in blood-pool imaging and in localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding. Besides the determination of the platelet life-span in haematologic disorders labelled platelets allow to localise thrombus and to show abnormal vasculature in the rejecting kidney. The commonest application for In-111-oxin labelled granulocytes is to show abdominal inflammations to localise inflamed bowel segments and to assess the inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover brain abscesses, bone sepsis and lung sepsis can be identified.

  4. Radiolabelling of cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.G.; Neves, Nicoli M.J.; Abdalla, L.F.; Brandao, R.L.; Etchehebehere, L.; Lima, M.E. de; Nicoli, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to ganglioside receptors of enterocyte microvilli catalyzes the activation of adenylate cyclase causing a rise in cAMP which final result is a copious diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast has been used to prevent diarrhea. Although the antidiarrheic properties of S. boulardii are widely recognized, this yeast has been used on empirical basis, and the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The addition of cholera toxin to S. boulardii induces the raising of cAMP that triggers the activation of neutral trehalase. This suggests that toxin specifically binding to cells, is internalized and active the protein phosphorylation cascade. Our objective is labeling the cholera toxin to verify the presence of binding sites on yeast cell surfaces for the cholera toxin. Cholera toxin was radiolabelled with Na 125 I by a chloramine-T method modified from Cuatrecasas and Griffiths et alii. The 125 I-Cholera toxin showed a specific radioactivity at about 1000 cpm/fmol toxin. Biological activity of labeled cholera toxin measured by trehalase activation was similar to the native toxin. (author)

  5. Polyclonal Antibody Therapies for Clostridium difficile Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a growing worldwide health problem. The colitis of Clostridium difficile infection results from the synergistic action of C. difficile secreted toxins A and B upon the colon mucosa. A human monoclonal IgG anti-toxin has demonstrated the ability in combination therapy to reduce mortality in C. difficile challenged hamsters. This antibody is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of human Clostridium difficile infection. More than one group of investigators has considered using polyclonal bovine colostral antibodies to toxins A and B as an oral passive immunization. A significant proportion of the healthy human population possesses polyclonal antibodies to the Clostridium difficile toxins. We have demonstrated that polyclonal IgA derived from the pooled plasma of healthy donors possesses specificity to toxins A and B and can neutralize these toxins in a cell-based assay. This suggests that secretory IgA prepared from such pooled plasma IgA may be able to be used as an oral treatment for Clostridium difficile infection.

  6. Imaging of colorectal carcinoma with radiolabeled antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, D M; Goldenberg, H; Sharkey, R M; Lee, R E; Higgenbotham-Ford, E; Horowitz, J A; Hall, T C; Pinsky, C M; Hansen, H J

    1989-10-01

    Colorectal cancer has been the tumor type most frequently studied with radiolabeled antibodies. Among the various antibodies, a majority of patients with colorectal cancer have received xenogeneic polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies against carcino-embryonic antigen. This review summarizes the current status of colorectal cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies, ie, radioimmunodetection (RAID), and examines the published studies involving carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibodies and 17-1A, 19-9, and B72.3, and other monoclonal antibodies. In order to better address the issue of the current and future clinical usefulness of this emerging technology, particular attention is given to the protocols, methods, and results of the published studies. Despite differences in study parameters, antibodies and forms, labels, administration routes and doses, and scanning instruments and methods, it has been found that (1) almost no adverse reactions have been evident; (2) antibody fragments are preferred over whole immunoglobulin G reagents because they achieve higher tumor-to-background ratios earlier, thus reducing or precluding the need for dual-isotope subtraction methods or long delays before imaging; (3) use of antibody fragments, including the monovalent Fab' form, permits imaging with short-lived radionuclides of excellent photon properties, such as 123I and 99mTc; (4) circulating antigens against which the imaging antibody is directed can complex with the injected antibody, but such complexes have not prevented successful RAID; (5) patients with high serum titers of the appropriate antigen target usually have higher rates of positive RAID; (6) patients who are seronegative for the tumor antigen being studied can have positive RAID findings, which can represent the detection of occult lesions; (7) single photon emission computed tomography appears to provide better image resolution than planar scanning; (8) regardless of the sensitivity reported in any particular

  7. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  8. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  9. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-01-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  10. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  11. Deposition of idiotype-anti-idiotype immune complexes in renal glomeruli after polyclonal B cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Rose, L.M.; Hochmann, A.; Lambert, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    We investigated the possible role of idiotypic interactions in the pathogenesis of the glomerular lesions observed in mice undergoing polyclonal B cell activation. BALB/c mice were studied for the presence of renal deposits of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype-immune complexes (IC) after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The T15 idiotype is the major idiotype of BALB/c mice anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) antibodies, which are cross-reactive with the idiotype of the TEPC-15 myeloma protein. This model was used because T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC have been detected in the circulation of BALB/c mice after polyclonal B cell activation. First, an idiotype-specific immunofluorescence technique allowed us to detect T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins in glomeruli from day 6 to day 28 after LPS injection. Second, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated TEPC-15 myeloma protein was found to localize in the glomeruli after in vivo injection 18 d after LPS administration. This renal localization was shown to be idiotype-specific and could be quantified in a trace-labeling experiment. Third, kidney-deposited immunoglobulins of mice injected with LPS were eluted, radiolabeled, and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Both T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins and anti-T15 idiotype antibodies were detected in the eluates, providing further evidence for a renal deposition of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC. Polyclonal B cell activation is likely to result in a simultaneous triggering of many idiotypic clones and of corresponding anti-idiotypic clones represented in the B cell repertoire. This could lead to the formation of a variety of idiotype-anti-idiotype IC that could participate in the development of glomerular lesions

  12. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  13. Recombinant Polyclonal Antibody Libraries for Breast Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharon, Jacqueline

    1999-01-01

    .... In the present study, V region genes for construction of a polyclonal Fab phage display library were obtained from the spleen, bone marrow, and intestine of a BALB/c mouse that had been immunized with BT-20 cells...

  14. Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Receptor targeting with radiolabelled peptides has become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in the past few years. The overexpression of many peptide receptors in numerous cancers, compared to their relatively low density in physiological organs, represents the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled peptide-based probes. The prototypes are analogs of somatostatin which are routinely used in the clinic. More recent developments include somatostatin analogs with a broader receptor subtype profile or with antagonistic properties. Many other peptide families such as bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) etc. have been explored during the last few years and quite a number of potential radiolabelled probes have been derived from them. On the other hand, a variety of strategies and optimized protocols for efficient labelling of peptides with clinically relevant radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc, M{sup 3+} radiometals ({sup 111}In, {sup 86/90}Y, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 67/68}Ga), {sup 64/67}Cu, {sup 18}F or radioisotopes of iodine have been developed. The labelling approaches include direct labelling, the use of bifunctional chelators or prosthetic groups. The choice of the labelling approach is driven by the nature and the chemical properties of the radionuclide. Additionally, chemical strategies, including modification of the amino acid sequence and introduction of linkers/spacers with different characteristics, have been explored for the improvement of the overall performance of the radiopeptides, e.g. metabolic stability and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we discuss the development of peptides as radiopharmaceuticals starting from the choice of the labelling method and the conditions to the design and optimization of the peptide probe, as well as some recent developments, focusing on a selected list of peptide families, including somatostatin

  15. Cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the use of antibodies to target diagnostic isotopes to tumors. Antibodies with reasonable specificity can be developed against almost any substance. If selective targeting to cancer cells can be achieved, the prospects for a selective therapy are equally intriguing. But the development of cancer detection, or imaging, with radiolabeled antibodies has depended upon advances in a number of different areas, including cancer immunology and immunochemistry for identifying suitable antigen targets and antibodies to these targets, tumor biology for model systems, radiochemistry for he attachment of radionuclides to antibodies, molecular biology for reengineering the antibodies for safer and more effective use in humans, and nuclear medicine for providing the best imaging protocols and instrumentation to detect minute amounts of elevated radioactivity against a background of considerable noise. Accordingly, this book has been organized to address the advances that are being made in many of these areas

  16. Polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith S Málaga-Machaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. The production and use of polyclonal antibodies may contribute to an increase in the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.Polyclonal antibodies were raised in alpacas, rabbits, and hens immunized with trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen, membrane proteins, trypomastigote lysate antigen and recombinant 1F8 to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis was performed to determine specificity of the developed antibodies. An antigen capture ELISA of circulating antigens in serum, plasma and urine samples was developed using IgY polyclonal antibodies against T. cruzi membrane antigens (capture antibody and IgG from alpaca raised against TESA. A total of 33 serum, 23 plasma and 9 urine samples were analyzed using the developed test. Among serum samples, compared to serology, the antigen capture ELISA tested positive in 55% of samples. All plasma samples from serology positive subjects were positive in the antigen capture ELISA. All urine positive samples had corresponding plasma samples that were also positive when tested by the antigen capture ELISA.Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detection of circulating antigens in both the plasma and urine of infected individuals. Detection of antigens is direct evidence of the presence of the parasite, and could be a better surrogate of current infection status.

  17. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-γ). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  18. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Localization of tumors by radiolabelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.; Primus, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of utilizing radiolabelled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigens for determining the site of tumors which produce or are associated with carcinoembryonic antigen is disclosed. 3 claims, no drawings

  1. Radiolabeled peptides: experimental and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Pallela, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Radiolabeled receptor specific biomolecules hold unlimited potential in nuclear medicine. During the past few years much attention has been drawn to the development radiolabeled peptides for a variety of diagnostic applications, as well as for therapy of malignant tumors. Although only one peptide, In-111-DTPA-(D)-Phe 1 -octreotide, is available commercially for oncologic imaging, many more have been examined in humans with hematological disorders, and the early results appear to be promising. Impetus generated by these results have prompted investigators to label peptides with such radionuclides as Tc-99m, I-123, F-18, Cu-64, and Y-90. This review is intended to highlight the qualities of peptides, summarize the clinical results, and address some important issues associated with radiolabeling of highly potent peptides. While doing so, various methods of radiolabeling have been described, and their strengths and weaknesses have also been discussed. (author)

  2. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Okada, H.

    1990-05-01

    Since the description by Kohler and Milstein 1975 of their technique for producing monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity, it has become a mainstay in most laboratories that utilize immunochemical techniques to study problems in basic, applied or clinical research. Paradoxically, the very success of monoclonal antibodies has generated a literature which is now so vast and scattered that it has become difficult to obtain a perspective. This brief review represents the distillation of many publications relating to the production and use of monoclonaal antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals. Significant advances were made possible in the last few years by combined developments in the fields of tumor-associated antigens and of monoclonal antibodies. In fact monoclonal antibodies against some well defined tumor-associated antigens, has led to significantly greater practical possibilities for producing highly specific radiolabeled antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy of human tumors. One of the main requirements of this methodology is the availability of stable radiopharmaceutical reagents which after labeling in vivo injection retain the capacity of specific interaction with the defined antigen and their molecular integrity. Since injection into human is the objetive of this kind of study all the specifications of radiopharmaceutical have to be fulfilled e.g. sterility, apirogenicity and absence of toxicity. (author) [pt

  3. Preparation and characterization of the polyclonal antibody against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prepare the polyclonal antibody against GAR domain, cDNA encoding 466 amino acids protein of GAR domain was amplified from MG-63 cell by RT-PCR. The amplified cDNA, that exhibited 99% identity to the published sequence, was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pQE-80L for the expression of GAR ...

  4. Development of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of polyclonal antibodies for the detection of recombinant human erythropoietin. Collares Thaís Farias, Monte Leonardo Garcia, Campos Vinicius Farias, Seixas Fabiana Kömmiling, Collares Tiago Veiras, Dellagostin Odir, Hartleben Cláudia Pinho ...

  5. Echinococcus granulosus: the potential use of specific radiolabelled antibodies in diagnosis by immunoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, M.T.; Morris, D.L.; Pritchard, D.I.; Perkins, A.C. (Nottingham Univ. (UK))

    1990-05-01

    Diagnosis of hydatid disease in man is frequently dependent on the imaging of cysts in situ by techniques such as ultrasonography and CAT scans. Such methods are useful but are not specific and can lead to errors in diagnosis. The present work reports preliminary experiments on the development of a specific imaging technique for hydatid cysts using radiolabelled antibodies. A purified preparation of antigen B of hydatid fluid was used to raise polyclonal antisera in rabbits and the resulting affinity-purified IgG labelled with {sup 131}I. Gerbils with an established Echinococcus granulosus infection were injected intraperitoneally with the labelled antibody and imaged 48 h later with a gamma camera. Hydatid cysts could be identified within the peritoneal cavity and post-mortem assessment of activity showed the cysts to contain approximately four times as much activity as the surrounding organs thereby indicating successful targeting of the antibody to the cysts. (author).

  6. Echinococcus granulosus: the potential use of specific radiolabelled antibodies in diagnosis by immunoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogan, M.T.; Morris, D.L.; Pritchard, D.I.; Perkins, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Diagnosis of hydatid disease in man is frequently dependent on the imaging of cysts in situ by techniques such as ultrasonography and CAT scans. Such methods are useful but are not specific and can lead to errors in diagnosis. The present work reports preliminary experiments on the development of a specific imaging technique for hydatid cysts using radiolabelled antibodies. A purified preparation of antigen B of hydatid fluid was used to raise polyclonal antisera in rabbits and the resulting affinity-purified IgG labelled with 131 I. Gerbils with an established Echinococcus granulosus infection were injected intraperitoneally with the labelled antibody and imaged 48 h later with a gamma camera. Hydatid cysts could be identified within the peritoneal cavity and post-mortem assessment of activity showed the cysts to contain approximately four times as much activity as the surrounding organs thereby indicating successful targeting of the antibody to the cysts. (author)

  7. Comparative study between phenol and imidazole derivatives in radiolabeling of some steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    A phenol or imidazole ring is rarely present in steroid hormones, So, the molecule of steroid hormone requires chemical modification by addition of an iodinable residue like phenol or imedazole. So that the comparative study between phenol derivatives, include tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and tyramine, and imidazole derivatives, like histamine and histedine methyl ester (HME), for radiolabeling of some steroid hormones include estradiol and testosterone is the aim of the present study. The conjugation step was carried using mixed anhydride method and followed by radioiodination using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Purification step was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimization and validation of the tracer were carried out. Immunoreactivity of the all obtained tracers was check by using specific polyclonal antibodies. The results indicated that imidazols derivatives are more suitable from immunoreactivity view and storage period.

  8. A review: radiolabeled synthesis of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juying; Han Ailiang; Wang Haiyan; Wang Wei; Ye Qingfu

    2010-01-01

    Isotope tracer technique has been widely applied in studies of metabolism, mode action, fate and environmental behavior of pesticides. In such studies, the key point is to obtain suitable radiolabelled compounds. However, the radiotracers, especially the labelled pesticides which are novel compounds with complex structures and longer synthesis routes, are usually unavailable from domestic and /or foreign markets. Therefore, it is essential to explore the synthesis methods of radiolabelled pesticides, which are quite different from the conventional nonradiosynthesis, and are requested to obtain higher yield. This article is a review on current status of choosing the available radionuclide and labelled position, the main synthesis methods and problems in the process of preparing radiolabelled pesticides. (authors)

  9. Radiolabelled RGD peptides for imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, F.C.; Schwaiger, M.; Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Kessler, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study and Center of Integrated Protein Science, Department of Chemistry, Garching (Germany); King Abdulaziz University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Wester, H.-J. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry, Garching (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Imaging of angiogenesis has become increasingly important with the rising use of targeted antiangiogenic therapies like bevacizumab (Avastin). Non-invasive assessment of angiogenic activity is in this respect interesting, e.g. for response assessment of such targeted antiangiogenic therapies. One promising approach of angiogenesis imaging is imaging of specific molecular markers of the angiogenic cascade like the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}. For molecular imaging of integrin expression, the use of radiolabelled peptides is still the only approach that has been successfully translated into the clinic. In this review we will summarize the current data on imaging of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression using radiolabelled RGD peptides with a focus on tracers already in clinical use. A perspective will be presented on the future clinical use of radiolabelled RGD peptides including an outlook on potential applications for radionuclide therapy. (orig.)

  10. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Sihver

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specific targeting properties of this antibody might increase its therapeutic efficiency. This review article gives an overview of the preclinical studies that have been performed with radiolabeled cetuximab for imaging and/or treatment of different tumor models. A particularly promising approach seems to be the treatment with therapeutic radionuclide-labeled cetuximab in combination with external radiotherapy. Present data support an important impact of the tumor micromilieu on treatment response that needs to be further validated in patients. Another important challenge is the reduction of nonspecific uptake of the radioactive substance in metabolic organs like liver and radiosensitive organs like bone marrow and kidneys. Overall, the integration of diagnosis, treatment and monitoring as a theranostic approach appears to be a promising strategy for improvement of individualized cancer treatment.

  11. Composition and method for stabilizing radiolabelled compounds using thiocarbonylated diethylenetriamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzodikov, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabelled compounds, such as amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins and drugs, are stabilised against radiolytic decomposition by adding a solution of a thiocarbonylated diethylenetriamine to a solution of the radiolabelled compound. (author)

  12. Synthesis of 14C-radiolabelled Tilmicosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, G.D.; Terando, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    Tilmicosin was radiolabelled with carbon-14 on the 3,5-dimethylpiperidinyl sidechain as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. A new radiosynthesis of 3,5-dimethyl-piperidine was developed for this purpose. Incorporation into the desmycosin nucleus was accomplished by a reductive amination reaction. (author)

  13. /sup 99m/Tc radiolabelling and quality control tests of anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments for immunoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegaro, L.; Deleide, G.; Dovis, M.; Cecconato, E.; Scassellati, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Tumour radioimmunodetection was first developed by using radiolabelled polyclonal antibodies, raised in goats against tumour associated antigens (TAA). The availability of monoclonal antibodies to TAA has definitely contributed to more extensive in vivo use of radiolabelled antibodies. However, many factors are involved in tumour radioimmunolocalization, related either to the antibody and radioisotope features or to the natural history of the tumour itself. The experimental protocol developed by the authors allows a full evaluation of the properties of a particular MoAb.This paper illustrates the work done with on a particular set of monoclonal antibodies, raised against human melanoma associated antigens, with the aim of visualizing primary and metastatic lesions in melanoma patients

  14. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Dexing; Desai, Amit V.; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Reichert, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. Methods: The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both 64 Cu and 68 Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Results: Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with 64 Cu/ 68 Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. Conclusions: A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions.

  15. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D; Kenis, Paul J A; Reichert, David E

    2013-01-01

    A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both ⁶⁴Cu and ⁶⁸Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with ⁶⁴Cu/⁶⁸Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiolabeling optimization and characterization of (68)Ga labeled DOTA-polyamido-amine dendrimer conjugate - Animal biodistribution and PET imaging results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Aanchal; Singh, Baljinder; Panwar Hazari, Puja; Schultz, Michael K; Parmar, Ambika; Kumar, Pardeep; Sharma, Sarika; Dhawan, Devinder; Kumar Mishra, Anil

    2015-11-01

    The present study describes the optimization of (68)Ga radiolabeling with PAMAM dendrimer-DOTA conjugate. A conjugate (PAMAM-DOTA) concentration of 11.69µM, provided best radiolabeling efficiency of more than 93.0% at pH 4.0, incubation time of 30.0min and reaction temperature ranging between 90 and 100°C. The decay corrected radiochemical yield was found to be 79.4±0.01%. The radiolabeled preparation ([(68)Ga]-DOTA-PAMAM-D) remained stable (radiolabeling efficiency of 96.0%) at room temperature and in serum for up to 4-h. The plasma protein binding was observed to be 21.0%. After intravenous administration, 50.0% of the tracer cleared from the blood circulation by 30-min and less than 1.0% of the injected activity remained in blood by 1.0h. The animal biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tracer excretes through the kidneys and about 0.33% of the %ID/g accumulated in the tumor at 1h post injection. The animal organ's biodistribution data was supported by animal PET imaging showing good 'non-specific' tracer uptake in tumor and excretion is primarily through kidneys. Additionally, DOTA-PAMAM-D conjugation with αVβ3 receptors targeting peptides and drug loading on the dendrimers may improve the specificity of the (68)Ga labeled product for imaging and treating angiogenesis respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonspecific inflammation in the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Young Min; Park, Rae Chung; Jung, Hwan Sug; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1997-01-01

    Patient with complaints of swelling, pain in the maxillary region and discomfort visited Seoul National University Dental Hospital in August last year. Clinical examination and diagnostic imagings implied he was suffered from fungal hyphal infection but no causative fungus was found by the histopathologic and microbiologic investigation. Therefore he was diagnosed with nonspecific inflammation. But as yet, we do think this case is very similar to some kinds of mucomycosis. So we presented this case for more thorough discussion. Following are founded in the examination. 1. Patient had suffered from Diabetes mellitus and complained of stuffiness, headache, swelling in buccal cheeks and paraesthesia. And we found more maxillary bony destruction and ulcer with elevated margin in the palate by clinical examination. 2. In the first visit, Plain films revealed general bony destruction of the maxilla, radiopaqueness in the sinonasal cavities. CT and MRI showed soft tissue mass filled in the paranasal sinus except frontal sinus and bony destruction in in valved bones. 3. No causative bacteria and fungus was found in the biopsy and microbiologic cultures. 4. Caldwell-Luc operation and curettage were carried and antibiotics were taken for 4 months. But now he was worse than in the past. 5. In the second visit, involvement of orbit, parapharyngeal sinus, clivus, cavernous sinus and middle cranial fossa we re seen clearly in the CT and MRI.

  18. Nonspecific aerobic vaginitis and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzik, D; Drazancić, A; Hrgović, Z

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1996-1998, cervical swabs of 50 pregnant women with subacute amniotic infection syndrome (AIS) and the semen of their consorts were bacteriologically analyzed. In the control group were 50 healthy pregnant women and their consorts too. Pathogenic bacteria (the most common were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) were isolated from the cervical swab of 50 pregnant patients with AIS in 86.0% of them, while in the control group of healthy pregnant women in 28.0%. Pathogenic bacteria were present in 70.0% of semen of consorts pregnant women with AIS and only in 30.0% of semen of the control group. The congruity of pathogenic bacteria in the cervical swab and semen in the investigated group was 69.2%, while only 35.7% in the control group. Following erythromycin, cefuroxime and local tetracyclin treatment, the negativization of the cervical swab resulted in 30 pregnant patients with AIS, while the colonization persisted in 20 of them. The outcome of pregnancy was significantly better in cases with negativization of the cervical swab: perinatal loss was 6.7%, while in cases with persistent infection it was 55.0%. The authors presume the amniotic infection syndrome should be ascending manifestation of nonspecific vaginitis, which is maintained by the consort's urogenital infection. AIS should be classified as a 'sexually-transmitted disease'. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria em osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-07-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  20. Synthesis of Polyclonal Antibodies against Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyogo Prio Wicaksono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies of aflatoxin B1 were successfully produced from New Zealand White female rabbits after immunization by the hapten of aflatoxin B1-carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AFB1-CMO conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the antigen. The hapten was synthesized using the carbodiimide method with CMO as a linker. Absorption peaks at 362, 264, and 218 nm were observed as a result of characterization with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while IR spectroscopy showed peaks at 3448 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 attributable to the hydroxyl and nitrile groups, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed fragmentation at the m/z of 386, 368.2, and 310, which confirms that the hapten of AFB1-CMO was successfully synthesized. The hapten was then conjugated with BSA to serve as an antigen of AFB1 when it was injected into the rabbits. The specificity of the antigen towards its antibody and the confirmation of hapten-BSA conjugation were characterized using the dot blot immunoassay, which showed a BSA concentration of 1.74 mg/mL. Two weeks after the primary immunization by its antigen, agar gel precipitation testing showed that the rabbit blood serum had positive results for polyclonal antibodiest against AFB1 with the highest concentration of antibodiest of 2.19 mg/mL.

  1. Detection of inflammatory lesions with radiolabelled immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, D.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden; Ogtrop, M. van; Arndt, J.W.; Camps, J.A.J.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous reports on the use of radiolabelled immunoglobulins led us to undertake a pilot experiment in an animal model to investigate the potentials sodium pertechnate Tc 99m-immunoglobulin scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci. Mice infected in one leg with staphylococcus infection in were injected with sodium pertechnote Tc 99m-immunoglobulin, albumin aggregated technetium Tc 99m or gallium citrate Ga 67. The results obtained by scintigraphy suggested a specific accumulation of radiolabelled immunoglobulin at the site of infection. Visualization of the infection and the image quality, especially the 6- and 24-h images, were clearly enhanced after the use of immunoglobulin preparations as compared with those labelled with gallium. (orig.)

  2. Chitosan Microspheres as Radiolabeled Delivery Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permtermsin, Chalermsin; Ngamprayad, Tippanan; Phumkhem, Sudkanung; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Kewsuwan, Prartana

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This study optimized conditions for preparing, characterizing, radiolabeled of chitosan microspheres and the biodistribution of 99mTc-Chitosan microspheres after intravenous administration. Particle size distribution of the microspheres was determined by light scattering. Zeta potential was studied by dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis technique. Biodistribution studies were performed by radiolabeling using 99mTc. The results shown that geometric mean diameter of the microspheres was found to be 77.26?1.96 ?m. Microsphere surface charge of chitosan microspheres was positive charge and zeta potential was 25.80 ? 0.46 mV. The labeling efficiency for this condition was more than 95% and under this condition was stable for at least 6 h. Radioactivity

  3. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble 111 In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration

  4. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, M L

    1993-12-31

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble {sup 111}In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Monitoring radiolabelled antacid preparations in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, H.A.; Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabelled antacid preparations have been monitored in the stomach using gamma scintigraphy. The stomach contents were labelled with technetium-99m and two antacid preparations with indium-113m. It has been shown that the antacid containing aluminium hydroxide and magnesium oxide mixed and emptied with the other stomach contents. An alginate containing preparation tended to float on the food and emptied only slowly from the stomach. (Auth.)

  6. Improved detection of a staphylococcal infection by monomeric and protein A-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, W.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the technetium-99m labelled non-specific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (Ig) with 99m Tc-labelled monomeric human immunoglobulin (m-Ig), 99m Tc-labelled, protein A-purified, human immunoglobulin (A-IG) and 99m Tc-labelled monomeric, protein A-purified, human immunoglobulin (mA-Ig) as tracer agents for the detection of a thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro the binding of the various tracer agents to bacteria at various intervals was determined. For the in vivo evaluation, mice were infected and received one of the various labelled proteins. Scintigrams were made 0.25, 1, 4 and 24 h later. All 99m Tc-labelled Igs bound to bacteria in vitro: The percentages of binding for the m-Ig (from 1 h onwards) and A-Ig and mA-Ig (from 3 h onwards) were significantly higher than that for Ig. The in vivo target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratios were significantly higher from 4 h onwards for all purified Igs than for Ig. Protein A-purified Ig yielded higher T/NT ratios than m-Ig. Furthermore, the amount of activity in the liver was significantly lower 24 h after administration of m-Ig, A-Ig and mA-Ig than after administration of Ig. It is concluded that in this experimental infection 99m Tc-labelled monomeric Ig localizes a staphylococcal thigh infection better and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified Ig. However, the accumulation obtained with protein A-purified Ig or protein A-purified monomeric Ig was the highest of all tracer agents tested. (orig.)

  7. Preparation of radiolabeled bioactive asbestos fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewson, T J; Francsechini, M P; Scheule, R K; Holian, A [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Health Science Center

    1991-01-01

    We have developed an efficient procedure to radiolabel asbestos fibers while retaining the bioactivity of the fibers. The fibers are labeled with {sup 68}Ge. The {sup 68}Ge decays into {sup 68}Ga, which then can be detected by its characteristic positron emission. Both chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, a serpentine and an amphibole, respectively, were radiolabeled successfully. Mild reaction conditions and short reaction times were found under which {similar to}90% of the added {sup 68}Ge and {sup 68}Ga bound to the fibers. The radiolabel was retained even after washing the fibers extensively with physiologic buffers. The effects of the labeling on the bioactivity of the fibers were evaluated in an in vitro assay using guinea pig alveolar macrophages as a target cell. Labeled chrysotile fibers were found to retain >95% of their ability to stimulate these cells. The labeling procedure described in this study should be useful in preparing labeled fibers to investigate both in vitro and in vivo phenomena. (author).

  8. Development of radiolabelling techniques of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglia, S.G. de

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to label monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with 99 Tc m such as the ior-CEA-1 antibody and polyclonal IgG using a direct method, to check the radiochemical and biological behavior of labelled products, to prepare it under sterile and apyrogenic conditions as a lyophilized kit and to employ it in clinical trials. In addition, a photoactivation method was used to label polyclonal IgG with 99 Tc m and to compare with the established method using mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as the reducing agent. Finally polyclonal IgG was labelled using an indirect method in which a chelator was covalently attached to the protein and the 99 Tc m added as glucoheptonate complex. The properties of 99 Tc m when labelled with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies by different methods were assessed by in vitro and in vivo studies

  9. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-01-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 105 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

  10. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-10-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5) cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  11. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp. Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Gracinda da Silva-Froufe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Gluconacetobacterdiazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  12. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G.; Duarte, Keila M.R.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D.

    2009-01-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co 60 , type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  13. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente) (Brazil)], e-mail: mnharder@cena.usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, e-mail: tgglopes@cena.usp.br; Duarte, Keila M.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ . Nova Odessa), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: keila@iz.sp.gov.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: vjmsavin@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: aadcoelh@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co{sup 60}, type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  14. CT-SPECT fusion to correlate radiolabeled monoclonal antibody uptake with abdominal CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Noz, M.E.; Sanger, J.J.; Megibow, A.J.; Maguire, G.Q.

    1989-01-01

    To enhance the information provided by computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed with radiolabeled, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the authors performed fusion of these types of images from eight subjects with suspected colorectal adenocarcinoma. Section thickness and pixel size of the two studies were matched, coordinates of corresponding points from each study were identified, and CT sections were translated, rotated, and reprojected to match the corresponding SPECT scans. The CT-SPECT fusion enabled identification of anatomic sites of tumor-specific MoAb accumulation in four cases, showed non-specific MoAb accumulation in two, and helped confirm information only suggested by the two studies separately in one

  15. Radiolabelled peptides: New radiopharmaceuticals for targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinol, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radiolabelled peptides have been the focus of an increasing interest by the nuclear medicine community within the last few years. This has mainly been due to successful development of one of these peptides, somatostatin, as a tool to visualise various pathologic conditions known to express a high number of somatostatin receptors. Somatostatin receptors have been identified in different tumours such as neuroendocrine tumours, tumours of the central nervous system, breast, lung and lymphatic tissue. These observations served as the biomolecular basis for the clinical use of radiolabelled somatostatin analogs, which are at present of great interest for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A promising somatostatin analogue, DOTA-D-Phe 1 -Ty 3 -octreotide, named DOTATOC, has shown favourable biodistribution and high affinity binding to SSTR2 and SSTR5, high hydrophilicity and ease of labelling and stability with 111 In and 90 Y. A clinical trial aimed at evaluating the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with 111 In, in anticipation of therapy trials with 90 Y-DOTATOC in patients was undertaken. 111 In-DOTATOC showed favourable pharmacokinetics (fast blood clearance and urinary excretion) and biodistribution, and high affinity to tumours expressing somatostatin receptors (thus, a high residence time in tumour). These results are promising for therapy trials with 90 Y-DOTAOC, for which radiation dosimetry appears acceptable for normal organs (including the red marrow). Moreover, labelling conditions of DOTATOC with 90 Y has been optimised in order to achieve labelling yields of more than 98% and specific activities of greater than 60 GBq (1.6 Ci)/μmol. (author)

  16. Radiolabeling Of Albumin Particles With Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Nguyen Thi Khanh Giang; Bui Van Cuong, Vo Thi Cam Hoa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the process of the radiolabeling of microaggregated albumin particles with radionuclide Yttrium-90 using the directed method. The albumin microsphere kit was prepared in sodium phosphate buffer. The original solution includes 2 mg albumin particle and 0.5 mg stannous chloride dihydrate. The albumin particles size was ranged from 5 ?m to 30 ?m. The mixture was washed three times with phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.2 by centrifugation and suspended in 0.5 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 6. Yttrium - 90 in 1.0 M acetic acid was collected from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator. The labeling of the particles with Y-90 (185 MBq) was performed at pH 5.5 in acetate buffer with agitating for 60 min at room temperature. The labeled albumin suspensions were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. Labeling yields was calculated using centrifugation, filtration and compared with paper chromatography, which is developed in the Tris Acetic EDTA. In this system, the unbound of Y-90 migrates to an R f of 0.9-1.0 and the radiolabeled albumin particles remains at the point of origin (R f = 0). The size of 90 Y-albumin particles was compared with the albumin particles in the original solution to be sure that they did not change during the labeling treatment. The radiolabeling yields were more than 80%. The labeled compound was dialysis in phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity was 98%. The 90 Y- albumin is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for potential use in malignant cancer treatment as brachytherapy. (author)

  17. Breast cancer imaging using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, Simone U.; Melis, Marleen; Emmering, Jasper; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Jong, Marion de

    2016-01-01

    Imaging and therapy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are methods successfully used in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing neuroendocrine tumours. Since these techniques were first introduced, many improvements have been made. SSTR expression has also been reported on breast cancer (BC). Currently mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are the most frequent methods used for BC imaging. Since SSTR expression on BC was demonstrated, clinical studies examining the feasibility of visualizing primary BC using SSTR radioligands have been performed. However, to date SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging is not used clinically in BC patients. The aim of this review is to assess whether recent improvements made within nuclear medicine may enable SSTR-mediated imaging to play a role in BC management. For this we critically analysed results of past studies and discussed the potential of the improvements made within nuclear medicine on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging of BC. Seven databases were searched for publications on BC imaging with SSTR radioligands. The papers found were analysed by 3 individual observers to identify whether the studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria defined as studies in which nuclear imaging using radiolabelled SST analogues was performed in patients with breast lesions. Twenty-four papers were selected for this review including studies on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging in BC, neuroendocrine BC and other breast lesions. The analysed studies were heterogeneous with respect to the imaging method, imaging protocol, patient groups and the radiolabelled SST analogues used. Despite the fact that the analysed studies were heterogeneous, sensitivity for primary BC ranged from 36–100%. In a subset of the studies LN lesions were visualized, but sensitivity was lower compared to that for primary tumours. A part of the studies included benign lesions and specificity ranged from 22–100%. Furthermore, false negatives and

  18. Tumor detection using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldofsky, P.J.; Powe, J.; Hammond, N.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope conjugated to monoclonal antibody products has been used for imaging tumors targeted by the antibody. As imaging progresses, new sets of procedural and technical questions arise. In this chapter, we discuss several current problems in imaging tumor with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody. These include (1) methods for selection of specific antibody and, once the particular antibody is selected, which fragment form is to be used; (2) imaging procedures: what are the optimum imaging parameters, such as optimum time for imaging after administration of tracer and considerations regarding background subtraction; and (3) noninvasive quantitative techniques: quantitation of localization of antibody indirectly from quantitative information in the images.100 references

  19. Embolus radiolabelling in a new canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, H.H.; Huchton, J.D.; Woo, J.; Cannon, D.C.; Anderson, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Embolus radiolabelling with 131 I fibrinogen was studied in a canine model of internal carotid artery embolization. The dog was chosen as the experimental animal because of its maxillocarotid artery which permits collateral flow round the occlusion and helps to prevent strokes. Clot was prepared by incubating blood at room temperature to inactivate plasminogen activators and then refrigerating it to promote clot retraction. Emboli persisting 48 hours were seen in 80% of animals. Major strokes were not seen when 0.25 to 0.30 cm 3 were used. Autoradiography and well counting revealed uptake of isotope. The test, when refined, should provide a tool for the investigation of thromboemboli. (author)

  20. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Zamora, P.O.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments

  1. Immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery after auto-SCT for patients with multiple myeloma treated at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Duggan, Peter; Neri, Paola; Chaudhry, Ahsan; Tay, Jason; Bahlis, Nizar

    2017-11-21

    Immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery have been recently described as common indicators of immune dysfunction in patients with multiple myeloma. In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery at day-100 post autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) on clinical outcomes. A total of 302 patients were included for the analysis of immunoparesis, and 197 were evaluable for polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery evaluation. Immunoparesis was observed in 93.5% of cases, with 47% of cases having polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery at 12 months post auto-SCT. Median overall and progression-free survival were longer in the group of patients with complete or partial normalization of polyclonal immunoglobulins. Patients receiving consolidation had a lower level of polyclonal reconstitution. In conclusion, polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery by 12 months post-auto-SCT is associated with superior overall and progression free survival in patients with MM. Efforts to better enhance polyclonal recovery deserve further investigation.

  2. Blood cells radiolabelling achievements, challanges, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, Jolie; Trumper, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    A study in performed about the different ways of blood cells radiolabelling. The labelling of red blood cells (RBCs), compared with that of other blood cells, is facilitated by several factors such as a) RBCs are the most abundant of all cellular blood elements, b) they are relatively easy to separate and manipulate in vitro, c) in vitro they are less dependent on energy and nutricional requirements, d) they are easy to label due to the presence of a variety of cellular transport mechanism. 99m Tc was reconized and became as the ideal radioisotope for nuclear medicine imaging. After considerations about RBCs radiolabelling, it is presented a new in vitro technique based on the BNL kit, developed by Srivastava and co-workers. The Sorep optimized one-vial labelling method for 2 ml whole blood. In vivo and in vivo/in vitro labelling are presented too, the last method seems to combine the superior binding efficiency of in vitro labelling with the convenience of in vitro labelling. Lipophilic chelates of 111 In with oxine, acetylacetone, tropolone and mercaptopyridine N-oxide have been used successfully for labelling platelets and leukocytes. A very promising aproach is the labelling of cells with monoclonal antibodies and the developing optimized methods for in vitro labelling with various radionuclides such as 123 I, 125 I, 131 I, 111 I and 99m Tc. The advantages of the antibody technique over conventional cell labelling are shown. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Radiolabeled amino acids : Basic aspects and clinical applications in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Vaalburg, W; Pruim, J; de Vries, EGE; Langen, KJ; Piers, DA

    As the applications of metabolic imaging are expanding, radiolabeled amino acids may gain increased clinical interest, This review first describes the basic aspects of amino acid metabolism, then continues with basic aspects of radiolabeled amino acids, and finally describes clinical applications,

  4. Non-specific immunization against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Non-specific resistance to tumours can be induced by pretreating animals with micro-organisms, microbial extracts or various synthetic substances. Mycobacterium bovis, Corynebacterium parvum and a number of other micro-organisms also protect mice against rodent piroplasms and there is evidence that they are also protective against other parasites including Schistosoma mansoni. The actual mechanisms of non-specific immunity are still unclear but it is influenced by both the genetic make-up of the host and the nature of the parasite. Non-specific immunization may be a possible alternative to specific immunization and may avoid many of the potential immunopathological changes induced during parasite infections. Irradiated vaccines (Dictyocaulus viviparus, schistomiasis) are mentioned marginally only

  5. Homeostatic 'bystander' proliferation of human peripheral blood B cells in response to polyclonal T-cell stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Pietruczuk, Krzysztof; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Fulop, Tamas; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of maintenance of adequate numbers of B lymphocytes and of protective levels of immunoglobulins in the absence of antigenic (re)stimulation remain not fully understood. Meanwhile, our results presented here show that both peripheral blood naive and memory B cells can be activated strongly and non-specifically (in a mitogen-like fashion) in 5-day in vitro cultures of anti-CD3- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy people. This polyclonal, bystander activation of the B cells includes multiple divisions of most of them (assessed here by the flow cytometric technique of dividing cell tracking) and significant antibody [immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG] secretion. Observed proliferation of the CD19(+) B cells depends on contact with stimulated T helper (Th) cells (via CD40-CD40L interaction) and on the response of B cells to secreted interleukins IL-5, IL-10 and IL-4, and is correlated with the levels of these Th-derived molecules, while it does not involve the ligation of the BCR/CD19 complex. We suggest that the effect might reflect the situation occurring in vivo as the homeostatic proliferation of otherwise non-stimulated, peripheral B lymphocytes, providing an always ready pool for efficient antibody production to any new (or cognate) antigen challenge. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  7. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooladsaz K

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays immunochemical techniques have played a very important and valuable role in quantitative and qualitative assays of liquid compounds of the body. Producing antibody against immunogenes is the first step to make immunochemical kits. In this study production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin has been considered. This hormone which has several important functions in physiological conditions such as migraine, cirrhosis, mammary gland cancer and other diseases, is the most important pineal gland secretion. This gland is a circumventricular organ of brain and according to histological and anatomical studies, it is a high secretory organ, that secretes active biological substances like melatonin, oxytocin, serotonin and ect. In this study, melatonin has been considered as hapten and has become an immunogen by being linked to the bovine serum Albumin. Then, by the immunization of three white New Zeland rabbits that had the booster injections in regular intervals, the antibody titer was detected to be 1/2000, by using checkboard curves, and with the use of melatonin linked to penicillinase as a labeled antigen, the titer was detected 1/200. Finally an antibody with high purification rate has been obtained, which can be used in immunochemical assays like RIA, ELISA, and EIA.

  8. Possible therapeutic use of radiolabeled cisplatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Bernardes, Felipe D.; Gonçalves, Natalia A.Z., E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II), (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PtCl{sub 2} or (CDDP) is a very common chemotherapeutical agent used in the treatment of ovary, lungs, testicle, head and neck carcinoma. It has been used for treatment of numerous human cancers including bladder, head and neck, lung, ovarian, and testicular cancers. However, because of the drug resistance and numerous undesirable side effects, a lot of work involving new formulations or administration of the CDDP has been done. In this work, we present a preliminary discussion about the possibilities of using the radiolabeled CDDP or CDDP⁎, as new alternative therapy. The works based on previous very positive in-vitro results of using the CDDP⁎ compared to CDDP in the cytotoxic effect of some kind of tumor cells. The preparation and characterization of the CDDP⁎ as well as the dose of CDDP⁎ required are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Possible therapeutic use of radiolabeled cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Bernardes, Felipe D.; Gonçalves, Natalia A.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II), (NH 3 ) 2 PtCl 2 or (CDDP) is a very common chemotherapeutical agent used in the treatment of ovary, lungs, testicle, head and neck carcinoma. It has been used for treatment of numerous human cancers including bladder, head and neck, lung, ovarian, and testicular cancers. However, because of the drug resistance and numerous undesirable side effects, a lot of work involving new formulations or administration of the CDDP has been done. In this work, we present a preliminary discussion about the possibilities of using the radiolabeled CDDP or CDDP⁎, as new alternative therapy. The works based on previous very positive in-vitro results of using the CDDP⁎ compared to CDDP in the cytotoxic effect of some kind of tumor cells. The preparation and characterization of the CDDP⁎ as well as the dose of CDDP⁎ required are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Autodecomposition of radiolabeled human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Amburn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) was radiolabeled with 125 I, using a gentle lactoperoxidase technique. The stability and decomposition products of this tracer were studied by frequent periodic analysis by Sephadex G-100 chromatography on a long column. Monomeric 125 I-hGH showed an exponential decline, with a half-life of 61 days. The main radioactive degradation product was iodide, which appeared with a fractional appearance rate of 0.01136 per day. Secondary degradation products were a series of radioactive oligomers of hGH, which appeared with an overall fractional rate of 0.00525 per day. The kinetic data obtained should provide guidelines for the shelf-life and repurification schedule of radioiodinated polypeptides

  11. Nonspecific effects of neonatal and infant vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Kollmann, Tobias R; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines can have nonspecific effects through their modulation of responses to infections not specifically targeted by the vaccine. However, lack of knowledge about the underlying immunological mechanisms and molecular cause-and-effect relationships prevent use of this potentially powerful early-...

  12. Growth and yield of mixed polyclonal stands of Populus in short-rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbrahim, Mohammed; Gavaland, Andre [INRA centre de Toulouse (France). Unite Agroforesterie et foret Paysanne; Gauvin, Jean [INRA centre d' Orleans (France). Unite d' Amelioration des arbres forestiers

    2000-07-01

    Eight clones of poplar were used to compare the growth and productivity of monoclonal and polyclonal mixed plantations in short-rotation coppice. At the end of the eight growing season, the diameter at breast height (DBH) and height of trees were measured and dry weight and yield were estimated. Polyclonal mixtures did not affect mortality. Few differences in growth were observed between clones in monoclonal plots. Polyclonal mixture slightly affected the growth and tree size of the clones compared with monoclonal plots. No increase in stand heterogeneity in relation to clone deployment was observed. A neighbourhood index was calculated for each tree and was significantly affected by polyclonal mixture. However, the relationship between the neighbourhood index and the DBH indicated that this effect did not cause a great change in DBH. Consequently, dry weight and yield productivity were not affected by clone deployment.

  13. Preparation and biodistribution of radiolabeled fullerene C60 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Nadezda; Vranjes-Duric, Sanja; Jankovic, Drina; Dokic, Divna; Mirkovic, Marija; Bibic, Natasa; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes for the first time a procedure for the radiolabeling of fullerene (C 60 ) nanocrystals (nanoC 60 ) with Na 125 I, as well as the biodistribution of radiolabeled nanoC 60 ( 125 I-nanoC 60 ). The solvent exchange method with tetrahydrofuran was used to make colloidal water suspensions of radiolabeled nanoC 60 particles. The radiolabeling procedure with the addition of Na 125 I to tetrahydrofuran during dissolution of C 60 gave a higher radiochemical yield of radiolabeled nanoC 60 particles in comparison to the second option, in which Na 125 I was added after C 60 was dissolved. Using photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, 125 I-nanoC 60 particles were found to have a crystalline structure and a mean diameter of 200-250 nm. The 125 I-nanoC 60 had a particularly high affinity for human serum albumin, displaying 95% binding efficiency after 1 h. Biodistribution studies of 125 I-nanoC 60 in rats indicated significant differences in tissue accumulation of 125 I-nanoC 60 and the radioactive tracer Na 125 I. The higher accumulation of radiolabeled nanoC 60 was observed in liver and spleen, while accumulation in thyroid, stomach, lungs and intestines was significantly lower in comparison to Na 125 I. In addition to being useful for testing the biological distribution of nanoC 60 , the described radiolabeling procedure might have possible applications in cancer radiotherapy.

  14. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Hadi; Valedkarimi, Zahra; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Kazemi, Tohid; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab')2 can be used for animal’s immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme a...

  15. Purification of a polyclonal antibody against CD147 for ELISA using antigen-immunoaffinity chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangshuang; Li, Shasha; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Ye; Zhu, Yumeng; Wang, Bin; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2017-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 is a widely expressed glycoprotein that occurs in both a membrane-spanning and soluble form. Sandwich ELISA is a powerful tool for analyzing soluble antigens. The aim of the present study was to obtain a highly specific polyclonal antibody against human CD147 that can be used for sandwich ELISA analysis. Expression of recombinant CD147 by a eukaryotic expression system was used to immunize rabbits to obtain antiserum. A highly specific polyclonal antibody that was able to detect soluble CD147 in sandwich ELISA was obtained by antigen-immunoaffinity chromatography purification. The purity of rabbit anti-CD147 polyclonal antibodies was ~99%, and ELISA analysis was able to determine the titer of the rabbit anti-CD147 polyclonal antibodies at 1:512,000. The lowest concentration of the standard CD147 antigen that the sandwich ELISA was able to detect was 31.25 pg/ml. The sandwich ELISA system was composed of anti-hepatoma HAb18 monoclonal antibodies and purified rabbit anti-CD147 polyclonal antibodies. The present study demonstrated that antigen-immunoaffinity chromatography may be a good technique for the purification of polyclonal antibodies, which may be used to detect antigen in sandwich ELISAs. PMID:28487989

  16. System for exposing animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Mokler, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    One approach to determining the deposition and fate of inhaled diesel particles is the conduct of inhalation exposure studies with radiolabeled diesel fuel. A system was designed, constructed and tested for the simultaneous exposure of animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust and collection of large quantities of radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles from a single cylinder diesel engine. The system performance was characterized and evaluated over a range of operating conditions: 0 to 1800 watts of engine load, 1000 to 2500 rpm and dilution air rates of 1:2 and 1:10. The exposure system met required design and operating criteria for safety, portability, space and flexibility

  17. Improvement of A.E.S System, using a 188Re-radiolabeled hapten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandeau, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Feasibility of two-step radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cancer by the Affinity Enhancement System (AES) has been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies. This technique, associating a bispecific antibody (BsAb) and a radiolabeled bivalent peptide, reduces toxicity and improves therapeutic efficacy of the treatment compared to the one step targeting method. The formation of a cyclic complex (antigen-BsAb- hapten-BsAb-antigen) observed on the tumor allows good tumoral fixation. This is associated with low non-specific uptake, due to the fast clearance of the hapten from the organism. Iodine 131, used currently in clinical applications, has however several disadvantages. These include the mean energy of □ . particles, strong y emission and long physical half-life. Rhenium-188 is the radionuclide of choice to replace iodine-131; its low cost, its availability from a W-188/Re-188 generator and its very favorable radiophysical properties (t 1/2 =16.9h; E□=2.118 MeV; Ey (15%)=155keV) make it a very interesting radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy applications. Unlike the case of iodine-131, the radiolabelling of the peptide by rhenium-188 requires the preliminary coupling of a bifunctional chelating agent. This ensures the formation of an in vivo stable complex with the radionuclide. The object of this post-doctoral project is to obtain a rhenium-188 radiolabeled bivalent hapten. To do this, a monovalent hapten will be coupled to a chelating agent that involves two or three patterns to complex the radionuclide, leading to a bivalent or trivalent radiolabeled hapten, suitable for applications in A.E.S. system. The monovalent hapten used, called HSGL (histaminosuccinylglycyllysine) is a small heteropeptide composed of a chain of four molecules which are histamine, succinic acid, glycine, lysine. It is recognised by the antibody anti-HSG. Two kinds of chelating agents, dithiocarbamates and dithiobenzoates will be studied. They have been synthesised at

  18. The role of radiolabelled compounds in preclinical drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The role of radiolabelled compounds in the development of new drugs is discussed, with particular reference to their use in toxicological, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies for the pre-clinical safety evaluation of new drugs. (U.K.)

  19. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  20. A new technique for radiolabelling of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Patt, J.T.; Patt, M.; Kupsch, H.; Steinbach, J. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    A new method of radiolabelling of humic substances (HS) in the aqueous phase has been developed. Radiolabelling with the short-lived positron-emitter {sup 18}F was carried out via diazonium coupling to electron-rich aromatic residues of the humic substances. Labelling yields of up to 75% were obtained after optimization of the synthetic procedure. Introductory experimental steps were performed for testing the labelling stability of the humic substances with ultrafiltration, electrophoretic and chromatographic methods. (orig.)

  1. A new technique for radiolabelling of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, K.; Patt, J.T.; Patt, M.; Kupsch, H.; Steinbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    A new method of radiolabelling of humic substances (HS) in the aqueous phase has been developed. Radiolabelling with the short-lived positron-emitter 18 F was carried out via diazonium coupling to electron-rich aromatic residues of the humic substances. Labelling yields of up to 75% were obtained after optimization of the synthetic procedure. Introductory experimental steps were performed for testing the labelling stability of the humic substances with ultrafiltration, electrophoretic and chromatographic methods. (orig.)

  2. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  3. Biomechanical aspects of nonspecific back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Harrianto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common problem in adult life, since despite its benign nature it is commonly associated with incapacity, productivity loss due to sick leave, and correspondingly high costs to the individual worker. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors and work-place exposures have been implicated in the onset of symptoms. Heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting and postural movements, repetitive work, and whole body vibrations are occupational factors associated with LBP. The usual classification of LBP is related to the duration of the complaints (acute, subacute, and chronic. However, these terms fail to take into account several clinically important aspects of the course of LBP, which is frequently recurrent and thus neither acute nor chronic. More realistically, LBP should be classified as specific and nonspecific. Approximately 90% of LBP cases have no identifiable cause and is designated nonspecific LBP. However, despite its high prevalence, the etiology and nature of nonspecific LBP are not yet well understood. Its pathophysiology remains complex and multifaceted. Multiple anatomic structures and elements of the lumbar spine (e.g. bones, ligaments, tendons, discs, and muscles are all suspected of playing a role. Many of these components of the lumbar spine have sensory innervations that can generate nociceptive signals in response to tissue-damaging stimuli. Other causes could be neuropathic (e.g. sciatica. Some cases of LBP most likely involve mixed nociceptive and neuropathic etiologies.

  4. Generation of HER2 monoclonal antibodies using epitopes of a rabbit polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Francis Jingxin; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2014-01-25

    One of the issues in using polyclonal antibodies is the limited amount of reagent available from an immunisation, leading to batch-to-batch variation and difficulties in obtaining the same antibody performance when the same antigen is re-immunised into several separate animals. This led to the development of hybridoma technology allowing, at least theoretically, for an unlimited production of a specific binder. Nevertheless, polyclonal antibodies are widely used in research and diagnostics and there exists a need for robust methods to convert a polyclonal antibody with good binding performance into a renewable monoclonal with identical or similar binding specificity. Here we have used precise information regarding the functional recognition sequence (epitope) of a rabbit polyclonal antibody with attractive binding characteristics as the basis for generation of a renewable mouse monoclonal antibody. First, the original protein fragment antigen was used for immunisation and generation of mouse hybridoma, without obtaining binders to the same epitope region. Instead a peptide designed using the functional epitope and structural information was synthesised and used for hybridoma production. Several of the monoclonal antibodies generated were found to have similar binding characteristics to those of the original polyclonal antibody. These monoclonal antibodies detected native HER2 on cell lines and were also able to stain HER2 in immunohistochemistry using xenografted mice, as well as human normal and cancer tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Preparation and characterization of mouse polyclonal antibody against conserved region of human FOXO3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Lyu, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Objective To purify the recombinant protein specific to conserved region of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) and prepare mouse anti-human FOXO3 polyclonal antibody. Methods The DNA fragment (aa290-472) encoding conserved domain of FOXO3 was amplified by PCR, and subsequently cloned into pET28a vector. Following transformation into E.coli BL21, the soluble fusion protein His-FOXO3 was induced by IPTG and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate polyclonal antibody. The characteristics of the polyclonal antibody were assessed by ELISA, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays. Results We successfully prepared the expression vector pET28a-FOXO3 (aa290-472) and expressed the purified fusion protein in a soluble form. By immunizing mice with the fusion protein, we obtained anti-human FOXO3 polyclonal antibody. ELISA and Western blotting showed that the mouse antibody could recognize specifically the endogenous FOXO3 protein. Conclusion The polyclonal antibody against conserved domain of FOXO3 can identify the endogenous FOXO3 protein. It can be used to analyze the endogenous FOXO3 expression level.

  6. Studies on Purification and Coatation of Polyclonal Antibody for Prolactin Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Shafik, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was oriented to produce purified polyclonal antibody to prepare a prolactin solid phase coated tubes radioimmunoassay system. In the present study, production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out through immunization of three healthy white male mature New Zealand rabbits with a highly purified sheep prolactin antigen. The obtained anti-sera was purified using an anion exchange reactive group, diethylamino ethyle (DEAE) covalently linked to Sepharose. The purified polyclonal antibody was used for coating polystyrene tubes. The preparation of 125 I-prolactin tracer was carried out using chloramine-T method. The preparation of standards was performed using assay buffer to cover the range from 2 to 200 ng/ml. The optimization and validation tests of the assay were performed to evaluate the validity of the prepared system. In conclusion, this low cost assay would be used in diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction and diagnosis of infertility in males and females

  7. Studies on Purification and Coatation of Polyclonal Antibody for Prolactin Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Shafik, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was oriented to produce purified polyclonal antibody to prepare a prolactin solid phase coated tubes radioimmunoassay system. In the present study, production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out through immunization of three healthy white male mature New Zealand rabbits with a highly purified sheep prolactin antigen. The obtained anti-sera was purified using an anion exchange reactive group, diethylamino ethyle (DEAE) covalently linked to Sepharose. The purified polyclonal antibody was used for coating polystyrene tubes. The preparation of 125 I-prolactin tracer was carried out using chloramine-T method. The preparation of standards was performed using assay buffer to cover the range from 2 to 200 ng/ml. The optimization and validation tests of the assay were performed to evaluate the validity of the prepared system. In conclusion, this low cost assay would be used in diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction and diagnosis of infertility in males and females.

  8. Use of polyclonal IgG in HIV infection and AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.R.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine should have a pivitol role to play in the investigation of patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Unfortunately the use of scintigraphic techniques to localize infection have not become widely used in Europe. Neither 67 Ga citrate or labelled leukocytes are ideal. In a search for new agents which can be used to identify the presence of infection both 99m Tc and 111 In labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin-C have been investigated. It was found that 99m TC labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin-G was not able to localize infection in either the chest or the abdomen. In contrast 111 In labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin-G had both high sensitivity and specificity for imaging infection in HIV infected patients. If these preliminary results are confirmed immunoglobulin-G could find an important clinical application in this specialized patient group

  9. Phenotyping polyclonal kappa and lambda light chain molecular mass distributions in patient serum using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Dasari, Surendra; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Fontan, Adrian; Willrich, Maria A V; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane F; Snyder, Melissa R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-11-07

    We previously described a microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS method for identifying monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and then tracking them over time using their accurate molecular mass. Here we demonstrate how the same methodology can be used to identify and characterize polyclonal immunoglobulins in serum. We establish that two molecular mass distributions observed by microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS are from polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains using a combination of theoretical molecular masses from gene sequence data and the analysis of commercially available purified polyclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda from normal human serum. A linear regression comparison of kappa/lambda ratios for 74 serum samples (25 hypergammaglobulinemia, 24 hypogammaglobulinemia, 25 normal) determined by microflowLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and immunonephelometry had a slope of 1.37 and a correlation coefficient of 0.639. In addition to providing kappa/lambda ratios, the same microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis can determine the molecular mass for oligoclonal light chains observed above the polyclonal background in patient samples. In 2 patients with immune disorders and hypergammaglobulinemia, we observed a skewed polyclonal molecular mass distribution which translated into biased kappa/lambda ratios. Mass spectrometry provides a rapid and simple way to combine the polyclonal kappa/lambda light chain abundance ratios with the identification of dominant monoclonal as well as oligoclonal light chain immunoglobulins. We anticipate that this approach to evaluating immunoglobulin light chains will lead to improved understanding of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and antibody responses.

  10. Technetium-99m labelled hydrazinonicotinamido human non-specific polyclonal immunoglobulin G for detection of infectious foci: a comparison with two other technetium-labelled immunoglobulin preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claessens, R.A.M.J. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boerman, O.C. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Koenders, E.B. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, W.J.G. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meer, J.W.M. van der [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Corstens, F.H.M. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    In this study we compared the tissue distribution of three different {sup 99m}Tc-hIgG preparations in groups of five Wistar rats with a focal intramuscular infection with Staphylococcus aureus. We compared {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG with {sup 99m}Tc-hIgG labelled via the so-called Schwarz method (reduction of disulphide bonds) and with the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled commercially available Technescan-HIG. Unlike the HYNIC linker, in the two other labelling methods free sulph-hydryl groups are involved in the binding of {sup 99m}Tc. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the labelled preparations and of plasma samples revealed aggregate or polymer formation in all three agents; this was least pronounced in the product labelled by means of the Schwarz method. The tested preparations did not show signs of degradation in vitro. The difference in linker chemistry was reflected in the tissue distribution. Thus the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG was significantly different from the distribution of the two other preparations: abscess (1.4%{+-}0.2%ID/g), muscle, liver, spleen, plasma, lung, bone marrow, and small intestine concentrations were higher at 24 h p.i.; kidney uptake (1.19%{+-}0.08%ID/g) was significantly lower. The abscess-to-plasma and the abscess-to-muscle ratios (0.5 and 11, respectively), however, were in the same range for the three preparations tested. Quantitative analysis of the scintigraphs revealed that the total body clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG was significantly slower than for the other agents. The abscess uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG as a percentage of the remaining body activity was significantly higher. Based on its high abscess uptake, its low uptake in the kidneys and the high percentage of its abscess uptake in relation to the remaining body activity, we conclude that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG seems superior to the two other preparations tested for the detection of infections. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  12. Nonspecific abdominal pain is a safe diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, David John Laurie; Goergen, Nina; Driver, Chris P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe and if patients with this initial diagnosis are likely to require further investigation or surgical intervention. 3323 patients admitted with NSAP from July 1990 to September 2012 utilizing a prospective database of all surgical admissions were included. Readmission over the period of the study and specifically within 30 days of their initial presentation was identified together with any invasive investigation or surgical intervention. 319 children (9.6%) were subsequently readmitted with abdominal pain at some point during the study period. Of these, 78 (2.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. 118 (3.5%) children subsequently had an operation or invasive investigation some point following their initial admission. Of these 33 (0.6%) had the procedure within 3 months of the initial admission. 13 patients had an appendicectomy within 3 months of the initial presentation. Of these histology confirmed appendicitis in 8 patients. This gives an overall incidence of "missed" appendicitis of 0.2 % (8/3323). This study confirms that a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe in a pediatric population and the risk of "missing" appendicitis is only 0.2%. Patients and/or parents can be confidently reassured that the risk of missing organic pathology is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihver, Wiebke; Pietzsch, Jens; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Steinbach, Jörg; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a) chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b) with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specific targeting properties of this antibody might increase its therapeutic efficiency. This review article gives an overview of the preclinical studies that have been performed with radiolabeled cetuximab for imaging and/or treatment of different tumor models. A particularly promising approach seems to be the treatment with therapeutic radionuclide-labeled cetuximab in combination with external radiotherapy. Present data support an important impact of the tumor micromilieu on treatment response that needs to be further validated in patients. Another important challenge is the reduction of nonspecific uptake of the radioactive substance in metabolic organs like liver and radiosensitive organs like bone marrow and kidneys. Overall, the integration of diagnosis, treatment and monitoring as a theranostic approach appears to be a promising strategy for improvement of individualized cancer treatment. PMID:24603603

  14. Chemical radiolabeling of carboxyatractyloside by [14C]acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.R.; Pougeois, R.; Vignais, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The authors report the synthesis and biological properties of a radiolabeled derivative of CAT obtained with acetylation of the primary alcohol of CAT with radiolabeled acetic anhydride. They also investigate the question of mutual exclusion of CAT and BA for binding to the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in double labeling experiments based on the use of [ 3 H]BA and [ 14 C]Ac-CAT. The results are consistent with the view that the ADP/ATP carrier possesses two separate interacting binding sites for AT (or CAT) and for BA. (Auth.)

  15. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Using Radiolabeled Inorganic Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolian; Cai, Weibo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radionuclide imaging technology that plays an important role in preclinical and clinical research. With administration of a small amount of radiotracer, PET imaging can provide a noninvasive, highly sensitive, and quantitative readout of its organ/tissue targeting efficiency and pharmacokinetics. Various radiotracers have been designed to target specific molecular events. Compared with antibodies, proteins, peptides, and other biologically relevant molecules, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in molecular imaging probe design, enabling the attachment of different imaging modalities, targeting ligands, and therapeutic payloads in a single vector. We introduce the radiolabeled nanoparticle platforms that we and others have developed. Due to the fundamental differences in the various nanoparticles and radioisotopes, most radiolabeling methods are designed case-by-case. We focus on some general rules about selecting appropriate isotopes for given types of nanoparticles, as well as adjusting the labeling strategies according to specific applications. We classified these radiolabeling methods into four categories: (1) complexation reaction of radiometal ions with chelators via coordination chemistry; (2) direct bombardment of nanoparticles via hadronic projectiles; (3) synthesis of nanoparticles using a mixture of radioactive and nonradioactive precursors; (4) chelator-free postsynthetic radiolabeling. Method 1 is generally applicable to different nanomaterials as long as the surface chemistry is well-designed. However, the addition of chelators brings concerns of possible changes to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and detachment of the radiometal. Methods 2 and 3 have improved radiochemical stability. The applications are, however, limited by the possible damage to the nanocomponent caused by the proton beams (method 2) and harsh synthetic conditions (method 3). Method 4 is still in its infancy

  16. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of radiolabeled avidin, streptavidin and biotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosebrough, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    The extraordinarily high affinity of avidin and streptavidin for biotin may be exploited in a two-step approach for delivering radiolabeled biotin derivatives suitable for imaging and therapy to target-bound streptavidin or avidin conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of radiolabeled avidin, streptavidin (SA) and DTPA-biocytinamide (DTPA-biotin) were studied in the rabbit and dog. SA circulated in the blood similar to other 60 kDa proteins, avidin cleared immediately and DTPA-biotin exhibited plasma clearance by glomerular filtration. (author)

  17. Antigenic profile of human recombinant PrP: generation and chracterization of a versatile polyclonal antiserum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsamanoglou, M.; Paspaltzis, I.; Petrakis, S.; Verghese-Nikolakaki, S.; Panagiotidis, C.H.; Voitlander, T.; Budka, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Sklaviadis, T.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the quality of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (Sal1) that was raised against mature human recombinant prion protein (rhuPrP). Epitope mapping demonstrated that the Sal1 antiserum recognized six to eight linear antigenic sites, depending on the animal species. The versatility of the

  18. Radiolabelled aptamers for tumour imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Missailidis, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The growth in biotechnology has led to new techniques for the design, selection and production of ligands capable of molecular recognition. One promising approach is the production of specific receptor binding molecules based on specific nucleic acid sequences that are capable of recognising a wide array of target molecules. These oligonuclide ligands are known as aptamers. The technology that allows production of aptamer molecules is known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). We have used combinatorial chemistry techniques coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly select aptamers from degenerate libraries that bind with high affinity and specificity to the protein core of the MUC1 antigen, a tumour marker previously extensively used in tumour imaging and therapy. MUC1 is widely expressed by normal glandular epithelial cells, however this expression is dramatically increased when the cells become malignant. This has been well documented for breast and ovarian cancer, as well as some lung, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Recently it has also been shown that MUC1 is a valuable marker for bladder and has been used for the imaging and targeted therapy of bladder cancer. The aptamer selection process was performed on affinity chromatography matrices. After ten rounds of selection and amplification, aptamers were cloned and sequenced. Post SELEX amino modifications have been used to confer nuclease resistance and coupling potential. The aptamers bound to MUC1 antigen with a Kd of 5nm and high specificity, demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy on MUC1-expressing tumour cells. Using peptide coupling reactions, we have successfully attached chelators for Tc-99m radiolabelling. Two of the constructs tested were based on mono-aptamer chelator complexes, one with commercially available MAG3 and one with a novel designed cyclen-based chelator. The other two constructs were based on the use of multi-aptamer complexes

  19. Radiolabeling as a tool to study uptake pathways in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schymura, Stefan; Hildebrand, Heike; Franke, Karsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Fricke, T. [Vita34 BioPlanta, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The identification of major uptake pathways in plants is an important factor when evaluation the fate of manufactured nanoparticles in the environment and the associated risks. Using different radiolabeling techniques we were able to show a predominantly particulate uptake for CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) in contrast to a possible uptake in the form of ionic cerium.

  20. Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: magic bullets for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been heralded as highly specific detection agents for many types of tumours. However, because of the many problems that have been associated with the use of these agents, their development and successes did not meet expectations. This paper discusses the use of radiolabelled MoAbs in the diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer, the type of antibodies and radionuclides investigated over the past thirty years, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. An attempt is made to define the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in the investigation and management of patients with colorectal cancer. It appears that this technique can improve tumour detection, especially when used in conjunction with other imaging modalities. High sensitivities and specificities have been found using radio-labelled MoAbs for investigation of colorectal carcinoma. However, the author estimates there are a number of areas that require further research and improvement before naming radiolabelled MoAbs as 'magic bullets' for colorectal cancer. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Radiolabeling of biological vectors by poly-aza-macrocyclic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work conducted at the 'Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de l'Universite de Bourgogne' carries at first on the synthesis of bifunctional chelating agents suitable for the chelation of trivalent radio-metals, including indium-111. The greater part of this work was then dedicated to the grafting of a DOTA derivative bifunctional chelating agent on different antibodies or fragments of monoclonal antibodies: trastuzumab (anti-HER2 treatment of breast cancer), cetuximab (anti EGFR, treatment of many cancers, including colorectal cancer) and abciximab (antiplatelet). Particular attention was paid to the characterization of various immuno-conjugates. The critical step of this thesis consisted in the indium-111 radiolabeling of two previously prepared immuno-conjugates: trastuzumab and cetuximab. These steps of radiolabelling allowed us to determine the immunoreactive fraction and affinity of each radiotracer. Thus, we were able to study the in vivo biodistribution of the radiotracers in tumour-bearing mice by SPECT-CT. We also developed an original method for the labeling of a Fab antibody fragment in order to monitor the biodistribution of the antiplatelet agent (abciximab). Finally, we also validated the concept of multimodal imaging through grafting and radiolabeling of a bimodal agent for optical and SPECT imaging on bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Thanks to this work, we gained an expertise in antibodies radiolabeling. The results obtained allow to consider the labeling of antibodies or other biomolecules, and the use of other radionuclides for PET imaging and radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  2. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Needham, S.G.; Loutfi, I.; Snook, D.; Epenetos, A.A.; Lumley, P.; Keery, R.J.; Hogg, N.

    1986-12-13

    A study was conducted evaluating a method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a /sup 111/In labelled monoclonal antibody, P256, directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. when the number of receptors occupied by P256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface, platelet function was undisturbed. P256 was radiolabelled with /sup 111/In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The /sup 111/In kinetics recorded after intravenous P256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P256, three had documented thrombus, two of whom gave positive results on P256 platelet scintigraphy. The third had chronic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative.

  3. Current status and future developments in radiolabelled immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used extensively in medical practice and their use in RIA or IRMA usually represent a small proportion of the total. Radiolabelled immunoassays based on 125 I constitute a simple didactic, cost effective and robust technology which is still regarded as the reference method in many clinical applications. The IAEA has implemented many successful programmes using the ''bulk reagent'' approach, involving 68 countries in all the different regions. The main achievements have been in technology transfer with self sufficiency in production for some countries; training of large numbers of staff; quality control and quality assurance schemes; devolution of screening programmes for neonatal congenital hypothryoidism. Alternatives to the use of radioisotopic tracers are constrained by many factors and are often only available in restricted commercial packages. They are often not suitable for technology transfer programmes and often lack any didactic component in addition to a relative high cost. The production of radiolabels using 125 I is both simple and adaptable. In addition expertise in their preparation and purification is widespread even in developing countries. Together with the ease of producing antibodies, the facts have made 125 I-radiolabelled immunoassays ideal for investigative procedures for many research activities (30,31) particularly in the medical context where radioisotopes are commonly used. In conclusion, even a superficial examination of public health statistics for various countries throughout the continents indicates a need for a simple, inexpensive and robust analytical tool. In this light, there is a predicted continuing role for radiolabelled immunoassays. (author)

  4. Synthesis of sup 14 C-radiolabelled Tilmicosin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, G D; Terando, N H [Lilly (Eli) and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA). Lilly Research Labs.

    1989-04-01

    Tilmicosin was radiolabelled with carbon-14 on the 3,5-dimethylpiperidinyl sidechain as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. A new radiosynthesis of 3,5-dimethyl-piperidine was developed for this purpose. Incorporation into the desmycosin nucleus was accomplished by a reductive amination reaction. (author).

  5. A novel method of 18F radiolabeling for PET.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, W.J.; Sharkey, R.M.; Karacay, H.; D'Souza, C.A.; Rossi, E.A.; Laverman, P.; Chang, C.H.; Boerman, O.C.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Small biomolecules are typically radiolabeled with (18)F by binding it to a carbon atom, a process that usually is designed uniquely for each new molecule and requires several steps and hours to produce. We report a facile method wherein (18)F is first attached to aluminum as Al(18)F, which is then

  6. Radiolabeled antibodies and RGD-peptides for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, preclinical studies on new treatment modalities for ovarian cancer are descibed, applying radiolabeled antibodies and radiolabeled RGD-peptides. In chapter 2 a study is described comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody HMFG1 radiolabeled with several beta-emitting

  7. Development of Radiolabeled compounds using reactor-produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Park, K. B.; Park, S. H.

    2007-06-01

    To establish a robust technology for radiopharmaceutical development, we focused on the configuration of fundamental development of radiolabeled compounds for radioimmunotherapy and drug delivery as well as the development of bifunctional chelating agents and radiolabeling methods for the radiopharmaceuticals with highly specific activity to deliver sufficient number of radionuclides to the target site. In this project, we aim to improve the quality of life and the public welfare by fostering the medical application of radioisotopes for the effective treatment of malignant diseases and by developing efficient radiolabeling methods of specific bio-active materials with radioisotopes and new candidates for radiopharmaceutical application. We have established the procedure for the preparation of radiolabeled antibody and biotin with radioisotopes such as 166 Ho, 131 I, 90 Y and 111 In for tumour targeting. In the future, these technologies will be applicable to development of radioimmunotherapeutic drug. The combination treatment of radioisotope with anti-cancer agents or chemotherapeutic agents may produce a synergistic static effects in the tumour and this synergism would be exerted via gene level through the activation of a cell death pathway. The combination therapy may be very beneficial for cancer treatment and this can overcome not only the hazards of unnecessary exposure to high radiation level during therapy, but also the tendency for drug resistance caused by chemotherapy. To develop new drug delivery system suitable for CT imaging agent, a chitosan derivative and radiolabed Folate-targeted polymer with 131 I were synthesized. We also carried out the development of DTPA derivatives for CT imaging agent, radiolabeled precursor, and established a highly efficient radiolabeling methodology with lanthanide nuclide. In order to develop neuroreceptor targeting compounds, we synthesized WAY-100635 compound and 99m Tc(CO) 3 precursor from Chrysamine G derivatives

  8. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, I.; Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Indium-111-hydroxyquinoline labelled platelets, though useful in the detection of thrombus, have not gained widespread use owing to the time and technical skill required for their preparation. A study was therefore conducted evaluating a new method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a 111 In labelled monoclonal antibody, P 256 , directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. When the number of receptors occupied by P 256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface platelet function, as assessed by platelet aggregometry, was undisturbed. P 256 was radiolabelled with 111 In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo - that is, by direct intravenous injection of P 256 - in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The 111 In kinetics recorded after intravenous P 256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P 256 , three had documented thrombus, tow of whom gave positive results on P 256 platelet scintigraphy. The third subject had chromic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative. Imaging thrombus using a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody directed to platelets appears to offer great potential as a simple, non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of thrombosis. 3 refs. (Author)

  9. Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain. ... for a total of ten sessions and control group (n=7) did not received any treatment. ... in pain relief and reduces functional disability in patients with non-specific low back pain.

  10. Establishment of a panel of in-house polyclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Osamu; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sato, Yuko; Nakajima, Noriko; Koike, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sata, Tetsutaro; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Taguchi, Fumihiro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Noriyo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method of virus detection for the diagnosis of critical enterovirus infections such as acute infective encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myocarditis. Because histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues play an important role in recognizing infectious agents in tissue samples, six in-house polyclonal antibodies raised against three representative enteroviruses using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry were examined. This panel of polyclonal antibodies recognized three serotypes of enterovirus. Two of the polyclonal antibodies were raised against denatured virus particles from enterovirus A71, one was raised against the recombinant VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3, and the other for poliovirus type 1 were raised against denatured virus particles, the recombinant VP1 protein and peptide 2C. Western blot analysis revealed that each of these antibodies recognized the corresponding viral antigen and none cross-reacted with non-enteroviruses within the family Picornaviridae. However, all cross-reacted to some extent with the antigens derived from other serotypes of enterovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that the virus capsid and non-structural proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of affected culture cells, and skeletal muscles and neurons in neonatal mice experimentally-infected with human enterovirus. The antibodies also recognized antigens derived from recent clinical isolates of enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that representative antibodies tested showed the same recognition pattern according to each serotype. Thus, the panel of in-house anti-enterovirus polyclonal antibodies described herein will be an important tool for the screening and pathological diagnosis for enterovirus infections, and may be useful for the classification of different

  11. Preparation and Purification of Polyclonal Antibodies against Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis Antigens in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezeh Alizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Johne’s disease is the chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and a major health hazard worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focused on mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP antigens in diagnostic tests. Identification of antibodies against MAP antigens is, therefore, effective for the diagnosis or preparation of vaccine. The aim of this study was to prepare and purify polyclonal antibodies against MAP antigens. Materials and Methods: A New Zealand white rabbit was immunized at a certain time period with MAP antigens and Freund’s adjuvant. After the immunization of the animal, the rabbit was bled to obtain enriched serum. Immunoglobulins were obtained via sedimentation with ammonium sulfate 35% and then IgG was purified by ion exchange (DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Serologic test was used to evaluate the interaction of antigens and antibodies. Results: Ion exchange chromatography of IgG showed one peak, and SDS_PAGE of IgG showed a single band. Serologic test was applied and clear precipitation lines were appeared up to 1:16 dilution, which indicated the high quality of the product. Conclusion: In this study, the humoral immune response was induced well by immunization with MAP antigens in a New Zealand white rabbit and polyclonal antibodies were produced in high titers. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce in large quantities and can connect to the more connective sites, resulting in better sensitivity. Identification of polyclonal antibodies via immunological tests can play a significant role in studying MAP disorders.

  12. Large-scale in vitro expansion of polyclonal human switched-memory B lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Néron

    Full Text Available Polyclonal preparations of therapeutic immunoglobulins, namely intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg, are essential in the treatment of immunodeficiency and are increasingly used for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Currently, patients' accessibility to IVIg depends exclusively upon volunteer blood donations followed by the fractionation of pooled human plasma obtained from thousands of individuals. Presently, there are no in vitro cell culture procedures allowing the preparation of polyclonal human antibodies. All in vitro human therapeutic antibodies that are currently generated are based on monoclonal antibodies, which are mostly issued from genetic engineering or single cell antibody technologies. Here, we describe an in vitro cell culture system, using CD40-CD154 interactions, that leads to a 1×10(6-fold expansion of switched memory B lymphocytes in approximately 50 days. These expanded cells secrete polyclonal IgG, which distribution into IgG(1, IgG(2, IgG(3 and IgG(4 is similar to that of normal human serum. Such in vitro generated IgG showed relatively low self-reactivity since they interacted moderately with only 24 human antigens among a total of 9484 targets. Furthermore, up to one liter of IgG secreting cells can be produced in about 40 days. This experimental model, providing large-scale expansion of human B lymphocytes, represents a critical step toward the in vitro production of polyclonal human IgG and a new method for the ex vivo expansion of B cells for therapeutic purposes.

  13. Estimation of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Elizabeth; Lock, Emma; Ward, Douglas G; Cook, Alexander; Harding, Stephen; Wallis, Gregg L F

    2014-07-01

    The in vivo or in vitro formation of IgG4 hybrid molecules, wherein the immunoglobulins have exchanged half molecules, has previously been reported under experimental conditions. Here we estimate the incidence of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum and comment on the existence of IgG4 molecules with different immunoglobulin light chains. Polyclonal IgG4 was purified from pooled or individual donor human sera and sequentially fractionated using light-chain affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, ELISA, immunodiffusion and matrix-assisted laser-desorption mass spectrometry. Polyclonal IgG4 purified from normal serum contained IgG4κ, IgG4λ and IgG4κ/λ molecules. Size exclusion chromatography showed that IgG4 was principally present in monomeric form (150 000 MW). SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and ELISA showed the purity of the three IgG4 samples. Immunodiffusion, light-chain sandwich ELISA and mass spectrometry demonstrated that both κ and λ light chains were present on only the IgG4κ/λ molecules. The amounts of IgG4κ/λ hybrid molecules ranged from 21 to 33% from the five sera analysed. Based on the molecular weight these molecules were formed of two IgG4 heavy chains plus one κ and one λ light chain. Polyclonal IgG (IgG4-depleted) was similarly fractionated according to light-chain specificity. No evidence of hybrid IgG κ/λ antibodies was observed. These results indicate that hybrid IgG4κ/λ antibodies compose a substantial portion of IgG4 from normal human serum. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Generation and Characterization of Polyclonal Antibody Against Part of Immunoglobulin Constant Heavy υ Chain of Goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Yongli; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin that is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. IgY consists of two light (λ) and two heavy (υ) chains. In the present study, polyclonal antibody against IgYFc was generated and evaluated. rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and utilized to raise polyclonal antibody in rabbit. High affinity antisera were obtained, which successfully detected the antigen at a dilution of 1:204,800 for ELISA assay. The antibody can specifically recognize both rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 and native IgY by Western bolt analysis. Furthermore, the serum of Grus japonensis or immunoglobulin of chicken, duck, turkey, and silkie samples and dynamic changes of serum GoIgY after immunogenicity with GPV-VP3-virus-like particles (GPV-VP3-VLPs) can be detected with the anti-GoIgYFc polyclonal antibody. These results suggested that the antibody is valuable for the investigation of biochemical properties and biological functions of GoIgY. PMID:25171010

  15. Apoptotic Effect of Anti myeloma Polyclonal Antibodies on The Growth of Myeloma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghany, I.Y.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Moustafa, K.A.; El-Shershaby, H.M.; Sayed, A.A.; Borai, I.H.; El-Lahloby, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy characterized by proliferation of plasma cells. Cancer immunotherapy is a major branch of biological therapy that utilizes living cells and their products. The aim of this study is to produce and evaluate the antiproliferative effect of anti myeloma polyclonal antibodies (with and without labelling with radioactive isotopes) against the growth of myeloma cells. The production of polyclonal antibodies (PAb) was generated by immunizing five healthy female mature white New-Zealand rabbits with myeloma cells (SP2/OR) through primary injection and five booster doses. The preparation of labelled anti myeloma antibodies was carried out using chloramine-T method and it was purified using PD-10 chromatographic column. The results obtained revealed that anti myeloma polyclonal antibodies inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of myeloma cell lines in vitro and induced apoptosis after serial intraperitoneal injection of PAb in ascites bearing mice in vivo. The present study suggested that the effect of labelled anti myeloma antibodies on myeloma cells growth inhibition was more effective than that of anti myeloma antibodies without labelling which is due to the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation. Apoptosis triggered by PAb was confirmed by flow cytometry, caspase -8 and -9 and β2-microglobulin.

  16. Iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody detection of gastrointestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, H.A.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.; Haagensen, D.A.; Thurston, M.O.; Mojzisik, C.; Houchens, D.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To localize gastrointestinal tumor, 31 patients were injected with 1.7-2.1 mCi I-131 anti-CEA baboon polyclonal antibody. Whole body imaging at 48, 72, and occasionally 96 hrs was performed with a Signa Camera (Technicare) peaked at 364 keV with 20% window. Additional spot views were usually obtained. No subtraction methods were used. All patients had surgical and pathological confirmation of the nuclear medicine studies. Labeled antibody images were positive in 15 (8 recurrent or metastatic colorectal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 primary colon, and 1 breast metastatic to chest wall). In 1, antibody images were positive for metastatic deposits in para-aortic lymph nodes, but negative for primary rectal tumor. True negative images were observed in 6; false negative images in 9 (4 liver metastases, 2 rectal, 1 pancreatic, 1 mesenteric lymph node metastasis, 1 bone metastasis). In all cases, no correlation existed between preoperative CEA serum levels and imaging. I-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody imaging proved highly efficient in detecting gastric cancer (2/2) and moderately efficient in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer (8/15). On the other hand, the I-131 labeled polyclonal anti-CEA antibody imaging was of limited value in detecting colon cancer (1/9), pancreatic cancer (1/4) and metastatic liver disease

  17. A Time- and Cost-Saving Method of Producing Rat Polyclonal Antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Kato, Yukio; Utsumi, Rie; Tsuji, Akira; Iseki, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    Producing antibodies usually takes more than three months. In the present study, we introduce a faster way of producing polyclonal antibodies based on preparation of the recombinant oligopeptide as antigen followed by immunization of rats. Using this method, we produced antisera against two mouse proteins: ERGIC-53 and c-Kit. An expression vector ligated with a pair of complementary synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides encoding the protein was introduced into bacteria, and the recombinant oligopeptide fused with the carrier protein glutathione-S-transferase was purified. Wistar rats were immunized by injecting the emulsified antigen subcutaneously into the hind footpads, followed by a booster injection after 2 weeks. One week after the booster, the sera were collected and examined for the antibody titer by immunohistochemistry. Antisera with 1600-fold titer at the maximum were obtained for both antigens and confirmed for their specificity by Western blotting. Anti-ERGIC-53 antisera recognized acinar cells in the sublingual gland, and anti-c-Kit antisera recognized spermatogenic and Leydig cells in the testis. These antisera were applicable to fluorescent double immunostaining with mouse monoclonal or rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Consequently, this method enabled us to produce specific rat polyclonal antisera available for immunohistochemistry in less than one month at a relatively low cost

  18. Method for radiolabeling proteins with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockford, D.R.; Rhodes, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a substrate to be radiolabeled with technetium-99m is admixed with a buffered stannous chloride composition having a pH between about 4.5 and about 8.5 wherein the stannous chloride is produced from a non-oxidized tin source, the buffered stannous chloride is purged of oxygen and the buffer comprises a mixture of alkali metal biphthalate and an alkali metal tartrate. Alternatively, the buffer may include alkali metal borate or gentisate. The stannous chloride solution is admixed with the buffer and the resultant mixture is neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The neutralized solution then is admixed with the substrate eventually to be radiolabeled with technetium-99m. This solution is allowed to incubate for several hours (usually over 15 hours) in the absence of oxygen and at room temperature

  19. Quantitation of radiolabeled compounds eluting from the HPLC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three techniques are compared for the quantitation of various radiolabeled compounds eluting in the high performance liquid chromatography system. The first technique requires fraction-collecting the effluent from the HPLC, removing an aliquot to scintillation vials, and counting each fraction in a liquid scintillation counter. The second uses direct interface of the HPLC effluent to a flow-through radioactivity detector. The third involves quantitation of various radiolabeled compounds (proteins, steroids, and nucleotides) by splitting the effluent from the HPLC with an electronic steam splitter, thus diverting a present portion to the fraction collector for further chemical characterization and the remainder to the radioactivity flow detector for direct quantitation. A direct comparison of the chromatograms and the radioactivity counting efficiencies of these three techniques is presented

  20. Radiolabeled microsphere measurements of alveolar bone blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.L.; Jeffcoat, M.K.; Goldhaber, P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolabeled microspheres were injected into the left cardiac ventricle in healthy adult dogs to quantify blood in maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse contour were monitored throughout each experiment. Blood flow in maxillary alveolar bone was more than 30 % greater (p<.001) than in mandibular alveolar bone. Alveolar bone blood flow (mean +- S.D.) measured as ml/min per gram was 0.12 +- .02 in the maxilla compared to 0.09 +- .02 in the mandible. The cardiovascular parameters monitored were constant immediately prior to the injection of microspheres and remained unchanged during and following injection. It is possible that radiolabeled microspheres can be used to quantify the circulatory changes in alveolar bone during the development of destructive periodontal disease in dogs. (author)

  1. Localisation and mechanism of renal retention of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Marleen; Krenning, Eric P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Barone, Raffaella [UCL, Centre of Nuclear Medicine and Laboratory of PET, Brussels (Belgium); Visser, Theo J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and octreotate, are used for tumour scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. The kidney is the most important critical organ during such therapy owing to the reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate in a rat model both the localisation and the mechanism of renal uptake after intravenous injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The multi-ligand megalin/cubilin receptor complex, responsible for reabsorption of many peptides and proteins in the kidney, is an interesting candidate for renal endocytosis of these peptide analogues. For localisation studies, ex vivo autoradiography and micro-autoradiography of rat kidneys were performed 1-24 h after injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues and compared with the renal anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern. To confirm a role of megalin in the mechanism of renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide, the effects of three inhibitory substances were explored in rats. Renal ex vivo autoradiography showed high cortical radioactivity and lower radioactivity in the outer medulla. The distribution of cortical radioactivity was inhomogeneous. Micro-autoradiography indicated that radioactivity was only retained in the proximal tubules. The anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern showed a strong similarity with the renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide ex vivo autoradiograms. Biodistribution studies showed that co-injection of positively charged d-lysine reduced renal uptake to 60% of control. Sodium maleate reduced renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide uptake to 15% of control. Finally, cisplatin pre-treatment of rats reduced kidney uptake to 70% of control. Renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide is confined to proximal tubules in the rat kidney, in which megalin-mediated endocytosis may play an important part. (orig.)

  2. Novel strategies for microdose studies using non-radiolabeled compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2011-06-19

    Microdose studies using non-radiolabeled compounds enable assessment of the clinical pharmacokinetics of drug candidates in humans without the need to synthesize radiolabeled compounds. We have demonstrated that the quantification limits of many drugs measured by LC-MS/MS are low enough to allow estimation of their pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of a microdose. Our previous microdose studies with LC-MS/MS demonstrated the linear pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine between microdoses and therapeutic doses. We also obtained time profiles of plasma concentrations of nicardipine and its multiple metabolites following administration of a microdose. A significant advantage of using non-radiolabeled compounds is the ability to perform cassette microdose studies. By administering multiple drug candidates to the same subject, we can select compounds with appropriate pharmacokinetic properties simultaneously. We can also clarify major factors dominating the pharmacokinetics of drug candidates by cocktail microdosing of the test compounds and probe substrates with or without specific inhibitors for enzymes/transporters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiolabelling of autologous leucocytes: technique and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl-Jaeger, E.; Kolbe, H.; Ludwig, H.; Sinzinger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-camera imaging after injection of radiolabelled autologous leucocytes can be very helpful in the diagnosis, localization and further clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present a technique allowing sterile separation of white blood cells and labelling with 99m Tc-phytate or -oxine and with 111 In-oxine, -oxine sulphate or -tropolone. The method is non-invasive and the radiation dose amounts to less than 80 mrad using 100 μCi 111 Indium. The use of radiolabelled granulocytes is of particular diagnostic value in patients with septicaemia of unknown origin. Whole body scanning allows not only visualization of enhanced splenic uptake in septicaemia, but also localization of an inflammatory process. Preferential indications for a diagnostic approach using radiolabelled granulocytes are inflammatory abdominal processes which cannot easily be documented by means of other non-invasive techniques, such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's diseases and ulcerative colitis), arthritic processes and abscesses of the liver and spleen, as well as subphrenic and retroperitoneal abscesses. Untreated osteomyelitis can be located with the help of labelled granulocytes, but in patients treated with antibiotics a false negative result is obtained in approximately 50 % of cases for as yet unknown reasons, even in the presence of a still active osteomyelitic process. (Authors)

  4. Radiolabeling, biodistribution and tumor imaging of stealth liposomes containing methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, N; Arulsudar, N; Chuttani, K; Mishra, P; Sharma, R.K; Murthy, R.S.R

    2003-01-01

    To study the utility of sterically stabilized liposomes (stealth liposomes) in tumor scintigraphy by studying its biodistribution and accumulation in target tissue after radiolabeling with Technetium-99m (99mTC). Conventional and Stealth liposomes were prepared by lipid film hydration method using methotrexate as model anticancer drug. Radiolabeling of the liposomes was carried out by direct labeling using reduced 99mTc. Experimental conditions for maximum labeling yield were optimized. The stability studies were carried out to check binding strength of the radiolabeled complexes. The blood kinetic study was carried out in rabbits after giving the labeled complex by intravenous administration through ear vein. The biodistribution studies were carried out in the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing mice after intravenous administration through tail vein, showed prolonged circulation in blood and significant increase in the accumulation in tumor for the sterically stabilized liposomes compared to the conventional liposomes. The gamma scintigraphic image shows the distribution of the stealth liposomes in liver, spleen, kidney and tumor. The study gives precise idea about the use of stealth liposomes in tumor scintigraphy and organ distribution studies (Au)

  5. Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal ELISAs for fecal elastase in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowitz, Drucy; Lin, Rong; Baker, Susan S

    2007-02-01

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodologies are used to detect pancreatic insufficiency: monoclonal and polyclonal. We sought to compare these assays in patients with cystic fibrosis and to correlate these with the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). As part of a larger study, subjects had stool elastase measured by both methods while taking exogenous enzymes. Subjects subsequently stopped enzymes and had a fecal fat balance study performed; the CFA was then calculated. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated in this substudy. The median values for the monoclonal and polyclonal assays were 0.3 and 22.75 microg/g, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the 2 tests was 0.86 (P definition of pancreatic insufficiency was set at a CFA definition of pancreatic insufficiency was set at <100 microg/g, then the monoclonal and polyclonal assay positive predictive values were 97.6% (120 of 123) and 97.4% (111 of 114), respectively. The positive predictive value of both monoclonal and polyclonal fecal elastase in patients with cystic fibrosis is extremely good; however, correlation of either test with CFA was poor. The median value for the polyclonal elastase assay is higher than for the monoclonal assay, which could potentially lead to lower sensitivity of the polyclonal assay at lower cutpoints for the monoclonal assay is used.

  6. Radioimmunodetection of hepatocellular carcinoma with a radiolabeled antibody to alpha fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, N; Nakata, K; Muro, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether or not radiolabeled antibody to Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) intravenously administered accumulates in AFP-producing tumors. Rats with subcutaneously transplanted hepatoma or with heptoma produced in liver by 3'-Me-DAB, and 12 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied. In animal experiments, the tumor localization was clearly demonstrated by total body scintigraphy 48 to 168 hours after the injection of the radioiodinated antibody. The rats were sacrificed and radioactivity in tissues was counted. Tumor tissues showed the highest counts. In patients with HCC, the imaging was made with a gamma camera usually 24 and 48 hours after injection of I-131-labeled antibody. In order to make the contrast of tumor image clear, nonspecific background images obtained by administration of Tc-99m-labeled serum albumin were subtracted from the images obtained by I-131 labeled antibody with a computer. In 6 of 12 patients with HCC, the tumor location could successfully demonstrated. However, tumor with sizes below 2 cm in diameter which were able to be detected by the celiac angiography were not detectable. Interestingly the images were more clear in patients with relatively higher serum AFP levels. In the blood of patient given injection of AFP radioantibody, both immune complex and free antibody were able to be detected at least for 120 hours so that the presence of free antigen (AFP) did not appear to prevent tumor radioimmunodetection. The information obtained concerning the biochemical factors which influence antibody localization in the tumor would provide better method for radioimmunodetection with antitumor antibodies.

  7. Radioimmunodetection of hepatocellular carcinoma with a radiolabeled antibody to alpha fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuko; Nakata, Keisuke; Muro, Toyokichi

    1982-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether or not radiolabeled antibody to Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) intravenously administered is accumulate in AFP-producing tumors. Rats with subcutaneously transplanted hepatoma or with heptoma produced in liver by 3'-Me-DAB, and 12 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied. In animal experiments, the tumor localization was clearly demonstrated by total body scintigraphy 48 to 168 hours after the injection of the radioiodinated antibody. The rats were sacrificed and radioactivity in tissues was counted. Tumor tissues showed the highest counts. In patients with HCC, the imaging was made with a gamma camera usually 24 and 48 hours after injection of I-131-labeled antibody. In order to make the contrast of tumor image clear, nonspecific background images obtained by administration of Tc-99m-labeled serum albumin were subtracted from the images obtained by I-131 labeled antibody with a computer. In 6 of 12 patients with HCC, the tumor location could successfully demonstrated. However, tumor with sizes below 2 cm in diameter which were able to be detected by the celiac angiography were not detectable. Interes tingly the images were more clear in patients with relatively higher serum AFP levels. In the blood of patient given injection of AFP radioantibody, both immune complex and free antibody were able to be detected at least for 120 hours so that the presence of free antigen (AFP) did not appear to prevent tumor radioimmunodetection. The information obtained concerning the biochemical factors which influence antibody localization in the tumor would provide better method for radioimmunodetection with antitumor antibodies. (author)

  8. Novel approaches to tumor imaging in mice: pre targeting with radiolabeled peptide nucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Qu, T.; Chang, F.; Rusckowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text.Since targeting of tumour by conventional methods is not consistently favorable, we have considered pre targeting with separate administrations of anti tumour antibody and radiolabel. As an alternative to streptavidin and biotin for this application, we earlier considered single stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA) bound to an irrelevant protein administered first and allowed to diffuse non specifically into tumour. This was followed later by the administration of 99 m Tc labeled complementary PNA. We now report on the first studies with PNA conjugated anti tumour antibody to allow specific binding. PNA was conjugated to the NRLU-10 IgG antibody while the complementary PNA (amine derivatized) was labeled with ((m Tc using MAG3. LS174T tumour-bearing nude mice received IV 200 ug of the PNA-antibody conjugate and 20 h later, received IV 100 ug (130 uCl) of 99m Tc- complementary PNA. Animals were imaged and sacrificed 5 h later. Because of rapid clearance, at sacrifice all tissue levels of 99 m Tc were low, the highest being kidneys at about 4%ID/gm. Tumour uptake was 0.55%ID/gm for the study animals vs. 0. 13 for controls and tumour/muscle ratios were 9.8 vs. 3.6 respectively. These values represent a 2.5-fold improvement in localization over the nonspecific study. The whole body images also reflected the superior targeting of study vs. control animals. We conclude that single-stranded PNAs should be a useful alternative to streptavidin and biotin for pre targeting studies

  9. KIT of human polyclonal IGG for the I diagnostic of infectious processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    Early diagnosis of infections can be performed by using non-invasive techniques of Nuclear Medicine, even before appearing anatomical damage of the tissues. The main aim of the present work was to obtain a freeze-dried kit for direct labelling of human polyclonal IgG, for the detection of septic processes by scintigraphy. 99mT c-IgG labelling procedure was carried out by Schwarz method Its was obtained the best yields of 99m Tc using using sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate as a week chelating agent

  10. Technetium-99m labeling anti-amastigote polyclonal antibodies of Leishmania amazonensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.G.V.C.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Guimaraes, T.M.P.D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Simal, C.J.R.; Mota, L.G.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    Anti-amastigote polyclonal antibody (IgG) was incubated with solutions of stannous chloride and sodium borohidride. After that, 3.7 MBq of technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) was added. A labeling yield of the antibody about 84% was obtained. After filtration of 99m Tc-IgG, the radiochemical purity increased from 84 to 95%. The labeling of IgG with 99m Tc did not modify the immunoreactivity of the antibody, since it was able to identify in vitro and in vivo the specific antigen of Leishmania amazonensis

  11. Development of radiolabeling procedures of bioconjugates with 153Sm and 186-188Re: In-vitro and in-vivo studies. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Castiglia, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is a compound that has been extensively used in nuclear medicine as a prosthetic group, following carbodiimide activation, for labeling antibodies with 99m Tc and also 188 Re. MAG3 and related derivatives are attractive ligands for coupling to biomolecules in that they provide very stable complexes. In the preconjugate approach radiolabeled MAG3 is chemically activated to obtain Re188-MAG3-activated ester and then this ester is coupled to amines. 188 Re has several potential advantages over other therapeutic radionuclides including the fact that carrier-free 188 Re(T1/2=17 h) can be obtained cost-effectively and on demand from an ''in house'' 188 W/ 189 Re generator. 189 Re decays by emission of a relatively high energy beta particle(Emax=2,11 Mev) which is suitable for radiotherapy followed by emission of 155KeV gamma photons in 10% abundance. The average penetration of the beta particle is 3.3 mm (maximum 10.8 mm), which provides a highly localised region of high energy deposition with little or no damage to adjacent organs. The gamma photon can be used to monitor biodistribution and estimate dosimetry with standard scintigraphic equipment. The aim of this project is to label biomolecules with 188 Re using an active ester of the MAG3. The labeled chelating agent was conjugated with a biotin derivative and with the Polyclonal Immunoglobulin IgG (Sandoz). During this multistep procedure an active ester of tetrafluorophenol and MAG3 carrying the radioisotope is prepared, which is subsequently conjugated to amino groups of the biomolecule. Of the commercially available biotin derivatives we used biocytin which contains a free amino group for conjugation to MAG3 via the MAG3TFP ester. Another derivative DTPA-biocytinamide (DB2) was also labeled with 188 Re. Quality assurance tests were performed on the final preparation of the radiolabeled biomolecules

  12. Radiolabeling parameters of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-RITUXIMAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: adriana.avfernandes@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cancer treatment using radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been the focus of much research in the last two decades. In RIT, a radioisotope is coupled to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to form a tumor-specific target agent to improve the cytocidal effect of the mAbs. RIT allows the systemic delivery of radiation to disease target by mAbs while sparing normal tissues. Rituximab® (Mabthera - Roche) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody; it selectively binds with high affinity to the CD20 antigen, a hydrophobic transmembrane protein, which is expressed on B-lymphocytes and in more than 90% of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). The conjugation and radiolabeling process involve special conditions of pH and temperature, long processes of manipulation and mixing. All this process can damage the antibody structure and compromise its clinical application. Therefore, these parameters must be largely studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the best radiolabeling conditions of DOTA-rituximab. Briefly, 10 mg of antibody previously purified by ultrafiltration device was conjugated with DOTA-NHS-ester (Macrocyclics) in 50 fold molar excess. The reaction was conducted for 1 hour in phosphate buffer pH 8.0 and gently mixing at room temperature, remaining for 24 hours under refrigeration. The immunoconjugated was purified by size exclusion column and ultrafiltration device. The radiolabeled parameters studied were: immunoconjugated mass, activity of {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3}, reaction time, temperature and pH. The radiochemical purity of the preparations was determined using analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC-SG plates). The best studied condition presented radiochemical purity above 95% and the integrity of antibody was preserved. (author)

  13. Elevated Lipoprotein(A Impairs Platelet Radiolabeling Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Granegger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet radiolabeling in clinical routine usually results in labeling efficiencies (LE above 80%. A variety of risk factors and clinical conditions are known to impair platelet labeling yield, among them elevated triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. The potential influence of lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, an atherogenic lipoprotein particle containing a kringle subunit, which is widely found in the proteins of fibrinolysis pathway, has never been studied. Normal Lp(a levels range below 30 mg/ dl. The exact prevalence of elevated Lp(a is unknown, most likely ranging below 10%. Even more rare is an isolated elevation despite an otherwise normal lipoprotein profile. Methods: We examined the role of isolated elevated Lp(a (> 50 mg/dl, ranging up to 440 mg/dl compared to patients with normal lipid profile. Platelets were radiolabeled with in-111-oxine at 37 °C for 5 minutes using ISORBE-consensus methodology. Results: The findings indicate that already at levels below 100 mg/dl Lp(a decreases LE. LE assessment after cross-incubation of hyper-Lp(a platelets with normal Lp(a plasma and vice versa reveals that platelets rather than the plasmatic environment are responsible for the deterioration of labeling yield. This behavior already has been reported for elevated low-density lipoproteins. Apparently, the quantitative influence of LDL and Lp(a/mg is comparable. Plotting the sum of LDL and Lp(a versus LE reveals a clear significant negative correlation. Conclusion: As extremely elevated Lp(a, particularly above 150 mg/dl, may significantly impair labeling results. We therefore recommend to include extremely elevated Lp(a into the list of parameters, which should be known before performing radiolabeling of human platelets.

  14. Radiolabeling parameters of 177Lu-DOTA-RITUXIMAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    Cancer treatment using radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been the focus of much research in the last two decades. In RIT, a radioisotope is coupled to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to form a tumor-specific target agent to improve the cytocidal effect of the mAbs. RIT allows the systemic delivery of radiation to disease target by mAbs while sparing normal tissues. Rituximab® (Mabthera - Roche) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody; it selectively binds with high affinity to the CD20 antigen, a hydrophobic transmembrane protein, which is expressed on B-lymphocytes and in more than 90% of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). The conjugation and radiolabeling process involve special conditions of pH and temperature, long processes of manipulation and mixing. All this process can damage the antibody structure and compromise its clinical application. Therefore, these parameters must be largely studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the best radiolabeling conditions of DOTA-rituximab. Briefly, 10 mg of antibody previously purified by ultrafiltration device was conjugated with DOTA-NHS-ester (Macrocyclics) in 50 fold molar excess. The reaction was conducted for 1 hour in phosphate buffer pH 8.0 and gently mixing at room temperature, remaining for 24 hours under refrigeration. The immunoconjugated was purified by size exclusion column and ultrafiltration device. The radiolabeled parameters studied were: immunoconjugated mass, activity of 177 LuCl 3 , reaction time, temperature and pH. The radiochemical purity of the preparations was determined using analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC-SG plates). The best studied condition presented radiochemical purity above 95% and the integrity of antibody was preserved. (author)

  15. Gene transfer strategies for improving radiolabeled peptide imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.E.; Buchsbaum, D.J.; Zinn, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of molecular biology techniques offers attractive options in nuclear medicine for improving cancer imaging and therapy with radiolabeled peptides. Two of these options include utilization of phage-panning to identify novel tumor specific peptides or single chain antibodies and gene transfer techniques to increase the antibodies and gene transfer techniques to increase the number of antigen/receptor sites expressed on malignant cells. The group has focused on the latter approach for improving radiolabeled peptide imaging and therapy. The most widely used gene transfer vectors in clinical gene therapy trials include retrovirus, cationic lipids and adenovirus. It has been utilized adenovirus vectors for gene transfer because of their ability to accomplish efficient in vivo gene transfer. Adenovirus vectors encoding the genes for a variety of antigens/receptors (carcinoembryonic antigen, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTr2) have all shown that their expression is increased on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo following adenovirus infection. Of particular interest has been the adenovirus encoding for SSTr2 (AdCMVSSTr2). Various radioisotopes have been attached to somatostatin analogues for imaging and therapy of SSTr2-positive tumors both clinically and in animal models. The use of these analogues in combination with AdCMVSSTr2 is a promising approach for improving the detection sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of these radiolabeled peptides against solid tumors. In addition, it has been proposed the use of SSTr2 as a marker for imaging the expression of another cancer therapeutic transgene (e.g. cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase) encoded within the same vector. This would allow for non-invasive monitoring of gene delivery to tumor sites

  16. Search for new and improved radiolabeling methods for monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    In this review the selection of different radioisotopes is discussed as well as the various traditional or newer methods to introduce the radiolabel into the antibody structure. Labeling methods for radiohalogens, for technetium and rhenium isotopes, and for 3-valent cation radiometals are reviewed. Some of the newer methods offer simplified labeling procedures, but usually the new methods are more complicated than the earlier ones. However, new labeling methods are available for almost any radioelement group and they may result in better preserved original natural of the antibody and lead to better clinical results. (orig./MG)

  17. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P.; Puccetti, P.

    1982-01-01

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  18. A simple method for affinity purification of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juweid, M; Sato, J; Paik, C; Onay-Basaran, S; Weinstein, J N; Neumann, R D [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1993-04-01

    A simple method is described for affinity purification of radiolabeled antibodies using glutaraldehyde-fixed tumor target cells. The cell-bound antibody fraction is removed from the cells by an acid wash and then immediately subjected to buffer-exchange chromatography. The method was applied to the D3 murine monoclonal antibody which binds to a 290 kDa antigen on the surface of Line 10 guinea pig carcinoma cells. No alteration in the molecular size profile was detected after acid washing. Purification resulted in a significant increase in immunoreactivity by an average of 14 [+-] 47% (SD; range 4-30%). (author).

  19. Radio-labelled quaternary compounds and their diagnostic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.

    1984-01-01

    Radio-labelled compounds having a lipophilic cation, which are quaternary ammonium, phosphonium or arsonium halides, in which the halide is a chloride, bromide or iodide, and in which the four quaternary substituents are independently selected from Csub(1-3) alkyl, phenyl and benzyl, at least two substituents being phenyl or benzyl, and one phenyl or benzyl substituent carrying a ring-substituent selected from 123 I, 125 I, 131 I, 77 Br, 82 Br and 18 F. Such compounds can be administered by injection, and a radio-image of the myocardium obtained. (author)

  20. Anti-IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) polyclonal antibodies ameliorate autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiding; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Gaizhi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Wang, Tianxiao; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Xiao, He; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2018-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines have been examined as therapeutic targets in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Our previous study showed that a novel IL-12 family cytokine, IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) mediates inflammation in lupus-like mice. In the present study, the effect of anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice was investigated. Rabbit anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant mouse IL-39, and purified using protein A chromatography. These antibodies were subsequently used to treat lupus-like mice. Flow cytometry, captured images, ELISA and H&E staining were used to determine the effect of anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on inflammatory cells, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells and the structure of the glomerular region. The anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies effectively reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells, splenomegaly, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and restored the structure of the glomerular region in MRL/lpr mice. Taken together, these results suggested that anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies ameliorated autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice. Therefore, IL-39 may be used as a possible target for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:29138852

  1. Systemic sclerosis with normal or nonspecific nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichel, Fanny; Baudot, Nathalie; Gaitz, Jean-Pierre; Trad, Salim; Barbe, Coralie; Francès, Camille; Senet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), a specific nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) pattern is observed in 90% of cases and seems to be associated with severity and progression of the disease. To describe the characteristics of SSc patients with normal or nonspecific (normal/nonspecific) NVC. In a retrospective cohort study, clinical features and visceral involvements of 25 SSc cases with normal/nonspecific NVC were compared to 63 SSc controls with the SSc-specific NVC pattern. Normal/nonspecific NVC versus SSc-specific NVC pattern was significantly associated with absence of skin sclerosis (32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.004), absence of telangiectasia (47.8 vs. 17.3%, p = 0.006) and absence of sclerodactyly (60 vs. 25.4%, p = 0.002), and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement (26.3 vs. 58.2%, p = 0.017). Normal/nonspecific NVC in SSc patients appears to be associated with less severe skin involvement and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Discrete Pathophysiology is Uncommon in Patients with Nonspecific Arm Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlever, Joost T P; Janssen, Stein J; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David

    2016-06-01

    Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology.

  3. Determination of Aspergillus pathogens in agricultural products by a specific nanobody-polyclonal antibody sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Zhaowei; Wang, Tong; He, Ting

    2017-06-28

    Aspergillus and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide throughout the environment and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. In order to develop a specific method for rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus to forecast diseases and control aflatoxins, a nanobody, PO8-VHH, highly reactive to A. flavus was isolated from an immunized alpaca nanobody library by phage display. The nanobody was verified to bind to the components of extracellular and intracellular antigen from both A. flavus and A. parasiticus. To construct a sandwich format immunoassay, polyclonal antibodies against Aspergillus were raised with rabbits. Finally, a highly selective nanobody-polyclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was optimized and developed. The results revealed that the detection limits of the two fungi were as low as 1 μg mL -1 , and that it is able to detect fungal concentrations below to 2 μg mg -1 of peanut and maize grains in both artificially and naturally contaminated samples. Therefore, we here provided a rapid and simple method for monitoring Aspergillus spp. contamination in agricultural products.

  4. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV encoding the movement protein (MP was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection.

  5. Development, characterization, and use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the myxosporean, Ceratomyxa shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Rohovec, J.S.; Fryer, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Both monoclonal and polyclonal antisera were produced against Ceratomyxa shasta. Ascites containing trophozoites of the parasite was collected from infected fish and used as antigen for immunization of mice. The resulting monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with trophozoite and sporoblast stages but did not react with C. shasta spores by either indirect fluorescent antibody techniques or in Western blots. This indicates that some C. shasta antigens are specific to certain life stages of the parasite. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in a rabbit by injecting a spore protein electro-eluted from an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. This antiserum reacted with both trophozoites and spores by indirect fluorescent antibody techniques and in Western blots. All antisera were tested for cross-reactivity to trout white blood cells, a contaminant of the ascites, and to other myxosporea. Two monoclonal antibodies reacted with white blood cells and myxosporea of the genera Sphaerospora and Myxobilatus. One hybridoma produced antibodies of high specificity for C. shasta pre-spore stages. This is the first report of a monoclonal antibody produced against a myxosporean parasite.

  6. Induction of polyclonal B cell activation and differentiation by the AIDS retrovirus (HTLV-III/LAV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, S.E.; Schnittman, S.M.; Lane, H.C.; Folks, T.; Koenig, S.; Fauci, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The immune systems of individuals infected with HTLV-III/LAV are characterized by a profound defect in cellular immunity together with paradoxical polyclonal B cell activation. The present study examined the direct effects of HTLV-III/LAV on B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood B cells from healthy donors were incubated with a variety of HTLV-III/LAV isolates for 1 h and 3 H-thymidine incorporation was measured at multiple time points. Responses ranged from 9000-28,000 cpm and peaked on day 4. This B cell activation was not enhanced by the addition of interleukin-2 to culture, was not synergistic with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, was not modulated by the addition of T lymphocytes to culture, and was not associated with B cell transformation. Supernatant Ig could first be detected in virus-activated cultures at day 4, plateaued by day 8, and yielded a mean of 12,500 ng IgG+IgM/ml/50,000 B cells. Thus, HTLV-III/LAV is a potent T cell independent B cell mitogen capable of inducing B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation comparable in magnitude to that of the most potent B cell activators. This biological property of HTLV-III/LAV may help explain the profound polyclonal B cell activation observed in patients with AIDS and may provide investigators with another probe for investigating the mechanisms of B cell activation

  7. Radiolabeled cypoxic cell sensitizers: tracer for assessment of ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, C.J.; Welch, M.J.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Jerabek, P.A.; Patrick, T.B.; Raichle, M.E.; Krohn, K.A.; Rasey, J.S.; Shaw, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Hypoxic, non-functional, but viable, tissue may exist in heart and brain following an arterial occlusion. Identification of such tissue in vivo is crucial to the development of effective treatment strategies. It has been suggested that certain compounds capable of sensitizing hypoxic tumor cells to killing by x-rays (i.e., misonidazole) might serve as in vivo markers of hypoxic tissue in ischemic myocardium or brain if properly radiolabeled. To this end the authors have radiolabeled two fluorinated analogs of nitroimidazole based hypoxic cell sensitizers with the 110 minute half-lived positron-emitting fluorine-18. The ability of these tracers to quantitate the presence of hypoxic tissue has been studied in a gerbil stroke model. The in vivo uptake of one of these tracers [F-18]-fluoronormethyoxymisonidazole is dependent on the extent of tissue hypoxia, and thus, appears to have potential as a diagnostic indicator of non-functional but viable tissue when the tracer is used in conjunction with positron emission tomography. 80 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Clinical experience in humans with radiolabeled antibody for tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.T.; Lyster, D.M.; Szasz, I.; Alcorn, L.N.; Huckell, V.F.; Rhodes, B.; Breslow, K.; Burchiel, S.

    1982-01-01

    I-131 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal or monoclonal antibody and fragments of antibody, specific to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or to a melanoma cell surface antigen (MCSA) were injected into proven cancer patients. Using standard homeostasis parameters, and scanning techniques, the safety and efficacy of each antibody was evaluated. Antibody fragments were expected to clear faster from the circulation allowing for earlier imaging and a better target-to-non-target ratio. The technetium label may perturb the antiboby's kinetics so that clearance is more rapid for both whole antibody and fragments. After a statistical evaluation of all parameters measured pre and post injection it was concluded that no acute toxicity reactions were present in any patient studied. Scan results were not acceptable for a tumor detecting procedure used in routine practice. Tumor upake was seen in less than 10% of scans

  9. Non-Specific Reactions during Immunomagnetic Separation of Listeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Zachová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems occurring during the immunomagnetic separation (IMS of Listeria using immunomagnetic particles Dynabeads® anti-Listeria (Dynal Biotech, Norway were specified. Characteristics of these particles were compared with anti-Listeria spp. magnetite particles (Quantum Magnetics, USA. Pure cultures of Listeria innocua, Arthrobacter spp., Bacillus subtilis, Citrobacter braakii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus were used to evaluate non-specific reactions during IMS. Gram-positive microorganisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Arthrobacter spp., were found to be responsible for non-specific reactions in most cases. The capacity of Dynabeads® anti-Listeria particles was determined to be about 10 % of the initial pure cultures of Listeria spp., after 10 min of incubation. Non-specific reactions during IMS of Listeria were examined on the artificially inoculated food samples in which Gram-positive bacteria showed the highest percentage of capture. Influence of washing in two buffers was also studied.

  10. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel

  11. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE ADRIANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groupsexperimentally infected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order torecord the efficiency of their administration in salmonellosisprophylaxis was the aim of our research. When a low infectiondose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulinextract, or even yolk administration had a protective effect againstgerms invasion. This effect was not recorded when a 10 folds higherdose was administered (1x108 CFU. The prophylactic effect of theadministration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  12. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  13. Development of radiolabeling procedures of bioconjugates with 135Sm and 186-188 Re: In-vitro and in-vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Castiglia, S.

    2000-01-01

    Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is a compound that has been extensively used in nuclear medicine as a prosthetic group, following carbodiimide activation, for labeling antibodies with 99m Tc and also 188 Re. MAG3 and related derivatives are attractive ligands for coupling to biomolecules in that they provide very stable complexes. The aim of this project is to label biomolecules with 188 Re using an active ester of the MAG3. The labeled chelating agent was conjugated with a biotin derivative and with the Polyclonal Immunoglobulin IgG (Sandoz). During this multistep procedure an active ester of tetrafluorophenol and MAG3 carrying the radioisotope is prepared, which is subsequently conjugated to amino groups of the biomolecule. Of the commercially available biotin derivatives we used biocytin which contains a free amino group for conjugation to MAG3 via the MAG3TFP ester. Another derivative DTPA-biocytinamide (DB2) was also labeled with 188 Re. Quality assurance tests were performed on the final preparation of the radiolabeled biomolecules

  14. Antibody guided diagnosis and therapy of brain gliomas using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalofonos, H.P.; Pawlikowska, T.R.; Hemingway, A.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with brain glioma were scanned using 123 I-labeled monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR1) or placental alkaline phosphatase (H17E2). Successful localization was achieved in 18 out of 27 patients. Eleven out of 27 patients were also studied using a nonspecific control antibody (11.4.1) of the same immunoglobulin subclass and observable tumor localization was also achieved in five patients. The specificity of targeting was assessed by comparing images obtained with specific and nonspecific antibodies and by examining tumor and normal tissue biopsies after dual antibody administration. Ten patients with recurrent grade III or IV glioma who showed good localization of radiolabeled antibody were treated with 40-140 mCi of 131 I-labeled antibody delivered to the tumor area intravenously (n = 5) or by infusion into the internal carotid artery (n = 5). Six patients showed clinical improvement lasting from 6 mo to 3 yr. One patient continues in remission (3 yr after therapy), but the other five who responded initially relapsed 6-9 mo after therapy and died. No major toxicity was attributable to antibody-guided irradiation. Targeted irradiation by monoclonal antibody may be clinically useful and should be explored further in the treatment of brain gliomas resistant to conventional forms of treatment

  15. HETEROGENEITY OF POLYCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULINS NUCLEASE ACTIVITY IN RHEUMATOID AND REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic properties of immunoglobulins are widely studied within recent years. It was found that nuclease activity of immunoglobulins is increased in systemic autoimmune diseases. Given some pathogenetic features of rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis, it is appropriate to clarify the nature of nuclease activity in these diseases. Determination of DNAse activity of immunoglobulins with different DNA substrates, and search for specific substrates for distinct clinical entities could serve these purposes. The aim of present work is to determine DNase activity of the polyclonal class G immunoglobulins in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis using various methods.Different methods are used to evaluate nuclease activity. In this paper we present newly developed and modified techniques for determination of DNAse activity of polyclonal IgGs. Particular attention was paid to the electrophoretic method of DNase activity assessment. Polyclonal IgG isolated from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis were used for assays. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of an inhomogeneous DNase activity of immunoglobulins in relation to different substrates.Along with calf thymus DNA, we used bacterial plasmid DNA and PCR products based on bacterial gene sequences. Levels of DNase activity by rivanol clot method with calf thymus DNA as substrate proved to be higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than the control values (p < 0.01. DNase abzyme activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was elevated, as compared to the patients with reactive arthritis (p < 0.01.When examining ability of the IgG to hydrolyze procaryotic DNA (bacterial plasmid DNA and PCR products, based on bacterial genes, we obtained heterogeneous results. Different Ig samples showed varying degrees of DNA hydrolysis. Abzyme hydrolysis of DNA substrates longer than 700 bp was more pronounced, as compared to short DNA substrates (100 base pairs

  16. High non-specific binding of the {beta}{sub 1}-selective radioligand 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Law, M.P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Clinical Sciences Centre; Kopka, K. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Department of Nuclear Medicine] [and others

    2003-08-01

    Aim: As results of cardiac biopsies suggest, myocardial {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. However, changes in cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors vary. With suitable radiopharmaceuticals single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) offer the opportunity to assess {beta}-adrenoceptors non-invasively. Among the novel racemic analogues of the established {beta}{sub 1}-selective adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 89.406 the iodinated 2-I-ICI-H showed high affinity and selectivity to {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in murine ventricular membranes. The aim of this study was its evaluation as a putative subtype selective {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic radioligand in cardiac imaging. Methods: Competition studies in vitro and in vivo were used to investigate the kinetics of 2-I-ICI-H binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in mice and rats. In addition, the radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H from the silylated precursor 2-SiMe{sub 3}-ICI-H was established. The specific activity was 80 GBq/{mu}mol, the radiochemical yield ranged from 70 to 80%. Results: The unlabelled compound 2-I-ICI-H showed high {beta}{sub 1}-selectivity and -affinity in the in vitro competition studies. In vivo biodistribution studies apparently showed low affinity to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors. The radiolabelled counterpart 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H showed a high degree of non-specific binding in vitro and no specific binding to cardiac {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in vivo. Conclusion: Because of its high non-specific binding 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H is no suitable radiotracer for imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  17. Returnable packaging for non-specific building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassel, van F.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A certain amount of construction waste comes from disposable packaging and this waste is ecologically damaging, one solution would be to reduce the disposable by using returnable packaging for non-specific construction products. To find out if this solution is feasible a study has been carried out

  18. Acute non-specific low back pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of non-specific low back pain typically results in a significant improvement ... and the potential benefits and risks associated with drug treatment, have been ... South African Family Practice 2014; 56(6):10-14. Open Access article ...

  19. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, J.A.; van Tulder, M.; Malmivaara, A.V.; Koes, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low back pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult nonspecific acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  20. Association of hypovitaminosis Dwith persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, H.M.A.; Kamran, M.; Rehman, S.U.; Khan, D.A.; Hussain, K.

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted in Pakistani population to find association of vitamin D deficiency with persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains by comparing with pain free controls. Study Design: Case control study. Material and Methods: Patients aged 12 years or more presenting to Medical OPD with persistent nonspecific musculoskeletal pains for more than 3 months were selected as cases, while healthy individuals served as controls Results: A total of 60 cases (patients with persistent non-specific pains) presenting to medical outpatients department at Military Hospital Rawalpindi and 60 controls were studied. Mean age of cases was 43.9 +- 14.0 years and amongst controls were 33.2 +- 17.8 years. Mean serum vitamin D level of 32.8 nmol/L was reported in cases whereas mean serum vitamin D level amongst controls was 26.7 +- 17.8 nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D amongst cases and controls was 86.6% and 95% respectively. The proportion of vitamin D deficiency did not differ significantly as compared to controls. There was non-significant difference in proportion of deficiency amongst cases and controls. Conclusion: Overall there was no association between persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains and vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  1. Genetic variations in non-specific immune response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-specific immune response in three strains of Heterobranchus bidorsalis challenged with the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophilia was evaluated. The study was undertaken in three strains of H. bidorsalis from different ecological zones in Nigeria and the percentage cumulative mortality was lowest and significantly ...

  2. 21 CFR 20.50 - Nonspecific and overly burdensome requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... policy reasons justifying the requests. A decision on the processing of such a request for information... PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures and Fees § 20.50 Nonspecific and overly burdensome requests. The Food and... operations of the Food and Drug Administration, the person making the request will be asked to be more...

  3. Nonspecific Verbal Cues Alleviate Forgetting by Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kirstie; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    Verbal reminders play a pervasive role in memory retrieval by human adults. In fact, relatively nonspecific verbal information (e.g. "Remember the last time we ate at that restaurant?") will often cue vivid recollections of a past event even when presented outside the original encoding context. Although research has shown that memory retrieval by…

  4. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urquhart, D. M.; Hoving, J. L.; Assendelft, W. W. J. J.; Roland, M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:

  5. Antigen-Specific Polyclonal Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Induced by Fusions of Dendritic Cells and Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Koido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of cancer vaccines is induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs that can reduce the tumor mass. Dendritic cells (DCs are potent antigen-presenting cells and play a central role in the initiation and regulation of primary immune responses. Thus, DCs-based vaccination represents a potentially powerful strategy for induction of antigen-specific CTLs. Fusions of DCs and whole tumor cells represent an alternative approach to deliver, process, and subsequently present a broad spectrum of antigens, including those known and unidentified, in the context of costimulatory molecules. Once DCs/tumor fusions have been infused back into patient, they migrate to secondary lymphoid organs, where the generation of antigen-specific polyclonal CTL responses occurs. We will discuss perspectives for future development of DCs/tumor fusions for CTL induction.

  6. Quantitation of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) by using radiolabelled antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, J.; Seifert, J.; Brendel, W.

    1978-01-01

    The major problem of detecting reaginic antibody by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) is the quantitation of the dye reaction. Radiolabelled antigen was used in an attempt to quantitate the PCA reaction (Radio-PCA). Antisera containing reaginic antibody against human serum albumin (HSA) were produced in rabbits. These antisera were injected into normal rabbit skin in different dilutions. Twentyfour hours later HSA was injected intravenously either with Evans Blue or as 125-I-HSA. Radioactivity found in antibody-containing skin was significantly higher than in control specimens containing saline or normal rabbit serum, as low as antiserum dilutions of 1:1,000. Compared with Evans Blue technique Radio-PCA was able to distinguish quantitatively between different antiserum dilutions at a higher level of statistical significance. (author)

  7. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent‐like copolymers......This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete......‐life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A glycerolipid and a cholesteryl ether were synthesized with free primary alcohols and a series of their sulphonates (Ms, Ts, Tf) were...

  8. Development of Novel Radio-labeled Materials using Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Hong, Y. D.; Choi, K. H.

    2010-04-01

    In this project, we aim to develop the novel radiomaterials using reactor-produced radioisotope for the targeted therapy of cancer. At initial stage, we have examined the effect of beta particle-emission radionuclides on the proliferation of various types of tumor cells and found that beta particle emission radionuclides significantly inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells. We have synthesized new bifunctional chelating agents (BFCAs) for bio-conjugation with bio-active molecules, such as peptide and antibody, and radioabeling with radionuclide. For targeted radiotherapy, we have prepared target materials and radiolabeled with various radionuclides using BFCAs and obtained candidate materials for the treatment of melanoma. We have next treated melanoma-induced animals with candidate radiopharmaceuticals. The tumor growth was significantly reduced by treatment with candidates, and survival rate of the animals was prolonged, suggesting that candidate radiopharmaceuticals are promising agents for the treatment of melanoma

  9. Aspects of monitoring and quality assurance for radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.

    1992-06-01

    This report provides an informational resource and guide for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees who produce or use radiolabeled antibodies (RABs). Components of quality assurance programs related to the production and use of RABs are reviewed and evaluated, and recommendations are made on dosage calibrations, exposure control, monitoring, and personnel requirements. Special emphasis is placed on dose calibrators because these instruments are used extensively to measure the dosage of radiopharmaceuticals to be administered to patients. The difficulties of using dose calibrators to quantify dosages of beta- and alpha-emitters are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using other instruments are examined, and recommendations are made on the types of instruments to be used for different applications. 46 refs., 8 tabs

  10. Localisation of metastatic carcinoma by a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, H M; Ritson, A; Wraight, P; Sikora, K [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK); Hinchingbrooke Hospital, Huntingdon (UK)); Finan, P [St. James Hospital, Leeds (UK); Lennox, E S; Takei, F [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK)

    1983-02-01

    Rat monoclonal antibodies were prepared by immunising rats with human colorectal carcinoma cell membranes and fusing splenic lymphocytes with a rat myeloma. Hybridoma supernatants were screened by binding assays on membranes prepared from colorectal carcinoma tissue. One hybridoma supernatant, containing a monoclonal antibody with high binding activity on malignant compared to normal colon sections, was grown in large quantities in serum-free medium. After ammonium sulphate precipitation the antibody was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and labelled with /sup 131/I. Radiolabelled antibody was administered i.v. to 27 patients with colonic and other tumours. Scintigrams were obtained at 48 h. Computerised subtraction of the blood pool image revealed localised areas of uptake corresponding with areas of known disease in 13/16 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 3/4 patients with breast cancer.

  11. Therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogs in neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunikowska, J.; Krolicki, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the 80's the discovery of somatostatin receptors expression on NET cells enabled the application of somatostatin analogues in diagnosis and therapy. Initially, 'cold' somatostatin analogs were used for therapeutical purpose, with overall good clinical response, but with minimal anti-proliferation effect. Furthermore, radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides have been shown to be an important class of radiopharmaceuticals for tumor diagnosis and therapy with minimal side-effects. Specific binding between receptor on tumor cell and peptide with beta emitting radionuclide act not only on tumor related symptoms but also on tumor cell via radiotoxic effect of beta radiation. Discoveries of next receptor combinations, allow the work over synthesis and applications of next receptors' analogs both in diagnosis and in therapy. Due to complex characteristics of NET's, the use therapeutic 'cocktail' containing the variety analogs may be of great importance. (author)

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies Radiolabeling with Rhenium-188 for Radioimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol

    2017-01-01

    Rhenium-188, obtained from an alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, is actually considered a useful candidate for labeling biomolecules such as antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and DNAs for radiotherapy. There is a widespread interest in the availability of labeling procedures that allow obtaining 188Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for various therapeutic applications, in particular for the rhenium attachment to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mo)Abs for immunotherapy. Different approaches have been developed in order to obtain 188Re-radioimmunoconjugates in high radiochemical purity starting from the generator eluted [188Re]ReO4−. The aim of this paper is to provide a short overview on 188Re-labeled (Mo)Abs, focusing in particular on the radiolabeling methods, quality control of radioimmunoconjugates, and their in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), with particular reference to the most important contributions published in literature in this topic. PMID:28951872

  13. Radioimmunoimaging of experimental gliomas using radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaessner, H.

    1986-01-01

    The biodistribution and tumour uptake of radiolabelled (131 I) glioma-seeking monoclonal antibodies (14 AC1) and their F(ab') 2 fragments were investigated in nude mice having received glioma transplants. Radioimmunoimaging by external scintigraphy at 48 and 96 hours pointed to a superior tumour localisation by the fragments that was clearly related to the dose. Wholebody determinations of the biokinetic behaviour led to the following results: Faster clearance anc more ready elimination from the blood pool for the fragments, preferential uptake in the tumour; intact antibodies; binding in the liver, spleen and lungs. The study confirmed the value of fragments of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of tumours and pointed to the possibility of using intact monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radioisotopes and cytotoxic drugs within the scope of therapeutic programmes. (TRV) [de

  14. Utilisation of radiolabeled antibiotic for the diagnosis of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khammassi, Sabrine; Gharbi, Sabrine

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear imaging is a non-invasive exploration technique, used for rapid diagnostic of infectious disease .Thus, for osteoarticular infection scintigraphic techniques were proposed to ameliorate the diagnostic sensibility and the use of radiolabeled antibiotics as imaging agents of infectious loci become more and more recognized. In this work, a new sulfanil amid derivative, the N sulfanilamide-ferrocene-carboxamide was chemically synthesized then labeled with technetium-99m, with a radiochemical yield, 87 pour cent. In in-vitro studies were done with E.coli. first , the up-take of labeled molecule was estimated as 40 pour cent. Then, the bacteriostatic al effect of the molecule was de terminated by considering the Optical Density at 600 nm. The obtained results, encourage us to do more, with biodistribution on normal and infected mice; with Staphylococcus aureus. Then to carry out scintigraphic imaging with gamma camera to check out the potentiality of the molecule as an infectious imaging agent. (Author)

  15. Optimized procedures for manganese-52: Production, separation and radiolabeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonslet, Jesper; Tietze, Sabrina; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    2017-01-01

    ±0.4×105. An additional AG 1-X8 column was used to remove copper, iron, cobalt and zinc impurities from the prepared 52Mn in 8M HCl. The macrocyclic chelator DOTA was rapidly radiolabeled with 52Mn in aq. ammonium acetate (pH 7.5R.T.) with a radiochemical yield >99% within 1min and was stable for >2 days in bovine serum......Pressed chromium-powder cyclotron targets were irradiated with 16MeV protons, producing 52Mn with average yields of 6.2±0.8MBq/µAh. Separation by solid-phase anion exchange from ethanol-HCl mixtures recovered 94.3±1.7% of 52Mn and reduced the chromium content by a factor of 2.2...

  16. Polyclonal VDAC3 antibody decreases human sperm motility: a novel approach to male contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC mediate transport of anions, cations and ATP which play an important role in sperm motility. This study was aimed to examine the effect of polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum to human sperm motility.Methods: Polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum used in this study was produced in rabbits by immunization of VDAC3-specific synthetic peptides.  Preimmunserum was collected before immunization and used for control experiment. Recognition of VDAC3 antiserum to antigen in human sperm was performed by western blot. Thirty sperm samples obtained from fertile men which had high quality of sperm motility were washed and collected by Percoll gradient. Sperm motility was assessed by means of evaluation of sperm velocity (seconds per 0.1 mm distance and the number of unmoved sperm (million per ml which were observed 0 minute, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after addition of VDAC3 antiserum and preimmunserum as a control. Both data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software.Results: VDAC3 antiserum recognized VDAC3 protein in human sperm. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there were increasing numbers of unmoved spermatozoa after addition of anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 60 minutes observation compared with preimmunserum (control. We found also that sperm velocity decreased signifi cantly after giving anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 0 minute, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with pre-immunee serum (control.Conclusion: VDAC3 antiserum can decrease motility of human sperm. and may provide a novel principle of male contraception in the future. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:5-10Keywords: VDAC3 antiserum, sperm, motility, contraception

  17. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  18. Risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Julia; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2018-05-01

    Non-specific spinal pain can occur at all ages and current evidence suggests that pediatric non-specific spinal pain is predictive for adult spinal conditions. A 5-year long, prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the lifestyle and environmental factors leading to non-specific spinal pain in childhood. Data were collected from school children aged 7-16 years, who were randomly selected from three different geographic regions in Hungary. The risk factors were measured with a newly developed patient-reported questionnaire (PRQ). The quality of the instrument was assessed by the reliability with the test-retest method. Test (N = 952) and validity (N = 897) datasets were randomly formed. Risk factors were identified with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and the predictive performance of the final model was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. The final model was built up by seven risk factors for spinal pain for days; age > 12 years, learning or watching TV for more than 2 h/day, uncomfortable school-desk, sleeping problems, general discomfort and positive familiar medical history (χ 2  = 101.07; df = 8; p < 0.001). The probabilistic performance was confirmed with ROC analysis on the test and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.76; 0.71). A simplified risk scoring system showed increasing possibility for non-specific spinal pain depending on the number of the identified risk factors (χ 2  = 65.0; df = 4; p < 0.001). Seven significant risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood were identified using the new, easy to use and reliable PRQ which makes it possible to stratify the children according to their individual risk. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  19. Tissue distribution of radiolabeled phosphatidylserine-containing liposome in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia], e-mail: samanta@usp.br, e-mail: nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMTSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia], e-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Liposomes are used as drug delivery systems to modify pharmacokinetic of drugs and also to improve their action in target cells. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine are efficiently eliminated from the blood by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), predominantly Kupffer cells in the liver. In this way, this is a valuable approach to treat infectious diseases involving MPS, especially leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe parasitic disease, caused by intramacrophage protozoa Leishmania sp., and is fatal if left untreated. Leishmania resides mainly in the liver and the spleen. Antileishmanial agents containing-liposomes showed more effective therapies with reduction of toxicity and adverse side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of radioactive meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor to produce antimony radiotracers, {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb, and encapsulated in liposome. Healthy mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of the radiolabeled drug. Analysis of the mean radioactive tissue concentration-time data curves showed that liver and spleen had the highest levels of radioactivity. In addition these levels of drug remained for more than 48 hours. The dominant route of elimination was via biliary excretion with slow rate. Small fraction of the drug was found in the kidneys with very fast elimination. In conclusion, the phosphatidylserine-containing liposome showed to be a very useful tool to target antileishmanial agents to MPS and to sustain the drug levels for longer times. Besides, radiolabeled liposome is the easiest approach to perform biodistribution evaluation. (author)

  20. Tissue distribution of radiolabeled phosphatidylserine-containing liposome in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2009-01-01

    Liposomes are used as drug delivery systems to modify pharmacokinetic of drugs and also to improve their action in target cells. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine are efficiently eliminated from the blood by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), predominantly Kupffer cells in the liver. In this way, this is a valuable approach to treat infectious diseases involving MPS, especially leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe parasitic disease, caused by intramacrophage protozoa Leishmania sp., and is fatal if left untreated. Leishmania resides mainly in the liver and the spleen. Antileishmanial agents containing-liposomes showed more effective therapies with reduction of toxicity and adverse side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of radioactive meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor to produce antimony radiotracers, 122 Sb and 124 Sb, and encapsulated in liposome. Healthy mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of the radiolabeled drug. Analysis of the mean radioactive tissue concentration-time data curves showed that liver and spleen had the highest levels of radioactivity. In addition these levels of drug remained for more than 48 hours. The dominant route of elimination was via biliary excretion with slow rate. Small fraction of the drug was found in the kidneys with very fast elimination. In conclusion, the phosphatidylserine-containing liposome showed to be a very useful tool to target antileishmanial agents to MPS and to sustain the drug levels for longer times. Besides, radiolabeled liposome is the easiest approach to perform biodistribution evaluation. (author)

  1. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, B.; Philip, R; BrightSingh, I

    thioredoxin-fused mature MIH I protein (mf-PmMIH I) of P. monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I). The mature MIH I gene of 231 bp, that codes for 77 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli...

  2. Production of Polyclonal Antiobies to a Recombinant Potato Mop-top Virus Non-structural Triple Gene Block Protein l

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovská, Noemi; Filigarová, Marie; Pečenková, Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 154, - (2006), s. 422-427 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/1329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato mop-top virus * recombinant protein * triple gene block * polyclonal antibodies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.817, year: 2006

  3. Preparation and radiolabeling of human serum albumin (HSA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles for magnetically targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfu; Cao Jinquan; Yin Duanzhi; Wang Yongxian; Feng Yanlin; Tan Jiajue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the preparation of human serum albumin-coated magnetic particles of about 200 nm in diameter with narrow size distribution radiolabeled with 188 Re for the purpose of magnetically targeted therapy. The optimum radiolabeling conditions are: SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O 8 mg/ml, citric acid 20 mg/ml, vitamin C 8 mg/ml, labeling volume 500 μl and a reaction time of 3 h. The stability of the radiolabeled particles is suitable for in vivo study

  4. Preparation and radiolabeling of human serum albumin (HSA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles for magnetically targeted therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chunfu E-mail: zchunfu@yahoo.com.cn; Cao Jinquan; Yin Duanzhi; Wang Yongxian; Feng Yanlin; Tan Jiajue

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the preparation of human serum albumin-coated magnetic particles of about 200 nm in diameter with narrow size distribution radiolabeled with {sup 188}Re for the purpose of magnetically targeted therapy. The optimum radiolabeling conditions are: SnCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O 8 mg/ml, citric acid 20 mg/ml, vitamin C 8 mg/ml, labeling volume 500 {mu}l and a reaction time of 3 h. The stability of the radiolabeled particles is suitable for in vivo study.

  5. A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine S; Netea, Mihai G; Selin, Liisa K; Aaby, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific effects, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific effects on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens. For instance, in randomized trials tuberculosis and measles vaccines are associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be explained by prevention of the target disease. New research suggests that the nonspecific effects of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiolabelled peptides and nanoparticles for specific molecular targeting in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbok, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development of radiolabelled peptides and nanoparticles (NP) for specific molecular targeting in oncology. Three different types of NP were investigated in this study: lipid - based NP (liposomes and micelles), human serum albumin - based NP (albumin NP) and protamine - oligonucleotide - based NP (proticles). In a first step, radiolabelling protocols were set up for the different NP - formulations. The variety of radioisotopes used, covers the whole spectrum of applications in nuclear medicine: SPECT (111In, 99mTc), (2) PET (68Ga) and therapeutic applications (177Lu, 90Y) opening a manifold administration potential for these NP aiming towards multiple targeting and hybrid imaging strategies (combined SPECT / PET and MRI). Radiolabelling quality was analyzed by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). High radiochemical yields (RCY >90 %) and high specific activity (SA) were achieved. NP - formulations were derivatized with the chelating agent Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) allowing complexation of trivalent radiometals, and potentially nonradioactive metals, such as Gd3+, for MRI imaging leading to the development of multifunctionalized NP for a unified labelling approach. Furthermore, NP were derivatized with the pharmacokinetic modifier polyethylene glycol (PEG) to maintain NP with long circulating ability. Stability assessments included incubation in different media (serum, 4 mM DTPA - solution and PBS pH 7.4, at 37 o C for a period of 24 h). For the in vivo biodistribution of the NP, static and / or dynamic SPECT / PET imaging studies were performed at different time points with Lewis rats and correlated to results from quantification of tissue - uptake. Results indicate differences in stability and general pharmacokinetic behaviour depended on the NP - formulation. However, a positive influence expressed in a prolonged retention time in circulation was investigated for all different NP - formulations due to PEG

  7. Specifying the non-specific components of acupuncture analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non-specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear. One hundred and one patients who developed pain ≥ 3 on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) following third molar surgery were randomized to receive active acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, or no treatment for 30 min with acupuncture needles with potential for double-blinding. Patients’ perception of the treatment (active or placebo), and expected pain levels (VAS) were assessed prior to and halfway through the treatment. Looking at actual treatment allocation, there was no specific effect of active acupuncture (P = 0.240), but a large and significant non-specific effect of placebo acupuncture (P acupuncture (P acupuncture had significantly lower pain levels than those who believed they received placebo acupuncture. Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture (up to 69.8%), This is the first study to show that under optimized blinding conditions non-specific factors such as patients’ perception of and expectations toward treatment are central to the efficacy of acupuncture analgesia and that these factors may contribute to self-reinforcing effects in acupuncture treatment To obtain an effect of acupuncture in clinical practice it may, therefore, be important to incorporate and optimize these factors. PMID:23707680

  8. Radiolabeling and biodistribution of 62Cu-dithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Yokoyama, Akira; Konishi, Junji.

    1990-01-01

    The newly developed 62 Zn/ 62 Cu generator system has made available the production of the short-lived 62 Cu (T 1/2 = 9.8 min) positron radionuclide, eluted as 62 Cu-glycine. In the search for 62 Cu labeled radiopharmaceuticals for positron CT (PET) brain diagnostic studies, two ligands N,N-diethyl- and N,N-dimethyl-dithiocarbamic acid (DDC and DmDC) were selected, based on their Cu chelating abilities and the neutral lipophilic character of their copper chelates. In the present work, an in vitro study with non-radioactive Cu-glycine showed that both ligands easily formed the stable, neutral Cu-DDC and Cu-DmDC chelates (1:2 metal-ligand complexes) based on the ligand exchange reaction. Then the 62 Zn/ 62 Cu generator eluate, the 62 Cu-glycine was used for the radiolabeling of DDC and DmDC. The following HPLC analysis revealed that the ligand exchange reaction proceeded rapidly; the radiochemical purities of 62 Cu-DDC and 62 Cu-DmDC were extremely high (non-detectable 62 Cu-glycine) and both chelates were more lipophilic than 62 Cu-glycine. The mouse biodistribution of both radiolabeled compounds, 62 Cu-DDC and 62 Cu-DmDC indicated a brain accumlation of 2.8 and 5.3 times higher than 62 Cu-glycine, 15 min post injection, respectively. The brain accumulation observed with both 62 Cu-DDC and 62 Cu-DmDC might be due to their stable, neutral and lipophilic character; the latter enhanced by the presence of the methylated side chains. The gathered results indicated the applicability of dithiocarbamic acid derivatives in the production of new 62 Cu-labeled compounds using the 62 Zn/ 62 Cu generator system based on the ligand exchange reaction with 62 Cu-glycine eluate. Further studies with Cu-dithiocarbamic acid derivatives for development of new generator-produced 62 Cu positron radiopharmaceuticals can be recalled. (author)

  9. Recent progress of diagnostic and therapeutic approach to cancers using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji, Toshihiko

    1982-01-01

    Among the major topics of interest in cancer immunology, immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy with the antibodies are summarized historically and prospectively. The concept of injecting anti-tumor cell antibodies to localize tumors was first introduced in experimental systems by Pressman (1957). Since then, various trials have been achieved with human tumors using specific or nonspecific tumor-localizing antibodies diagnostically or therapeutically. In 1970's, successes in immunodiagnosis with the antibodies to oncofetal proteins also have been reported. Recently, there are numerous papers dealed with a series of external scanning or serotherapeutic trials by the use of monoclonal antibodies that bind selectively to tumor cells. Various relevant problems with them are discussed. (author)

  10. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy: Potential, problems, and prospects: Scientific highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Buraggi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This meeting focused on areas of research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Topics covered included the production, purification, and fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies and immunochemistry of hybridomas; the production and the chemistry of radionuclides; the radiohalogenation and radiometal labeling techniques; the in-vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies; the considerations of immunoreactivity of radiolabeled preparations; the instrumentation and imaging techniques as applied to radioimmunodetection; the radiation dosimetry in diagnostic and therapeutic use of labeled antibodies; the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy studies; and perspectives and directions for future research. Tutorial as well as scientific lectures describing the latest research data on the above topics were presented. Three workshop panels were convened on ''Methods for Determining Immunoreactivity of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies - Problems and Pitfalls,'' Radiobiological and Dosimetric Considerations for Immunotherapy with Labeled Antibodies,'' and ''The Human Anti-Mouse Antibody Response in Patients.''

  11. An Efficient and Straightforward Method for Radiolabeling of Nanoparticles with {sup 64}Cu via Click Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Eun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangmeyung [Center for Theragnosis, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Hyun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiobiotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, nanoparticles have received a great deal of interest in diagnosis and therapy applications. Since nanoparticles possess intrinsic features that are often required for a drug delivery system and diagnosis, they have potential to be used as platforms for integrating imaging and therapeutic functions, simultaneously. Intrinsic issues that are associated with theranostic nanoparticles, particularly in cancer treatment, include an efficient and straightforward radiolabeling method for understanding the in vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles to reach the tumor region, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Herein, we investigated a facile and highly efficient strategy to prepare radiolabeled nanoparticles with {sup 64}Cu via a strain-promoted azide, i.e., an alkyne cycloaddition strategy, which is often referred to as click chemistry. First, the azide (N3) group, which allows for the preparation of radiolabeled nanoparticles by copper-free click chemistry, was incorporated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). Second, the strained cyclooctyne derivative, dibenzyl cyclooctyne (DBCO) conjugated with a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator, was synthesized for preparing the pre-radiolabeled alkyne complex with {sup 64}Cu radionuclide. Following incubation with the {sup 64}Cu-radiolabeled DBCO complex (DBCO-PEG4-Lys-DOTA-{sup 64}Cu with high specific activity, 18.5 GBq/μ mol), the azide-functionalized CNPs were radiolabeled successfully with {sup 64}Cu, with a high radiolabeling efficiency and a high radiolabeling yield (>98%). Importantly, the radiolabeling of CNPs by copper-free click chemistry was accomplished within 30 min, with great efficiency in aqueous conditions. After {sup 64}Cu-CNPs were intravenously administered to tumor-bearing mice, the real time, in vivo biodistribution and tumor-targeting ability of {sup 64}Cu-CNPs were quantitatively evaluated by micro-PET images of tumor-bearing mice. These results

  12. New surface radiolabeling schemes of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biodistribution studies†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Palko, Heather A.; Malfatti, Mike; Smith, Catherine; Sonnett, James; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Gu, Baohua; Roeder, Ryan K.; Wang, Wei; Retterer, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the surface chemical and physical properties that affect their biodistribution in vivo and the therapeutic payloads that they are intended to deliver. Additionally, the added therapeutic and diagnostic value of their inherent material properties often provides extra functionality. Iron based nanomaterials with their magnetic properties and easily tailorable surface chemistry are of particular interest as model systems. In this study the core radius of the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was 14.08 ± 3.92 nm while the hydrodynamic radius of the NPs, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was between 90–110 nm. In this study, different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable in solution. The NPs were functionalized with polycarboxylate or polyamine surface functional groups. Polycarboxylate functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of –35 mV and polyamine functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of +40 mV. The polycarboxylate functionalized NPs were chosen for in vivo biodistribution studies and hence were radiolabeled with 14C, with a final activity of 0.097 nCi mg–1 of NPs. In chronic studies, the biodistribution profile is tracked using low-level radiolabeled proxies of the nanoparticles of interest. Conventionally, these radiolabeled proxies are chemically similar but not chemically identical to the non-radiolabeled NPs of interest. This study is novel as different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable, possess a hydrodynamic radius of <100 nm and most importantly they exhibit an identical surface chemical functionality as their non-radiolabeled counterparts. Identical chemical functionality of the radiolabeled probes to the non-radiolabeled probes was an important consideration to generate statistically similar biodistribution data sets using multiple imaging and detection techniques. The radiolabeling approach

  13. New surface radiolabeling schemes of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biodistribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathamby, Prakash D; Mortensen, Ninell P; Palko, Heather A; Malfatti, Mike; Smith, Catherine; Sonnett, James; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Gu, Baohua; Roeder, Ryan K; Wang, Wei; Retterer, Scott T

    2015-04-21

    Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the surface chemical and physical properties that affect their biodistribution in vivo and the therapeutic payloads that they are intended to deliver. Additionally, the added therapeutic and diagnostic value of their inherent material properties often provides extra functionality. Iron based nanomaterials with their magnetic properties and easily tailorable surface chemistry are of particular interest as model systems. In this study the core radius of the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was 14.08 ± 3.92 nm while the hydrodynamic radius of the NPs, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was between 90-110 nm. In this study, different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable in solution. The NPs were functionalized with polycarboxylate or polyamine surface functional groups. Polycarboxylate functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of -35 mV and polyamine functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of +40 mV. The polycarboxylate functionalized NPs were chosen for in vivo biodistribution studies and hence were radiolabeled with (14)C, with a final activity of 0.097 nCi mg(-1) of NPs. In chronic studies, the biodistribution profile is tracked using low level radiolabeled proxies of the nanoparticles of interest. Conventionally, these radiolabeled proxies are chemically similar but not chemically identical to the non-radiolabeled NPs of interest. This study is novel as different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable, possess a hydrodynamic radius of <100 nm and most importantly they exhibit an identical surface chemical functionality as their non-radiolabeled counterparts. Identical chemical functionality of the radiolabeled probes to the non-radiolabeled probes was an important consideration to generate statistically similar biodistribution data sets using multiple imaging and detection techniques. The radiolabeling approach

  14. Microassay for measurement of binding of radiolabelled ligands to cell surface molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woof, J.M.; Burton, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    An improved technique for measuring the binding of radiolabelled ligands to cell surface molecules has been developed by modification of a procedure using centrifugation through a water-immiscible oil to separate free and cell-bound ligand. It maximises the percentage of ligand bound since cell-bound and free ligand can be separated easily and reproducibly even when very small reaction volumes are used. This permits low levels of ligand radiolabelling and relatively low numbers of cells to be used

  15. A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickler, T.S.; Braine, H.G.; Ness, P.M.; Koester, A.; Bias, W.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the use of HLA-matched platelets for alloimmunized recipients, transfusion failures occur. In order to reduce these failures, researchers investigated the use of a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique for platelet crossmatching. The principle of the test is that of an indirect Coombs test using 125 I labeled goat anti-human IgG. Incompatibility is determined by calculating a radioactivity antiglobulin test (RAGT) index. Using this technique, researchers performed 89 crossmatches on 19 leukemic or aplastic patients who were refractory to random donor platelets and receiving varying degrees of HLA-matched platelets. Effectiveness of the transfusion was assessed from the posttransfusion corrected platelet count increment (CCI) determined at 1 and 20 hr. When the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI at 1 lhr was 17,570 +/- 7003/cu mm, n . 55. When the RAGT index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 4237 +/- 4100/cu mm, n . 34. At 20 hr when the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI was 8722 +/- 3143/cu mm, n . 33, and when the index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 571 +/- 1286/cu mm, n . 23. Using this technique, one false negative resulted. Nine positive crossmatches with good increments at 1 hr were found; at 20 hr, however, the survival of these units was zero. These data suggest that this method is a useful adjunct in the selection of platelets in the refractory patient

  16. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemann Jensen, A.T.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete reference list is compiled in the end, immediately after the three chapters. This is followed by the supplementary information, divided into appropriate sections. Finally, the two first-authored manuscripts are attached as appendices. Chapter 1. The field of nanoparticulate drug delivery has been hailed as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent-like copolymers, that self-assemble in water. Therapy with nanoparticles is hampered by often poor tumor accumulation, combined with massive uptake by macrophages in the liver and spleen. For this reason, visualizing nanoparticle pharmacokinetics in-vivo is a valuable tool in the on-going research. Such visualization can be done by labeling with radio isotopes. Isotopes that emit positrons (PET-isotopes) can be detected by PET (positron emission tomography) technology, an accurate technique that has gained popularity in recent years. PET-isotopes of interest include 18F and 64Cu. In addition to being a research tool, radiolabeled nanoparticles hold promise as a radiopharmaceutical in themselves, as a means of imaging tumor tissue, aiding in diagnosis and surgery. Chapter 2. A method for labeling liposomes with 18F (97% positron decay, T = 110 min) was investigated. 18F is widely available, but is hampered by a short half-life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Melendez A, L.

    2003-01-01

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  18. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemann Jensen, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete reference list is compiled in the end, immediately after the three chapters. This is followed by the supplementary information, divided into appropriate sections. Finally, the two first-authored manuscripts are attached as appendices. Chapter 1. The field of nanoparticulate drug delivery has been hailed as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent-like copolymers, that self-assemble in water. Therapy with nanoparticles is hampered by often poor tumor accumulation, combined with massive uptake by macrophages in the liver and spleen. For this reason, visualizing nanoparticle pharmacokinetics in-vivo is a valuable tool in the on-going research. Such visualization can be done by labeling with radio isotopes. Isotopes that emit positrons (PET-isotopes) can be detected by PET (positron emission tomography) technology, an accurate technique that has gained popularity in recent years. PET-isotopes of interest include 18F and 64Cu. In addition to being a research tool, radiolabeled nanoparticles hold promise as a radiopharmaceutical in themselves, as a means of imaging tumor tissue, aiding in diagnosis and surgery. Chapter 2. A method for labeling liposomes with 18F (97% positron decay, T = 110 min) was investigated. 18F is widely available, but is hampered by a short half-life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A

  19. Osteomyelitis diagnosis by {sup 99m}Tc radiolabeled aptamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.R.; Ferreira, I.M.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: imendesf@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N.; Diniz, O.F., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Osteomyelitis, which is characterized by progressive inflammatory destruction and new opposition of bone, is still a difficult infection to treat. The clinical diagnosis in late stages is achieved easily, but an early diagnosis is more challenging. Staphylococcus aureus is a common agent found in osteomyelitis and bone prostheses infection. Diagnosis by scintigraphy has advantages because it is a non-invasive procedure and is able to perform an early diagnosis even before anatomic changes. Thus, nuclear medicine could contribute to an accurate diagnosis since specific radiopharmaceuticals were developed. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacteria identification in an osteomyelitis experimental model. The aptamers selected to S. aureus were directly labelled with {sup 99m}Tc and were evaluated by biodistribution studies. Wistar rats with intraosseous infection in the right paw were used. A random aptamer labelled with {sup 99m}Tc was as control. Six animals were used in each group. The aptamers labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 2,23 ± 0,20, after 3 h. The control group presented a target/non-target ratio 1,08 ± 0.23. The results indicated that the radiolabeled aptamers were able to identify specifically the infection foci and they should be further explored for infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. (author)

  20. Radiolabeled bivalent haptens for tumor immunodetection and radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruaz-Guyon, A.; Janevik-Ivanovska, E.; Raguin, O. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Faculte' de Medecine, Paris (France); De Labriolle-Vaylet, C. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Faculte' de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Barbet, J. [Universite' de la Mediterranee, Faculte' de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2001-06-01

    The pre targeting technique referred to as the Affinity Enhancement System (AES) uses bispecific antibodies and radiolabeled bivalent haptens that bind cooperatively to target cells in vivo. Experimental and clinical data demonstrate that DTPA bivalent haptens can deliver large radiation doses to tumor cells with high tumor to normal tissue contrast ratios and long activity residence time in tumors. Preliminary clinical results of radioimmunotherapy of medullary thyroid carcinomas and lung cancers look promising. Very encouraging results in biodistribution and radioimmunotherapy experiments in animals have been obtained with new haptens bearing two histamine-hemisuccinate suitable for {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re labeling. Targeting isotopes to double antigen positive tumor cells provides a binding enhancement that increases specificity for tumor cells as compared to single antigen targeting on normal cells. This approach may be beneficial for targeting isotopes to B type acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Burkitt lymphoma, as well as others tumors co-expressing two markers of low specificity, and might increase tumor irradiation with minimal irradiation of normal cells.

  1. Radiolabeled bivalent haptens for tumor immunodetection and radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruaz-Guyon, A.; Janevik-Ivanovska, E.; Raguin, O.; De Labriolle-Vaylet, C.; Barbet, J.

    2001-01-01

    The pre targeting technique referred to as the Affinity Enhancement System (AES) uses bispecific antibodies and radiolabeled bivalent haptens that bind cooperatively to target cells in vivo. Experimental and clinical data demonstrate that DTPA bivalent haptens can deliver large radiation doses to tumor cells with high tumor to normal tissue contrast ratios and long activity residence time in tumors. Preliminary clinical results of radioimmunotherapy of medullary thyroid carcinomas and lung cancers look promising. Very encouraging results in biodistribution and radioimmunotherapy experiments in animals have been obtained with new haptens bearing two histamine-hemisuccinate suitable for 131 I, 99m Tc and 188 Re labeling. Targeting isotopes to double antigen positive tumor cells provides a binding enhancement that increases specificity for tumor cells as compared to single antigen targeting on normal cells. This approach may be beneficial for targeting isotopes to B type acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Burkitt lymphoma, as well as others tumors co-expressing two markers of low specificity, and might increase tumor irradiation with minimal irradiation of normal cells

  2. Radiolabeling oligo nuclieotide with 90Y and its radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changbin; Tian Jiahe; Zhang Jinming; Yin Dayi; Guo Zhe

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate labeling Morpholinos (MORF), a DNA analogue, with 90 Y using p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as chelater and assess its stability and hybridization in vitro. Methods: A 25 mer MORF with a primary amine on the 3' equivalent end attached via a 10 member linker was conjugated with an isothiocyanate backbone derivative of DOTA. The conjugated product was labeled in various buffers over a different range of concentrations (0.5-2 mol/L) and pH(3-8.5). The labeled MORF was investigated for stability and hybridization in vitro. Results: By size exclusion high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) and instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) analysis, the DOTA conjugated MORF was successfully radiolabeled, the labeling efficiency was (50 ± 12)%, the specific radioactivity was 5.05 x 10 6 MBq/mmol, radiochemistry purity >95%. The labeled MORF showed one sharp peak by HPLC that shifted completely to earlier retention times following addition of a polymer conjugated with the complementary MORF. In saline at room temperature and in serum at 37 degree C, the radioactivity profile of 90 Y showed a pronounced lower molecular weight peak which did not shifted and was shown due to 90 Y-DOTA resulting from radiolysis. Conclusion: MORF can be successfully labeled with 90 Y via DOTA as chelater, but care it must be taken to avoid the effect of radiolysis. (authors)

  3. 99mTc-tetrapeptides: radiolabelling and biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznickova, A.; Laznicek, M.; Trejtnar, F.; Mather, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Preparation of 99m Tc-labelled tetrapeptides, namely acetyl-Gly-Gly-Cys-Gly (I), acetyl-Ser-Ser-Cys-Gly (II) and acetyl-Gly-Gly-Cys-Lys (III), analysis of their radiochemical purity and biodistribution were investigated in rats. The aim was to determine the relationship between structure and biological behaviour of 99m Tc-labelled peptides which are formed by amino-acid sequences capable of chelating technetium useful as universal chelators in ''hybrid'' peptides composed of receptor-specific part and the part chelating technetium. For labelling with 99m Tc, a conventional transchelation from 99m Tc-gluconate was used and radiolabelled peptides were purified by filtration on Whatman microfilters 12 kD. Radiochemical purity was higher than 98%. Biodistribution studies in rats showed that all agents are rapidly cleared from the body mostly via urine, but some part of administered radioactivity also in the faces was found. The later route of elimination way increased in the order III 99m Tc-MAG3. The results obtained will assist with design of optimal biocompatible tetrapeptides as chelators for formation of hybrid receptor-specific peptides. (author)

  4. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections

  5. Synthesis and applications of radiolabelled drugs in pharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvatter, S.W.; Heys, J.R.; Garner, K.T.; Mack, J.F.; Senderoff, S.G.; Shu, A.Y.; Villani, A.J.; Saunders, D.

    1994-01-01

    Radiolabelled drugs play a vital role in the development of new pharmaceuticals including application in drug discovery, pre-clinical development and clinical development. The synthesis of these pharmaceuticals in tritium or carbon-14 labelled form poses many challenges for the synthetic organic chemist. The actual choice of synthetic route must take into account the small scale, limited choice and high cost of labelled precursors, and the positioning of the label into a metabolically stable position. There are, however, a number of synthetic strategies available for overcoming these constraints. Although in some C-14 syntheses the requisite labelled raw material can be purchased and the existing synthesis adapted for labelling, frequently the synthetic challenge is the synthesis of a structurally simple, yet commercially unavailable, labelled precursor (e.g., γ-butyrolactone-[2- 14 C], cyclohexanone-[ 3 H], CuCN-[ 14 C], 2-furancarboxaldehyde-[ 14 C]). Another useful strategy in C-14 synthesis is the conversion of an advanced intermediate, or perhaps the unlabelled product itself, into a precursor which can then be reconverted into the labelled version of the intermediate. Occasionally, a new total synthesis must be developed. In addition to these strategies, tritium labelling can uniquely take advantage of exchange labelling techniques, synthesis and reduction of unsaturated precursors, or tritium-halogen replacement reactions. Examples of these strategies and use of the labelled products are discussed

  6. Osteomyelitis diagnosis by 99mTc radiolabeled aptamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.R.; Ferreira, I.M.; Andrade, A.S.R.; Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N.; Diniz, O.F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis, which is characterized by progressive inflammatory destruction and new opposition of bone, is still a difficult infection to treat. The clinical diagnosis in late stages is achieved easily, but an early diagnosis is more challenging. Staphylococcus aureus is a common agent found in osteomyelitis and bone prostheses infection. Diagnosis by scintigraphy has advantages because it is a non-invasive procedure and is able to perform an early diagnosis even before anatomic changes. Thus, nuclear medicine could contribute to an accurate diagnosis since specific radiopharmaceuticals were developed. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were labeled with 99m Tc and used for bacteria identification in an osteomyelitis experimental model. The aptamers selected to S. aureus were directly labelled with 99m Tc and were evaluated by biodistribution studies. Wistar rats with intraosseous infection in the right paw were used. A random aptamer labelled with 99m Tc was as control. Six animals were used in each group. The aptamers labeled with 99m Tc were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 2,23 ± 0,20, after 3 h. The control group presented a target/non-target ratio 1,08 ± 0.23. The results indicated that the radiolabeled aptamers were able to identify specifically the infection foci and they should be further explored for infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Comparison of endogenous and radiolabeled bile acid excretion in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, L.R.; Bilhartz, L.E.; Santa Ana, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fecal recovery of radioactivity after ingestion of a bolus of radiolabeled bile acid is abnormally high in most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. To evaluate the significance of this malabsorption, concurrent fecal excretion of both exogenous radiolabeled bile acid and endogenous (unlabeled) bile acid were measured in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Subjects received a 2.5-microCi oral dose of taurocholic acid labeled with 14C in the 24th position of the steroid moiety. Endogenous bile acid excretion was measured by a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase assay on a concurrent 72-h stool collection. Both radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion were abnormally high in most patients with chronic diarrhea compared with normal subjects, even when equivoluminous diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by ingestion of osmotically active solutions. The correlation between radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion was good. However, neither radiolabeled nor endogenous bile acid excretion was as abnormal as is typically seen in patients with ileal resection, and none of these diarrhea patients responded to treatment with cholestyramine with stool weights less than 200 g. These results suggest (a) that this radiolabeled bile acid excretion test accurately reflects excess endogenous bile acid excretion; (b) that excess endogenous bile acid excretion is not caused by diarrhea per se; (c) that spontaneously occurring idiopathic chronic diarrhea is often associated with increased endogenous bile acid excretion; and (d) that bile acid malabsorption is not likely to be the primary cause of diarrhea in most of these patients

  8. In vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into high and low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpstra, A.H.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Herbert, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for in vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into low density (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Radiolabeled cholesteryl esters dissolved in absolute ethanol were mixed with LDL or HDL in the presence of lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) as a source of core lipid transfer activity. The efficiency of incorporation was dependent on: (a) the core lipid transfer activity and quantity of LPDS, (b) the mass of added radiolabeled cholesteryl esters, (c) the length of incubation, and (d) the amount of acceptor lipoprotein cholesterol. The tracer incorporation was documented by repeat density gradient ultracentrifugation, agarose gel electrophoresis, and precipitation with heparin-MnCl2. The radiolabeling conditions did not affect the following properties of the lipoproteins: (1) chemical composition, (2) electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels, (3) hydrated density, (4) distribution of apoproteins on SDS gels, (5) plasma clearance rates, and (6) immunoprecipitability of HDL apoproteins A-I and A-II. Rat HDL containing radiolabeled cholesteryl esters incorporated in vitro had plasma disappearance rates identical to HDL radiolabeled in vivo

  9. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  10. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model.In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers.Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  11. A methodological approach for production and purification of polyclonal antibody against dog IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Somayeh; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Nozari, Samira; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Antibodies are a class of biomolecules that has an important role in the immune system and lots of applications in biotechnological methods and in pharmaceutics. Production and purification of antibodies in laboratory animals is one of the first ways to manufacture of these prominent tools. The obtained antibodies from these process could be used in various types of bioassay techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay, etc. Also, antibodies employed in diagnostics applications in humans and other animals in order to detect specific antigens. In this study, we aimed to produce and purify anti-dog IgG via immunizing rabbits with dog IgG in combination with Freund's adjuvant. Polyclonal IgG were purified by ion exchange chromatography and then the purified antibody was labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HPR). Direct ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer and cross-reactivity of HRP conjugated IgG. The purity of various IgG preparations and the optimum dilution of prepared HRP conjugated IgG, respectively, was about 95.00% and 1:8000. This study showed that efficiency ion-exchange chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG antibodies. This antibody could be a useful tool for future dog immune diagnosis tests. This product characterization shown here sets the foundations for future work on dog IgGs.

  12. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide from β-actin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Amini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Antibodies against actin, as one of the most widely studied structural and multifunctional housekeeping proteins in eukaryotic cells, are used as internal loading controls in western blot analyses. The aim of this study was to produce polyclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide derived from N-terminal region of β-actin protein to be used as a protein loading control in western blot and other assay systems. Materials and Methods: A synthetic peptide derived from β-actin protein was designed and conjugated to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH (and used to immunize a white New Zealand rabbit. The antibody was purified from serum by affinity chromatography column. The purity of the antibody was determined by SDS-PAGE and its ability to recognize the immunizing peptide was measured by ELISA. The reactivity of the antibody with β-actin protein in a panel of different cell lysates was then evaluated by western blot. In addition, the reactivity of the antibody with the corresponding protein was also evaluated by Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry in different samples. Results: The antibody could recognize the immunizing peptide in ELISA. It could also recognize            β-actin protein in western blot as well as in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Our data suggest that this antibody may be used as an internal control in western blot analyses as well as in other immunological applications such as ELISA,immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry.

  13. A comprehensive immunoassay for the detection of microcystins in waters based on polyclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jianwu; He Miao; Shi Hanchang; Qian Yi

    2006-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a group of closely related toxic cyclic heptapeptides produced by common cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), and microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) is among the most frequent and most toxic microcystin congeners. In this study, a free amino group was introduced to MC-LR at its seventh amino acid residue with 2-mercaptoethylamine, and the product aminoethyl-MC-LR was coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and horseradish peroxidise (HRP) by glutaraldehyde to be complete antigen (MC-LR-BSA) and labelled hapten (MC-LR-HRP), respectively. Polyclonal antibodies against MC-LR were generated by immunization with MC-LR-BSA. A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) was established to detect the MCs in waters, which showed a good cross-reactivity with MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-LF, MC-LW and nodularin, and have a detection limit for MC-LR 0.12 μg L -1 , the 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) for MC-LR was 0.63 ± 0.06 μg L -1 and the quantitative detection range was from 0.17 to 2.32 μg L -1 , the analysis result of water samples showed good recovery and reliability. So the comprehensive and reliable dc-ELISA will well potentially suit for sensitive analysis for total MCs in drinking as well as resource water samples

  14. Immunological Reactivity Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies of Autoimmune Thyroid Target Sites with Dietary Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many hypothyroid and autoimmune thyroid patients experience reactions with specific foods. Additionally, food interactions may play a role in a subset of individuals who have difficulty finding a suitable thyroid hormone dosage. Our study was designed to investigate the potential role of dietary protein immune reactivity with thyroid hormones and thyroid axis target sites. We identified immune reactivity between dietary proteins and target sites on the thyroid axis that includes thyroid hormones, thyroid receptors, enzymes, and transport proteins. We also measured immune reactivity of either target specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH receptor, 5′deiodinase, thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine against 204 purified dietary proteins commonly consumed in cooked and raw forms. Dietary protein determinants included unmodified (raw and modified (cooked and roasted foods, herbs, spices, food gums, brewed beverages, and additives. There were no dietary protein immune reactions with TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroxine-binding globulin. However, specific antigen-antibody immune reactivity was identified with several purified food proteins with triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroglobulin, and 5′deiodinase. Laboratory analysis of immunological cross-reactivity between thyroid target sites and dietary proteins is the initial step necessary in determining whether dietary proteins may play a potential immunoreactive role in autoimmune thyroid disease.

  15. Scintigraphy with 99mTc labelled polyclonal human IgG in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchev, V.; Batalov, A.; Atanasov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The study design to assess the diagnostic relevance of scintigraphy with 99m Tc labelled polyclonal human IgG (HIG) for detecting active synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Fifteen patients presenting rheumatoid arthritis and 3 healthy volunteers are studied on digital camera (Diacam, Siemens). Following iv injection of 500 MBq 99m Tc - HIG, a 3- phase scintigraphy of the knee joints is performed and 4 hours later multiple planar views of the peripheral joint are recorded. Scintigraphic data are comparatively studied with the clinical indicators pointing to active synovitis - joint swellings and pain. Markedly expressed 99m Tc - HIG uptake is noted in joints apparently the most actively involved in the arthritis process clinically, whereas most of the joints without evidence of active synovitis revealed background activity only. The obtained scintigraphic results correlate strongly with the clinical indicator joint swelling (93.2%), and somewhat less with the presence of pain (81.5%). 13.5 per cent of the joints without clinically detectable swelling and 25.6% those free of pain are HIG-positive. 99m Tc - HIG scintigraphy is a highly sensitive noninvasive method of detecting active synovitis, promoting objective assessment of the joint inflammatory process in the course of treatment and follow-up study of rheumatoid arthritis patients

  16. Immune reconstitution with two different rabbit polyclonal anti-thymocytes globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Gaiffe, Emilie; Laheurte, Caroline; Moulin, Bruno; Frimat, Luc; Rieu, Philippe; Mousson, Christiane; Durrbach, Antoine; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Saas, Philippe; Courivaud, Cécile; Ducloux, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Broad T cell depletion by polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins (ATG) has been used for many years as a part of immunosuppressive treatment in transplantation. Currently, two different ATG are used in clinical practice, Thymoglobulin and Grafalon. Due to differences in the immunization source, these products contain different specificities and quantity of antibodies. These differences may have clinical consequences. We conducted a nested study in a large prospective multicentric cohort of kidney transplant to determine whether Grafalon-treated and Thymoglobulin-treated patients experience different lymphocyte reconstitution and clinical outcomes. 182 patients matched for age, gender, CMV status, CMV prophylaxis, number of previous transplantation, and maintenance immunosuppressive treatment were included (Thymoglobulin, [n=91]; Grafalon®, [n=91]). One-year post-transplant, recent thymic emigrants were significantly decreased (12±10% vs 21±12%; p<0.001) in Grafalon-treated patients. By contrast, T cell activation (CD38+DR+Ki67+) and senescence (CD8+CD57+CD28-) was increased in Thymoglobulin-treated patients. Compared to Grafalon, Thymoglobulin was not associated with a significantly different rate of acute rejection. CMV disease (p=0.013) was more frequent in Thymoglobulin-treated patients. Grafalon and Thymoglobulin seem to be equivalent to prevent acute rejection. CMV disease is more frequent in Thymoglobulin-treated patients. One year post-transplant immune profile profoundly differs according to the type of ATG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycation of polyclonal IgGs: Effect of sugar excipients during stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Y; Bihoreau, N; Jube, M; Andre, M-H; Tellier, Z; Chevreux, G

    2016-05-01

    A number of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations are stabilized with sugar additives that may lead over time to undesirable glycation reactions especially in liquid formulation. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of sugar excipients on such preparations in condition of temperature, formulation and concentration commonly used for pharmaceutical products. Through an innovative LC-MS method reported to characterize post-translational modifications of IgGs Fc/2 fragments, a stability study of IVIg formulated with reducing and non-reducing sugars has been undertaken. The rate of polyclonal IgGs glycation was investigated during 6months at 5, 25, 30 and 40°C. High levels of glycation were observed with reducing sugars such as glucose and maltose in the first months of the stability study from 25°C. Non-reducing sugars presented a low reactivity even at the highest tested temperature (40°C). Furthermore, a site by site analysis was performed by MS/MS to determine the glycation sites which were mainly identified at Lys246, Lys248 and Lys324. This work points out the high probability of glycation reactions in some commercialized products and describes a useful method to characterize IVIg glycated products issued from reducing sugar excipients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production and Characterization of Anti-LH Polyclonal Antibodies for Establishment of Sepharose Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, N.H.; Mehany, N.L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to achieve the production and characterization of polyclonal antibody of luteinizing hormone (Anti-LH) as a basic component of LH radioimmunoassay (RIA). The main objective was to improve the immunogenicity of LH by conjugation of LH with bovine serum albumin (LH: BSA) as a protein carrier using Ethyl dimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide (ECDI). Production of Anti-LH was described where LH : BSA immunogen was immunized into three male mature white New-Zealand rabbits through primary immunization and four boosters. The criteria for selecting LH antiserum for liquid phase RIA system were mainly titer, displacement and immuno response profile and followed by partial purification of IgG-LH. The radioiodinated 125 I-LH tracer was carried out using Chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent and the tracer was purified through PD-10 column. The preparation of LH standards was carried out. Coupling of purified IgG-LH to activated Sepharose particles CL-4B was carried out after activation of Sepharose particles with 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole. Extensive studies were carried out to obtain the optimum conditions of using solid phase Sepharose particles to reach the optimum separation efficiency. The results of validation tests revealed that the local solid phase RIA system is precise and accurate to detect LH concentration in human serum to be used as a diagnostic tool in investigating the infertility in the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal disorders

  19. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for detection of malaria antigen. Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khusmith, S.; Tharavanij, S.; Patarapotikul, J.; Kasemsuth, R.; Bunnag, D.

    1986-01-01

    A solid phase competitive binding radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in infected blood. A suspension of NP40 treated red blood cells was mixed with labelled antimalarial IgG, incubated and then added to malarial antigen coated microtitre plate. Antimalarial IgGs were purified either from high titre sera from individuals living in a malaria endemic area in Thailand or from a locally produced monoclonal antibody (MAB) which showed a bright generalized immunofluorescent staining pattern against all blood stages of P. falciparum, including gametocytes. This MAB reacted with 27 of 31 P. falciparum isolates from Thailand. Using dilution of red blood cells from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum, the test was found to detect parasites at levels equivalent to 13 and 2.2 parasites/10 6 red blood cells with labelled polyclonal IgG (PIgG) and labelled monoclonal IgG (MIgG), respectively. No false positive results were obtained among samples from non-malarial subjects. Of the samples that gave negative results upon microscopic examination, 50 and 35% were still positive with RIA using MIgG and PIgG, respectively. There was a correlation between RIA and the number of parasites, especially when MIgG was used. The results indicate that the IgG fraction of sera from individuals with natural acquired immunity to malaria showed a lower degree of sensitivity in parasite detection than the IgG from monoclonal antibody. (author)

  20. Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián ePérez-Mazliah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allopurinol is the most popular commercially available xanthine oxidase inhibitor and it is widely used for treatment of symptomatic hyperuricaemia, or gout. Although, several anti-inflammatory actions of allopurinol have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, there have been few studies on the action of allopurinol on T cells. In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine production in human T cells. Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation with Herpes Simplex virus 1, Influenza virus, tetanus toxoid and Trypanosoma cruzi-derived antigens. Allopurinol attenuated CD69 upregulation after CD3 and CD28 engagement and significantly reduced the levels of spontaneous and mitogen-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in T cells. The diminished T cell activation and cytokine production in the presence of allopurinol support a direct action of allopurinol on human T cells, offering a potential pharmacological tool for the management of cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  1. Heparin binding domain of antithrombin III: Characterization using a synthetic peptide directed polyclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Dey, B.; Knauer, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a plasma-borne serine protease inhibitor that apparently forms covalent complexes with thrombin. The interaction between ATIII and thrombin is enhanced several thousandfold by the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. The authors have previously proposed that the heparin binding site of ATIII residues within a region extending from amino acid residues 114-156. Computer-assisted analysis of this region revealed the presence of a 22 amino acid domain (residues 124-145), part of which shows a strong potential for the formation of an amphipathic helix: hydrophobic on one face and highly positively charged on the other. In the presence studies, polyclonal antisera were generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 124-145 in native human ATIII. Affinity-purified IgG from these antisera, as well as monovalent Fab's derived from them, specifically blocked the binding of heparin to ATIII. Additionally, occupancy of the heparin binding site by these same monovalent and bivalent IgG's at least partially substituted for heparin, accelerating linkage formation between ATIII and thrombin. These results provide the first immunological evidence that region 124-145 is directly involved in the binding of heparin to ATIII and that an antibody-induced conformational change within this region can mediate ATIII activation

  2. Detection and quantification of Duffy antigen on bovine red blood cell membranes using a polyclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa B.F. Antonangelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is one of the most important diseases affecting livestock agriculture worldwide. Animals from the subspecies Bos taurus indicus are more resistant to babesiosis than those from Bos taurus taurus. The genera Babesia and Plasmodium are Apicomplexa hemoparasites and share features such as invasion of red blood cells (RBC. The glycoprotein Duffy is the only human erythrocyte receptor for Pasmodium vivax and a mutation which abolishes expression of this glycoprotein on erythrocyte surfaces is responsible for making the majority of people originating from the indigenous populations of West Africa resistant to P. vivax. The current work detected and quantified the Duffy antigen on Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus erythrocyte surfaces using a polyclonal antibody in order to investigate if differences in susceptibility to Babesia are due to different levels of Duffy antigen expression on the RBCs of these animals, as is known to be the case in human beings for interactions of Plasmodium vivax-Duffy antigen. ELISA tests showed that the antibody that was raised against Duffy antigens detected the presence of Duffy antigen in both subspecies and that the amount of this antigen on those erythrocyte membranes was similar. These results indicate that the greater resistance of B. taurus indicus to babesiosis cannot be explained by the absence or lower expression of Duffy antigen on RBC surfaces.

  3. The role of Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin G scintigraphy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortapamuk, H.; Hosal, B.; Naldoken, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether Tc-99m HIG (Polyclonal Human Immunoglobulin G) can image and determine the severity of orbital involvement in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-six patients between 19 and 56 years old with Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined. All patients received approximately 370 MBq Tc-99m HIG by intravenous (i.v.) injection. Planar and SPECT examination were performed 4 hours after the injection. Visual and semiquantitative evaluations were performed for both orbits by two independent observers. Clinically active ophthalmopathy patients had noticeably increased orbital accumulation of Tc-99m HIG. In patients with inactive disease, and 14 of 19 had no uptake, whereas 5 patients had orbital radioactivity accumulation. The duration of Graves' ophthalmopathy did not correlate with the presence of active ophthalmopathy and Tc-99m HIG grade. There was no correlation between clinical classification and clinical activity (r=278). There was a good correlation between clinical activity and the radioactivity grade with r=0.666 (p=0.01). The clinical classification closely correlated with Tc-99m HIG grade (r=0.423, p=0.05) Tc-99m HIG scan can clearly identified clinically active patients, and subclinical inflammation can be shown by this scintigraphic evaluation. The current preliminary results suggested that Tc-99m HIG SPECT might be useful for the assessment of disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy. (author)

  4. Polyclonal immune responses to antigens associated with cancer signaling pathways and new strategies to enhance cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Timothy M; Osada, Takuya; Hartman, Zachary C; Hobeika, Amy; Devi, Gayathri; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-04-01

    Aberrant signaling pathways are a hallmark of cancer. A variety of strategies for inhibiting signaling pathways have been developed, but monoclonal antibodies against receptor tyrosine kinases have been among the most successful. A challenge for these therapies is therapeutic unresponsiveness and acquired resistance due to mutations in the receptors, upregulation of alternate growth and survival pathways, or inadequate function of the monoclonal antibodies. Vaccines are able to induce polyclonal responses that can have a multitude of affects against the target molecule. We began to explore therapeutic vaccine development to antigens associated with these signaling pathways. We provide an illustrative example in developing therapeutic cancer vaccines inducing polyclonal adaptive immune responses targeting the ErbB family member HER2. Further, we will discuss new strategies to augment the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines by enhancing vaccine immunogenicity and reversing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  5. Cross-Reactivity of Polyclonal Antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) Urease and Helicobacter pylori Urease Subunit A Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Zbigniew Jerzy; Relich, Inga; Konieczna, Iwona; Kaca, Wieslaw; Kolesinska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted ± four amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori urease. Fragments 11 - 24, 21 - 33, and 31 - 42 were able to interact with the Jack bean urease antibodies, giving stable immunological complexes. However, the lack of recognition by these antibodies of all the components in the peptide map strongly suggests that a non-continuous (nonlinear) epitope is located on the N-terminal domain of UreA. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Synthesis, radiolabelling, and evaluation of [11C]PB212 as a radioligand for imaging sigma-1 receptors using PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Haider, Ahmed; Toscano, Annamaria; Pati, Maria Laura; Keller, Claudia; Berardi, Francesco; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Abate, Carmen; Ametamey, Simon M

    2018-01-01

    The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been described as a pluripotent modulator of distinct physiological functions and its involvement in various central and peripheral pathological disorders has been demonstrated. However, further investigations are required to understand the complex role of the Sig-1R as a molecular chaperon. A specific PET radioligand would provide a powerful tool in Sig-1R related studies. As part of our efforts to develop a Sig-1R PET radioligand that shows antagonistic properties, we investigated the suitability of 1-(4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)butyl)-4-methylpiperidine (designated PB212) for imaging Sig-1R. PB212 is a Sig-1R antagonist and exhibits subnanomolar affinity ( K i = 0.030 nM) towards Sig-1R as well as good to excellent selectivity over Sig-2R. The radiolabelling of [ 11 C]PB212 was accomplished by O-methylation of the phenolic precursor using [ 11 C]MeI. In vitro autoradiography with [ 11 C]PB212 on WT and Sig-1R KO mouse brain tissues revealed high non-specific binding, however using rat spleen tissues from CD1 mice and Wistar rats, high specific binding was observed. The spleen is known to have a high expression of Sig-1R. In vivo PET experiments in Wistar rats also showed high accumulation of [ 11 C]PB212 in the spleen. Injection of Sig-1R binding compounds, haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or fluspidine (1 mg/kg) shortly before [ 11 C]PB212 administration induced a drastic reduction of radiotracer accumulation, confirming the specificity of [ 11 C]PB212 towards Sig-1R in the spleen. The results obtained herein indicate that although [ 11 C]PB212 is not suitable for imaging Sig-1R in the brain, it is a promising candidate for the detection and quantification of Sig-1Rs in the periphery.

  7. Human Polyclonal Antibodies Produced through DNA Vaccination of Transchromosomal Cattle Provide Mice with Post-Exposure Protection against Lethal Zaire and Sudan Ebolaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie E Bounds

    Full Text Available DNA vaccination of transchromosomal bovines (TcBs with DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized (co glycoprotein (GP genes of Ebola virus (EBOV and Sudan virus (SUDV produce fully human polyclonal antibodies (pAbs that recognize both viruses and demonstrate robust neutralizing activity. Each TcB was vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP a total of four times and at each administration received 10 mg of the EBOV-GPco DNA vaccine and 10 mg of the SUDV-GPco DNA vaccine at two sites on the left and right sides, respectively. After two vaccinations, robust antibody responses (titers > 1000 were detected by ELISA against whole irradiated EBOV or SUDV and recombinant EBOV-GP or SUDV-GP (rGP antigens, with higher titers observed for the rGP antigens. Strong, virus neutralizing antibody responses (titers >1000 were detected after three vaccinations when measured by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA. Maximal neutralizing antibody responses were identified by traditional plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT after four vaccinations. Neutralizing activity of human immunoglobulins (IgG purified from TcB plasma collected after three vaccinations and injected intraperitoneally (IP into mice at a 100 mg/kg dose was detected in the serum by PsVNA up to 14 days after administration. Passive transfer by IP injection of the purified IgG (100 mg/kg to groups of BALB/c mice one day after IP challenge with mouse adapted (ma EBOV resulted in 80% protection while all mice treated with non-specific pAbs succumbed. Similarly, interferon receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR(-/- mice receiving the purified IgG (100 mg/kg by IP injection one day after IP challenge with wild type SUDV resulted in 89% survival. These results are the first to demonstrate that filovirus GP DNA vaccines administered to TcBs by IM-EP can elicit neutralizing antibodies that provide post-exposure protection. Additionally, these data describe

  8. The development and applications of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for the detection of illicit drugs in saliva samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fanning, Lorna M.

    2002-01-01

    Anti-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anti-cocaine and anti-morphine polyclonal antibodies were produced. These antibodies were successfully applied to an ELISA format for the detection of THC, cocaine, and morphine in saliva samples. Monoclonal antibodies against amphetamine and its derivatives were produced using two different conjugates, amphetamine-bovine serum albumin and methamphetaminebovine serum albumin. Two successful clones were produced, and the antibodies were applied to an ELISA ...

  9. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  10. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shunchuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Duck virus enteritis (DVE is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans, which has produced significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl. With the purpose of decreasing economic losses in the commercial duck industry, studying the unknown glycoprotein K (gK of DEV may be a new method for preferably preventing and curing this disease. So this is the first time to product and purify the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody. Through the western blot and ELISA assay, the truncated glycoprotein K (tgK has good antigenicity, also the antibody possesses high specificity and affinity. Meanwhile the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody has the potential to produce subunit vaccines and the functions of neutralizing DEV and anti-DEV infection because of its neutralization titer. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy using the purified rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody as diagnostic antibody was susceptive to detect a small quantity of antigen in tissues or cells. This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks.

  11. The processing and fate of antibodies and their radiolabels bound to the surface of tumor cells in vitro: A comparison of nine radiolabels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.B.; Thorpe, S.R.; Griffiths, G.L.; Diril, H.; Ong, G.L.; Hansen, H.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.; Mattes, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Processing radiolabeled degradation products is the key factor affecting retention of antibodies within the cell. In this study, the authors have analyzed the processing of antibodies labeled in nine different ways. Antibodies were labeled with three different radioisotopes and seven different forms of 125 I. Eight of the radiolabels (except 188 Re) were conjugated to the same antibody, MA103, and tested on the renal carcinoma cell line SK-RC-18 and/or the ovarian carcinoma cell line SK-OV-6. Rhenium conjugation utilized the antibody RS7, the target cell line ME180 and three of the other radiolabels were also tested with this antibody-target cell combination for comparison. Iodine conjugated to antibodies by conventional methods was rapidly released from the cell after antibody catabolism. In contrast, iodinated moieties, such as dilactitol-tyramine and inulin-tyramine were retained within cells four to five times longer. The use of radiolabels that are trapped within cells after antibody catabolism can potentially increase the dose of radiation delivered to the tumor, from the same amount of radioactivity deposited by a factor of four or five. The prolonged retention of 111 In relative to 125 I is not due to deiodination of iodine conjugates, but rather to intracellular retention of catabolic products containing 111 In, perhaps within lysosomes. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Current status of cancer immunodetection with radiolabeled human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Serafini, A; Pecking, A; Klein, J L; Hanna, M G

    1993-04-01

    The use of radiolabeled murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for cancer immunodetection has been limited by the development of human antimouse antibodies (HAMA). Human monoclonal antibodies do not elicit a significant human antihuman (HAHA) response. The generation and production of human monoclonal antibodies met with technical difficulties that resulted in delaying their clinical testing. Human monoclonal antibodies of all isotypes have been obtained. Most were immunoglobulin (Ig) M directed against intracellular antigens. Two antibodies, 16.88 (IgM) and 88BV59 (IgG3k), recognize different epitopes on a tumor-associated antigen, CTA 16.88, homologous to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. CTA 16.88 is expressed by most epithelial-derived tumors including carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, ovary, and lung. The in vivo targeting by these antibodies is related to their localization in nonnecrotic areas of tumors. Repeated administration of 16.88 over 5 weeks to a cumulative dose of 1,000 mg did not elicit a HAHA response. Two of 53 patients developed a low titer of HAHA 1 to 3 months after a single administration of 88BV59. Planar imaging of colorectal cancer with Iodine-131 (131I)-16.88 was positive in two studies in 9 of 12 and 16 of 20 patients preselected by immunohistochemistry. Tumors less than 2 cm in diameter are usually not detected. The lack of immunogenicity and long tumor residence time (average = 17 days) makes 16.88 a good candidate for therapy. Radioimmunlymphoscintigraphy with indium-111 (111In)-LiLo-16.88 administered by an intramammary route was used in the presurgical staging of primary breast cancer. The negative predictive value of lymph node metastases for tumors less than 3 cm was 90.5%. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography imaging of colorectal carcinoma with technetium-99m (99mTc) 88BV59 was compared with computed tomography (CT) scan in 36 surgical patients. The antibody scan was more sensitive than the CT scan in detecting

  13. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  14. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  15. Radiolabeling, characterization and preliminary studies of 90Y-octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klementyeva, O.E.; Bruskin, A.B.; Larenkov, A.A.; Kodina, G.E.; Korsunsky, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Overexpression of the somatostatin receptors in neuroendocrine tumors has become the molecular basis for the use of somatostatin analogues in diagnosis and therapy for these neoplasms. The high energy (maximum 2.2 MeV) and penetration range (R 95 5.7 mm) of β-particles from 90 Y are advantageous, with a direct killing of somatostatin receptor positive cells and a crossfire effect which hits nearby receptor-negative tumour cells [Ref. 1]. Aim: the investigation of the reaction conditions for the preparation of 90 Y-Octreotate and its in vitro characterization. Materials and methods: DOTA-Octreotate (Farm-Syntez Ltd.) and 88 YCl 3 (V/O Isotop) were used without purification. 88 Y-Octreotate was prepared in acetate buffer solution and its radiochemical purity was controlled by ITLC. In-vitro experiments were carried out with melanoma B16. Studies of internalization were performed as described in [Ref. 2]. Results: the maximal accumulation in the cells was observed after 90 min from the beginning of incubation and was about 3.9%. In our experiments, we found high level of internalization of the surface-bound 88 Y-Octreotate into B16 cells. Maximal internalization level was 80% after 60 min of incubation. Conclusion: the optimal conditions for effective labeling (> 95%) of DOTA-Octreotate were found. The results obtained using the gamma-emitting 88 Y, provide a basis for in vivo research 90 Y octreotate as radiotherapeutic agent. References: [Ref. 1] Bodei, L.; Pepe, G.; Paganelli, G.; Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogues. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2010; v. 14: 347-351. [Ref. 2] Garcia Garayoa E., Allemann-Tannahill L., et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of new radiolabeled neurotensin (8-13) analogs with high affinity for NT1 receptors. Nucl. Med. Biol. 2001; 28: 75-84. (authors)

  16. In vitro evaluation of radiolabeled aptamers for colon carcinoma diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, C.R.; Ferreira, I.M; Santos, S.R.; Faria, L.S.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: crisrcorrea@gmail.com, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Goes, A.M., E-mail: goes@icb.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Imunologia e Bioquimica

    2013-07-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, representing a major public health problem worldwide. Colorectal cancers accounts around 8% of all deaths for cancer in 2008, is the fourth most lethal. Many colorectal cancer markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), A33, and CSA-p, have been studied as the therapeutic targets in preclinical or clinical settings. CEA is a complex intracellular glycoprotein produced by about 90% of colorectal cancers. Since its discovery in 1965, a very large number of studies have been carried out to determine the effectiveness of CEA as clinically useful tumor markers. Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acid oligomers (DNA or RNA) that can form specific and complex three-dimensional structures which can bind with high affinity to specific targets, they are functionally equivalent of antibodies. Aptamers have the advantage of being highly specific, relatively small size, and non-immunogenic. The aim of this study was develop anti-CEA aptamers for use as imaging agents. The aptamers are obtained through by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment), in which aptamers are selected from a library of random sequences of synthetic DNA by repetitive binding of the oligonucleotides to target molecule. These aptamers were confirmed to have affinity and specific binding for T84 cell line (target cell), showed by fluorescence microscopic images. Individual aptamers sequences that bound T84 cells were {sup 32}P-radiolabeled and incubated at different concentrations on cell monolayers, to monitor the aptamers affinity binding. The selected aptamers can identify colon cancer cell line. This aptamers could be further developed for early disease detection as radiopharmaceuticals, as well as prognostic markers, of colorectal cancers. (author)

  17. In vitro evaluation of radiolabeled aptamers for colon carcinoma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C.R.; Ferreira, I.M; Santos, S.R.; Faria, L.S.; Andrade, A.S.R.; Goes, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, representing a major public health problem worldwide. Colorectal cancers accounts around 8% of all deaths for cancer in 2008, is the fourth most lethal. Many colorectal cancer markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), A33, and CSA-p, have been studied as the therapeutic targets in preclinical or clinical settings. CEA is a complex intracellular glycoprotein produced by about 90% of colorectal cancers. Since its discovery in 1965, a very large number of studies have been carried out to determine the effectiveness of CEA as clinically useful tumor markers. Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acid oligomers (DNA or RNA) that can form specific and complex three-dimensional structures which can bind with high affinity to specific targets, they are functionally equivalent of antibodies. Aptamers have the advantage of being highly specific, relatively small size, and non-immunogenic. The aim of this study was develop anti-CEA aptamers for use as imaging agents. The aptamers are obtained through by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment), in which aptamers are selected from a library of random sequences of synthetic DNA by repetitive binding of the oligonucleotides to target molecule. These aptamers were confirmed to have affinity and specific binding for T84 cell line (target cell), showed by fluorescence microscopic images. Individual aptamers sequences that bound T84 cells were 32 P-radiolabeled and incubated at different concentrations on cell monolayers, to monitor the aptamers affinity binding. The selected aptamers can identify colon cancer cell line. This aptamers could be further developed for early disease detection as radiopharmaceuticals, as well as prognostic markers, of colorectal cancers. (author)

  18. Neutralization of feline immunodeficiency virus by polyclonal cat antibody: Simultaneous involvement of hypervariable regions 4 and 5 of the surface glycoprotein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); W. Huisman (Willem); J.A. Karlas (Jos); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); M.L. Bosch (Marnix); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSites involved in antibody-mediated neutralization of feline immunodeficiency virus were mapped by reciprocal exchange of envelope fragments or amino acids between molecular clones of feline immunodeficiency virus with different susceptibilities to neutralization by a polyclonal cat

  19. Delayed Diagnoses: Nonspecific Findings and Diagnostic Challenges in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Schwarz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Eating disorders commonly present with nonspecific findings, masquerading as other, more common etiologies of malnutrition and wasting. In low-prevalence populations, these ambiguities can complicate clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, resulting in delayed or missed diagnoses. Method. We report the atypical case of a 51-year-old male with a five-year history of unexplained weight loss despite extensive past medical evaluation. Previous documentation of profound lymphopenia and bone marrow atrophy had not been linked to a known association with eating disorders. Results. Evaluation for medical etiologies of wasting was negative. Following psychiatric evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with an eating disorder, not otherwise specified, and admitted to a specialized nutritional rehabilitation program. Conclusion. The nonspecific clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory abnormalities of eating disorders can make these diagnoses challenging and delay appropriate treatment. Clinicians should consider eating disorders in patients with malnutrition, severe lymphopenias, and gelatinous marrow transformation early in their workup, so as to avoid potentially negative outcomes.

  20. Murine Typhus: An Important Consideration for the Nonspecific Febrile Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus is a widely distributed flea-borne infection caused by Rickettsia typhi. Symptoms of murine typhus are nonspecific and mimic a variety of other infectious diseases. We herein report a case of murine typhus in an area where the broad use of DDT in the mid-20th century has now made it a rare disease. The patient described presented with headache, fever, and a faint macular rash. Initial laboratory studies revealed a slight transaminase elevation. Further questioning revealed exposure to opossums, prompting the consideration of murine typhus as a diagnosis. Although typhus group antibodies were not present during the patient’s acute illness, empiric therapy with doxycycline was initiated, and the patient defervesced. One month after convalescence, the patient returned to clinic with serum that contained typhus group antibodies with an IgG titer of 1 : 1024. Murine typhus is an important consideration during the workup of a patient with a nonspecific febrile illness. Exposure to reservoir hosts and the flea vector place humans at risk for this disease. Clinician recognition of this entity is required for diagnosis and effective therapy.

  1. Radiolabeling Silica-Based Nanoparticles via Coordination Chemistry: Basic Principles, Strategies, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dalong; Jiang, Dawei; Ehlerding, Emily B; Huang, Peng; Cai, Weibo

    2018-03-20

    As one of the most biocompatible and well-tolerated inorganic nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles (SiNPs) have received extensive attention over the last several decades. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of radiolabeled SiNPs has provided a highly sensitive, noninvasive, and quantitative readout of the organ/tissue distribution, pharmacokinetics, and tumor targeting efficiency in vivo, which can greatly expedite the clinical translation of these promising NPs. Encouraged by the successful PET imaging of patients with metastatic melanoma using 124 I-labeled ultrasmall SiNPs (known as Cornell dots or C dots) and their approval as an Investigational New Drug (IND) by the United States Food and Drug Administration, different radioisotopes ( 64 Cu, 89 Zr, 18 F, 68 Ga, 124 I, etc.) have been reported to radiolabel a wide variety of SiNPs-based nanostructures, including dense silica (dSiO 2 ), mesoporous silica (MSN), biodegradable mesoporous silica (bMSN), and hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN). With in-depth knowledge of coordination chemistry, abundant silanol groups (-Si-O-) on the silica surface or inside mesoporous channels not only can be directly used for chelator-free radiolabeling but also can be readily modified with the right chelators for chelator-based labeling. However, integrating these labeling strategies for constructing stably radiolabeled SiNPs with high efficiency has proven difficult because of the complexity of the involved key parameters, such as the choice of radioisotopes and chelators, nanostructures, and radiolabeling strategy. In this Account, we present an overview of recent progress in the development of radiolabeled SiNPs for cancer theranostics in the hope of speeding up their biomedical applications and potential translation into the clinic. We first introduce the basic principles and mechanisms for radiolabeling SiNPs via coordination chemistry, including general rules of selecting proper

  2. Depth profile analysis of non-specific fluorescence and color of tooth tissues after peroxide bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Zoladz, James; Schwarz, Björn-Olaf; Duschner, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    To examine laboratory changes of endogenous non-specific fluorescence and color throughout subsurface of tooth structures prior to and following peroxide bleaching. Extracted human teeth were cross sectioned and mounted on glass slides. Cross sections were examined for internal color (digital camera) and nonspecific fluorescence (microRaman spectroscopy) throughout the tooth structure at specified locations. Surfaces of sections were then saturation bleached for 70 hours with a gel containing 6% hydrogen peroxide. Cross sections were reexamined for color and non-specific fluorescence changes. Unbleached enamel, dentin-enamel junction and dentin exhibit different CIELab color and non-specific fluorescence properties. Bleaching of teeth produced significant changes in color of internal cross sections and substantial reductions of non-specific fluorescence levels within enamel dentin and DEJ. Enamel and dentin non-specific fluorescence were reduced to common values with bleaching with enamel and the DEJ showing larger reductions than dentin.

  3. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatter, J.G. [Pharmacia Corp., Peapack, NJ (United States); Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A. [Pharmacia Corp., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [{sup 14}C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [{sup 14}C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. After 7 daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C{sub max} and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  4. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatter, J.G.; Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [ 14 C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [ 14 C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [ 14 C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled 14 CO 2 . After 7 daily [ 14 C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C max and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  5. Advances in infectious foci imaging using 99mTc radiolabelled antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedeh Fatemeh Mirshojaei

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods of infection diagnosis, relying on experimental tests and culture of organisms from infected foci have continued to developing new technologies and automation. Nuclear medicine is a reliable diagnostic technique capable to detect infectious foci in human disease. A wide range of radiolabeled agents have been evaluated for demonstrating their ability to distinguish microbial infectious lesions. New researches continue to be made on the use of radiolabeled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection would be useful in monitoring of disease treatment. Here, the new approaches of infection scintigraphic imaging by radiolabeled antibiotics are thoroughly discussed in order to assess and compare their diagnostic value as targeting imaging radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  6. Microreactor and method for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wheeler, Tobias D; Desai, Amit V; Zeng, Dexing; Onal, Birce C

    2015-03-17

    A microreactor for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate comprises a microchannel for fluid flow, where the microchannel comprises a mixing portion comprising one or more passive mixing elements, and a reservoir for incubating a mixed fluid. The reservoir is in fluid communication with the microchannel and is disposed downstream of the mixing portion. A method of preparing a radiolabeled complex includes flowing a radiometal solution comprising a metallic radionuclide through a downstream mixing portion of a microchannel, where the downstream mixing portion includes one or more passive mixing elements, and flowing a ligand solution comprising a bifunctional chelator through the downstream mixing portion. The ligand solution and the radiometal solution are passively mixed while in the downstream mixing portion to initiate a chelation reaction between the metallic radionuclide and the bifunctional chelator. The chelation reaction is completed to form a radiolabeled complex.

  7. Current status and future perspectives of in vivo small animal imaging using radiolabeled nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Kagadis, George C.; Psimadas, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Small animal molecular imaging is a rapidly expanding efficient tool to study biological processes non-invasively. The use of radiolabeled tracers provides non-destructive, imaging information, allowing time related phenomena to be repeatedly studied in a single animal. In the last decade there has been an enormous progress in related technologies and a number of dedicated imaging systems overcome the limitations that the size of small animal possesses. On the other hand, nanoparticles (NPs) gain increased interest, due to their unique properties, which make them perfect candidates for biological applications. Over the past 5 years the two fields seem to cross more and more often; radiolabeled NPs have been assessed in numerous pre-clinical studies that range from oncology, till HIV treatment. In this article the current status in the tools, applications and trends of radiolabeled NPs reviewed.

  8. Investigation of bacterial adherence to a non-precious alloy with radiolabeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonugelen, M.; Iyiyapici Destan, U.; Oeztuerk, B.; Yurt Lambrecht, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial adherence to a non-precious alloy with radiolabeling method. S. mutans, E. coliand C. albicanswere labeled with 99m Tc by using stannous chloride and their radiolabeling yields were calculated. After the labeling procedure, metal disks (3 mm x 10 mm) were treated with microorganisms. The amount of labeled microorganisms adhered on metal surfaces was determined by activity measurements. The labeling yields for S. mutans, E. coliand C. albicanswere 69.95 ± 7.58%, 78.84 ± 0.44% and 79.71 ± 10.17%, respectively. The mean values for adherence for S. mutans, E. coliand C. albicans on metal samples were 7.02 ± 2.18%, 0.96 ± 0.49% and 8.80 ± 8.24%, respectively. The radiolabeling method could be considered as safe and precise for determining the adherence of microorganisms. (author)

  9. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, W.; Glass, D.M.; Bradley, D.; Peters, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m- labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99m Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99m Tc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99m Tc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99m Tc-HIG compared with 99m Tc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99m Tc-HIG was significantly higher (P 99m Tc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not sinificantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99m Tc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per minute for

  10. Bisulfite compounds as metabolic inhibitors: nonspecific effects on membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettge, U; Osmond, C B; Ball, E; Brinckmann, E; Kinze, G

    1972-01-01

    Bisulfite compounds are shown to be nonspecific inhibitors of photosynthetic processes and of ion transport in green tissues. CO/sub 2/ fixation and light-dependent transient changes in external pH are inhibited about 50% by 5 x 10/sup -4/M glyoxal-Na-bisulfite. Chloride uptake in the light and in the dark is inhibited to the same extent at this concentration. At 5 x 10/sup -3/M the inhibitor reduces ATP levels in the light and in the dark, and the effects on glycolate oxidase and PEP carboxylase are observed. The extent of inhibition is dependent on time of treatment with glyoxal-Na-bisulfite and freshly prepared NaHSO/sub 3/ is equally as effective as the addition compound. Possible explanations of the bisulfite effects and the relationships to SO/sub 2/ effects on photosynthesis are discussed.

  11. Nonspecific suppressor elements in murine allogeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1979-01-01

    Spleen cells from long-term mouse allogeneic radiation chimeras were tested for their ability to modulate the graft-versus-host (GVH) or plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of normal lymphocytes transplanted in lethally x-irradiated recipients. In vivo GVH proliferation of normal lymphocytes (syngeneic to donor cells of the chimera) against antigens of host-type in which the chimeric state had been established was reduced by chimera cells. Inhibition varied, some chimeras suppressing GVH more than others and a few not suppressing at all. The suppressive effect was abrogated if the chimera cells were treated with anti-THETA; treatment with anti-IgM did not eliminate this activity. When mixtures of normal donor lymphocytes and chimera cells were given to irradiated recipients genetically different from host or donor, reduction of donor cell GVH also occurred. Further, chimera cells reduced the GVH activity of normal host cells in irradiated recipients differing from the host at one H-2 locus and from the donor at minor histocompatibility loci. The modulating effect of spleen cells from chimeras on the PFC response by normal lymphocytes also varied. Six chimeras induced a 25 to 90% suppression, two enhanced the response, and one showed no effect. Where suppression occurred, treatment of chimera cells with anti-THETA most often, but not always, restored PFC production. Our results show that the suppressive action of splenic lymphoid cells by chimeras is highly nonspecific and variable in expression. We suggest that tolerance in chimeras may be mediated by nonspecific suppressor elements leading to unresponsiveness to a variety of antigens including SRBC

  12. Methods of reducing non-specific adsorption in microfluidic biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seokheun; Chae, Junseok

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules is a persistent challenge in microfluidic biosensors. Microfluidic biosensors often have immobilized bioreceptors such as antibodies, enzymes, DNAs, etc, via linker molecules such as SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) to enhance immobilization. However, the linker molecules are very susceptible to NSA, causing false responses and decreasing sensitivity. In this paper, we present design methods to reduce the NSA of alkanethiol SAMs, which are popular linker molecules on microfluidic biosensors. Three design parameters were studied for two different chain-length SAMs (n = 2 and 10): (i) SAM incubation time, (ii) surface roughness [0.8 nm and 4.4 nm RMS (root mean square)] and (iii) gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation. NSA was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results suggest that increased SAM incubation time reduces NSA, and that short-chain SAMs respond more favorably than the long-chain SAMs. Both SAMs were shown to be sensitive to surface roughness, and long-chain SAMs reduced NSA by 75%. Gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation profoundly reduced NSA on the short-chain SAM. On a gold surface where surface roughness was 0.8 nm and there was strong directional alignment along the (1 1 1) gold crystal, final concentrations of nonspecifically bound proteins were 0.05 ng mm −2 (fibrinogen) and 0.075 ng mm −2 (lysozyme)—significantly lower than other known methods. The results show that optimizing three parameters (SAM incubation time, gold surface roughness and gold crystal orientation) improved SAM sensitivity for fibrinogen–anti-fibrinogen conjugates by a factor of 5 in 2.94 pM, suggesting that the methods are effective for reducing NSA in microfluidic biosensors.

  13. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinda, S; Jasmin, C; Sivakumar, K C; Jose, Blessy; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-07-01

    Moulting in crustaceans is regulated by moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the CHH family neuropeptides. The inhibitory functions of MIH have pivotal roles in growth and reproduction of Penaeus monodon. In this study, we report the expression of a thioredoxin-fused mature MIH I protein (mf-PmMIH I) of P. monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I). The mature MIH I gene of 231bp, that codes for 77 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene fusion expression system. The translation expression vector construct (mf-PmMIH I+pET32a+) upon induction produced 29.85kDa mature MIH I fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I). The purified fusion protein was used as exogenous MIH I and as antigen to raise polyclonal antisera. When fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I) was injected into D2 and D3 stages of juvenile shrimp, the moult cycle duration was extended significantly to 16.67±1.03 and 14.67±1.03days respectively compared to that of 11.67±1.03days in controls. Moult duration was further reduced to 8.33±0.82days when polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I - 1:500 dilutions) was injected. Anti-mf-PmMIH I immunolocalized MIH I producing neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk of P. monodon. In short, the present manuscript reports an innovative means of moult regulation in P. monodon with thioredoxin fused MIH I and antisera developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-infectivity of camel polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus in Huh7.5 hepatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Fakharany Esmail M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To extend the study of the camel milk proteins which have antiviral activity against HCV, camel naïve polyclonal IgGs, α-lactalbumin were purified from camel milk and their anti-HCV effect was examined using PBMCs and Huh7.5 cell-lines. They were compared with the activity of human polyclonal IgGs and camel lactoferrin and casein. Material and methods Three types of experiments were performed on PBMCs and HuH7.5 cell. HCV was directly incubated with the purified proteins and then mixed with both cell types, or the proteins were incubated with the cells and then exposed to HCV, or the HCV pre-infected cells were treated with the proteins to inhibit intracellular replication. The proteins were added to cells or virus at different concentrations and time intervals. Results Pretreated PBMCs and Huh7.5 cells with milk proteins were not protected when exposed to HCV infection. The direct interaction between HCV and camel IgGs and camel lactoferrin (cLf led to a complete inhibition of HCV entry into cells, while casein, α-lactalbumin and human IgGs failed to inhibit HCV entry at any tested concentration. Camel IgGs showed ability to recognize HCV peptides with a significant titer (12 × 103 in comparison with human IgGs which failed to do it. Camel lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting the intracellular HCV replication at concentrations of 0.25-1.25 mg/ml. Conclusion Camel milk naïve polyclonal IgGs isolated from camel milk could inhibit the HCV infectivity and demonstrated strong signal against its synthetic peptides. Lactoferrin inhibit the HCV infectivity started from 0.25 mg/ml. However, α-lactalbumin, human IgGs and casein failed to demonstrate any activity against HCV infectivity.

  15. Polyclonal B cell differentiation and loss of gastrointestinal tract germinal centers in the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C Levesque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay in the appearance of anti-HIV-1 antibodies and of their subsequent rapid decline are not known. While the effect of HIV-1 on depletion of gut CD4(+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection is well described, we studied blood and tissue B cells soon after infection to determine the effect of early HIV-1 on these cells.In human participants, we analyzed B cells in blood as early as 17 days after HIV-1 infection, and in terminal ileum inductive and effector microenvironments beginning at 47 days after infection. We found that HIV-1 infection rapidly induced polyclonal activation and terminal differentiation of B cells in blood and in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT B cells. The specificities of antibodies produced by GALT memory B cells in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI included not only HIV-1-specific antibodies, but also influenza-specific and autoreactive antibodies, indicating very early onset of HIV-1-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Follicular damage or germinal center loss in terminal ileum Peyer's patches was seen with 88% of follicles exhibiting B or T cell apoptosis and follicular lysis.Early induction of polyclonal B cell differentiation, coupled with follicular damage and germinal center loss soon after HIV-1 infection, may explain both the high rate of decline in HIV-1-induced antibody responses and the delay in plasma antibody responses to HIV-1. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.

  16. Lack of protection following passive transfer of polyclonal highly functional low-dose non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Dugast

    Full Text Available Recent immune correlates analysis from the RV144 vaccine trial has renewed interest in the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in mediating protection from infection. While neutralizing antibodies have proven difficult to induce through vaccination, extra-neutralizing antibodies, such as those that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, are associated with long-term control of infection. However, while several non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been tested for their protective efficacy in vivo, no studies to date have tested the protective activity of naturally produced polyclonal antibodies from individuals harboring potent ADCC activity. Because ADCC-inducing antibodies are highly enriched in elite controllers (EC, we passively transferred highly functional non-neutralizing polyclonal antibodies, purified from an EC, to assess the potential impact of polyclonal non-neutralizing antibodies on a stringent SHIV-SF162P3 challenge in rhesus monkeys. Passive transfer of a low-dose of ADCC inducing antibodies did not protect from infection following SHIV-SF162P3 challenge. Passively administered antibody titers and gp120-specific, but not gp41-specific, ADCC and antibody induced phagocytosis (ADCP were detected in the majority of the monkeys, but did not correlate with post infection viral control. Thus these data raise the possibility that gp120-specific ADCC activity alone may not be sufficient to control viremia post infection but that other specificities or Fc-effector profiles, alone or in combination, may have an impact on viral control and should be tested in future passive transfer experiments.

  17. Radiolabelling of antibodies with indium: Use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetscher, H.

    1986-01-01

    /sup 111/In/sup 3+/ was used to radiolabel the F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of a monoclonal antibody (b-12) raised against a surface antigen of a mammalian breast tumor cell line (5). The in vivo distribution of the radiolabel was analyzed in mice bearing a transplant of fixed tumor cells in the left thigh. The results demonstrate that DTPA can be efficiently coupled to a tumor specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment and loaded with /sup 111/In/sup 3+/ yielding a stable, highly labelled complex

  18. In vitro metabolism of radiolabeled carbohydrates by protective cecal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, M E; Beier, R C; Hinton, A; Scanlan, C M; Corrier, D E; Peterson, D V; DeLoach, J R

    1993-12-01

    Cecal anaerobic bacteria from adult broilers were cultured in media containing .25% glucose or .25% lactose. Media also contained either [14C]-labeled lactose, glucose, galactose, or lactic acid as metabolic tracers. Cultures were analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 h for pH, radiolabeled and unlabeled volatile fatty acids, and lactic acid. The pH values of cultures containing .25% lactose were significantly (P galactose, lactose > glucose. The volatile fatty acids in which radiolabel was most concentrated were acetic acid, propionic acid, or butyric acid.

  19. Progresses in optimization strategy for radiolabeled molecular probes targeting integrin αvβ3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haojun; Wu Hua

    2012-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is critical in the growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. The integrins, which express on many types of tumor cells and activated vascular endothelial cells, play an important role in regulation of the tumor angiogenesis. RGD peptide, which contains Arg-Gly-Asp sequence, binds specifically to integrin α v β 3 . Therefore, the radiolabeled RGD peptides may have broad application prospects in radionuclide imaging and therapy. Major research interests include the selection of radionuclides, modification and improvement of RGD structures. In this article, we give a review on research progresses in optimization strategy for radiolabeled molecular probes targeting integrin α v β 3 . (authors)

  20. Method for radio imaging the myocardium of mammals using radio-labelled lipophil cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the radio imaging of myocardia of mammals by concentrating a radiolabelled cation in myocardial tissue and by producing a radiograph using imaging techniques. According to the invention, it is found that a group of substances shows a preference to myocardial tissues upon intravenous injection in mammals. The characteristic of the invention is that radiolabelled quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphorous or quaternary arsenic compounds with at least two aryl groups are intravenously injected. These substances provide a sufficiently high radioactivity giving an approved diagnostic image of the myocardium. (G.J.P.)

  1. Microfluidic squeezing for intracellular antigen loading in polyclonal B-cells as cellular vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Szeto, Gregory; van Egeren, Debra; Worku, Hermoon; Sharei, Armon; Alejandro, Brian; Park, Clara; Frew, Kirubel; Brefo, Mavis; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-05-01

    B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation.

  2. Regulating gonad inhibition and vitellogenin/vitellin induction in Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion protein and polyclonal antisera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, S.; Jose, B.; Philip, R; BrightSingh, I

    September 2016 Available online 15 September 2016 Keywords: Gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) Fusion/chimeric proteinaa r t i c l e i n f o b s t r a c tRegulating gonad inhibition and vitellogen Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion polyclonal antisera... restriction site overhangs to match with that of the expression vector; pET32a+. The forward primer (GIH-F- 5′-GAAT TCAACATCCTGGACAGCAAATGCAGGGGTGC-3′) contained EcoR I site (italics) and 29 nucleotide residues encoding the N terminal amino acid residues...

  3. (99m)Tc-aprotinin - optimisation and validation of radiolabelling kits for routine preparation for diagnostic imaging of amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denholt, Charlotte; Gillings, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Technetium-99m aprotinin was prepared from an optimised radiolabelling kit formulation containing aprotinin, alkaline buffer and stannous chloride (reducing agent) and radiolabelled using (99m) Tc-pertechnetate. The labelling was achieved within 25 min, with radiochemical purities of >98%....

  4. Chimeric analysis of EGFP and DsRed2 transgenic mice demonstrates polyclonal maintenance of pancreatic acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je-Young; Siswanto, Antoni; Harimoto, Kenichi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi

    2013-06-01

    The pancreatic islet is an assembly of specific endocrine cells. There are many conflicting reports regarding whether the acinus develops from single or multiple progenitor cells. This study investigated the development and maintenance clonality of the pancreatic acinus and duct using a chimeric analysis with EGFP and DsRed2 transgenic mice. Chimeric mice (G-R mice) were obtained by the aggregation method, using 8-cell stage embryos from EGFP and DsRed2 transgenic mice. The islets from the G-R mice were chimeric and mosaic, consisting of either EGFP- or DsRed2-positive populations, as in previous reports. On the other hand, most acini developed from either EGFP or DsRed2 origin, but some were chimeric. Interestingly, these chimeric acini were clearly separated into two-color regions and were not mosaic. Some large intralobular pancreatic ducts consisting of more than 10 cells were found to be chimeric, but no small ducts made up of less than 9 cells were chimeric. Our histological observations suggest that the pancreatic acinus polyclonally and directionally is maintained by multiple progenitor cells. Pancreatic large ducts also seem to develop polyclonally and might result from the assembly of small ducts that develop from a single origin. These findings provide useful information for further understanding pancreatic maintenance.

  5. A Rapid Detection Method of Brucella with Quantum Dots and Magnetic Beads Conjugated with Different Polyclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Qu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yushen; Li, Li; Yin, Dehui; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun; Xie, Renguo; Zhai, Yue; Zhang, Huiwen; Bao, Hao; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Juan; Song, Xiuling; Song, Wenzhi

    2017-03-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic disease of brucellosis worldwide. Traditional methods for detection of Brucella spp. take 48-72 h that does not meet the need of rapid detection. Herein, a new rapid detection method of Brucella was developed based on polyclonal antibody-conjugating quantum dots and antibody-modified magnetic beads. First, polyclonal antibodies IgG and IgY were prepared and then the antibody conjugated with quantum dots (QDs) and immunomagnetic beads (IMB), respectively, which were activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N'-ethylcar-bodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to form probes. We used the IMB probe to separate the Brucella and labeled by the QD probe, and then detected the fluorescence intensity with a fluorescence spectrometer. The detection method takes 105 min with a limit of detection of 103 CFU/mL and ranges from 10 to 105 CFU/mL ( R 2 = 0.9983), and it can be well used in real samples.

  6. Enhanced specificity in immunoscreening of expression cDNA clones using radiolabeled antigen overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, S.; Chao, L.; Chao, J.

    1989-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific method has been developed for immunoscreening clones from an expression cDNA library. The procedures utilize a radiolabeled antigen detection method described originally for the immunoblotting of plasma proteins. Screening of rat alpha 1-antitrypsin clones was used. Comparison between Western blots of alpha 1-antitrypsin using both labeled antigen and protein A detection methods showed that the former yielded lower background and greater sensitivity than the latter. Further, this technique was shown to have a lower detection limit of less than 20 ng through Western blot analysis of varying concentrations of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The procedures are based on the expression of the protein by cDNA clones containing the DNA inserts in the correct reading frame. Following the transfer of phage proteins to nitrocellulose membranes, the bivalent antibodies bind monovalently to both nitrocellulose-bound-antigen in the phage lysates and radiolabeled antigen. The radiolabeled antigen overlay method is superior to the protein A detection method in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. This improved method can be applied in general for screening expression cDNA libraries, provided that the specific antiserum and radiolabeled antigen are available

  7. Partition of radiolabeled amino acids in detached wheat heads in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwood, W.; Bernardin, J.

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of a particular amino acid supplied to a detached wheat head affected the ultimate distribution of that amino acid among the tissues of the head. Detached wheat heads (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne) were supplied with a pulse of [ 3 H]leucine in the culture medium and were chased with medium that contained glutamine as the sole nitrogen source. When the amount of radiolabel was held constant, an increasing concentration of unlabeled leucine in the pulse medium led to an increased partition of the radiolabel into the grain tissues of the head. When the concentration of unlabeled leucine was increased from zero to radiolabeled leucine was partitioned to endosperm tissue and twice as much to seedcoat tissues. An effect of amino acid concentration on radiolabel partition was also found for methionine and proline, but the effect was not as dramatic. These results suggest the existence of an amino acid transport system between the transpiration stream of the wheat head and the grain that exhibits cooperative kinetics or amino acid activation

  8. SPECT/CT imaging of radiolabeled cubosomes and hexosomes for potential theranostic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Christa; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Kallinen, Annukka

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a highly efficient method for the radiolabeling of phytantriol (PHYT)/oleic acid (OA)-based hexosomes based on the surface chelation of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) to preformed hexosomes using the polyamine 1, 12-diamino-3, 6, 9-triazododecane (SpmTrien) as chelating agent. We also...

  9. Long-circulating liposomes radiolabeled with [18F]fluorodipalmitin ([18F]FDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Jan; Tartis, Michaelann S.; Zhang, Hua; Fung, Jennifer Y.; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Sutcliffe, Julie L.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of a radiolabeled diglyceride, 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol [[ 18 F]fluorodipalmitin ([ 18 F]FDP)], and its potential as a reagent for radiolabeling long-circulating liposomes were investigated. The incorporation of 18 F into the lipid molecule was accomplished by nucleophilic substitution of the p-toluenesulfonyl moiety with a decay-corrected yield of 43±10% (n=12). Radiolabeled, long-circulating polyethylene-glycol-coated liposomes were prepared using a mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N- [methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-2000] ammonium salt (61:30:9) and [ 18 F]FDP with a decay-corrected yield of 70±8% (n=4). PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed with free [ 18 F]FDP and liposome-incorporated [ 18 F]FDP. Freely injected [ 18 F]FDP had the highest uptake in the liver, spleen and lungs. Liposomal [ 18 F]FDP remained in blood circulation at near-constant levels for at least 90 min, with a peak concentration near 2.5%ID/cc. Since [ 18 F]FDP was incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer, it could potentially be used for radiolabeling a variety of lipid-based drug carriers

  10. Radiolabeling of VEGF(165) with Tc-99m to evaluate VEGFR expression in tumor angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Artico, Marco; Taurone, Samanta; Manni, Isabella; Bianchi, Enrica; Piaggio, Giulia; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Agostinelli, Enzo; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    Angiogenesis is the main process responsible for tumor growth and metastatization. The principal effector of such mechanism is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and other components of tumor microenvironment. Radiolabeled VEGF analogues may provide a useful tool

  11. Lymphoma: current status of clinical and preclinical imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Christopher G. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Rui, Lixin [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Lymphoma is a complex disease that arises from cells of the immune system with an intricate pathology. While lymphoma may be classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin, each type of tumor is genetically and phenotypically different and highly invasive tissue biopsies are the only method to investigate these differences. Noninvasive imaging strategies, such as immunoPET, can provide a vital insight into disease staging, monitoring treatment response in patients, and dose planning in radioimmunotherapy. ImmunoPET imaging with radiolabeled antibody-based tracers may also assist physicians in optimizing treatment strategies and enhancing patient stratification. Currently, there are two common biomarkers for molecular imaging of lymphoma, CD20 and CD30, both of which have been considered for investigation in preclinical imaging studies. In this review, we examine the current status of both preclinical and clinical imaging of lymphoma using radiolabeled antibodies. Additionally, we briefly investigate the role of radiolabeled antibodies in lymphoma therapy. As radiolabeled antibodies play critical roles in both imaging and therapy of lymphoma, the development of novel antibodies and the discovery of new biomarkers may greatly affect lymphoma imaging and therapy in the future. (orig.)

  12. Species specific uptake of radio-labelled phytodetritus by benthic meiofauna from the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsson, E.; Modig, H.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The diatom Sheletonema costatum is one of the dominant phytoplankton species during spring in the northern Baltic Sea. We followed the uptake of radio-labelled S, costatum by all major meiofauna species in a laboratory experiment. The uptake of labelled diatom carbon varied greatly among major

  13. Bystander responses in three-dimensional cultures containing radiolabelled and unlabelled human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.; Azzam, E. I.; Howell, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Research on the radiation-induced bystander effect has been carried out mainly in 2-D tissue culture systems. This study uses a 3-D model, wherein apparently normal human diploid fibroblasts (AG1522) are grown in a carbon scaffold, to investigate the induction of a G 1 checkpoint in bystander cells present alongside radiolabelled cells. Cultures were simultaneously pulse-labelled with 3 H-deoxycytidine ( 3 HdC) to selectively irradiate a minor fraction of cells, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify the radiolabelled cells. After thorough washing of cultures, iododeoxyuridine (IdU) was administered to detect proliferating bystander cells. The cultures were harvested at various times thereafter, and cells were reacted with two monoclonal antibodies specific to IdU/BrdU or BrdU, respectively, stained with propidium iodide, and subjected to multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cell-cycle progression was followed in radiolabelled cells (BrdU + ) that were chronically irradiated by low energy beta particles emitted by DNA-incorporated 3 H, and in unlabelled bystander cells (BrdU - ) by a flow cytometry based cumulative labelling index assay. As expected, radiolabelled cells were delayed, in a dose-dependent manner, in G 2 and subsequently G 1 . No delay occurred in progression of bystander cells through G 1 , when the labelled cells were irradiated at dose rates up to 0.32 Gy h -1 . (authors)

  14. Progress of radiolabelled bombesin in diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yan; Zhao Jihua

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that high expression of bombesin exist in the face of many kind of tumors such as prostate cancer, so bombesin and its receptor can be used as target in radionuclide receptor imaging and targeted therapy of tumor, and become the focus of prostate cancer research. This article reviews the progress of radiolabelled bombesin in prostate cancer imaging and therapy. (authors)

  15. Extraction, radiolabeling and in vivo biological evaluation of {sup 131}I labeled egonol glycosides extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akguel, Yurdanur; Pazar, Erdinc [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Dept.; Yilmaz, Habibe; Sanlier, Senay Hamarat [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Biochemistry Dept.; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications; Yilmaz, Osman [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Lab. Animal Science

    2015-09-01

    Crude extract of S. officinalis L. was found to have suspending agent, hemolytic, antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its major components benzofurans and benzofuran glycosides have antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial and anticomplement activities and display acetylcholinesterase-cyclooxygenase inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. Recently, it has been reported that egonolgentiobioside is a valuable target for structural modification and warrants further investigation for its potential as a novel pharmaceutical tool for the prevention of estrogen deficiency induced diseases. The aim of the current study is to perform in vivo biological evaluation of a glycosides extract, which was isolated from the fruits endocarp of Styrax officinalis L, identified as egonolgentiobioside and homoegonolgentiobioside and labeled with {sup 131}I. The radiolabeled glycosides extract was labeled with {sup 131}I with high yield. The labeled obtained radiolabeled compound was found to be quite stable and lipophilic. In order to determine its tissue distribution, an in vivo study was performed using healthy female Albino Wistar rats injected by {sup 131}I-glycosides. The biodistribution results showed that clearance of the radiolabeled compound is through the hepatobiliary pathway. The experimental study indicated that the radiolabeled glycosides extract accumulated in the large intestine. Therefore, the potential of {sup 131}I-glycosides might be evaluated in colon cancer cell lines and this might be a promising of tumor-imaging agent.

  16. In vivo VEGF imaging with radiolabeled bevacizumab in a human ovarian tumor xenograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagengast, Wouter B.; Hospers, Geke A.; Mulder, Nanno H.; de Jong, Johan R.; Hollema, Harry; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; van Dongen, Guns A.; Perk, Lars R.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), released by tumor cells, is an important growth factor in tumor angiogenesis. The humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab blocks VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis by binding, thereby neutralizing VEGF. Our aim was to develop radiolabeled bevacizumab for

  17. Studies towards the synthesis of radiolabeled R106-1(LY295337)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.J.; Zweifel, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A unique semisynthetic pathway has been used as a route to acquire radiolabeled material of a complex natural product, R106. The retro-aldol reaction of R106-1 gave a key intermediate R106-sarcosine that was used in a subsequent aldol reaction to incorporate acetone--[2- 14 C]. (author)

  18. Lymphoma: current status of clinical and preclinical imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Christopher G.; Rui, Lixin; Cai, Weibo

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoma is a complex disease that arises from cells of the immune system with an intricate pathology. While lymphoma may be classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin, each type of tumor is genetically and phenotypically different and highly invasive tissue biopsies are the only method to investigate these differences. Noninvasive imaging strategies, such as immunoPET, can provide a vital insight into disease staging, monitoring treatment response in patients, and dose planning in radioimmunotherapy. ImmunoPET imaging with radiolabeled antibody-based tracers may also assist physicians in optimizing treatment strategies and enhancing patient stratification. Currently, there are two common biomarkers for molecular imaging of lymphoma, CD20 and CD30, both of which have been considered for investigation in preclinical imaging studies. In this review, we examine the current status of both preclinical and clinical imaging of lymphoma using radiolabeled antibodies. Additionally, we briefly investigate the role of radiolabeled antibodies in lymphoma therapy. As radiolabeled antibodies play critical roles in both imaging and therapy of lymphoma, the development of novel antibodies and the discovery of new biomarkers may greatly affect lymphoma imaging and therapy in the future. (orig.)

  19. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike L.T. Berendsen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: We found a general time-dependent pattern of non-specific effects of vaccination, with positive associations for vaccinations given early in life and negative associations for vaccinations given later in infancy. If confirmed in further research, our findings may provide a new perspective on the non-specific effects of vaccination.

  20. Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Are Deconditioned and Have An Increased Body Fat Percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare data on the level of aerobic capacity and body composition of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with normative data matched for sex, age and level of sporting activity. The study population consisted of 101 outpatients with nonspecific CLBP who had entered a rehabilitation…

  1. ON THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SPECIFIC AND NONSPECIFIC APPROACHES TO ORAL MICROBIAL ADHESION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; COWAN, MM; VANDERMEI, HC

    In this paper, it is suggested that specificity and non-specificity in (oral) microbial adhesion are different expressions for the same phenomena. It is argued that the same basic, physicochemical forces are responsible for so-called 'non-specific' and 'specific' binding and that from a

  2. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jill A; van Tulder, Maurits W; Malmivaara, Antti V; Koes, Bart W

    2005-05-03

    Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult nonspecific acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases to October 2004; citation searches and bibliographic reviews of previous systematic reviews. Randomized, controlled trials evaluating exercise therapy for adult nonspecific low back pain and measuring pain, function, return to work or absenteeism, and global improvement outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and outcomes at short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-up. 61 randomized, controlled trials (6390 participants) met inclusion criteria: acute (11 trials), subacute (6 trials), and chronic (43 trials) low back pain (1 trial was unclear). Evidence suggests that exercise therapy is effective in chronic back pain relative to comparisons at all follow-up periods. Pooled mean improvement (of 100 points) was 7.3 points (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.9 points) for pain and 2.5 points (CI, 1.0 to 3.9 points) for function at earliest follow-up. In studies investigating patients (people seeking care for back pain), mean improvement was 13.3 points (CI, 5.5 to 21.1 points) for pain and 6.9 points (CI, 2.2 to 11.7 points) for function, compared with studies where some participants had been recruited from a general population (for example, with advertisements). Some evidence suggests effectiveness of a graded-activity exercise program in subacute low back pain in occupational settings, although the evidence for other types of exercise therapy in other populations is inconsistent. In acute low back pain, exercise therapy and other programs were equally effective (pain, 0.03 point [CI, -1.3 to 1.4 points]). Limitations of the literature, including low-quality studies with heterogeneous outcome measures inconsistent

  3. Non-specific filtering of beta-distributed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Laird, Peter W; Hinoue, Toshinori; Groshen, Susan; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2014-06-19

    Non-specific feature selection is a dimension reduction procedure performed prior to cluster analysis of high dimensional molecular data. Not all measured features are expected to show biological variation, so only the most varying are selected for analysis. In DNA methylation studies, DNA methylation is measured as a proportion, bounded between 0 and 1, with variance a function of the mean. Filtering on standard deviation biases the selection of probes to those with mean values near 0.5. We explore the effect this has on clustering, and develop alternate filter methods that utilize a variance stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data and do not share this bias. We compared results for 11 different non-specific filters on eight Infinium HumanMethylation data sets, selected to span a variety of biological conditions. We found that for data sets having a small fraction of samples showing abnormal methylation of a subset of normally unmethylated CpGs, a characteristic of the CpG island methylator phenotype in cancer, a novel filter statistic that utilized a variance-stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data outperformed the common filter of using standard deviation of the DNA methylation proportion, or its log-transformed M-value, in its ability to detect the cancer subtype in a cluster analysis. However, the standard deviation filter always performed among the best for distinguishing subgroups of normal tissue. The novel filter and standard deviation filter tended to favour features in different genome contexts; for the same data set, the novel filter always selected more features from CpG island promoters and the standard deviation filter always selected more features from non-CpG island intergenic regions. Interestingly, despite selecting largely non-overlapping sets of features, the two filters did find sample subsets that overlapped for some real data sets. We found two different filter statistics that tended to prioritize features with

  4. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  5. Synthesis of fluorine-18 radio-labeled serum albumins for PET blood pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen; Coble, Vincent L.; Vasalatiy, Olga; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Griffiths, Gary L.; Choyke, Peter L.; Jagoda, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to develop a practical, reproducible and clinically translatable method of radiolabeling serum albumins with fluorine-18 for use as a PET blood pool imaging agent in animals and man. Fluorine-18 radiolabeled fluoronicotinic acid-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester, [ 18 F]F-Py-TFP was prepared first by the reaction of its quaternary ammonium triflate precursor with [ 18 F]tetrabutylammonium fluoride ([ 18 F]TBAF) according to a previously published method for peptides, with minor modifications. The incubation of [ 18 F]F-Py-TFP with rat serum albumin (RSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 9) for 15 min at 37–40 °C produced fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA and the product was purified using a mini-PD MiniTrap G-25 column. The overall radiochemical yield of the reaction was 18–35% (n = 30, uncorrected) in a 90-min synthesis. This procedure, repeated with human serum albumin (HSA), yielded similar results. Fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA demonstrated prolonged blood retention (biological half-life of 4.8 hours) in healthy awake rats. The distribution of major organ radioactivity remained relatively unchanged during the 4 hour observation periods either by direct tissue counting or by dynamic PET whole-body imaging except for a gradual accumulation of labeled metabolic products in the bladder. This manual method for synthesizing radiolabeled serum albumins uses fluorine-18, a widely available PET radionuclide, and natural protein available in both pure and recombinant forms which could be scaled up for widespread clinical applications. These preclinical biodistribution and PET imaging results indicate that [ 18 F]RSA is an effective blood pool imaging agent in rats and might, as [ 18 F]HSA, prove similarly useful as a clinical imaging agent

  6. In vitro and in vivo analysis of radiolabeled clindamycin hydrogel gel by radioscintigraphic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Datta, M.; Chopra, M.K.; Soni, N.L.; Mittal, G.; Singh, T.; Bhatnagar, A.; Bhawna

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Acne is one of the common dermatological problems caused by microorganism Acne vulgaris, therefore being used commonly in the treatment of acne. Clindamycin is the 7- deoxy, 7- chloro congener of the lincomycin, a macrolide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces lincolnensis. This study was performed for in-vitro and in-vivo estimation of radiolabeled clindamycin hydrogel using radioscintigraphic techniques for transdermal permeation. Clindamycin was supplied as a gift sample by Glenmark Research Laboratory (Mumbai, India) and other chemicals and reagents used were of analytical grade and were purchased from Merck Chemicals (India). Clindamycin was radiolabeled with 99m Tc-pertechnetate using stannous chloride as a reducing agent. Radiolabeled clindamycin was characterized for its stability at room temperature and in physiological conditions (serum). Clindamycin hydrogel was prepared by dispersion of radiolabeled clindamycin in carbopol 980 containing polaxomer as surfactant and methyl paraben as preservative solution. The prepared hydrogel was analysed for in vitro analysis via franz diffusion cell and in vivo studies were performed in balb-C mice for biodistribution and skin permeation and were analysed by radiometry. The results obtained showed labeling efficiency of clindamycin was more than 90%, and that was consistent and the radiolabeled drug was stable upto 24 hrs in serum. In vitro release studies showed an increased release rate till four hours and it's become plateaus after 4 hours. In vivo biodistribution studies were showed 99m Tc clindamycin hydrogel remains stable and follow predominantly hepatic excretion. Biodistribution pattern suggests late redistribution from a storage sight, probably, body fats

  7. Synthesis of fluorine-18 radio-labeled serum albumins for PET blood pool imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen; Coble, Vincent L; Vasalatiy, Olga; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V; Griffiths, Gary L; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to develop a practical, reproducible and clinically translatable method of radiolabeling serum albumins with fluorine-18 for use as a PET blood pool imaging agent in animals and man. Fluorine-18 radiolabeled fluoronicotinic acid-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester, [(18)F]F-Py-TFP was prepared first by the reaction of its quaternary ammonium triflate precursor with [(18)F]tetrabutylammonium fluoride ([(18)F]TBAF) according to a previously published method for peptides, with minor modifications. The incubation of [(18)F]F-Py-TFP with rat serum albumin (RSA) in phosphate buffer (pH9) for 15 min at 37-40 °C produced fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA and the product was purified using a mini-PD MiniTrap G-25 column. The overall radiochemical yield of the reaction was 18-35% (n=30, uncorrected) in a 90-min synthesis. This procedure, repeated with human serum albumin (HSA), yielded similar results. Fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA demonstrated prolonged blood retention (biological half-life of 4.8 hours) in healthy awake rats. The distribution of major organ radioactivity remained relatively unchanged during the 4 hour observation periods either by direct tissue counting or by dynamic PET whole-body imaging except for a gradual accumulation of labeled metabolic products in the bladder. This manual method for synthesizing radiolabeled serum albumins uses fluorine-18, a widely available PET radionuclide, and natural protein available in both pure and recombinant forms which could be scaled up for widespread clinical applications. These preclinical biodistribution and PET imaging results indicate that [(18)F]RSA is an effective blood pool imaging agent in rats and might, as [(18)F]HSA, prove similarly useful as a clinical imaging agent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A.; Conti, F.; Chianelli, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Signore, A.

    2010-01-01

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-α, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with 99m Tc or 111 In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for therapy decision-making and

  9. Nonspecific airway reactivity in a mouse model of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, D.D.; Wilder, J.A.; Bice, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    Animal models are indispensable for studies requiring an intact immune system, especially for studying the pathogenic mechanisms in atopic diseases, regulation of IgE production, and related biologic effects. Mice are particularly suitable and have been used extensively for such studies because their immune system is well characterized. Further, large numbers of mutants or inbred strains of mice are available that express deficiencies of individual immunologic processes, inflammatory cells, or mediator systems. By comparing reactions in such mice with appropriate control animals, the unique roles of individual cells or mediators may be characterized more precisely in the pathogenesis of atopic respiratory diseases including asthma. However, given that asthma in humans is characterized by the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness to specific and nonspecific stimuli, it is important that animal models of this disease exhibit similar physiologic abnormalities. In the past, the size of the mouse has limited its versatility in this regard. However, recent studies indicate the feasibility of measuring pulmonary responses in living mice, thus facilitating the physiologic evaluation of putative mouse models of human asthma that have been well charcterized at the immunologic and patholigic level. Future work will provide details of the morphometry of the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction and will further seek to determine the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and the development of NS-AHR in the transgenic mouse model.

  10. Lyme neuroborreliosis in cases of non-specific neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsnes, Erlend; Eikeland, Randi; Berild, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is required in order to diagnose Lyme neuroborreliosis. We investigated the symptoms of patients in a highly endemic area who were referred for evaluation of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis, and explored whether cerebrospinal fluid analysis confirmed or ruled out the diagnosis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent lumbar puncture at Sørlandet Hospital Arendal in the period 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. A total of 140 patients were referred with suspected Lyme neuroborreliosis. Of these, 110 patients had non-specific neurological symptoms (e.g. fatigue, dizziness and headache), only one of whom received a diagnosis of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. Thirty patients had symptoms typical of the condition (such as radiculitis or peripheral facial nerve palsy). Six of these were diagnosed with definite Lyme neuroborreliosis, and one with possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. None of those diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis had had symptoms lasting more than six months. The probability of Lyme neuroborreliosis is low in the absence of typical symptoms of the condition, even when anti-Borrelia antibodies are detected in serum and especially when the symptoms are of long duration.

  11. Non-specific low back pain: occupational or lifestyle consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stričević, Jadranka; Papež, Breda Jesenšek

    2015-12-01

    Nursing occupation was identified as a risk occupation for the development of low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to find out how much occupational factors influence the development of LBP in hospital nursing personnel. Non-experimental approach with a cross-sectional survey and statistical analysis. Nine hundred questionnaires were distributed among nursing personnel, 663 were returned and 659 (73.2 %) were considered for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistics for LBP risk was calculated by the binary logistic regression. The χ(2), influence factor, 95 % confidence interval and P value were calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was calculated by the Wald method to omit insignificant variables. Not performing exercises represented the highest risk for the development of LBP (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.4; p  10 kg (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; p focusing on mechanical causes and direct workload in the development of non-specific LBP, the complex approach to LBP including genetics, psychosocial environment, lifestyle and quality of life is coming more to the fore.

  12. Muscle Control and Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc; Deckers, Kristiaan; Eldabe, Sam; Kiesel, Kyle; Gilligan, Chris; Vieceli, John; Crosby, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most prevalent of the painful musculoskeletal conditions. CLBP is a heterogeneous condition with many causes and diagnoses, but there are few established therapies with strong evidence of effectiveness (or cost effectiveness). CLBP for which it is not possible to identify any specific cause is often referred to as non-specific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). One type of NSCLBP is continuing and recurrent primarily nociceptive CLBP due to vertebral joint overload subsequent to functional instability of the lumbar spine. This condition may occur due to disruption of the motor control system to the key stabilizing muscles in the lumbar spine, particularly the lumbar multifidus muscle (MF). This review presents the evidence for MF involvement in CLBP, mechanisms of action of disruption of control of the MF, and options for restoring control of the MF as a treatment for NSCLBP. Imaging assessment of motor control dysfunction of the MF in individual patients is fraught with difficulty. MRI or ultrasound imaging techniques, while reliable, have limited diagnostic or predictive utility. For some patients, restoration of motor control to the MF with specific exercises can be effective, but population results are not persuasive since most patients are unable to voluntarily contract the MF and may be inhibited from doing so due to arthrogenic muscle inhibition. Targeting MF control with restorative neurostimulation promises a new treatment option. © 2017 The Authors. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Specific and non-specific match effects in negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labossière, Danielle I; Leboe-McGowan, Jason P

    2018-01-01

    The negative priming effect occurs when withholding a response to a stimulus impairs generation of subsequent responding to a same or a related stimulus. Our goal was to use the negative priming procedure to obtain insights about the memory representations generated by ignoring vs. attending/responding to a prime stimulus. Across three experiments we observed that ignoring a prime stimulus tends to generate higher identity-independent, non-specific repetition effects, owing to an overlap in the coarse perceptual form of a prime distractor and a probe target. By contrast, attended repetition effects generate predominantly identity-specific sources of facilitation. We use these findings to advocate for using laboratory phenomena to illustrate general principles that can be of practical use to non-specialists. In the case of the negative priming procedure, we propose that the procedure provides a useful means for investigating attention/memory interactions, even if the specific cause (or causes) of negative priming effects remain unresolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface charges promote nonspecific nanoparticle adhesion to stiffer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-04-01

    This letter establishes the manner in which the electric double layer induced by the surface charges of the plasma membrane (PM) enhances the nonspecific adhesion (NSA) of a metal nanoparticle (NP) to stiffer PMs (i.e., PMs with larger bending moduli). The NSA is characterized by the physical attachment of the NP to the membrane and occurs when the decrease in the surface energy (or any other mechanism) associated with the attachment process provides the energy for bending the membrane. Such an attachment does not involve receptor-ligand interactions that characterize the specific membrane-NP adhesion. Here, we demonstrate that a significant decrease in the electrostatic energy caused by the NP-attachment-induced destruction of the charged-membrane-electrolyte interface is responsible for providing the additional energy needed for bending the membrane during the NP adhesion to stiffer membranes. A smaller salt concentration and a larger membrane charge density augment this effect, which can help to design drug delivery to cells with stiffer membranes due to pathological conditions, fabricate NPs with biomimetic cholesterol-rich lipid bilayer encapsulation, etc.

  15. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L. Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D’Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. Objectives To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non

  16. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D'Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-12

    Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non-exercise interventions (two trials). All trials were at high risk of performance and detection bias because

  17. Comparison of the C-mediating killing activity and C-activating properties of mouse monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Kipnis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mouse polyclonal antiserum against Trypanosoma cruzi or its IgG and IgM fractions and five monoclonal antibodies (two IgM, two IgG1 and one IgG2a recognize and combine with membrane components of trypomastigote forms of the parasite as revealed by immunofluorescence. Although all these antibodies sensitize trypomastigotes and prepare them to activate the complement (C system, as measured by consumption of total C, C4, B and C3, only the polyclonal antiserum or its IgG, IgM and Fabμ fragments were able to induce trypanosome lysis by the alternative C pathway.

  18. Radiolabeling procedure, quality control and stability of 99mTc-labeled chondroitin sulfate: A new approach of targeting osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobal, Grazyna; Menzel, Ernst Johannes; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an endogenous component of cartilage which could determine osteoarthritis after radiolabeling. Radiolabeling was performed by 99m TcO 4 - /tin method. We found that pH is a limiting factor. At pH 6.2 in 0.05 M Na acetate buffer 32.8% colloid was formed, at pH 5.0 in 0.5 M Na acetate, in our methodology only 4.7% colloid. The tracer was highly stable. We conclude that 99m TcCS could be a promising imaging agent of osteoarthritis due to simple radiolabeling and high stability

  19. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert

    2016-01-01

    In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  20. Characterization and antifungal properties of wheat nonspecific lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Yue; Gaudet, Denis A; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Frick, Michele; Puchalski, Byron; Laroche, André

    2008-03-01

    This study simultaneously considered the phylogeny, fatty acid binding ability, and fungal toxicity of a large number of monocot nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTP). Nine novel full-length wheat ns-LTP1 clones, all possessing coding sequences of 348 bp, isolated from abiotic- and biotic-stressed cDNA libraries from aerial tissues, exhibited highly conserved coding regions with 78 to 99 and 71 to 100% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two major ns-LTP families in wheat. Eight wheat ns-LTP genes from different clades were cloned into the expression vector pPICZalpha and transformed into Pichia pastoris. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and in vitro lipid binding activity assay confirmed that the eight ns-LTP were all successfully expressed and capable of in vitro binding fatty acid molecules. A comparative in vitro study on the toxicity of eight wheat ns-LTP to mycelium growth or spore germination of eight wheat pathogens and three nonwheat pathogens revealed differential toxicities among different ns-LTP. Values indicating 50% inhibition of fungal growth or spore germination of three selected ns-LTP against six fungi ranged from 1 to 7 microM. In vitro lipid-binding activity of ns-LTP was not correlated with their antifungal activity. Using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green as an indicator of fungal membrane integrity, the in vitro toxicity of wheat ns-LTP was associated with alteration in permeability of fungal membranes.

  1. Nonspecific abdominal pain in pediatric primary care: evaluation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Elizabeth M; Fiks, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of children with nonspecific abdominal pain (AP) in primary care, their evaluation, and their outcomes. Between 2007 and 2009, a retrospective cohort of children from 5 primary care practices was followed from an index visit with AP until a well-child visit 6 to 24 months later (outcome visit). Using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9), codes and chart review, we identified afebrile children between 4 and 12 years old with AP. Use of diagnostic testing was assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association of index visit clinical and demographic variables with persistent pain at the outcome visit, and receipt of a specific diagnosis. Three hundred seventy-five children presented with AP, representing 1% of the total population of 4- to 12-year-olds during the study period. Eighteen percent of children had persistent pain, and 70% of the study cohort never received a specific diagnosis for their pain. Seventeen percent and 14% of children had laboratory and radiology testing at the index visit, respectively. Only 3% of laboratory evaluations helped to yield a diagnosis. Among variables considered, only preceding pain of more than 7 days at the index visit was associated with persistent pain (odds ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.19-3.89). None of the variables considered was associated with receiving a specific diagnosis. Most children with AP do not receive a diagnosis, many have persistent pain, and very few receive a functional AP diagnosis. Results support limited use of diagnostic testing and conservative management consistent with national policy statements. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppressive effect on polyclonal B-cell activation of a synthetic peptide homologous to a transmembrane component of oncogenic retroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, M.; Cianciolo, G.J.; Snyderman, R.; Yasuda, M.; Good, R.A.; Day, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Purified feline leukemia virus, UV light-inactivated feline leukemia virus, and a synthetic peptide (CKS-17) homologous to a well-conserved region of the transmembrane components of several human and animal retroviruses were each studied for their effect on IgG production by feline peripheral blood lymphocytes. Using a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, both the viable virus and the UV-inactivated feline leukemia virus, but not the CKS-17, activated B lymphocytes to secrete IgG. When staphylococcal protein A, a polyclonal B-cell activator, was used to stimulate IgG synthesis by feline lymphocytes, the viable virus, the UV-inactivated virus, and the CKS-17 peptide each strongly suppressed IgG secretion without compromising viability of the lymphocytes. These finding suggest that the immunosuppressive influences of feline leukemia virus on immunoglobulin synthesis may reside in a conserved portion of the envelope glycoprotein that includes the region homologous to CKS-17.

  3. Suppressive effect on polyclonal B-cell activation of a synthetic peptide homologous to a transmembrane component of oncogenic retroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, M.; Cianciolo, G.J.; Snyderman, R.; Yasuda, M.; Good, R.A.; Day, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Purified feline leukemia virus, UV light-inactivated feline leukemia virus, and a synthetic peptide (CKS-17) homologous to a well-conserved region of the transmembrane components of several human and animal retroviruses were each studied for their effect on IgG production by feline peripheral blood lymphocytes. Using a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, both the viable virus and the UV-inactivated feline leukemia virus, but not the CKS-17, activated B lymphocytes to secrete IgG. When staphylococcal protein A, a polyclonal B-cell activator, was used to stimulate IgG synthesis by feline lymphocytes, the viable virus, the UV-inactivated virus, and the CKS-17 peptide each strongly suppressed IgG secretion without compromising viability of the lymphocytes. These finding suggest that the immunosuppressive influences of feline leukemia virus on immunoglobulin synthesis may reside in a conserved portion of the envelope glycoprotein that includes the region homologous to CKS-17

  4. Matrix effects in applying mono- and polyclonal ELISA systems to the analysis of weathered oils in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, S J T; Farmer, J G; Knight, D M; Young, P J

    2002-01-01

    Commercial mono- and polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems were applied to the on-site analysis of weathered hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at a former integrated steelworks. Comparisons were made between concentrations of solvent extractable matter (SEM) determined gravimetrically by Soxhlet (dichloromethane) extraction and those estimated immunologically by ELISA determination over a concentration range of 2000-330,000 mg SEM/kg soil dry weight. Both ELISA systems tinder-reported for the more weathered soil samples. Results suggest this is due to matrix effects in the sample rather than any inherent bias in the ELISA systems and it is concluded that, for weathered hydrocarbons typical of steelworks and coke production sites, the use of ELISA requires careful consideration as a field technique. Consideration of the target analyte relative to the composition of the hydrocarbon waste encountered appears critical.

  5. The Cloning and Characterization of the Enolase2 Gene of Gekko japonicus and Its Polyclonal Antibody Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The enolase2 gene is usually expressed in mature neurons and also named neuron specific enolase (NSE. In the present study, we first obtained the NSE gene cDNA sequence by using the RACE method based on the expressed sequence tag (EST fragment from the cDNA library of Gekko japonicus and identified one transcript of about 2.2 kb in central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The open reading frame of NSE is 1305 bp, which encodes a 435 amino-acid protein. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern of NSE by RT-PCR and found that the expression of NSE mRNA was very high in brain, spinal cord and low in heart, while it was not detectable in other tissues. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the time-dependent change in the expression of the NSE mRNA level after gecko spinal cord transection and found it significantly increased at one day, reaching its highest level three days post-injury and then decreasing at the seventh day of the experiment. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-NSE was constructed and induced to express His fused NSE protein. The purified NSE protein was used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65536 determined by ELISA. Western blotting showed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and endogenous NSE protein. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals were present in neurons of the brain and the spinal cord. This study provided the tools of cDNA and polyclonal antibody for studying NSE function in Gekko japonicus.

  6. Newly Identified TLR9 Stimulant, M6-395 Is a Potent Polyclonal Activator for Murine B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Hee; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun

    2012-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been extensively studied in recent years. However, functions of these molecules in murine B cell biology are largely unknown. A TLR4 stimulant, LPS is well known as a powerful polyclonal activator for murine B cells. In this study, we explored the effect of a murine TLR9 stimulant, M6-395 (a synthetic CpG ODNs) on B cell proliferation and Ig production. First, M6-395 was much more potent than LPS in augmenting B cell proliferation. As for Ig expression, M6-395 facilitated the expression of both TGF-β1-induced germ line transcript α (GLTα) and IL-4-induced GLTγ1 as levels as those by LPS and Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 agonist) : a certain Ig GLT expression is regarded as an indicative of the corresponding isotype switching recombination. However, IgA and IgG1 secretion patterns were quite different--these Ig isotype secretions by M6-395 were much less than those by LPS and Pam3CSK4. Moreover, the increase of IgA and IgG1 production by LPS and Pam3CSK4 was virtually abrogated by M6-395. The same was true for the secretion of IgG3. We found that this unexpected phenomena provoked by M6-395 is attributed, at least in part, to its excessive mitogenic nature. Taken together, these results suggest that M6-395 can act as a murine polyclonal activator but its strong mitogenic activity is unfavorable to Ig isotype switching.

  7. Development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies against the linker region of the telomere-binding protein TRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya V. Ilicheva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2 is an essential component of the telomere-binding protein complex shelterin. TRF2 induces the formation of a special structure of telomeric DNA and counteracts activation of DNA damage-response pathways telomeres. TRF2 has a poorly characterized linker region (udTRF2 between its homodimerization and DNA-binding domains. Some lines of evidence have shown that this region could be involved in TRF2 interaction with nuclear lamina. Results: In this study, the fragment of the TERF2 gene encoding udTRF2 domain of telomere-binding protein TRF2 was produced by PCR and cloned into the pET32a vector. The resulting plasmid pET32a-udTRF2 was used for the expression of the recombinant udTRF2 in E. coli RosettaBlue (DE3. The protein was isolated and purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified recombinant protein udTRF2 was injected into guinea pigs to generate polyclonal antibodies. The ability of anti-udTRF2 antibodies to bind endogenous TRF2 in human skin fibroblasts was tested by western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Conclusions: In this study, the recombinant protein udTRF2 and antibodies to it were generated. Both protein and antibodies will provide a useful tool for investigation of the functions of the udTRF2 domain and its role in the interaction between TRF2 and nuclear lamina. Keywords: Chromosomes, Molecular cloning, Nuclear lamina, Nucleoprotein complexes, Polyclonal antibodies, Recombinant polypeptide, Shelterin, Telomere-binding protein TRF2, Telomeres, Telomeric DNA, TTAGGG repeats

  8. Generation of genic diversity among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains via horizontal gene transfer during a chronic polyclonal pediatric infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Luisa Hiller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although there is tremendous interest in understanding the evolutionary roles of horizontal gene transfer (HGT processes that occur during chronic polyclonal infections, to date there have been few studies that directly address this topic. We have characterized multiple HGT events that most likely occurred during polyclonal infection among nasopharyngeal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from a child suffering from chronic upper respiratory and middle-ear infections. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics were performed on six isolates collected during symptomatic episodes over a period of seven months. From these comparisons we determined that five of the isolates were genetically highly similar and likely represented a dominant lineage. We analyzed all genic and allelic differences among all six isolates and found that all differences tended to occur within contiguous genomic blocks, suggestive of strain evolution by homologous recombination. From these analyses we identified three strains (two of which were recovered on two different occasions that appear to have been derived sequentially, one from the next, each by multiple recombination events. We also identified a fourth strain that contains many of the genomic segments that differentiate the three highly related strains from one another, and have hypothesized that this fourth strain may have served as a donor multiple times in the evolution of the dominant strain line. The variations among the parent, daughter, and grand-daughter recombinant strains collectively cover greater than seven percent of the genome and are grouped into 23 chromosomal clusters. While capturing in vivo HGT, these data support the distributed genome hypothesis and suggest that a single competence event in pneumococci can result in the replacement of DNA at multiple non-adjacent loci.

  9. High-density fecal Enterococcus faecium colonization in hospitalized patients is associated with the presence of the polyclonal subcluster CC17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P.; de Regt, M.; Bonten, M.; Baquero, F.; Coque, T. M.; Canton, R.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    Enterococcus faecium belonging to the polyclonal subcluster CC17, with a typical ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm) phenotype, have become prevalent among nosocomial infections around the world. High-density intestinal AREfm colonization could be one of the factors contributing to the

  10. Use of radiolabeled monoclonal anti-B1 antibody for B lymphocyte imaging in Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letvin, N.L.; Zalutsky, M.R.; Chalifoux, L.V.; Atkins, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Imaging tissues rich in B lymphocytes in man using a radiolabeled monoclonal anti-B cell antibody would be extremely useful in the clinical staging of non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Studies were done in rhesus monkeys using radiolabeled monoclonal anti-B1 antibody to determine the feasibility of such an approach. Immunohistologic studies demonstrated that infused monoclonal anti-B1 binds in vivo with specificity to B cells in lymph nodes and spleen. The kinetics of clearance of 131 I-labeled anti-B1 were determined. The B lymphocyte-rich spleen could be readily visualized by gamma camera scanning without significant background and without the need for image intensification or blood background subtraction techniques. These data support the feasibility of using anti-B1 for staging B cell lymphomas in man. (author)

  11. An Alternate, Egg-Free Radiolabeled Meal Formulation for Gastric-Emptying Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigue, Philippe; Bodin-Hullin, Aurore; Gonzalez, Sandra; Sala, Quentin; Guillet, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Tc-radiolabeled scrambled eggs (SEs) are most often used as the ingested solid phase for gastric-emptying scintigraphy, leading egg-reluctant patients to avoid the examination. We formulated and validated 2 egg-free alternate meals, in the absence of any commercialized formulation: chocolate mug cake (MC) and scrambled tofu (ST). Six healthy volunteers underwent gastric-emptying scintigraphy after ingesting Tc-radiolabeled MC, ST, or SE. Gastric retention indexes did not change significantly between formulations (% of overtime variation to SE: MC 7.75% ± 7.1%, ST 7.17% ± 5.8%; P = 0.6618, not statistically significant), suggesting MC and ST as interesting egg-free alternatives.

  12. Purification of immunoreactive radiolabeled moniclonal antibodies with anti-iodiotypic moniclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temponi, M.; Pupa, S.; Ferrone, S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described to purify immunoreactive moniclonal antibodies from radiolabeled monoclonal antibody preparations. The method is based on incubation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies with insolubilized anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to idiotopes within the antigen-combining site of monoclonal antibodies to be purified an elution of bound monoclonal antibodies with a low pH buffer. The immunoreactive fraction of the purified monoclonal antibodies was at least 82%; the yeald was at least 73%. The purification procedure did not cause any detectable change in the affinity constant of the eluted monoclonal antibodies. The method is simple and rapid; the requirement for anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to idiotopes within the antigen-combining site of the antibodies to be purified is not likely to represent a major limitation in the broad application of the present method, since the hybridoma technology has greatly facilitated the development of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Purification of radiolabeled RNA using sephadex G-15 or G-50 chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Lee, Jong Seok

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to purify radiolabeled RNA using Sephadex G-15 and G-50 chromatography instead of commercial RNA purification kit. In the Sephadex G-15 chromatography the major portion of RNA was eluted in the fractions ranging from 3rd to 5th whereas broad elution profile of RNA was obtained from the Sephadex G-50 chromatography. The elution profile and purity of RNA obtained from Sephadex G-15 chromatography was very similar to that by commercial RNA purification kit. Furthermore, operating time required for purification of RNA by Sephadex G-15 was rather smaller than that by commercial kit. Overall results suggest that the purification of radiolabeled RNA using Sephadex G-15 is more money and time saving than using commercial RNA purification kit

  14. Study of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of radiolabelled receptor specific peptides in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznickova, A.; Laznicek, M.; Trejtnar, F.; Maecke, H.R.; Mather, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Somatostatin analogues labelled with different radionuclides could be employed for visualization or treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. An octapeptide 111 In [DTPA] octreotide is a synthetic radiolabelled somatostatin analogue which is currently in clinical use for detecting small neuroendocrine tumours and metastases not detectable by conventional means. However, several other somatostatin analogues have been under development and testing. The aim of this study was to radiolabel selected somatostatin receptor-binding octapeptides by different radionuclides and to report the results of their biodistribution in rats. The study was focused on the direct labelling of vapreotide (RC-160) with 99m Tc, on the conjugates of octreotide with DFO (desferrioxamine) for labelling with 67 Ga, and on the conjugates of octreotide and TOC with DOTA (tetraazacyclo-dodecane tetraacetic acid) for labelling with 88 Y. In the present study, 88 Y isotope instead of 90 Y was used as a label as 88 Y exhibits a longer half life of decay and emits gamma radiation which can be much more easily detected in biological samples than beta emission. The labelling of octreotide analogues with metal radionuclides using derived bifunctional chelates was simple, straightforward and consistently resulted in high radiochemical purity of the product. On the other hand, the application of the direct labelling method for labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc was difficult because all procedures had to be made under nitrogen atmosphere and an attainment of high yield proved to be highly dependent on the accurate observation of reaction conditions. The labelling efficiency makes an immediate use of the radiolabelled RC-160 for biological studies impossible and it is necessary to involve the purification step into the labelling procedure. All radiolabelled receptor specific peptides under study exhibited rapid radioactivity clearance from the blood and most organs and tissues. On the other hand

  15. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  16. Langmuir hydrogen dissociation approach in radiolabeling carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Eremina, Elena A.; Egorov, Alexander V.; Grigorieva, Anastasia V.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have piqued the interest of several researchers. At the same time, radioactive labeling is a powerful tool for studying processes in different systems, including biological and organic; however, the introduction of radioactive isotopes into carbon-based nanomaterial remains a great challenge. We have used the Langmuir hydrogen dissociation method to introduce tritium in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The technique allows us to achieve a specific radioactivity of 107 and 27 Ci/g for single-layer graphene oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. Based on the analysis of characteristic Raman modes at 1350 and 1580 cm -1 , a minimal amount of structural changes to the nanomaterials due to radiolabeling was observed. The availability of a simple, nondestructive, and economic technique for the introduction of radiolabels to single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide will ultimately expand the applicability of these materials.

  17. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of 111 In and 67 Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of 67 Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both 111 In and 67 Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of 67 Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of 67 Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of 67 Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with 111 In T4NMPYP and 67 Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of 111 In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Langmuir hydrogen dissociation approach in radiolabeling carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Eremina, Elena A.; Egorov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Grigorieva, Anastasia V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Materials Science

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have piqued the interest of several researchers. At the same time, radioactive labeling is a powerful tool for studying processes in different systems, including biological and organic; however, the introduction of radioactive isotopes into carbon-based nanomaterial remains a great challenge. We have used the Langmuir hydrogen dissociation method to introduce tritium in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The technique allows us to achieve a specific radioactivity of 107 and 27 Ci/g for single-layer graphene oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. Based on the analysis of characteristic Raman modes at 1350 and 1580 cm{sup -1}, a minimal amount of structural changes to the nanomaterials due to radiolabeling was observed. The availability of a simple, nondestructive, and economic technique for the introduction of radiolabels to single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide will ultimately expand the applicability of these materials.

  19. Preparation and biodistribution of {sup 59}Fe-radiolabelled iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospisilova, Martina, E-mail: martinapospisilova@gmail.com; Zapotocky, Vojtech; Nesporova, Kristina [Contipro a.s (Czech Republic); Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice [Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové (Czech Republic); Zidek, Ondrej; Cepa, Martin; Vagnerova, Hana; Velebny, Vladimir [Contipro a.s (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    We report on the {sup 59}Fe radiolabelling of iron oxide nanoparticle cores through post-synthetic isotope exchange ({sup 59}Fe-IONP{sub ex}) and precursor labelling ({sup 59}Fe-IONP{sub pre}). Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed no impact of radiolabelling on nanoparticle size or morphology. While incorporation efficiencies of these methods are comparable—83 and 90% for precursor labelling and post-synthetic isotope exchange, respectively—{sup 59}Fe-IONP{sub pre} exhibited much higher radiochemical stability in citrated human plasma. Quantitative ex vivo biodistribution study of {sup 59}Fe-IONP{sub pre} coated with triethylene glycol was performed in Wistar rats. Following the intravenous administration, high {sup 59}Fe concentration was observed in the lung and the organs of the reticuloendothelial system such as the liver, the spleen and the femur.

  20. Reactivity comparison of biological material after radiolabeling with avidin-biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wo; Qian Jianhua; Zhu Benxing

    2003-01-01

    To find a method for determining the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies after radiolabeling avidin is unlabeled and labeled with Rodamine, 131 I and 188 Re, respectively. The affinities and half-desorbed amounts of biotin and four kinds of avidin are determined by the biotin columns plus non-labeled avidin (cold avidin). The affinities of biotin and avidin unlabeled and labeled with Rodamine, 188 Re and 131 I are decreased in turn. Their half-desorbed amounts from biotin are 21.9, 19.5, 25.7 and 47.9 μg of cold avidin. Two kinds of radiolabeled avidin have lower affinity with biotin than that of avidin unlabeled and labeled with Rodamine. There is a possibility to evaluate the reactivity of biological materials with different labeling methods by avidin-biotin system

  1. Synthesis, radiolabeling and biodistribution of a new opioid glucuronide derivative. Ethyl-morphine glucuronide (em-glu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enginar, H.

    2012-01-01

    In current study, ethyl-morphine (em) was synthesized from the morphine and glucuronidated via enzymatic mechanism. The conjugated glucuronide ethyl-morphine (em-glu) was radiolabeled with 131 I using iodogen method. The quality control studies of radiolabeled compound ( 131 I-em-glu) were done with Thin Layer Radio Chromatography to confirm the radiolabeling efficiency. Biodistribution studies of 131 I labeled em-glu were run on healthy male Albino Wistar rats. The distribution figures demonstrated that 131 I-em-glu was eliminated through the small intestine, large intestine and accumulated in urinary bladder both receptor blocked and unblocked biodistribution studies. A greater uptake of the radiolabeled substance was observed in the m.pons, hypothalamus and mid brain than in the other branches of the rats' brains. (author)

  2. Preparation and characterization of high-specific activity radiolabeled 50 S measles virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruance, S.L.; Ashton, B.N.; Smith, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described to radiolabeled measles virus RNA for hybridization studies. Tritiated nucleosides were added to the media of measles virus infected Vero cells and negative-strand (genome) RNA with a specific activity of 6X10 5 c.p.m./μg was purified from viral nucleocapsids. 50 S RNA was the sole RNA present in nucleocapsids and self-annealed to 50% due to the presence of 25% 50 S plus-strands (anti-genomes). (Auth.)

  3. Some problems associated with radiolabeling surface antigens on helminth parasites: a brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G. (Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Murrell, K.D. (Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species.

  4. Some problems associated with radiolabeling surface antigens on helminth parasites: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Murrell, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species. (Auth.)

  5. Tumor affinity of radiolabeled peanut agglutinin compared with that of Ga-67 citrate in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Aburano, T.; Watanabe, N.; Kawabata, S.; Ishida, H.; Mukai, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Peanut agglutinin (PNA) binds avidly to the immunodominant group of the tumor associated T antigen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oncodiagnostic potential of radiolabeled PNA in animal models. PNA was labeled with I-125 or I-131 by Iodogen and also with In-111 by cyclic DTPA anhydride. The biological activity of PNA was examined by a hemaglutination titer with a photometer before and after labeling. Animal tumor models used were Lewis Lung Cancer(LLC), B-16 Melanotic Melanoma(MM), Yoshida Sarcoma(YS), Ehrlich Ascites Tumor(EAT and Hepatoma AH109A(HAH). Inflammatory tissue induced by turpentine oil was used as an abscess model. Serial scintigraphic images were obtained following IV injections of 100 μCi of I-131 or In-111-DTPA-PNA. The tumor affinity of Ga-67 citrate was studied to compare that of radiolabeled PNA. Tissue biodistribution was studied in EAT bearing mice. All of these tumor models except HAH were clearly visible by radiolabeled PNA without subtraction techniques. In the models of LLC and EAT, PNA showed the better accumulation into the tumor tissue than Ga-67 citrate. In YS and MM, PNA represented almost the same accumulation as Ga-67 citrate. The localization of PNA into abscess tissue wasn't found although Ga-67 citrate markedly accumulated into abscess tissue as well as tumor tissue. The clearance of PNA from tumor was slower than those from any other organs. Tumor to muscle ratio was 5.1 at 48hrs. and tumor to blood ratio increased with time to 2.3 at 96hrs. These results suggested that radiolabeled PNA may have a potential in the detection of tumor

  6. Intrinsically radiolabelled [59Fe]-SPIONs for dual MRI/radionuclide detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, David; Sun, Minghao; Yang, Likun; McDonagh, Philip R; Corwin, Frank; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Wang, Li; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Thadigiri, Celina; Lamichhane, Narottam; Zweit, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Towards the development of iron oxide nanoparticles with intrinsically incorporated radionuclides for dual Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and more recently of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (SPECT/MRI), we have developed intrinsically radiolabeled [59Fe]-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles ([59Fe]-SPIONs) as a proof of concept for an intrinsic dual probe strategy. 59Fe was incorporated into Fe3O4 nanoparticle cry...

  7. Experimental study of capacity of the blood blow of spinal cord using radiolabelling microspbere technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuan; Li Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective In order to study the relation ship between local blood flow and neurofunction at the later stage of spinal injury. Method: Measured the capacity of the local blood flow in the spinal cord injury by the radiolabelling microsphere technique and scored the nervus function grade. Result: There are no correlation between the local blood flow and the nervus function. Conclusion: It is obvious that the increase of the local blood supply can't reflect the nervus function. (authors)

  8. Radiolabelled peptides for tumour therapy: current status and future directions. Plenary lecture at the EANM 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Marion de; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.

    2003-01-01

    On their plasma membranes, cells express receptor proteins with high affinity for regulatory peptides, such as somatostatin. Changes in the density of these receptors during disease, e.g. overexpression in many tumours, provide the basis for new imaging methods. The first peptide analogues successfully applied for visualisation of receptor-positive tumours were radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The next step was to label these analogues with therapeutic radionuclides for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Results from preclinical and clinical multicentre studies have already shown an effective therapeutic response when using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues to treat receptor-positive tumours. Infusion of positively charged amino acids reduces kidney uptake, enlarging the therapeutic window. For PRRT of CCK-B receptor-positive tumours, such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, radiolabelled minigastrin analogues are currently being successfully applied. The combination of different therapy modalities holds interest as a means of improving the clinical therapeutic effects of radiolabelled peptides. The combination of different radionuclides, such as 177 Lu- and 90 Y-labelled somatostatin analogues, to reach a wider tumour region of high curability, has been described. A variety of other peptide-based radioligands, such as bombesin and NPY(Y 1 ) analogues, receptors for which are expressed on common cancers such as prostate and breast cancer, are currently under development and in different phases of (pre)clinical investigation. Multi-receptor tumour targeting using the combination of bombesin and NPY(Y 1 ) analogues is promising for scintigraphy and PRRT of breast carcinomas and their lymph node metastases. (orig.)

  9. Radiolabeled antibody in the detection of infection using endocarditis as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have examined a method to detect infections using radiolabeled antibodies. Staphylococcal endocarditis was chosen as a model because it poses a common clinical diagnostic problem. The experiments demonstrate that biologically active antibodies may be extracted and efficiently labeled by a relatively simple process. This has the potential to make the specificity of the in vivo antigen-antibody reaction available through the use of autologously extracted, labeled γ-globulin

  10. Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegt, Erik; Eek, Annemarie; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.; Jong, Marion de

    2010-01-01

    In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin. Albumin was fragmented using cyanogen bromide and six albumin-derived peptides with different numbers of electric charges were selected and synthesised. The effect of albumin fragments (FRALB-C) and selected albumin-derived peptides on the internalisation of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide by megalin-expressing cells was assessed. In rats, the effect of Gelofusine and albumin-derived peptides on the renal uptake and biodistribution of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was determined. FRALB-C significantly reduced the uptake of all radiolabelled peptides in vitro. The albumin-derived peptides showed different potencies in reducing the uptake of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-minigastrin in vitro. The most efficient albumin-derived peptide (peptide 6), was selected for in vivo testing. In rats, 5 mg of peptide 6 very efficiently inhibited the renal uptake of 111 In-minigastrin, by 88%. Uptake of 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was reduced by 26 and 33%, respectively. The albumin-derived peptide 6 efficiently inhibited the renal reabsorption of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide and is a promising candidate for kidney protection in PRRT. (orig.)

  11. Radiolabeling and in vitro evaluation of 99mTc-methotrexate on breast cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emre Ozgenc; Meliha Ekinci; Derya Ilem-Ozdemir; Evren Gundogdu; Makbule Asikoglu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study 99m Tc-MTX was prepared with high labeling yield by a new simple and easy formulation method. According to cell culture studies, 99m Tc- MTX incorporated with both MCF-7 and CRL8798 cells, with significant differences in the uptake percentages. Since 99m Tc-MTX highly uptake in cancer cell line, the results demonstrated that radiolabeled MTX may be promising for breast cancer diagnosis of oncological patients. (author)

  12. Extensibility and stiffness of the hamstrings in patients with nonspecific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Goeken, LNH; Hof, AL; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    Objective: To investigate the extensibility and stiffness of the hamstrings in patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: An experimental design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation medicine. Participants: Forty subjects, a

  13. Molecular printboards as a general platform for protein immobilization: A supramolecular solution to nonspecific adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Mulder, A.; Tampe, Robert; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    Be specific: A supramolecular adsorbate consisting of an adamantyl group (red) and an oligo(ethylene glycol) chain has been designed to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption at cyclodextrin molecular printboards. The adamantyl group allows specific and reversible interactions. Specific

  14. A non-specific biomarker of disease activity in HIV/AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A general non-specific marker of disease activity that could alert the clinician and prompt further investiga- tion would be of ... laration of Helsinki, the National Health Act and the ..... CD8+ lymphocytes and neopterin are related to.

  15. Evaluation of a technique for the intraoperative detection of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, W.A.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Short, M.D.; Davidson, B.R.; Boulos, P.B.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1991-01-01

    Occult tumour deposits may be localised at operation with a radiation detecting probe following the administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognising a tumour-associated antigen. We have recently evaluated the clinical usefulness of this technique in detecting primary colorectal tumours targetted with an indium-111 MoAb. In the present study the physical characteristics of the two detector systems used were investigated; a sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintilation detector and a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor probe. Limitations of the technique in use have been examined by testing the statistical significance of tumour detecting using an abdominal phantom based on the currently available clinical biodistribution data for tumour uptake of radiolabelled MoAbs. The effect of tumour volume, antibody uptake, collimation and counting conditions was examined. Results indicate that tumours of 10-ml volume may be detected with the NaI(Tl) probe at the lowest levels of radiolabelled antibody uptake currently reported in the literature but that at higher published levels, lesions as small as 1 ml may be identified with both detector systems. Detector sensitivity and limited antibody specificity restrict the usefulness of the technique, although moderate improvements in tumour uptake may allow the detection of tumour deposits not clinically apparent. The statistical significance criterion used for this study could be an accurate and reliable indicator for tumour detection in vivo. (orig.)

  16. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Radiolabeled Kinase Inhibitors for PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Bernard-Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, intensive investigation and multiple clinical successes targeting protein kinases, mostly for cancer treatment, have identified small molecule kinase inhibitors as a prominent therapeutic class. In the course of those investigations, radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for positron emission tomography (PET imaging have been synthesized and evaluated as diagnostic imaging probes for cancer characterization. Given that inhibitor coverage of the kinome is continuously expanding, in vivo PET imaging will likely find increasing applications for therapy monitoring and receptor density studies both in- and outside of oncological conditions. Early investigated radiolabeled inhibitors, which are mostly based on clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI isotopologues, have now entered clinical trials. Novel radioligands for cancer and PET neuroimaging originating from novel but relevant target kinases are currently being explored in preclinical studies. This article reviews the literature involving radiotracer design, radiochemistry approaches, biological tracer evaluation and nuclear imaging results of radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for PET reported between 2010 and mid-2015. Aspects regarding the usefulness of pursuing selective vs. promiscuous inhibitor scaffolds and the inherent challenges associated with intracellular enzyme imaging will be discussed.

  17. Selective radiolabeling of cell surface proteins to a high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.A.; Lau, A.L.; Cunningham, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure was developed for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on cells to higher specific activities than possible with available techniques. Cell surface amino groups were derivatized with 125 I-(hydroxyphenyl)propionyl groups via 125 I-sulfosuccinimidyl (hydroxyphenyl)propionate ( 125 II-sulfo-SHPP). This reagent preferentially labeled membrane proteins exposed at the cell surface of erythrocytes as assessed by the degree of radiolabel incorporation into erythrocyte ghost proteins and hemoglobin. Comparison with the lactoperoxidase-[ 125 I]iodide labeling technique revealed that 125 I-sulfo-SHPP labeled cell surface proteins to a much higher specific activity and hemoglobin to a much lower specific activity. Additionally, this reagent was used for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane by blocking exofacial amino groups with uniodinated sulfo-SHPP, lysing the cells, and then incubating them with 125 I-sulfo-SHPP. Exclusive labeling of either side of the plasma membrane was demonstrated by the labeling of some marker proteins with well-defined spacial orientations on erythroctyes. Transmembrane proteins such as the epidermal growth factor receptor on cultured cells could also be labeled differentially from either side of the plasma membrane

  18. Radiolabeling of VEGF165 with 99mTc to evaluate VEGFR expression in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Filippo; Artico, Marco; Taurone, Samanta; Manni, Isabella; Bianchi, Enrica; Piaggio, Giulia; Weintraub, Bruce D; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W; Agostinelli, Enzo; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Angiogenesis is the main process responsible for tumor growth and metastatization. The principal effector of such mechanism is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and other components of tumor microenvironment. Radiolabeled VEGF analogues may provide a useful tool to noninvasively image tumor lesions and evaluate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs that block the VEGFR pathway. Aim of the present study was to radiolabel the human VEGF165 analogue with 99mTechnetium (99mTc) and to evaluate the expression of VEGFR in both cancer and endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment. 99mTc-VEGF showed in vitro binding to HUVEC cells and in vivo to xenograft tumors in mice (ARO, K1 and HT29). By comparing in vivo data with immunohistochemical analysis of excised tumors we found an inverse correlation between 99mTc-VEGF165 uptake and VEGF histologically detected, but a positive correlation with VEGF receptor expression (VEGFR1). Results of our studies indicate that endogenous VEGF production by cancer cells and other cells of tumor microenvironment should be taken in consideration when performing scintigraphy with radiolabeled VEGF, because of possible false negative results due to saturation of VEGFRs.

  19. Metabolic comparison of radiolabeled aniline- and phenol-phthaleins with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avcibasi, Ugur; Avcibasi, Nesibe; Unak, Turan; Unak, Perihan; Mueftueler, Fazilet Zuemruet; Yildirim, Yeliz; Dincalp, Haluk; Guemueser, Fikriye Guel; Dursun, Ebru Rueksen

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic comparison of aniline- and phenol-phthaleins radiolabeled with 131 I ( 131 I-APH and 131 I-PPH, respectively) has been investigated in this study. To compare the metabolic behavior of these phthaleins and their glucuronide conjugates radiolabeled with 131 I, scintigraphic and biodistributional techniques were applied using male Albino rabbits. The results obtained have shown that these compounds were successfully radioiodinated with a radioiodination yield of about 100%. Maximum uptakes of 131 I-APH and 131 I-PPH, which were metabolized as N- and O-glucuronides, were observed within 2 h in the bladder and in the small intestine, respectively. In the case of verification of considerably up taking of these compounds also by tumors developed in the small intestine and in the bladder tissues, these results can be expected to be encouraging to test these compounds, which will be radiolabeled with other radioiodines such as 125 I, 123 I and 124 I as imaging and therapeutic agents in nuclear medical applications

  20. Metabolic comparison of radiolabeled aniline- and phenol-phthaleins with (131)I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcibaşi, Uğur; Avcibaşi, Nesibe; Unak, Turan; Unak, Perihan; Müftüler, Fazilet Zümrüt; Yildirim, Yeliz; Dinçalp, Haluk; Gümüşer, Fikriye Gül; Dursun, Ebru Rükşen

    2008-05-01

    The metabolic comparison of aniline- and phenol-phthaleins radiolabeled with (131)I ((131)I-APH and (131)I-PPH, respectively) has been investigated in this study. To compare the metabolic behavior of these phthaleins and their glucuronide conjugates radiolabeled with (131)I, scintigraphic and biodistributional techniques were applied using male Albino rabbits. The results obtained have shown that these compounds were successfully radioiodinated with a radioiodination yield of about 100%. Maximum uptakes of (131)I-APH and (131)I-PPH, which were metabolized as N- and O-glucuronides, were observed within 2 h in the bladder and in the small intestine, respectively. In the case of verification of considerably up taking of these compounds also by tumors developed in the small intestine and in the bladder tissues, these results can be expected to be encouraging to test these compounds, which will be radiolabeled with other radioiodines such as (125)I, (123)I and (124)I as imaging and therapeutic agents in nuclear medical applications.

  1. Development of radiolabeled mannose-dextran conjugates for sentinel lymph node detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis of tumors and metastasis is the current cornerstone in public health policies directed towards the fights against cancer. In breast cancer and melanoma, the sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely used for diagnoses of metastasis. The minor impact in patient of this technique compared with total nodes dissection and the accurate definition of therapeutic strategies have powered its spreading. The aim of this work was the development of radiolabeled dextran-mannose conjugates for diagnosis using the stable technetium core [ 99m Tc(CO)3] + . Cysteine, a trident ligand, was attached to the conjugates backbone, as a chelate for 99m Tc labeling. Radiolabeling conditions established for all products considered in this study showed high radiochemical purities (> 90%) and specific activities (>59,9 MBq/nmol) as well and high stability obtained through in vitro tests. The lymphatic node uptake increased significantly (4-folds) when mannose units were added to the conjugates compared with those without this monosaccharide. The radiolabeled cysteine-mannose-dextran conjugate with 30 kDa ( 99m Tc - DCM2) showed the best performance at different injected activities among the studied tracers. Concentrations of this radio complex higher than 1 M demonstrated an improvement of lymph node uptakes. Comparisons of 99m Tc - DCM2 performance with commercial radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil market for lymph node detection showed its upper profile. (author)

  2. A novel method for radiolabeling antigen-binding receptors of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.S.; Lee, M.S.; Rosenspire, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Antigen-binding receptor (ABR) molecules have been selectively radiolabeled and isolated from immunized chicken spleen cells. The specific radiolabeling of the receptors has been accomplished by utilizing a novel technique employing lactoperoxidase (LPO) covalently linked to antigen (Ag) for which human gammaglobulin was used. The cell surface ABRs were first bound to the Ag-LPO conjugates through specific recognition sites on the Ag portion of the conjugates. The bound LPO portions were then allowed to catalyze the radioiodination of the ABRs. After radiolabeling, cells were solubilized with detergents, ABRs still bound to Ag-LPO conjugates were directly isolated from the lysates via immunoaffinity chromatography utilizing an immunoaffinity reagent directed toward the antigen portion of the ABR-Ag-LPO complex. The radioactive materials were then analyzed via SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Most of the specifically-labeled and isolated materials were immunoglobulin (Ig). Both the membrane-bound form of the heavy chain as well as the secreted form were detected, along with the light chain. An additional polypeptide was also selectively labeled and isolated along with the Ig. This may be a molecule closely associated with the membrane immunoglobulin on the B-cell surface. (author)

  3. Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers: A need to analyze for biological stability before use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manual Kollareth, Denny Joseph; Chang, Chuchun L; Hansen, Inge H; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2018-03-01

    Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers are widely used as non-metabolizable tracers for lipoproteins and lipid emulsions in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Since cholesteryl ethers do not leave cells after uptake and are not hydrolyzed by mammalian cellular enzymes, these compounds can act as markers for cumulative cell uptakes of labeled particles. We have employed [ 3 H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether to study the uptake and distribution of triglyceride-rich emulsion particles on animal models. However, questionable unexpected results compelled us to analyze the stability of these ethers. We tested the stability of two commercially available radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers - [ 3 H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether and [ 3 H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether from different suppliers, employing in vitro , in vivo and chemical model systems. Our results show that, among the two cholesteryl ethers tested, one ether was hydrolyzed to free cholesterol in vitro , in vivo and chemically under alkaline hydrolyzing agent. Free cholesterol, unlike cholesteryl ether, can then re-enter the circulation leading to confounding results. The other ether was not hydrolyzed to free cholesterol and remained as a stable ether. Hence, radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers should be analyzed for biological stability before utilizing them for in vitro or in vivo experiments.

  4. Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers: A need to analyze for biological stability before use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Joseph Manual Kollareth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers are widely used as non-metabolizable tracers for lipoproteins and lipid emulsions in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Since cholesteryl ethers do not leave cells after uptake and are not hydrolyzed by mammalian cellular enzymes, these compounds can act as markers for cumulative cell uptakes of labeled particles. We have employed [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether to study the uptake and distribution of triglyceride-rich emulsion particles on animal models. However, questionable unexpected results compelled us to analyze the stability of these ethers. We tested the stability of two commercially available radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers - [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether and [3H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether from different suppliers, employing in vitro, in vivo and chemical model systems. Our results show that, among the two cholesteryl ethers tested, one ether was hydrolyzed to free cholesterol in vitro, in vivo and chemically under alkaline hydrolyzing agent. Free cholesterol, unlike cholesteryl ether, can then re-enter the circulation leading to confounding results. The other ether was not hydrolyzed to free cholesterol and remained as a stable ether. Hence, radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers should be analyzed for biological stability before utilizing them for in vitro or in vivo experiments. Keywords: Cholesteryl ether, J774 A2 macrophages, Soy oil emulsion, Thin layer chromatography, triDHA emulsion

  5. Potential of 57Ni/57Co generator system for radiolabelling proteins for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, T.; Smith, S.V.; Baker, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: There is increasing interest in the use of inert metal complexes for radiolabelling proteins. The present study involves an investigation into the use to the parent/daughter system 57 Ni/ 57 Co for PET and SPECT imaging. In order to assess the potential of the system for such applications it is important to examine whether the ligand chosen complexes with both 57 Ni and 57 Co. A selection of ligands with varying number of donor groups and open-chain and macrocyclic ligands were chosen; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), 1,4,8,11 - tetraazocyclotetradecane-1 4,8,11-tetraacetic acid (TETA) and diaminohydroxyaryl - diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, (DAHA-EDTA). Complexation behaviour over a range of pH and temperatures was investigated. Results show that the ligands have strong complexation for 57 Ni however once 57 Ni decayed to 57 Co evidence ol chemical instability was noted. The DAHA-EDTA ligand (developed in house) was observed to be the most stable under conditions studied. lt was selected for use in radiolabelling B72.3 antibody and preliminary radiolabelling conditions were established

  6. Radiolabeling small RNA with technetium-99m for visualizing cellular delivery and mouse biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ning; Ding Hongliu; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc; Zhu Zhihong; Zhang Yumin

    2007-01-01

    To develop a noninvasive direct method for the in vivo tracking of small interfering RNA (siRNA) used in RNA interference, two 18-nucleotide oligoribonucleotides were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc-RNA). The ability of 99m Tc-RNA to track delivery was tested in cultured cells and living mice. The cellular delivery of 99m Tc-RNAs could be quantified by gamma counting and could be visualized by microautoradiography. Radiolabeled RNAs can be efficiently delivered into cells by reaching up to 3x10 5 molecules of small RNAs per cell. Moreover, RNAs were internalized with homogeneous distribution throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. In tumor-bearing mice, whole-body images and biodistribution studies showed that 99m Tc-RNAs were delivered to almost all tissues after intravenous injection. The imaging of living animals allowed noninvasive and longitudinal monitoring of the in vivo delivery of these small RNAs. In conclusion, using 99m Tc radiolabeling, the delivery of small RNAs could be measured quantitatively in cultured cells and could be noninvasively visualized in living animals using a gamma camera. The results of this study could open up a new approach for measuring the in vivo delivery of small RNAs that might further facilitate the development of siRNAs as targeted therapies

  7. Selective suppression of antibody production with the aid of radiolabelled birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipp, G.; Biro, G.; Hartung, W.D.; Lehmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi 125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi 125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)

  8. Significance of non-specific complaints in asymptomatic cerebral infarction. Approach based on the cerebral circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakayori, Osamu; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atsushi; Terashi, Akirou [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Seventy-three cases with asymptomatic cerebral infarction detected by MR scanning and 80 cases of past stroke patients were evaluated. The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the SPECT, idoine-123-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method was measured. Twenty-two patients with non-specific complaints (dizziness, numbness of the extremities, headache, etc.) without cerebrovascular risk factors were also examined as controls. Fifty-two percent of the asymptomatic infarction cases had non-specific complaints. The regional CBF in all cerebral non-specific complaints showed significantly lower values as compared to the controls. There was no difference in CBF values between the asymptomatic infarction cases with non-specific complaints and the past stroke patients. Among the asymptomatic infarction patients, cases with both non-specific complaints and hypertension displayed significantly lower CBF values, especially in the frontal and temporal cortical regions, than did cases without non-specific complaints or hypertension. These findings suggest that the patient`s complaints should be taken into consideration when determining the clinical treatment of asymptomatic infarction. (author)

  9. Predicting the biodistribution of radiolabeled cMORF effector in MORF-pretargeted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; He, Jiang; Liu, Xinrong; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Pretargeting with phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (MORFs) involves administration of a MORF-conjugated anti-tumor antibody such as MN14 as a pretargeting agent before that of the radiolabeled complementary MORF (cMORF) as the effector. The dosages of the pretargeting agent and effector, the pretargeting interval, and the detection time are the four pretargeting variables. The goal of this study was to develop a semiempirical description capable of predicting the biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector in pretargeted mice and then to compare predictions with experimental results from pretargeting studies in tumored animals in which the pretargeting interval and the detection time were both fixed but the dosages of both the effector and the pretargeting agent were separately varied. Pretargeting studies in LS174T tumored mice were performed using the anti-CEA antibody MN14 conjugated with MORF and the cMORF radiolabeled with 99m Tc. A description was developed based on our previous observations in the same mouse model of the blood and tumor levels of MORF-MN14, accessibility of MORF-MN14 to labeled cMORF, the tumor accumulation of labeled cMORF relative to MORF-MN14 levels therein, and the kidney accumulation of labeled cMORF. The predicted values were then compared with the experimental values. The predicted biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector and the experimental data were in gratifying agreement in normal organs, suggesting that the description of the pretargeting process was reliable. The tumor accumulations occasionally fell outside two standard deviations of that predicted, but after tumor size correction, good agreement between predicted and experimental values was observed here as well. A semiempirical description of the biodistribution of labeled cMORF was capable of predicting the biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector in the pretargeted tumored mouse model, demonstrating that the underlying pretargeting concepts are correct. We

  10. Approaches in the design of 99mTc based peptide radiolabelling for tumour targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, A.; Horiuchi, K.; Arano, Y.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks in diagnostic and/or therapeutic uses of peptides radiolabelled with radiometals via bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) is their accumulation in excretory organs such as liver or kidney. Thus, the aim of the project is centred in the search for chemical and radiochemical approaches to reduce radioactivity accumulated in excretory organs while preserving the in vivo receptor binding affinity of the peptide. During the first stage a suitable procedure using the F-moc-chemistry (solid phase) was developed and synthesis of DTPA-D-Phen1-Octreotide and DTPA-L-Phen1-Octreotide was carried out. During the synthesis, the need to improve the yield demanded the synthesis of a DTPA derivative holding only one reactive carboxylic group to avoid side intermolecular reaction. The availability of both isomeric conjugated octreotide led to their radiolabelling with 111 In. Their metabolic studies in animals indicated that the degradation rate of the peptide containing the natural aminoacid, 111 In DTPA-L-Phen1-Octreotide, was slightly higher than the corresponding D-aminoacid derivative, as expected. Stability of the peptide during radiolabelling with 99m Tc was then studied, requiring the use of variable agents such as ascorbic acid, dithionite and stannous ion. The selected peptide, RC-160, was provided by the IAEA and, as reference compounds, corresponding iodinated and radioiodinated peptides were synthesized. Demonstration of the stability of the peptide was carried out using disodium 2-nitro-5-thiosulfobenzoate (NTBS) and the lack of Bunte salt formation served as an indication of the stability of the disulfide bond under various mild conditions required for the future radiolabelling with 99m Tc. The knowledge gained served in moving to the next stage of 99m Tc radiolabelling using HYNIC as the BCA and tricine as co-ligands. The biodistribution studies demonstrated great accumulation on excretory organs. This led us to look for a model protein

  11. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  12. Expression of deleted, atoxic atypical recombinant beta2 toxin in a baculovirus system and production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serroni, Anna; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Bano, Luca; Pellegrini, Martina; Severi, Giulio; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Luciani, Mirella; Tittarelli, Manuela; Tofani, Silvia; De Giuseppe, Antonio

    2017-05-25

    Clostridium perfringens is an important animal and human pathogen that can produce more than 16 different major and minor toxins. The beta-2 minor toxin (CPB2), comprising atypical and consensus variants, appears to be involved in both human and animal enterotoxaemia syndrome. The exact role of CPB2 in pathogenesis is poorly investigated, and its mechanism of action at the molecular level is still unknown because of the lack of specific reagents such as monoclonal antibodies against the CPB2 protein and/or the availability of a highly purified antigen. Previous studies have reported that purified wild-type or recombinant CPB2 toxin, expressed in a heterologous system, presented cytotoxic effects on human intestinal cell lines. Undoubtedly, for this reason, to date, these purified proteins have not yet been used for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Recently, monoclonal antibodies against CPB2 were generated using peptides designed on predicted antigenic epitopes of this toxin. In this paper we report, for the first time, the expression in a baculovirus system of a deleted recombinant C-terminal 6xHis-tagged atypical CPB2 toxin (rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 ) lacking the 25 amino acids (aa) of the N-terminal putative signal sequence. A high level of purified recombinant rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 was obtained after purification by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography. The purified product showed no in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Polyclonal antibodies and twenty hybridoma-secreting Mabs were generated using purified rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 . Finally, the reactivity and specificity of the new antibodies were tested against both recombinant and wild-type CPB2 toxins. The high-throughput of purified atoxic recombinant CPB2 produced in insect cells, allowed to obtain monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The availability of these molecules could contribute to develop immunoenzymatic methods and/or to perform studies about the biological activity of CPB2 toxin.

  13. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Activity modulation of microbial enzymes by llama (Lama glama) heavy-chain polyclonal antibodies during in vivo immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Weill, F S; Paz, M L; Cela, E M; González Maglio, D H; Leoni, J

    2012-03-01

    Since they were first described in 1993, it was found that recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) from Camelidae have unusual biophysical properties, as well as a special ability to interact with epitopes that are cryptic for conventional Abs. It has been assumed that in vivo raised polyclonal HCAbs (pHCAbs) should behave in a similar manner than rVHHs; however, this assumption has not been tested sufficiently. Furthermore, our own preliminary work on a single serum sample from a llama immunized with a β-lactamase, has suggested that pHCAbs have no special ability to down-modulate catalytic activity. In this work, we further explored the interaction of pHCAbs from four llamas raised against two microbial enzymes and analyzed it within a short and a long immunization plan. The relative contribution of pHCAbs to serum titer was found to be low compared with that of the most abundant conventional subisotype (IgG(1)), during the whole immunization schedule. Furthermore, pHCAbs not only failed to inhibit the enzymes, but also activated one of them. Altogether, these results suggest that raising high titer inhibitory HCAbs is not a straightforward strategy - neither as a biotechnological strategy nor in the biological context of an immune response against infection - as raising inhibitory rVHHs.

  15. Development of 111In-DTPA-human polyclonal antibody complex for long-term inflammation/infection detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R.; Rowshanfarzad, P.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.; Moafian, J.; Akhlaghi, M.; Rajabifar, S.; Mirzaii, M.; Shafaii, K.; Babaii, M.

    2005-01-01

    Human polyclonal antibody (HIgG) was successively labeled with 111-indium chloride after residulation with freshly prepared cyclic DTPA-dianhydride. The best results of the conjugation were obtained by the addition of solid DTPA-dianhydride (0.1-0.3 mg) to 100 μl of the HIgG solution (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) at pH = 6 in phosphate buffer media at 25 o C with continuous stirring for 30 min. Radio-thin-layer chromatography showed an overall radiochemical yield of 96-99% at optimized conditions (specific activity = 300-500 MBq/mg, radiochemical purity >98%). The final isotonic 111 In-DTPA-HIgG complex was checked by radio-TLC to ensure the formation of only one species followed by filtration through a 0.22 μ filter. Preliminary long-term in vivo studies in turpentine-oil induced inflammation in rat model was performed to determine late complex distribution of the radioimmunoconjugate. The target/skin and target/blood ratios were 27 and 51 after 24 h, and 23 and 51 after 110 h, showing a high selectivity of the radiopharmaceutical for inflammatory lesions. (author)

  16. Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Ruptured Fetal Membranes: Improved Diagnostic Performance Characteristics with a Monoclonal/Polyclonal Immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C. Rogers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of membranes (ROM is imperative to allow for gestational age-specific interventions. This study compared the diagnostic performance characteristics between two methods used for the detection of ROM as measured in the same patient. Methods Vaginal secretions were evaluated using the conventional fern test as well as a point-of-care monoclonal/polyclonal immunoassay test (ROM Plus® in 75 pregnant patients who presented to labor and delivery with complaints of leaking amniotic fluid. Both tests were compared to analytical confirmation of ROM using three external laboratory tests. Diagnostic performance characteristics were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, and accuracy. Results Diagnostic performance characteristics uniformly favored ROM detection using the immunoassay test compared to the fern test: sensitivity (100% vs. 77.8%, specificity (94.8% vs. 79.3%, PPV (75% vs. 36.8%, NPV (100% vs. 95.8%, and accuracy (95.5% vs. 79.1%. Conclusions The point-of-care immunoassay test provides improved diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ROM compared to fern testing. It has the potential of improving patient management decisions, thereby minimizing serious complications and perinatal morbidity.

  17. Detection of a local staphylococcal infection in mice with technetium-99m-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, W.; Feitsma, H.I.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.T.; Camps, J.A.; van Furth, R.; Pauwels, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate both the ability of 99mTc-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) to localize an infection and the modes of action involved in this process. Mice, infected with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 in a thigh muscle, received HIG intravenously. Scintigrams were made 1, 4, and 24 hr later; subsequently the mice were killed and the activity in several organs and thighs was determined. The radiopharmaceutical demonstrated a time-dependent accumulation at the site of infection. It was found that vascular permeability or Fc binding alone could not account for the mode of action of HIG. Neither the origin of Ig (human versus murine) nor the total amount of protein (0.01-1.0 mg Ig per mouse) affected the target-to-background (T/B) ratios. Ratios were not different for leukocytopenic animals. A correlation (p less than 0.001) was demonstrated between the number of bacteria at the site of infection and the T/B ratio. This was also found after antibiotic treatment (p less than 0.02)

  18. Antiparasitic effects induced by polyclonal IgY antibodies anti-phospholipase A2 from Bothrops pauloensis venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Isabela Pacheco; Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; de Faria, Lucas Silva; Júnior, Álvaro Ferreira; da Silva, Rafaela José; Costa, Mônica Soares; de Freitas, Vitor; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana

    2018-06-01

    Activities of phospholipases (PLAs) have been linked to pathogenesis in various microorganisms, and implicated in cell invasion and so the interest in these enzymes as potential targets that could contribute to the control of parasite survival and proliferation. Chicken eggs immunized with BnSP-7, a Lys49 phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) homologue from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom, represent an excellent source of polyclonal antibodies with potential inhibitory activity on parasite PLA s. Herein, we report the production, characterization and anti-parasitic effect of IgY antibodies from egg yolks of hens immunized with BnSP-7. Produced antibodies presented increasing avidity and affinity for antigenic toxin epitopes throughout immunization, attaining a plateau after 4weeks. Pooled egg yolks-purified anti-BnSP-7 IgY antibodies were able to specifically recognize different PLA 2 s from Bothrops pauloensis and Bothrops jararacussu venom. Antibodies also neutralized BnSP-7 cytotoxic activity in C2C12 cells. Also, the antibodies recognized targets in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Toxoplasma gondii extracts by ELISA and immunofluorescence assays. Anti-BnSP-7 IgY antibodies were cytotoxic to T. gondii tachyzoite and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes, and were able to decrease proliferation of both parasites treated before infection. These data suggest that the anti-BnSP-7 IgY is an important tool for discovering new parasite targets and blocking parasitic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitive detection of capsaicinoids using a surface plasmon resonance sensor with anti-homovanillic Acid polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Yatabe, Rui; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-13

    Recently, highly functional biosensors have been developed in preparation for possible large-scale terrorist attacks using chemical warfare agents. Practically applicable sensors are required to have various abilities, such as high portability and operability, the capability of performing rapid and continuous measurement, as well as high sensitivity and selectivity. We developed the detection method of capsaicinoids, the main component of some lachrymators, using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor as an on-site detection sensor. Homovanillic acid, which has a vanillyl group similar to capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, was bound to Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin (CCH) for use as an immunogen to generate polyclonal antibodies. An indirect competitive assay was carried out to detect capsaicinoids using SPR sensor chips on which different capsaicin analogues were immobilized. For the sensor chip on which 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine hydrochloride was immobilized, a detection limit of 150 ppb was achieved. We found that the incubation time was not required and the detection can be completed in five minutes.

  20. Binding of 99mTc-labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin to bacteria as a mechanism for scintigraphic detection of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, W.; Furth, R. van

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 99m Tc-labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin ( 99m Tc-HIG) binds to bacteria in vitro as well as in vivo. In vitro, the binding of 99m Tc-HIG to various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was determined. In vivo, mice were infected with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (protein A rich) or S. aureus EMS (protein A deficient) in a tigh muscle and then 99m Tc-HIG or 99m Tc-labelled human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-HSA) was administered; scintigrams were made 1, 4 and 18 h later. In vitro binding of 99m Tc-HIG to bacteria was higher for gram-positive than for gram-negative forms. A positive correlation was found between the protein A content and the degree of binding to S. aureus. This was also found in vivo. The accumulation of 99m Tc-HIG at the site of infection was significantly (P 99m Tc-HSA, for both strains of S. aureus. It is concluded that vascular permeability cannot fully explain the accumulation of 99m Tc-HIG at the site of infection and that binding of 99m Tc-HIG to bacteria plays a role in this respect. (orig.)

  1. POLYCLONAL OUTBREAK OF BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS CAUSED BY Burkholderia cepacia COMPLEX IN HEMATOLOGY AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT OUTPATIENT UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Boszczowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective was to describe an outbreak of bloodstream infections by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc in bone marrow transplant and hematology outpatients. Methods: On February 15, 2008 a Bcc outbreak was suspected. 24 cases were identified. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated. Environment and healthcare workers' (HCW hands were cultured. Species were determined and typed. Reinforcement of hand hygiene, central venous catheter (CVC care, infusion therapy, and maintenance of laminar flow cabinet were undertaken. 16 different HCWs had cared for the CVCs. Multi-dose heparin and saline were prepared on counter common to both units. Findings: 14 patients had B. multivorans (one patient had also B. cenopacia, six non-multivorans Bcc and one did not belong to Bcc. Clone A B. multivorans occurred in 12 patients (from Hematology; in 10 their CVC had been used on February 11/12. Environmental and HCW cultures were negative. All patients were treated with meropenem, and ceftazidime lock-therapy. Eight patients (30% were hospitalized. No deaths occurred. After control measures (multidose vial for single patient; CVC lock with ceftazidime; cleaning of laminar flow cabinet; hand hygiene improvement; use of cabinet to store prepared medication, no new cases occurred. Conclusions: This polyclonal outbreak may be explained by a common source containing multiple species of Bcc, maybe the laminar flow cabinet common to both units. There may have been contamination by B. multivorans (clone A of multi-dose vials.

  2. Sensitive Detection of Capsaicinoids Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor with Anti-Homovanillic Acid Polyclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, highly functional biosensors have been developed in preparation for possible large-scale terrorist attacks using chemical warfare agents. Practically applicable sensors are required to have various abilities, such as high portability and operability, the capability of performing rapid and continuous measurement, as well as high sensitivity and selectivity. We developed the detection method of capsaicinoids, the main component of some lachrymators, using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR immunosensor as an on-site detection sensor. Homovanillic acid, which has a vanillyl group similar to capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, was bound to Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin (CCH for use as an immunogen to generate polyclonal antibodies. An indirect competitive assay was carried out to detect capsaicinoids using SPR sensor chips on which different capsaicin analogues were immobilized. For the sensor chip on which 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine hydrochloride was immobilized, a detection limit of 150 ppb was achieved. We found that the incubation time was not required and the detection can be completed in five minutes.

  3. Combination of Weight-Bearing Training and Anti-MSTN Polyclonal Antibody Improve Bone Quality In Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Didi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Haiping; Han, Yanqi; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    Weight-bearing exercise is beneficial to bone health. Myostatin (MSTN) deficiency has a positive effect on bone formation. We wondered if a combination of weight-bearing training and polyclonal antibody for MSTN (MsAb) would augment bone formation to a greater degree than single treatment. In this study, rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, weight-bearing training (WT), MsAb, and WT+MsAb. The trained rats ran at 15 m/min bearing with 35% of their body weight, 40 min/day (2 min of running followed by 2 min of rest), 6 days/week, for 8 weeks. The rats with MsAb were injected once a week with MsAb for 8 weeks. MicroCT analysis showed that compared with the MsAb group, WT+MsAb significantly enhanced cortical bone mineral density (BMD) (p .05), weight-bearing training significantly increased energy absorption (p weight-bearing training and MsAb have a greater positive effect on bone than treatment with either MsAb or weight-bearing training alone, suggesting that resistance training in combination with MSTN antagonists could be an effective approach for improving bone health and reducing osteoporosis risk.

  4. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  5. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  6. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  7. Radiolabelled multifunctional nanoparticles for targeted diagnostic and therapeutic applications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangger, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles, liposomes in particular, have gained great attention as easily engineerable nanoscale systems with distinct properties, offering an ideal platform for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The aim of this PhD thesis was the design, synthesis as well as the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of several radiolabelled multifunctional liposomal nanoparticles for the targeted imaging of tumour cells and tumour-induced angiogenesis. Radiolabelling methods for different radionuclides were developed and the liposomes were functionalised with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve the pharmacokinetic profile. Targeting sequences such as the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), the neuropeptide substance P (SP), the somatostatin analogue tyrosine-3-octreotide (TOC), and the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were tested for their applicability as tools for the targeted delivery of imaging agents. Finally, by the combination of two targeting sequences, namely RGD and SP, on one liposome multireceptor-targeting (hybrid-targeting) was investigated. These multifunctional vehicles were also functionalized with imaging labels for the detection and imaging of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), fluorescence microscopy as well as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The liposomes developed in this thesis showed multifunctional properties combining several imaging approaches with specific targeting for oncological applications. In vitro behaviour, e.g., receptor binding could be improved, resulting in optimised targeting shown both by the radiolabel and fluorescent label. However, the in vivo properties, especially the tumour targeting characteristics remained suboptimal, revealing the challenges of targeting approaches in nanoscience. Nonetheless, these results brought important insights for the development and optimisation of multifunctional nanocarriers. (author) [de

  8. Effect of glycosylation on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucagon-like peptide 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Takeshi; Takemoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is generally applicable as a strategy for increasing the activity of bioactive proteins. In this study, we examined the effect of glycosylation on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) as a bioactive peptide for type 2 diabetes. Noninvasive imaging studies were performed using a gamma camera after the intravenous administration of 123 I-GLP-1 or 123 I-α2, 6-sialyl N-acetyllactosamine (glycosylated) GLP-1 in rats. In ex vivo biodistribution studies using 125 I-GLP-1 or 125 I-glycosylated GLP-1, organ samples were measured for radioactivity. Plasma samples were added to 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to obtain TCA-insoluble and TCA-soluble fractions. The radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble and TCA-soluble fractions was measured. In the noninvasive imaging studies, a relatively high accumulation level of 123 I-GLP-1 was found in the liver, which is the major organ to eliminate exogenous GLP-1. The area under the time-activity curve (AUC) of 123 I-glycosylated GLP-1 in the liver was significantly lower (89%) than that of 123 I-GLP-1. These results were consistent with those of ex vivo biodistribution studies using 125 I-labeled peptides. The AUC of 125 I-glycosylated GLP-1 in the TCA-insoluble fraction was significantly higher (1.7-fold) than that of GLP-1. This study demonstrated that glycosylation significantly decreased the distribution of radiolabeled GLP-1 into the liver and increased the concentration of radiolabeled GLP-1 in plasma. These results suggested that glycosylation is a useful strategy for decreasing the distribution into the liver of bioactive peptides as desirable pharmaceuticals. (author)

  9. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus infection by aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sara Roberta dos; Rodrigues Corrêa, Cristiane; Branco de Barros, André Luís; Serakides, Rogéria; Fernandes, Simone Odília

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets which are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated for bacterial infection identification. Methods: Anti S. aureus aptamers were labeled with 99m Tc by the direct method. The radiolabel yield and complex stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice containing 6 animals each were used. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus. The second group was infected in the same way with C. albicans and the third group was injected with zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (22.2 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. The mice were euthanized 4 h post injection and tissue sample activities measured in a gamma counter. Results: The 99m Tc labeled aptamers were stable in saline, plasma and cystein excess. Radiolabeled aptamers showed increased uptake in the kidneys for all groups indicating a main renal excretion, which is consistent with the hydrophilic nature and small size of aptamers. The radiopharmaceutical showed rapid blood clearance indicated by a reduced dose (% ID/g) in the blood. The biodistribution showed that aptamers were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4.0 ± 0.5. This ratio for mice infected with C. albicans was 2.0 ± 0.4 while for mice with aseptic inflammation was 1.2 ± 0.2. Histology confirmed the presence of infection in groups 1 and 2, and inflammation in group 3. Conclusions: The biodistibution study demonstrated a statistically higher uptake in the S. aureus foci relative to inflammation and C. albicans infected areas. These results highlight the potential of aptamers labeled directly with 99m Tc for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy

  10. Highly efficient method for 125I-radiolabeling of biomolecules using inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Hee; Shim, Ha Eun; Yun, Seong-Jae; Kim, Hye Rim; Mushtaq, Sajid; Lee, Chang Heon; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Jeon, Jongho

    2016-04-19

    In this report, we present a rapid and highly efficient method for radioactive iodine labeling of trans-cyclooctene group conjugated biomolecules using inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. Radioiodination reaction of the tetrazine structure was carried out using the stannylated precursor 2 to give 125 I-labeled azide ([ 125 I]1) with high radiochemical yield (65±8%) and radiochemical purity (>99%). For radiolabeling application of [ 125 I]1, trans-cyclooctene derived cRGD peptide and human serum albumin were prepared. These substrated were reacted with [ 125 I]1 under mild condition to provide the radiolabeled products [ 125 I]6 and [ 125 I]8, respectively, with excellent radiochemical yields. The biodistribution study of [ 125 I]8 in normal ICR mice showed significantly lower thyroid uptake values than that of 125 I-labeled human serum albumin prepared by a traditional radiolabeling method. Therefore [ 125 I]8 will be a useful radiolabeled tracer in various molecular imaging and biological studies. Those results clearly demonstrate that [ 125 I]1 will be used as a valuable prosthetic group for radiolabeling of biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A radiolabeled antiglobulin assay to identify human cervical mucus immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antisperm antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.G. Jr.; D'Cruz, O.J.

    1989-01-01

    Antisperm immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antibodies in human cervical mucus (CM) were identified by a radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Cervical mucus samples from fertile and infertile women were exposed to a 1:3,200 dilution of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), and 5 micrograms of the solubilized CM protein were assayed for the presence of IgA and IgG antisperm and anti-Candida activity by the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Purified human secretory IgA and IgG exposed to 2-ME retained the molecular integrity and functional activity of the untreated antibody molecules. CM aliquots collected after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation were assessed for antisperm antibody activity; antisperm antibody activity was retained in the appropriate IgA or IgG CM fractions. The incidence of CM antisperm antibodies was minimally affected when the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay was performed with a motile sperm population. Approximately 70% of the CM IgA antisperm antibodies were of the IgA1 subclass; CM IgG was primarily of the IgG4 subclass. When Candida antigen was substituted for sperm in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, the CM antisperm antibodies were found to be exclusively sperm-specific. These data indicate that the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay using 2-ME to extract CM antibodies is a specific method for the assay of antisperm antibodies in CM

  12. Preclinical evaluation of neurotensin(8-13) analog radiolabeled with 99mTc: in vitro and in vivo characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    The radiolabeling of receptor specific biomolecules with 99m Tc using bifunctional chelator agents represents a growing field in Nuclear Medicine, specially, regarding regulatory peptides, such as Neurotensin, which are important in several essential physiological functions, particularly in tumor growth. The aim of the study was the comparative radiolabeling evaluation of the double-stabilized NT(8-13) analog with 99m Tc, via the bifunctional chelating agents 6- hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and S-acetyl-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. High radiochemical yields (> 97%) and stability toward transchelant agents was observed for both radiolabeled analogs. Also, comparable in vitro behaviour regarding the percentage of plasma protein binding (nearby 22%), metabolic stability, receptor binding affinity (nM range), and internalization/externalization rates were obtained. The greater lipophilicity found for the analog radiolabeled via MAG 3 , reflected in the major differences in biodistribution studies. The in vivo metabolic stability studies suggested that the degradation observed in the later time point (90 min) for the conjugate radiolabeled via HYNIC, leads not only to lower tumor uptake accumulation (0,44±0,02% ID/g), but also to lower tumor-to-non-tumor ratios ( 3 had been confirmed in the present study, a structural re-design aiming the reduction of the high gastrointestinal uptake must be done in order to guarantee the potential applicability of MAG 3 -radio complex. (author)

  13. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.; Moseley, K.R.; Battaile, A.; Griffiths, T.C.; Knapp, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies may be useful for radioimmunotherapy of gynecologic tumors. Iodine 131-labeled F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody, OC 125, with specificity for ovarian carcinoma, were used to study the distribution and pharmacokinetics of this antibody in patients with gynecologic tumors. The radiolabeled antibody was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into 10 patients suspected of having ovarian cancer. Blood and urine samples were used for pharmacokinetic studies, and biopsy specimens were examined for the uptake of antibody. The serum half-life of the labeled antibody was 30 hours after intravenous administration, with 20% of the injected dose per liter detected at 24 hours. After intraperitoneal injection, the appearance of antibody in serum was slow, with a maximum level of 1.4% of the injected dose per liter at 24 hours. Urinary excretion of the radiolabeled antibody was similar for intravenous and intraperitoneal administration, with approximately 50% of the injected dose excreted after 48 hours. Intraperitoneal administration of the radiolabeled antibody resulted in a higher uptake of antibody in the tumor and a lower uptake of antibody in normal tissues. On the basis of this limited study, intraperitoneal administration of radiolabeled antibody is preferred over intravenous administration for radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer

  14. Correlating labeling chemistry and in-vitro test results with the biological behavior of radiolabeled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies possess enormous potential for delivery of therapeutic amounts of radionuclides to target antigens in vivo, in particular for tumor imaging and therapy. Translation of this concept into practice has encountered numerous problems. Specifically whereas general protein radiolabeling methods are applicable to antibodies, immunological properties of the antibodies are often compromised resulting in reduced in-vivo specificity for the target antigens. The bifunctional chelating agent approach shows the most promise, however, development of other agents will be necessary for widespread usefulness of this technique. The effects of labeling chemistry on the in-vivo behavior of several monoclonal antibodies are described. 30 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Radiolabelled parasite antigens as tools for diagnosis and identification of protective antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhouse, R.M.E.; Cabrera, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelling specific compartments and molecules of parasites provides a valuable tool for establishing parasite antigen-host response systems with utility and/or importance in protection, diagnosis and pathology. The combined immunological, biochemical and molecular biological expertise currently available forms a sufficient basis for a relatively logical and effective programme directed towards the ultimate eradication of tropical diseases. The organization of carefully selected and clinically well characterized sera and patients, representing the range of commonly occurring parasitic infections, would be of great practical value in the pursuance of this goal. (author)

  16. Advance of apoptosis imaging with radiolabeled annexin V in tumor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Daijuan

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important reasons that cause tumor is decrease or complete absence of apoptosis of tumor cells. Conversely successful anti-tumor therapy is correlated with the introduction of apoptosis into tumor cells. Radiolabeled annexin V is used to image in vivo the phosphatidylserine (PS) that explode on the outer surface of cell membrane after apoptosis so that apoptosis can be detected on the early stage. This imaging method can be introduced into the research of tumor in order to help direct the choose of tumor therapy, inspect the effect and evaluate the prognosis

  17. Radiolabeling of rituximab with 188Re and 99mTc using the tricarbonyl technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Jeger, Simone; Osso, Joao Alberto; Mueller, Cristina; De Pasquale, Christine; Hohn, Alexander; Waibel, Robert; Schibli, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The most successful clinical studies of immunotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) use the antibody rituximab (RTX) targeting CD20 + B-cell tumors. Rituximab radiolabeled with β - emitters could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody by virtue of the particle radiation. Here, we report on a direct radiolabeling approach of rituximab with the 99m Tc- and 188 Re-tricarbonyl core (IsoLink technology). Methods: The native format of the antibody (RTX wt ) as well as a reduced form (RTX red ) was labeled with 99m Tc/ 188 Re(CO) 3 . The partial reduction of the disulfide bonds to produce free sulfhydryl groups (-SH) was achieved with 2-mercaptoethanol. Radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro human plasma stability as well as transchelation toward cysteine and histidine was investigated. The immunoreactivity and binding affinity were determined on Ramos and/or Raji cells expressing CD20. Biodistribution was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous Ramos lymphoma xenografts. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency and kinetics of RTX red were superior to that of RTX wt ( 99m Tc: 98% after 3 h for RTX red vs. 70% after 24 h for RTX wt ). 99m Tc(CO) 3 -RTX red was used without purification for in vitro and in vivo studies whereas 188 Re(CO) 3 -RTX red was purified to eliminate free 188 Re-precursor. Both radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human plasma for 24 h at 37 o C. In contrast, displacement experiments with excess cysteine/histidine showed significant transchelation in the case of 99m Tc(CO) 3 -RTX red but not with pre-purified 188 Re(CO) 3 -RTX red . Both conjugates revealed high binding affinity to the CD20 antigen (K d =5-6 nM). Tumor uptake of 188 Re(CO) 3 -RTX red was 2.5 %ID/g and 0.8 %ID/g for 99m Tc(CO) 3 -RTX red 48 h after injection. The values for other organs and tissues were similar for both compounds, for example the tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-liver ratios were 0.4 and 0.3 for 99m Tc(CO) 3 -RTX red and for 188 Re

  18. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations

  19. Localisation of lung cancer by a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against the c-myc oncogene product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S Y.T.; Evan, G I; Ritson, A; Watson, J; Wraight, P; Sikora, K

    1986-11-01

    A set of mouse monoclonal antibodies against the c-myc oncogene product, a 62,000 dalton nuclear binding protein involved in cell cycle control, has been constructed by immunisation with synthetic peptide fragments. One such antibody, CT14, was radiolabelled with /sup 131/I and administered to 20 patients with different malignant diseases. Good tumour localisation was observed in 12 out of 14 patients with primary bronchial carcinoma but not in patients with pulmonary metastases from primary tumours elsewhere. Successfully localised tumours were all 3 cm or more in diameter. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene products may provide novel selective tools for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

  20. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acid mixture, (/sup 14/C)leucine, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and carrier-free /sup 32/P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli.

  1. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of 14 C-amino acid mixture, [ 14 C]leucine, [ 14 C]uridine, and carrier-free 32 P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli

  2. Parameters optimization defined by statistical analysis for cysteine-dextran radiolabeling with technetium tricarbonyl core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Wiecek, Danielle Pereira; da Silva, Natanael Gomes; Papadopoulos, Minas; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; de Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos; Duatti, Adriano; Pasqualini, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was the development of a statistical approach for radiolabeling optimization of cysteine-dextran conjugates with Tc-99m tricarbonyl core. This strategy has been applied to the labeling of 2-propylene-S-cysteine-dextran in the attempt to prepare a new class of tracers for sentinel lymph node detection, and can be extended to other radiopharmaceuticals for different targets. The statistical routine was based on three-level factorial design. Best labeling conditions were achieved. The specific activity reached was 5 MBq/μg. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parameters optimization defined by statistical analysis for cysteine-dextran radiolabeling with technetium tricarbonyl core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo, E-mail: eutimiocu@yahoo.co [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Linkowski Faintuch, Bluma; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Pereira Wiecek, Danielle; Gomes da Silva, Natanael [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Papadopoulos, Minas [Institute of Radioisotopes, Radiodiagnostic Products, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Pelecanou, Maria [Institute of Biology, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Pirmettis, Ioannis [Institute of Radioisotopes, Radiodiagnostic Products, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Santos Oliveira Filho, Renato de [Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Duatti, Adriano [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Pasqualini, Roberto [CIS Bio International, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this study was the development of a statistical approach for radiolabeling optimization of cysteine-dextran conjugates with Tc-99m tricarbonyl core. This strategy has been applied to the labeling of 2-propylene-S-cysteine-dextran in the attempt to prepare a new class of tracers for sentinel lymph node detection, and can be extended to other radiopharmaceuticals for different targets. The statistical routine was based on three-level factorial design. Best labeling conditions were achieved. The specific activity reached was 5 MBq/{mu}g.

  4. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  5. Computer-assisted high-pressure liquid chromatography of radio-labelled phenylthiohydantoin amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhown, A.S.; Mole, J.E.; Hollaway, W.L.; Bennet, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A computer-controlled high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system is described to identify in vitro phenyl [ 35 S]isothiocyanate-labelled phenylthiohydantoin (PTH) amino acids from a solid-phase sequencer. Each radio-labelled amino acid from the sequencer is added to a PTH amino acid standard and the mixture separated by HPLC using a computer, programmed to detect a slope change in the absorbance. Individual fractions corresponding to the PTH amino acids are collected and counted. The sensitivity of the system is demonstrated on 700 pmoles of lysozyme. (Auth.)

  6. Radiolabeled phosphonium salts as mitocondrial voltage sensors for positron emission tomography myocardial imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yon; Min, Jung Joon [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine,Chonnam National University Medical School and Hwasun Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Despite substantial advances in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, {sup 18}F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals remain necessary to diagnose heart disease because clinical use of current PET tracers is limited by their short half-life. Lipophilic cations such as phosphonium salts penetrate the mitochondrial membranes and accumulate in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes in response to negative inner-transmembrane potentials. Radiolabeled tetraphenyl phosphonium cation derivatives have been developed as myocardial imaging agents for PET. In this review, a general overview of these radiotracers, including their radiosynthesis, in vivo characterization, and evaluation is provided and clinical perspectives are discussed.

  7. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  8. Scintigraphic imaging of Staphylococcus aureus infection using 99mTc radiolabeled aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara Roberta Dos; de Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a specie of great medical importance associated with many infections as bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device related infections. Early identification of infectious foci is crucial for successful treatment. Scintigraphy could contribute to this purpose since specific radiotracers were available. Aptamers due to their high specificity have great potential for radiopharmaceuticals development. In the present study scintigraphic images of S. aureus infectious foci were obtained using specific S. aureus aptamers radiolabeled with 99m Tc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  10. Investigation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera against anthrax toxins resulted in identification of an anti-lethal factor antibody with disease-enhancing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Parul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Priyanka; Joon, Shikha; Sinha, Subrata; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-12-01

    Hybridomas were created using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor). Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immnized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies secreted by all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H10 and H8) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). Single chain variable fragment (LETscFv) was derived from H10 hybridoma. H11 was found to have disease-enhancing property. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature. This in vitro abrogation of disease-enhancement provides the proof of concept that in polyclonal sera the disease enhancing character of a fraction of antibodies is overshadowed by the protective nature of the rest of the antibodies generated on active immunization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Combined in vivo and in vitro approach for the characterization of penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity: tolerance tests with safe penicillins instead of challenge with culprit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, B; Al Masaoudi, T; Merk, H F; Erdmann, S

    2004-10-01

    Amino-penicillins are a major cause of delayed-type reactions to penicillins. The aim of this study was to establish a diagnostic approach for the characterization of the individual penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity in order to detect side chain-specific sensitization to amino-penicillins. Patients can then be advised to undergo a tolerance test with safe penicillins instead of provocation with culprit penicillins for confirmation of penicillin allergy. We investigated penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity in nine patients with delayed-type reactions to amino-penicillins by a combined in vivo (patch, prick and intracutaneous tests with delayed readings) and in vitro (lymphocyte transformation test, LTT) approach. A combination of LTT and skin tests improved the sensitivity for the characterization of penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity and allowed the detection of three different patterns of lymphocyte reactivity. Four patients showed a side chain-specific sensitization to amino-penicillins in vivo and in vitro and were advised to undergo tolerance tests with safe penicillins. Two patients agreed and were exposed to parenteral benzyl-penicillin and oral phenoxymethyl-penicillin which they tolerated without complications. These data suggest that a combined in vivo and in vitro approach is helpful for the detection of side chain-specific sensitization to amino-penicillins. Patients with such sensitization are very likely to tolerate safe penicillins, thereby expanding their therapeutic options when antibiotic treatment is required.

  12. Incidence of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce and its detection by polyclonal antibodies produced against recombinant coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prachi; Sharma, Susheel; Singh, Jasvir; Saha, Swati; Baranwal, V K

    2016-04-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus of family Potyviridae, causes mosaic disease in lettuce has recently been identified in India. The virus is seed borne and secondary infection occurs through aphids. To ensure virus freedom in seeds it is important to develop diagnostic tools, for serological methods the production of polyclonal antibodies is a prerequisite. The coat protein (CP) gene of LMV was amplified, cloned and expressed using pET-28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 competent cells. The LMV CP was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of the E. coli His tag. The LMV CP/His protein reacted positively with a commercial antiserum against LMV in an immunoblot assay. Polyclonal antibodies purified from serum of rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave positive results when LMV infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was tested at 1:1000 dilution in PTA-ELISA. These were used for specific detection of LMV in screening lettuce accessions. The efficacy of the raised polyclonal antiserum was high and it can be utilized in quarantine and clean seed production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A freeze dried kit formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc labelled human polyclonal IgG for the detection of infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza L, M.

    1996-01-01

    A freeze dried kit formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc-labelled human polyclonal IgG for the detection of infection and inflammation employing direct methods for protein labeling was developed. The method comprises reduction of intrinsic disulphide bridges within the antibody molecule by the use of the reductant 2-mercaptoethanol. Following a subsequent purification, the resulting reduced antibody is labeled via Sn 2+ reduction of pertechnetate in the presence of a weak competing ligand ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP). High labeling efficiencies (>90%) were obtained with high in vitro stability and without effect upon antibody immunoreactivity. Methods of analysis were also established permitting identification of radiochemical impurities which may be present in radiopharmaceutical solution. 99m Tc-polyclonal IgG prepared by the kit method was evaluated for scintigraphic localization of inflammatory lesions and abscesses in rabbits. Data demonstrated that the 99m Tc-polyclonal IgG after kit-reconstitution shows excellent stability and is an effective imaging agent of infection and/or inflammation. (Author)

  14. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Helweg Claesson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell Bordetella pertussis (DTwP. In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence both the deleterious and beneficial nonspecific effects of immunisation.

  15. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  16. Radiolabelled neoglycopeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, K.A.; Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    This patent provides a composition comprising a galactosyl or glucosyl substituted serum albumin, having from about 5 to 40 galactosyl or glucosyl groups, combined with a reductant for pertechnetate sufficient to provide Tc-99m in an amount of from about 1 to 100 mCi/mg albumin

  17. Radiolabeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of nucleated cells that follow similar patterns of differentiation in the bone marrow. Although the various leukocyte cell types perform somewhat different functions, they act as a group to protect the host from hazards of the internal and external environment, such as infection and neoplasia, and they assist in the repair of damaged tissue. Leukocytes spend a small fraction of their life in the peripheral blood, using it only for transportation to sites where they are needed to perform their defensive functions. In adults, the mature types of leukocytes are neutrophils (59 percent of the leukocyte population), lymphocytes (34 percent), monocytes (four percent), eosinophils (three percent), and basophils (0.5 percent). Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils all contain nuclei with finitely granular, evenly distributed chromatin and are collectively called granulocytes. In addition to the main categories of leukocytes listed above, there are subsets of many of these classes of cells; for example, natural killer cells are a subset of lymphocytes

  18. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore...

  19. A comparison between activities for non-specific esterases and esterproteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of non-specific esterases and esterproteases from kidney, lung, and liver have been carried out in polyacrylamide gels. By use of zone electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and 2-dimensional electrophoresis it was found that most of the esterprotease bands had the same...... localization in the gels as non-specific esterase bands. A number of esterase bands showed no activity towards the esterprotease substrates and a single kidney band possessed esterprotease activity only. Isozymes of the ES-6 and ES-9 zones showed sex dependent esterprotease reactions. In sections esterase...

  20. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....

  1. Positron-emitting resin microspheres as surrogates of 90Y SIR-Spheres: a radiolabeling and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Selwyn, Reed G.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Converse, Alexander K.; Nickles, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Commercially available resin microspheres and SIR-Spheres were labeled with metallic positron emitters and evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging surrogates of 90 Y SIR-Spheres. Radiolabeling was performed using a batch method, and in vitro stability over 24 h was evaluated in saline at physiological pH at 37 o C. The activity per microsphere distribution, as evaluated by autoradiography, showed the activity per microsphere to be proportional to the square radius of the spheres, suggesting surface binding. The in vivo stability of radiolabeling was evaluated in rats by micro-PET imaging after the intravenous injection of labeled microspheres. The different resin microspheres and radionuclides evaluated in this study all showed good radiolabeling efficiency and in vitro stability. However, only resins labeled with 86 Y and 89 Zr proved to have the in vivo stability required for clinical applications

  2. Produção de anticorpos policlonais anti-ricina Production of polyclonal anti-ricin antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselayne Ferro Furtado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A ricina é uma proteína bastante tóxica presente nas sementes de mamona que impossibilita o uso da torta de mamona "in natura", como ração. A torta de mamona destoxificada necessita ainda de métodos de análise que garantam a ausência de traços dessa proteína. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, produzir e avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade de anticorpos policlonais anti-ricina, para serem empregados como possíveis componentes de métodos sorológicos na detecção de ricina em torta de mamona destoxificada. Foram avaliadas três doses da proteína: 400, 180 e 100 µg cada uma dividida em duas aplicações em coelhos. A primeira dose foi injetada no animal no início do experimento e a segunda após 21 dias. O método de ELISA indicou que as duas doses menores (100 e 180 µg induziram respostas imunológicas primária e secundária com produção de anticorpos específicos. Enquanto a dose maior (400 µg de ricina apresentou uma resposta primária com elevação dos títulos de anticorpos, seguida de uma supressão da resposta. Esse perfil é sugestivo de tolerância imunológica. Pela técnica de Western blotting verificou-se que os anticorpos policlonais produzidos são bastante específicos para a ricina, no entanto, por detectarem ricina na forma nativa e desnaturada não são recomendados para o monitoramento de ricina em torta de mamona destoxificada por tratamento térmico.Ricin is a very toxic protein found in castor bean plants, making it impossible to use natural castor cake as animal food. The detoxificated castor cake needs to be analyzed by methods that ensure the absence of traces of this protein. This work had the objective to produce and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of anti-ricin polyclonal antibodies, to be employed as component of sorologic methods as the ELISA in the detection of ricin in detoxificated castor cake. Three doses of protein, 400, 180 and 100 µg were evaluated each one injected twice into

  3. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, B.

    1988-01-01

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of 14 C-β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of β-lactoglobulin with casein. 14 C- and 3 H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of 3 H to 14 C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, α s2 -casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment

  4. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenberg, F.G. [Div. of Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Tait, J.F. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  5. Radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with Re0-188: liquid kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: carlarobertab@yahoo.com.br; jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Radioimmunotherapy uses the targeting features of monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation from an attached radionuclide. The radionuclide {sup 188}Re is currently produced from the father nuclide {sup 188}W through a transportable generator system. Because of its easy availability and suitable nuclear properties (E{sub {beta}}{sub MAX} =2.1 MeV, t{sub 1/2}=16.9 h, E{sub {gamma}}=155 keV), this radionuclide is considered an attractive candidate for application as therapeutic agents and could be conveniently utilized for imaging and dosimetric purposes. The objective of this work is the optimization of radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with {sup 188}Re using a liquid formulation. Anti-CD20 was reduced by incubation with 2-ME and purified over a PD-10 column. The number of resulting free SH was assayed with Ellman's reagent. Optimization of radiolabeling was achieved by varying parameters: antibody mass, reducing agent, reaction time and {sup 188}Re volume in the liquid kit. Radiochemical purity of {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 was evaluated. An average of 12 SH groups per mol in the reductions was found. The best labeling efficiency (> 93%) was achieved in the following conditions: 1 mg anti-CD20; 82.8 mg sodium tartrate; 1 mg SnCl{sub 2}; 0.25 mg gentisic acid, 1 mL {sup 188}Re and reaction time of 1 hour at room temperature. (author)

  6. Radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with Re0-188: liquid kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy uses the targeting features of monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation from an attached radionuclide. The radionuclide 188 Re is currently produced from the father nuclide 188 W through a transportable generator system. Because of its easy availability and suitable nuclear properties (E βMAX =2.1 MeV, t 1/2 =16.9 h, E γ =155 keV), this radionuclide is considered an attractive candidate for application as therapeutic agents and could be conveniently utilized for imaging and dosimetric purposes. The objective of this work is the optimization of radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with 188 Re using a liquid formulation. Anti-CD20 was reduced by incubation with 2-ME and purified over a PD-10 column. The number of resulting free SH was assayed with Ellman's reagent. Optimization of radiolabeling was achieved by varying parameters: antibody mass, reducing agent, reaction time and 188 Re volume in the liquid kit. Radiochemical purity of 188 Re-anti-CD20 was evaluated. An average of 12 SH groups per mol in the reductions was found. The best labeling efficiency (> 93%) was achieved in the following conditions: 1 mg anti-CD20; 82.8 mg sodium tartrate; 1 mg SnCl 2 ; 0.25 mg gentisic acid, 1 mL 188 Re and reaction time of 1 hour at room temperature. (author)

  7. Scintigraphic detection of peptic lesions with the method of radiolabelled sucralfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumovski, J.; Kovkarova, E.; Simova, N.; Janevik-Ivanovska, E.; Georgievska- Kuzmanovska, S.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Sucralfate is an antiulcer agent that after peroral application strongly adheres to mucosal defects and in that way provides a protective barrier to further damage from acid and pepsin. If radiolabelled with a gamma isotope, it could be detected under a gamma camera pointing lesions to which it adhered. With the aim to confirm a suitable noninvasive method for investigation of caustic lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract we evaluated in a preliminary study the validity of the radiolabelled Sucralfate scintigraphy in detection of peptic disease. Patients and methods. With that purpose, 35 patients after an endoscopic examination underwent scintigraphy with Tc-99m-DTPA sucralfate. Patients were divided in two groups: a group of 20 patients with endoscopic confirmed peptic disease and a control group of 15 persons who had not any disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Results. Using the test for clinical evaluation of a new method, the scan showed sensitivity of 75 %, specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 85.7 %. Conclusions. Scintigraphy with Tc-99m-DTPA Sucralfate promoting it as an additional method, complementary to routine investigations in detecting mucosal lesions. (author)

  8. Preliminary investigations on the preparation of gold nanoparticles intrinsically radiolabeled with 199Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalnath, K.V.; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled nanoparticles are of great interest in the current perspective of the nuclear medicine. Water dispersible materials with nanoscale dimensions are finding role in biomedical application owing to their size. These particles can access otherwise unreachable regions in tumor mainly due to Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Nanoparticles of gold (AuNPs) can bind to a wide range of biologically active molecules with functional groups that have high affinity for the gold surface. Sulfur containing compounds (e.g. thiols, disulfides), organic phosphates, amines, PEG, etc. are some of the well known surface modifiers. Functional thiolates, oligonucleotides, peptides and PEGs are introduced upon subsequent bimolecular substitution of a ligand by a functional thiol easily attached to AuNPs. Owing to its favourable decay characteristics 199 Au (T 1/2 = 3.15 d, E âmax = 474 keV, Eg 158.4 keV (36.9 %) and 208.2 keV (8.4 %)) is an attractive radionuclide for theragnostic applications. In the present work, we have carried out preliminary radiochemical investigations on the preparation of gold nanoparticles intrinsically radiolabeled with 199 Au for its potential utility as a theragnostic agent targeted delivery to the tumors

  9. CT-guided radiolabelled aerosol studies for assessing pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pifferi, M.; Baldini, M.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.; Di Mauro, M.; Cangiotti, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether CT-guided mucociliary clearance studies allow differentiation between bronchiectasis associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. Materials and methods. Fifteen children aged 4-18 years with a CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis were included in the study. Six had PCD, while in nine cases no congenital disorder was demonstrated. Results. CT showed bronchiectasis in 26 (29 %) of 90 lung regions. Radiolabelled aerosol studies were conducted globally for each lung and on the regions affected by bronchiectasis. Global half-time of activity (t 1/2 ) values of patients with PCD were significantly higher (P 1/2 values. Patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to congenital disorders showed significantly higher regional t 1/2 values in the affected regions with respect to the corresponding global pulmonary t 1/2 (P < 0.06). Conclusions. The combination of morphological CT information with functional data concerning the clearance of radiolabelled aerosol adds to our understanding of pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis. In particular, regional studies allow the recognition of different mucociliary clearance patterns in bronchiectasis associated with PCD and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. (orig.)

  10. Direct 99mTc labeling of monoclonal antibodies: radiolabeling and in vitro stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garron, J.Y.; Moinereau, M.; Pasqualini, R.; Saccavini, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Direct labeling involves 99m Tc binding to different donor groups on the protein, giving multiple binding sites of various affinities resulting in an in vivo instability. The stability has been considerably improved by activating the antibody using a controlled reduction reaction (using 2-aminoethanethiol). This reaction generates sulfhydryl groups, which are known to strongly bind 99m Tc. The direct 99m Tc antibody labeling method was explored using whole antibodies and fragments. Analytical methods were developed for routine evaluation of radiolabeling yield and in vitro stability. Stable direct antibody labeling with 99m Tc requires the generation of sulfhydryl groups, which show high affinity binding sites for 99m Tc. Such groups are obtained with 2-aminoethanethiol (AET), which induces the reduction of the intrachain or interchain disulfide bond, with no structural deterioration or any loss of immunobiological activity of the antibody. The development of fast, reliable analytical methods has made possible the qualitative and quantitative assessment of technetium species generated by the radiolabeling process. Labeling stability is determined by competition of the 99m Tc-antibody bond with three ligands, Chelex 100 (a metal chelate-type resin), free DTPA solution and 1% HSA solution. Very good 99m Tc-antibody stability is obtained with activated IgG (IgGa) and Fab' fragment, which makes these substances possible candidates for immunoscintigraphy use. (author)

  11. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenberg, F.G.; Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A.; Tait, J.F.; Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  12. A study of radiolabelling parameters of 1/5 fractionated cardiolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Snowdon, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Fractionation of Cardiolite (Dupont Pharma) has in recent times become increasingly popular in order to minimise costs in our funds-strapped public health system. We investigated the following parameters which are known to potentially affect 1/5 Cardiolite radiolabelling efficiency: 1. Radioactivity-4 to 12 GBq per vial. 2. Total volumes-2.5 and 6.5 mL per vial. 3. Boiling times-2 to 10 minutes. 4. Extra stannous chloride concentration-16 and 32 mg. 5. Quality control procedure-ITLC-SG v. Sep Pak Lite column chromatography. The addition of extra stannous chloride was essential to achieve radiochemical purity >90%. Increasing the total vial volume had a deleterious effect on radiochemical purity. A radiochemical purity >90% was achieved after four minutes boiling of 1/5 fractionated Cardiolite radiolabelled with an activity of up to 10 GBq [ 99m Tc] sodium pertechnetate provided 32 μg 99m Tc stannous chloride was added to the Cardiolite vial prior to the addition of sodium pertechnetate. The ITLC-SG quality control method gave a constantly higher radiochemical purity estimation (∼ 3%) than the Sep Pak Lite method. This was assumed to be due to a radiochemical impurity not detected by ITLC-SG but confirmed on HPLC via personal communication with the radiochemists from St George Hospital, Sydney

  13. Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients

  14. A novel method for synthesis of {sup 56}Co-radiolabelled silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cydzik, I. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Poland); Abbas, K. [Institute for Transuranium Elements (Ispra Site), European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Simonelli, F.; Bulgheroni, A.; Holzwarth, U., E-mail: uwe.holzwarth@jrc.ec.europa.eu; Gibson, N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    A method for synthesis of radiolabelled amorphous silica nanoparticles is presented. The method is based on the well-known Stoeber process with the exception that {sup 56}Co radiotracer is introduced into one of the precursor materials prior to the initiation of the nanoparticle synthesis. The {sup 56}Co was prepared by proton irradiation of an iron foil, followed by dissolution in hydrochloric acid and {sup 56}Co/Fe radiochemical separation. In order to determine the residual Fe in the {sup 56}Co radiotracer solution, ICP-MS measurements were performed. Nanoparticles in the size range 20-100 nm were synthesised and characterised by gamma spectrometry, ICP-MS, XRD, DLS, and Zeta potential measurement. It was shown that the size and Zeta potential of the nanoparticles was roughly the same following synthesis with or without added {sup 56}Co, and in both cases, the structure was that of amorphous silica. It was found that 99.5 % of the {sup 56}Co was bound into the nanoparticles during synthesis, and centrifugation experiments confirmed that the radiolabels were stably incorporated into the silica matrix.

  15. Binding of radiolabeled asbestos fibers to guinea pig (gp) alveolar macrophages (AM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, M.A.; Tewson, T.J.; Francsechini, M.P.; Scheule, R.K.; Holian, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which fibrogenic particulates cause pulmonary fibrosis in humans is not understood, but is likely to involve the AM. Using two fibrogenic particulates, namely, chrysotile (CHR) and crocidolite (CRO) asbestos and gpAM as components of an in vitro model system, the authors have shown that CHR stimulates the gpAM to release superoxide anion, but CRO does not. To examine whether this difference in stimulatory abilities is a result of differences in cell-asbestos binding they have developed an efficient procedure that radiolabels asbestos fibers while retaining their bioactivity. The fibers are labeled with 68 Ge. The 68 Ge decays into 68 Ga, which then can be detected by its characteristic position emission. Both CHR and CRO asbestos were radiolabled successfully. Mild reaction conditions and short reaction times were found under which >90% of the added 68 Ge and 68 Ga bound to the fibers. The radiolabel was retained even after washing the fibers extensively with physiologic buffers. A density gradient procedure was developed to quantitate the binding of asbestos to gpAM in suspension. The binding of both fibers increased with time over one hr. Thus, these results indicate that although both CHR and CRO interact with the gpAM, only CHR interacts productively to stimulate superoxide anion release

  16. Radiolabeling and physicochemical characterization of boron nitride nanotubes functionalized with glycol chitosan polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Daniel Cristian Ferreira; Ferreira, Tiago Hilario; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Nanoestruturados para Bioaplicacoes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento, E-mail: cardosov@farmacia.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, some nanostructured systems has proposed as new drugs and radioisotopes delivery systems, aiming the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, including the cancer. Among these systems, the Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) showed adequate characteristics to be applied in biomedical area, due to its high stability and considerable biocompatibility. However, due to its hydrophobic characteristics, these applications are limited and its behavior in vivo (guinea pigs) is unexplored yet. Seeking to overcome this problems, in the present work, we functionalized the BNNTs (noncovalent wrapped) with glycol chitosan (GC), a biocompatible and stable polymer, in order to disperse it in water. The results showed that BNNTs were well dispersed in water with mean size and polydispersity index suitable to conduct biodistribution studies in mice. The nanostructures were physicochemical and morphologically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy. The results revealed that the functionalization process with glycol chitosan was obtained with successfully on BNNTs surface. Furthermore, we developed a radiolabeling protocol with {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope in functionalized BNNTs, aiming in future, to conduct image biodistribution studies in mice. The results revealed that the nanotubes were radiolabeled with radiochemical purity above of 90%, being considered suitable to scintigraphic image acquisition. (author)

  17. N-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)maleimide: an agent for high yield radiolabeling of antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawli, L.A.; Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Kassis, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to radiolabel antibodies, N-(m-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)maleimide (m-[ 125 I]IPM) was prepared by the demetallation of an N-[m-tri-(n-butyl)stannylphenyl]maleimide intermediate. The unlabeled intermediate was synthesized in ≥ 75% yield using a palladium catalyzed reaction of hexabutylditin with m-bromoaniline, followed by reaction with maleic anhydride and ring annulation. All products were confirmed by NMR and elemental analysis. Labeling with 125 I was carried out in a biphasic mixture containing chloramine-T (radiochemical yield ≥ 70%). Rabbit IgG modified with the heterobifunctional crosslinking agent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP) and bovine serum albumin were conjugated with m-[ 125 I]IPM (yield: 40 and 80%, respectively). In addition, m-[ 125 I]IPM was conjugated to rabbit IgG subunits (HL) in 70% yield. The in vitro stability of the radiolabeled proteins in serum showed < 1% deiodination over 24h. (author)

  18. Integrity of 111In-radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haotian; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagesha, Dattatri; Duclos, Richard I.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Gatley, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Iron-oxide nanoparticles can act as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while radiolabeling the same platform with nuclear medicine isotopes allows imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), modalities that offer better quantification. For successful translation of these multifunctional imaging platforms to clinical use, it is imperative to evaluate the degree to which the association between radioactive label and iron oxide core remains intact in vivo. Methods: We prepared iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by oleic acid and phospholipids which were further radiolabeled with 59 Fe, 14 C-oleic acid, and 111 In. Results: Mouse biodistributions showed 111 In preferentially localized in reticuloendothelial organs, liver, spleen and bone. However, there were greater levels of 59 Fe than 111 In in liver and spleen, but lower levels of 14 C. Conclusions: While there is some degree of dissociation between the 111 In labeled component of the nanoparticle and the iron oxide core, there is extensive dissociation of the oleic acid component

  19. Intravenous avidin chase improved localization of radiolabeled streptavidin in intraperitoneal xenograft pretargeted with biotinylated antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meili; Sakahara, Harumi; Yao Zhengsheng; Saga, Tsuneo; Nakamoto, Yuhi; Sato, Noriko; Nakada, Hiroshi; Yamashina, Ikuo; Konishi, Junji

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of avidin administered intravenously (i.v.) on the biodistribution of radiolabeled streptavidin in mice bearing intraperitoneal (IP) xenografts pretargeted with biotinylated antibody. Tumors were established in nude mice by IP inoculation of LS180 human colon cancer cells. Monoclonal antibody MLS128, which recognizes Tn antigen on mucin, was biotinylated and injected IP into the IP tumor-bearing mice. Radioiodinated streptavidin was administered IP or i.v. 48 h after pretargeting of biotinylated antibody. Avidin was administered i.v. 30 min prior to streptavidin injection. The localization of radioiodinated streptavidin in the tumor pretargeted with biotinylated antibody was significantly higher than that without pretargeting and that of radioiodinated MLS128 by the one-step method. Avidin administration significantly accelerated the clearance of radioiodinated streptavidin in blood and other normal tissues and increased the tumor-to-blood radioactivity ratio regardless of administration route of streptavidin. The i.v. avidin chase improved tumor localization of radiolabeled streptavidin in the IP xenografts pretargeted with biotinylated antibody

  20. Radiolabeling and physicochemical characterization of boron nitride nanotubes functionalized with glycol chitosan polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Daniel Cristian Ferreira; Ferreira, Tiago Hilario; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, some nanostructured systems has proposed as new drugs and radioisotopes delivery systems, aiming the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, including the cancer. Among these systems, the Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) showed adequate characteristics to be applied in biomedical area, due to its high stability and considerable biocompatibility. However, due to its hydrophobic characteristics, these applications are limited and its behavior in vivo (guinea pigs) is unexplored yet. Seeking to overcome this problems, in the present work, we functionalized the BNNTs (noncovalent wrapped) with glycol chitosan (GC), a biocompatible and stable polymer, in order to disperse it in water. The results showed that BNNTs were well dispersed in water with mean size and polydispersity index suitable to conduct biodistribution studies in mice. The nanostructures were physicochemical and morphologically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy. The results revealed that the functionalization process with glycol chitosan was obtained with successfully on BNNTs surface. Furthermore, we developed a radiolabeling protocol with 99m Tc radioisotope in functionalized BNNTs, aiming in future, to conduct image biodistribution studies in mice. The results revealed that the nanotubes were radiolabeled with radiochemical purity above of 90%, being considered suitable to scintigraphic image acquisition. (author)

  1. Technetium-99m pertechnetate - a tracer for radiolabelling antibody for inflammation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal; Shahrin A Hamid; Ang Woan Tze; Rosnani Hashim

    1999-01-01

    The polyclonal antibody, Human Immunoglobulin G (HlgG) was reduced by using 2-mercaptoethanol with molar ratio of 1000:1 (i.e. mercaptoethanol:antibody). The reduction of the antibody, was carried out for 30 minutes at room temperature. The reduced antibody was purified by using Sephadex G-25 fine column. The antibody kit for the detection of inflammation was prepared aseptically in Class 1 Laminar Flow cabinet. The kit passed the sterility test. Upon reconstitution of the antibody kit with sodium pertechnetate-99m ( 99m Tc) solution, the labelling efficiency obtained was more than 95%. This preparation was stable up to 24-hour stored at room temperature. Gamma camera scans showed the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled antibody ( 99m Tc-HIgG) at the turpentine-induced inflammation of female Sprague-Dawley rats. This indicated the possibility of using 99m Tc-HIgG for inflammation detection. (author)

  2. A polyclonal antibody against extracellular loops 1 of chNHE1 blocks avian leukosis virus subgroup J infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Zhou, Defang; Li, Chengui; Wang, Guihua; Huang, Libo; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2018-05-02

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and other various tumors, leading to great economical losses in poultry industry. It is a great challenge to develop effective preventive methods for ALV-J control due to its antigenic variations in the variable regions of envelope. In present study, we generated a mouse polyclonal antibody targeting the first extracellular loop (ECL1) of chicken Na + /H + exchanger isoform 1 (chNHE1), the receptor of ALV-J, to block ALV-J infection in vitro and in vivo. In ALV-J infected DF-1 cells, chNHE1 expression and the intracellular pH (pHi) were up-regulated with "wave" pattern, indicating that the disequilibrium of ALV-J infected cells associated with chNHE1. Next, we validated that ALV-J infection was significantly blocked with time dependent after treating with anti-ECL1 antibody and accordingly the pHi value were recovered, indicating the blockage of ALV-J infection did not affect Na + /H + exchange. Furthermore, in anti-ECL1 antibody treatment chickens that infected by ALV-J, weight gain and immune organs were recovered, and viral loads were significantly decreased, and the tissue injury and inflammation were reduced significantly from 21 to 35 days of age. The study demonstrated that anti-ECL1 antibody effectively blocks ALV-J infection without affecting Na + /H + exchange, and sheds light on a novel strategy for retroviruses control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies of the radiolabeling and biodistribution of substance P using lutetium-177 as a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Clarice Maria de

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors, resistant to various treatments, as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, induction of apoptosis and surgery. An alternative for the treatment of malignant gliomas is the radionuclide therapy. This technique apply radiolabeled molecules that selectively bind to tumor cells producing cytotoxic effect by dose irradiation, and resulting in death of tumor cells. Most protocols for radionuclide therapy of malignant brain tumors involve the administration of peptides labeled with β - emitting radioisotopes. The Substance P (SP) is an 11- amino acid neuropeptide, characterized by the C-terminal sequence Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH 2 . The use of SP labeled with different radionuclides including 177 Lu, have been proposed for in vivo treatment of tumors. SP is the most important target of neurokinin 1 receptors, over expressed in malignant gliomas. The objective of this work was to study conditions of radiolabeling DOTA-SP with 177 Lu, the stability of labeled compound and in vivo and in vitro, to develop a protocol production and evaluate the potential of the radiopharmaceutical in the therapy of gliomas. The labeling conditions were optimized varying the temperature, reaction time, activity of lutetium-177 chloride and mass of DOTA-SP. The radiochemical purity of preparations were analyzed by chromatographic techniques. The stability of 17L u -DOTA- SP radiolabeled with low activity of 177 Lu was evaluated for different time at 2-8 degree C or incubated in human serum. The stability of the labeled with high activity of 177 Lu was also analyzed in the presence of gentisic acid (6 mg / mL) added after the labeling reaction. The labeled conditions in low and high activity were subjected to evaluation for the ability to cause oxidation of methionine residue, adding the D-L- methionine amino acid to the reaction medium (6 mg / mL) and subsequent chromatographic evaluation. In vitro study with 177 Lu-DOTA-SP, radiolabeled in the absence and presence

  4. Tumour uptake of the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue [DOTA0,TYR3]octreotide is dependent on the peptide amount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, M. de; Breeman, W.A.P.; Bernard, B.F.; Gameren, A. van; Bruin, E. de; Bakker, W.H.; Van der Pluijm, M.E.; Krenning, E.P.; Visser, T.J.; Maecke, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radiolabelled tumour receptor-binding peptides can be used for in vivo scintigraphic imaging. Recently, the somatostatin analogue [Tyr 3 ]octreotide (d-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)-Thr(ol)) was derivatized with the chelator DOTA (tetra-azacyclododecane-tetra-acetic acid), enabling stable radiolabelling with both the high-energy beta particle-emitter yttrium-90 and the Auger electron-emitter indium-111. The thus produced radiolabelled compounds are promising for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Our previous in vitro and in vivo (rat) experiments with these radiolabelled compounds showed favourable binding and biodistribution characteristics with high uptake and retention in the target organs. We also demonstrated receptor-specific, time- and temperature-dependent internalization of radiolabelled [DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotide in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst 2 )-positive rat pancreatic tumour cell lines. In this study we have investigated the effects of differences in the amount of injected peptide on tissue distribution of 111 In-labelled [DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotide in normal, i.e. non-tumour-bearing, and CA20948 tumour-bearing rats. This was done in order to find the amount of peptide at which the highest uptake in target tissues is achieved, and thereby to increase the potential of radionuclide therapy while simultaneously ensuring the lowest possible radiotoxicity in normal organs. Uptake of radiolabelled [DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotide in sst 2 -positive organs showed different bell-shaped functions of the amount of injected peptide, being highest at 0.05 (adrenals), 0.05-0.1 (pituitary and stomach) and 0.25 (pancreas) μg. Uptake in the tumour was highest at 0.5 μg injected peptide. The highest uptake was found at peptide amounts that were lower than those reported for [ 111 In-DTPA 0 ]octreotide (d-Phe-c(Cys-Phe-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)-Thr(ol), DTPA = diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid), consistent with the higher receptor affinity of the first compound

  5. Evaluation of 4-[18F]fluoro-1-butyne as a radiolabeled synthon for click chemistry with azido compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Click chemistry is a useful approach for the preparation of novel radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, we evaluated 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-butyne as a radiolabeled synthon for click chemistry with azido compounds. Our results showed that nucleophilic substitution of 4-tosyloxy-1-butyne with K[ 18 F]F produces vinyl acetylene as well as 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-butyne, while the same reaction using 5-tosyloxy-1-pentyne gives exclusively 5-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-pentyne. Thus, ω-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-alkynes with chain lengths longer than four carbons may be better radiolabeled synthons for use in click chemistry.

  6. Computer simulations and the use of radiolabelled sulphur colloid to measure the efficiency of the mononuclear phagocyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.H.; Rutishauser, S.C.B.; Williams, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are described whereby the clearance of the radiolabelled blood borne colloid can be continuously and reproducibly measured non-invasively from the same animal in vivo or from the isolated perfused intact liver in vitro. Using these techniques, the rate of removal of radiolabelled sulphur colloid by the mononuclear phagocytes in vivo and in vitro was shown to be biexponential. The pattern of clearance of colloid and the factors contributing to this were analysed with the aid of a computer program which mimicked the in vitro liver perfusion. (Auth.)

  7. Is Home Spirometry Useful in Diagnosing Asthma in Children With Nonspecific Respiratory Symptoms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Alwin F. J.; Visser, Chantal A. N.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Roorda, Ruurd Jan; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Background: Variation of lung function is considered to be a hallmark of asthma. Although guidelines recommend measuring it as a diagnostic tool for asthma, the usefulness of this approach has not been studied in children. Aim: To assess the usefulness of home spirometry in children with nonspecific

  8. Treatment of Non-specific Urethritis in Males with Demeclocycine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Ganguli

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty patients with non-specific urethritis were treated with demeclocycline hydrochiloride in doses of 600 mg and 900 mg respectively per day for three weeks. The cure rates obtained were 90% and 88% respectively. The side effects included stoeaatitis one; nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea in 5; and phototbyicity in two cases.

  9. Intentional and unintentional contributions to nonspecific information during reaction time foreperiods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, S.A.; Knol, D.L.; Boers, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The foreperiod (FP) is the interval between a warning stimulus and the imperative stimulus. It is a classical finding that both the duration and the intertrial variability of FP considerably affects response time. These effects are invariably attributed to the participant's state of nonspecific

  10. Self-reported Work Ability and Work Performance in Workers with Chronic Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.; Reneman, M.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.

    Purpose To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index,

  11. Childhood nonspecific abdominal pain in family practice: incidence, associated factors, and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, M.J.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Y.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Berger, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is a common complaint in childhood. In specialist care, childhood NSAP is considered to be a complex and time-consuming problem, and parents are hard to reassure. Little is known about NSAP in family practice, but the impression is that family physicians

  12. Childhood Nonspecific Abdominal Pain in Family Practice : Incidence, Associated Factors, and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, Marieke J.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is a common complaint in childhood. In specialist care, childhood NSAP is considered to be a complex and time-consuming problem, and parents are hard to reassure. Little is known about NSAP in family practice, but the impression is that family physicians

  13. Core outcome measurement instruments for clinical trials in non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Boers, Maarten; Deyo, Richard A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Corbin, Terry P; Costa, Leonardo O P; Foster, Nadine E; Grotle, Margreth; Koes, Bart W; Kovacs, Francisco M; Christine Lin, Chung-Wei; Maher, Chris G; Pearson, Adam M; Peul, Wilco C; Schoene, Mark L; Turk, Dennis C; van Tulder, Maurits W; Terwee, Caroline B; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2017-01-01

    To standardize outcome reporting in clinical trials of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP), an international multidisciplinary panel recommended physical functioning, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as core outcome domains. Given the lack of consensus on

  14. Clinical importance of non-specific lipid transfer proteins as food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) have recently been identified as plant food allergens. They are good examples of true food allergens, in the sense that they are capable of sensitizing, i.e. inducing specific IgE, as well as of eliciting severe symptoms. This is in contrast with most

  15. Non-specific myiases of domestic animals in Czech and Slovac Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minář, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2004), s. 107-109 ISSN 1336-300X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : non-specific myiasis * domestic animals * Lucilia sericata Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  16. Clinical Practice Guideline for Physical Therapy Assessment and Treatment in Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, Jasper D; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy G M; Staal, J Bart; Pool, Jan; van Tulder, Maurits W; Beekman, Emmylou; Knoop, Jesper; Meerhoff, Guus; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2017-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) issued a clinical practice guideline for physical therapists that addresses the assessment and treatment of patients with nonspecific neck pain, including cervical radiculopathy, in Dutch primary care. Recommendations were based on a review of

  17. Clinical Practice Guideline for Physical Therapy Assessment and Treatment in Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, Jasper D.; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy G.M.; Staal, J. Bart; Pool, Jan; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Beekman, Emmylou; Knoop, Jesper; Meerhoff, Guus; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    2018-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) issued a clinical practice guideline for physical therapists that addresses the assessment and treatment of patients with nonspecific neck pain, including cervical radiculopathy, in Dutch primary care. Recommendations were based on a review of

  18. Clinical Practice Guideline for Physical Therapy Assessment and Treatment in Patients With Nonspecific Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, Jasper D.; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy G. M.; Staal, J. Bart; Pool, Jan; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Beekman, Emmylou; Knoop, Jesper; Meerhoff, Guus; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) issued a clinical practice guideline for physical therapists that addresses the assessment and treatment of patients with nonspecific neck pain, including cervical radiculopathy, in Dutch primary care. Recommendations were based on a review of

  19. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain : a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Haitze J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP) have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study

  20. Nanopatterned submicron pores as a shield for nonspecific binding in surface plasmon resonance-based sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Sabina Rebe; Marchesini, Gerardo R.; Bremer, Maria G. E. G.; Colpo, Pascal; Garcia, Cesar Pascual; Guidetti, Guido; Norde, Willem; Rossi, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to tackle the most common drawback of using surface plasmon resonance for analyte screening in complex biological matrices - the nonspecific binding to the sensor chip surface. By using a perforated membrane supported by a polymeric gel structure at the evanescent wave

  1. Nanopatterned submicron pores as a shield for nonspecific binding in surface plasmon resonance-based sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebe-Raz, S.; Marchesini, G.R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Colpo, P.; Garcia, C.P.; Guidetti, G.; Norde, W.; Rossi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to tackle the most common drawback of using surface plasmon resonance for analyte screening in complex biological matrices – the nonspecific binding to the sensor chip surface. By using a perforated membrane supported by a polymeric gel structure at the evanescent wave

  2. Amplification of nonspecific products in quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Villalba, Adrián; van Pelt-Verkuil, Elizabeth; Gunst, Quinn D.; Ruijter, Jan M.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative PCR allows the precise measurement of DNA concentrations and is generally considered to be straightforward and trouble free. However, a survey with 93 validated assays for genes in the Wnt-pathway showed that the amplification of nonspecific products occurs frequently and is unrelated

  3. Nonspecific chronic low back pain patients are deconditioned and have an increased body fat percentage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare data on the level of aerobic capacity and body composition of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with normative data matched for sex, age and level of sporting activity. The study population consisted of 101 outpatients with

  4. Radionuclide evaluation of gastric, intestinal and pancreatic function in nonspecific ulcerative colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talipov, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stomach and intestine motorevacuator function, small intestine absorptive finction and pancreas functional state in case of nonspecific ulcerous colitis were studied by complex radionuclide examinations. Data, methods and results on treatment depending on clinical severity and dissemination of the pathological process are presented the pathological process are presented

  5. Fluorine-18 radiolabeling of low-density lipoproteins: a potential approach for characterization and differentiation of metabolism of native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; Hoff, Joerg van den

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ( 18 F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [ 18 F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [ 18 F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo

  6. Fluorine-18 radiolabeling of low-density lipoproteins: a potential approach for characterization and differentiation of metabolism of native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18)F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [(18)F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [(18)F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo.

  7. From nonspecific DNA-protein encounter complexes to the prediction of DNA-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Gao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA-protein interactions are involved in many essential biological activities. Because there is no simple mapping code between DNA base pairs and protein amino acids, the prediction of DNA-protein interactions is a challenging problem. Here, we present a novel computational approach for predicting DNA-binding protein residues and DNA-protein interaction modes without knowing its specific DNA target sequence. Given the structure of a DNA-binding protein, the method first generates an ensemble of complex structures obtained by rigid-body docking with a nonspecific canonical B-DNA. Representative models are subsequently selected through clustering and ranking by their DNA-protein interfacial energy. Analysis of these encounter complex models suggests that the recognition sites for specific DNA binding are usually favorable interaction sites for the nonspecific DNA probe and that nonspecific DNA-protein interaction modes exhibit some similarity to specific DNA-protein binding modes. Although the method requires as input the knowledge that the protein binds DNA, in benchmark tests, it achieves better performance in identifying DNA-binding sites than three previously established methods, which are based on sophisticated machine-learning techniques. We further apply our method to protein structures predicted through modeling and demonstrate that our method performs satisfactorily on protein models whose root-mean-square Calpha deviation from native is up to 5 A from their native structures. This study provides valuable structural insights into how a specific DNA-binding protein interacts with a nonspecific DNA sequence. The similarity between the specific DNA-protein interaction mode and nonspecific interaction modes may reflect an important sampling step in search of its specific DNA targets by a DNA-binding protein.

  8. AN ANALYSIS ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF SHIPPING PORT WORKERS TOWARD NONSPECIFIC BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izham Zain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonspecific back pain can be defined as pain and discomfort, localized over below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds. Such disorder are known to be a major cause of reduced work capabilities and causing substantial financial consequences and poor productivity. Occupational related nonspecific back pain is the common disorder affecting those workers performing high physical demanding task. The shipping port workers were exposed to hazardous working nature and known to be affected. Numerous study indicate that knowledge and attitude towards safety were contributing factors to occupational related back pain. Currently no study was conducted to determine the relationship between knowledge, attitude and occupational related back pain among them. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nonspecific back pain and determine the difference between knowledge and attitude toward such incident. Methods: The respondents were workers known to have nonspecific back pain. The data collection is carry out through a set of questionnaire consists of knowledge, attitudes and Nordic questionnaire on area of back pain. Results: Majority of respondents (n=70 involve in driving and maneuver terminal crane cargo. The mean of knowledge score is 7.49 (±1.20, attitude score is 5.72 (±1.33 and were ranked in good and moderate respectively. There is no statistical difference between knowledge, attitudes with workers job nature, academic qualification and years of working experience. Conclusion: A preventive intervention should be introduced to enhance workers attitudes and curb the nonspecific back pain incidents. Employee positive involvement, strongly supported by employer and active engagement of healthcare provider able to curb occupational related back pain at work place.

  9. Comparison of cervical spine stiffness in individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain and asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lewis A; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Rivett, Darren A

    2015-03-01

    Clinical measurement, cross-sectional. To determine if spinal joint stiffness is different in individuals with nonspecific neck pain, and whether stiffness magnitude is associated with pain intensity and disability. Manual therapists commonly evaluate spinal joint stiffness in patients presenting with nonspecific neck pain. However, a relationship between stiffness and neck pain has not yet been demonstrated. Spinal stiffness at C7 was objectively measured in participants with chronic nonspecific neck pain whose symptomatic spinal level was identified as C7 (n = 12) and in age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls (n = 12). Stiffness (slope of the linear region of the force-displacement curve) was quantified using a device that applied 5 standardized mechanical force cycles to the C7 spinous process, while concurrently measuring displacement and resistance to movement. Stiffness was compared between groups using an independent t test. Spearman rho and Pearson r were used to determine the extent to which stiffness magnitude was associated with pain intensity (visual analog scale) and level of disability (Neck Disability Index), respectively, in the group with neck pain. Participants with nonspecific neck pain had greater spinal joint stiffness at C7 compared with asymptomatic individuals (mean difference, 1.78 N/mm; 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 3.27; P = .022). However, stiffness magnitude in the group with neck pain was not associated (P>.05) with pain intensity or level of disability. These preliminary results suggest that cervical spine stiffness may be greater in the presence of nonspecific neck pain. However, judgments regarding pain intensity and level of disability should not be inferred from examinations of spinal joint stiffness.

  10. In vitro evaluation, biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging in mice of radiolabeled anthrax toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Rivera, Johanna; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Nakouzi, Antonio; Cahill, Sean M.; Blumenstein, Michael; Xiao, Hui; Rykunov, Dmitry; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a lot of interest towards creating therapies and vaccines for Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium which causes anthrax in humans and which spores can be made into potent biological weapons. Systemic injection of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA) in mice produces toxicity, and this protocol is commonly used to investigate the efficacy of specific antibodies in passive protection and vaccine studies. Availability of toxins labeled with imageable radioisotopes would allow to demonstrate their tissue distribution after intravenous injection at toxin concentration that are below pharmacologically significant to avoid masking by toxic effects. Methods: LF, EF and PA were radiolabeled with 188 Re and 99m Tc, and their performance in vitro was evaluated by macrophages and Chinese hamster ovary cells toxicity assays and by binding to macrophages. Scintigraphic imaging and biodistribution of intravenously (IV) injected 99m Tc-and 123 I-labeled toxins was performed in BALB/c mice. Results: Radiolabeled toxins preserved their biological activity. Scatchard-type analysis of the binding of radiolabeled PA to the J774.16 macrophage-like cells revealed 6.6x10 4 binding sites per cell with a dissociation constant of 6.7 nM. Comparative scintigraphic imaging of mice injected intravenously with either 99m Tc-or 123 I-labeled PA, EF and LF toxins demonstrated similar biodistribution patterns with early localization of radioactivity in the liver, spleen, intestines and excretion through kidneys. The finding of renal excretion shortly after IV injection strongly suggests that toxins are rapidly degraded which could contribute to the variability of mouse toxigenic assays. Biodistribution studies confirmed that all three toxins concentrated in the liver and the presence of high levels of radioactivity again implied rapid degradation in vivo. Conclusions: The availability of 188 Re and 99m Tc-labeled PA, LF and EF toxins allowed us to

  11. On the relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients with non-specific neck pain. While a linear relationship between pain intensity and postural sway has been described in low back pain patients, no such investigation has been conducted in adults with non-specific neck pain....

  12. Synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides from diazonium salts: experimental and computational results permit the identification of the preferred mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sameer M; de Cózar, Abel; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Koziorowski, Jacek; Llop, Jordi; Cossío, Fernando P

    2015-05-28

    Experimental and computational studies on the formation of aryl azides from the corresponding diazonium salts support a stepwise mechanism via acyclic zwitterionic intermediates. The low energy barriers associated with both transition structures are compatible with very fast and efficient processes, thus making this method suitable for the chemical synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides.

  13. Effect of highly radiolabelled 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) on experimental DNCB contact dermatitis in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipp, G [Red Cross Clinic, Dept. of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, Saarbruecken; Biro, G [2. Medical Clinic, Medical School, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar; Bahmer, F [Clinic of Dermatology, Medical School, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar; Mitschke, H [Institute of Pathology, Municipal Academic Hospital, Winterberg, Saarbruecken; Lehmann, G [Dept. of Analytical and Biological Chemistry, University of Saarland, Saarbruecken, Federal Republic of Germany

    1984-01-01

    With the aid of epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) solution in acetone, we induced a cutaneous allergic reaction of the delayed type. Our question was whether the development of the DNCB cutaneous sensitivity could be suppressed by highly radiolabelled DNCB. On the basis of the clonal selection theory and our own results with other in vivo-experimental animal models, one could suppose that the highly radiolabelled DNCB as haptens binds to the Ig-membrane receptors of the genetically determined T-lymphocyte clone, and that the conjugated radioactivity (/sup 125/I) causes a selective radioactive damage to this competent T-lymphocyte subpopulation. By means of intracardially applied radiolabelled DNCB, we are able to induce either complete or very significant suppression of the cutaneous DNCB immune response. In the second experiment, the highly radiolabelled DNCB was not able to inhibit sensitization to a simultaneously applied 4-ethoxy-methylene-2-phenyl-oxazolone (oxazolone). This result clearly demonstrates the antigen specificity of this form of immune suppression.

  14. Effect of highly radiolabelled 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) on experimental DNCB contact dermatitis in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipp, G.; Biro, G.; Bahmer, F.; Mitschke, H.; Lehmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    With the aid of epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) solution in acetone, we induced a cutaneous allergic reaction of the delayed type. Our question was whether the development of the DNCB cutaneous sensitivity could be suppressed by highly radiolabelled DNCB. On the basis of the clonal selection theory and our own results with other in vivo-experimental animal models, one could suppose that the highly radiolabelled DNCB as haptens binds to the Ig-membrane receptors of the genetically determined T-lymphocyte clone, and that the conjugated radioactivity ( 125 I) causes a selective radioactive damage to this competent T-lymphocyte subpopulation. By means of intracardially applied radiolabelled DNCB, we are able to induce either complete or very significant suppression of the cutaneous DNCB immune response. In the second experiment, the highly radiolabelled DNCB was not able to inhibit sensitization to a simultaneously applied 4-ethoxy-methylene-2-phenyl-oxazolone (oxazolone). This result clearly demonstrates the antigen specificity of this form of immune suppression. (author)

  15. In vivo localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in a CEA-producing tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Tetsuya; Seto, Hikaru; Taki, Kuniyasu; Soya, Toshio; Kakishita, Masao; Maeda, Masatoshi; Honda, Takashi; Koshimura, Saburou.

    1987-01-01

    To compare accumulation of the 125 I-labeled antibodies(anti-carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antibody) to a CEA-producing tumor (SC-2-JCK), an in vivo localization study was performed in nude mice. The tumor-to-blood ratio at 120 hours after injection rose to 4.6 for the monoclonal antibody, but remained at 1.3 for the polyclonal antibody. However, no differences were noted between the antibodies up to 72 hours after injection. In autoradiograms, selective accumulation of the tracer was noted in the tumor for both antibodies. However, no superiority or inferiority of imaging for either of the antibodies could be definitely determined. (author)

  16. Interpretation of animal data in the calculation of doses from new radiolabelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellender, M.; Naylor, G.P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radionuclide Biokinetics Group of the Biomedical Effects Department at NRPB provides a dose calculation service for pharmaceutical companies and associated laboratories which plan to administer radiolabelled drugs to human volunteers as part of their research and development programmes for new compounds. Animal data provided by these companies are used to estimate the likely doses to humans from administration of the compound. The dose estimate then accompanies the pharmaceutical company's application for approval from the UK Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC). The method of calculation, the interpretation of the animal data and the range of results obtained are discussed. In addition, the effect of the use of the new ICRP tissue weighting factors in the calculations is considered. (Author)

  17. Radiolabeling of intact dosage forms by neutron activation: effects on in vitro performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, A.; Jay, M.

    1987-01-01

    Compressed tablets containing various quantities of stable isotopes of Ba, Er, and Sm for use in neutron activation studies were evaluated for the effect of stable isotope incorporation on tablet hardness and disintegration times. At concentrations likely to be used in scintigraphic studies employing neutron activation as a radiolabeling method, no significant effect on in vitro parameters were observed. While the incorporation of stable isotopes influenced tablet hardness to a greater degree than disintegration time, irradiation of tablets in a neutron flux of 4.4 x 10(13) n/cm2 sec had a direct effect on tablet disintegration time. Thus, future neutron activation studies should focus on minimizing the amount of stable isotope to be incorporated with the formulation while using the shortest feasible irradiation time

  18. Microbial uptake of radiolabeled substrates: estimates of growth rates from time course measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of [ 3 H]glucose and a mixture of 3 H-labeled amino acids was measured, in time course fashion, in planktonic microbial assemblages of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The average generation times of those portions of the assemblages able to utilize these substrates were estimated from a simple exponential growth model. Other workers have independently used this model in its integrated or differential form. A mathematical verification and an experimental demonstration of the equivalence of the two approaches are presented. A study was made of the size distribution of heterotrophic activity, using time course measurements. It was found that the size distribution and the effect of sample filtration before radiolabeling were dependent on time of incubation. In principle, it was possible to ascribe these time dependences to differences in th specific growth rate and initial standing stock of the microbial assemblages. 33 references

  19. Biodistribution parameters and radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled human low density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.V.; Ryan, J.W.; Williams, K.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Fleming, R.M.; Stark, V.J.; Lathrop, K.A.; Harper, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    The authors propose a model to generate radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled low density lipoprotein (LDL), based upon eight studies of LDL biodistribution in three adult human subjects. Autologous plasma LDL was labeled with Tc-99m, I-123, or In-111 and injected intravenously. Biodistribution of each LDL derivative was monitored by quantitative analysis of scintigrams and direct counting of excreta and of serial blood samples. Assuming that transhepatic flux accounts for the majority of LDL clearance from the bloodstream, they obtained values of cumulated activity (A) and of mean dose per unit administered activity (D) for each study. In each case highest D values were calculated for liver, with mean doses of 5 rads estimated at injected activities of 27 mCi, 9 mCi, and 0.9 mCi for Tc-99m-LDL, I-123-LDL, and In-111-LDL, respectively

  20. Maternal-fetal distribution studies of two radiolabeled compounds in miniature Hormel pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, G.J.; Michel, T.C.; Miller, E.; Sager, A.O.; Sapienza, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution patterns of two radiolabeled compounds were determined in miniature Hormel pigs and their litters late in pregnancy. Seven sows (45 fetuses) were administered (1- 14 C) acrylamide (5 mg/kg IV) and four sows (30 fetuses) were administered (N-methyl- 14 C) betaine (5 mg/kg IV). Acrylamide was distributed readily to both maternal and fetal tissues; a placental factor of 31% was calculated. A blood/brain factor was insignificant in sows and nonexistent in fetal pigs. The placental factor for betaine was calculated to be 97.8% for maternal and fetal tissues. The blood/brain factor was 89% in sows but nonexistent in fetuses. Maternal liver and kidney accounted for the highest levels of radioactivity for both compounds. Although placenta protects the minipig fetus to some degree from substances in maternal blood, the fetal brain is unprotected from possible injury or damage if a foreign substance enters the fetal blood stream

  1. The interpretation of animal data in the calculation of doses from new radiolabeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, G.P.L.; Ellender, M.; Harrison, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    At NRPB, dose calculations are performed for pharmaceutical companies wishing to obtain approval for human volunteer experiments. Animal data from one or more species are used to estimate the radiation doses to humans that would result from the administration of novel radiolabeled compounds. The calculations themselves are straightforward, but the animal data can be interpreted in different ways, leading to variations in the calculated dose. Doses to the gut compartments usually dominate the committed effective dose equivalent, but retention in other tissues may be important for some compounds. Long-term retention components in tissues can affect doses considerably, and the binding of many radiopharmaceuticals to melanin means that doses to the eye are particularly important. The effect of these considerations on calculating doses are considered, as well as the effect of changes in risk estimates and tissue weighting factors

  2. Radiolabeling with fluorine-18 of a protein, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenant, C., E-mail: cprenant@cyclopharma.f [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cawthorne, C. [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fairclough, M. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rothwell, N.; Boutin, H. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    IL-1RA is a naturally occurring antagonist of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) with high therapeutic promise, but its pharmacokinetic remains poorly documented. In this report, we describe the radiolabeling of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA) with fluorine-18 to allow pharmacokinetic studies by positron emission tomography (PET). rhIL-1RA was labeled randomly by reductive alkylation of free amino groups (the {epsilon}-amino group of lysine residues or amino-terminal residues) using [{sup 18}F]fluoroacetaldehyde under mild reaction conditions. Radiosyntheses used a remotely controlled experimental rig within 100 min and the radiochemical yield was in the range 7.1-24.2% (decay corrected, based on seventeen syntheses). We showed that the produced [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl-rhIL-1ra retained binding specificity by conducting an assay on rat brain sections, allowing its pharmakokinetic study using PET.

  3. Intracellular uptake and distribution of radiolabeled iodovinly deoxy uridine (IVDU) for gene therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. H.; Lee, T. S.; Lee, S. J.; Woo, K. S.; Jeon, W. S.; Choi, C. W.; Yim, S. M. [KCCH, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    We have evaluated a useful synthetic radiolabeled nucleoside substrate, (E)-5-2(2-[125I] idodovinyl) uracil deoxyuridine (IVDU), for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK). Cellular uptake of these labeled compounds was observed in vitro. low uptake was showed in MCA cell line and high uptake was observed in Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase(HSV1-tk) gene tranduced MCA(MCA-tk) cell line. Intracellular distribution of {sup 125}I-IVDU was differently occured in the MCA and MCA-TK cell line, respectively. Main distribution of MCA cells is in cytosol, and that of MCA-TK cells was in mitochondria and nuclei. For HSV1-tk system. We confirmed that IVDU was incorporated into DNA synthesis.

  4. Tumor-specific binding of radiolabeled G-22 monoclonal antibody in glioma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Jun; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Masaaki; Sugita, Kenichiro; Oshima, Motoo; Tadokoro, Masanori; Sakuma, Sadayuki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Seo, Hisao

    1992-03-01

    Iodine-131-labeled G-22 monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment reacting specifically with a glioma-associated surface glycoprotein was administered to 12 glioma patients to investigate its use in radioimaging of intracranial gliomas. No immediate or delayed side effects were attributable to antibody injection. Nine patients received the radiolabeled complex intravenously. The images of low-grade gliomas were generally poor and disappeared within 4 days. High-contrast images were obtained beyond the 7th day in high-grade gliomas except one case in the pineal region. Three patients received intraventricular or intratumoral administration. Clear images of all tumors were demonstrated from the 2nd until later than the 7th day. One patient with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of brainstem glioma demonstrated negative CSF cytology after intraventricular administration. (author).

  5. Radiolabelled anti-human fibrin antibody: a new thrombus-detecting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic, V.; Jankovic, B.D.; Horvat, J.; Cvoric, J.

    1977-01-01

    Rabbit anti-human fibrin globulin (A.F.G.) was labelled with iodine ( 131 I) and used as a thrombus-detecting agent. 131 I-A.F.G. labelled thrombi were displayed by means of a gamma scintillation camera. Normal subjects and patients with thrombo-phlebitis of legs, acute fibrin depositions other than thrombi, and chronic varicosities were examined. The 131 I-A.F.G. technique detected both formed thrombi and those that were forming and could discriminate between acute thrombosis and chronic varicosities. Thrombo-phlebitis and extravascular fibrin depositions were best demonstrated between 24 and 72 hours after 131 I-A.F.G. injection. Radiolabelled A.F.G. in normal veins and chronic varicosities was best displayed within 6 hours of injection. (author)

  6. Radiolabeled 9- or 10-monoiodostearic acid and 9- or 10-monoiodostearyl carnitine: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, K.W.; Ueda, C.T.; Murray, W.J.; Augustine, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to synthesize and purify radiolabeled 9- or 10-monoiodostearyl carnitine for potential use as a perfusion and metabolic imaging agent for the heart. Oleic acid was iodinated via a free radical addition reaction of Hl across the double bond to give 9- or 10-monoiodostearic acid which in turn was esterified with carnitine. The identity of 9- or 10-monoiodostearic acid and 9-or 10-monoiodostearyl carnitine was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (i.r.), ultraviolet (u.v.), and mass spectroscopy. The purity of the fatty acid and carnitine ester was established by thin layer chromatography. 9- or 10-Monoiodo[ 125 I]stearic acid and 9- or 10-monoiodo[ 125 I]stearyl carnitine were synthesized via the isotopic exchange of 125 I for cold iodine bonded to 9- or 10-monoiodostearic acid and 9- or 10-monoiodostearyl carnitine. (author)

  7. Contamination of pig carcasses with scalding water studied with a radiolabelled colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E; Nilsson, T; Ekman, L; Oestlund, K [Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala. Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala. Abt. fuer Lebensmittelhygiene; Schwedisches Fleischforschungszentrum, Kaevlinge

    1979-10-01

    Swine carcasses at slaughter are normally scalded after bleeding, i.e. immersed in a hot-water-tank. The present study was made to investigate whether during this treatment scalding water enters the severed vessels via the stick wound and contaminates the carcass. Five experimental pigs were slaughtered and immersed in a scalding vat containing water with a dispersed radiolabelled colloid, sup(99m)Tc-sulphide. After scalding muscles and other tissues from various parts of the body were examined for radioactivity. Scalding water (radioactivity) could be demonstrated in tissues from all investigated parts of the carcass. The highest amounts were found in the lungs and in the large blood vessels. The hygienic significance of the findings is discussed.

  8. Use of isotopically radiolabelled GM3 ganglioside to study metabolic alterations in Salla disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigorno, Vanna; Valsecchi, Manuela; Nicolini, Marco; Sonnino, Sandro

    1997-01-01

    We report the preparation of radioactive GM3 ganglioside and its use in the study of sialic acid storage disorders. For the first time GM3 was isotopically radiolabelled in three positions of the molecule: at the sialic acid acetyl group, [ 3 H-Neu5Ac]GM3, at the Cl of the fatty acid moiety, [ 1 4C-Stearoyl]GM3, and at C3 of sphingosine, [ 3 H-Sph]GM3. The radioactive GM3 administered to cultured human fibroblasts from a patient suffering from Salla disease was taken up by the cells and metabolized. An analysis of the distribution of radioactivity within the ganglioside metabolic derivatives showed an accumulation of free sialic acid and ceramide in the pathological cells. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Use of a microwave cavity to reduce reaction times in radiolabelling with [11C]cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, J.-O.; Stone-Elander, S.; Elander, N.

    1992-01-01

    Advantages of using a microwave cavity over thermal treatment are demonstrated for radiolabelling reactions with [ 11 C]cyanide. For comparison purposes, two literature syntheses involving typical cyanide chemistry at rather vigorous conditions were investigated: cyano-de-halogenation with subsequent hydrolysis of the nitrile and the Bucher-Strecker synthesis of an aromatic amino acid. Comparable yields were obtained with intensities <100 W in reaction times that were 1/15 to 1/20th those used in thermal methods. Even rates of slower nucleophilic substitutions could be increased by manipulating the polarity of the medium. For the short-lived radionuclide carbon-11, such time gains result in radioactivity gains at the end-of-synthesis on the order of 70-100%. (Author)

  10. The spreading of radiolabelled fatty suppository bases in the human rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Keiko; Ogata, Hiroyasu; Noguchi, Masahiro; Kogure, Takahashi; Takano, Masaaki; Maruyama, Yuzo; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a radiolabelling method for assessing the spreading of fatty suppository bases (Witepsol H-5, W-35 and S-55), and to apply this technique to the evaluation of suppository disposition in the human rectum. 99m/Tc was bound chemically to the bases Witepsol H-5 and W-35, and mixed physically with Witepsol S-55. The spreading of each suppository base was monitored by gamma-scintigraphy following rectal administration. The mean radioactivity remaining at the inserted region 4 h after administration was 44.2% of total activity. The mean perpendicular maximum spreading distance from this region was 7.7 cm on the scintigram near to the sigmoid colon. Defecation was suggested to be a factor influencing the spread of suppository bases. However, there was no clear relationship between the type of suppository base used and the extent of its spread within the rectum. 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  11. Radiolabelling of sperm cells with 99mTc-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Szasz, F.; Janoki, Gy.; Zoldag, L.; Huszenicza, Gy.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the influence of labelling volume on the labelling efficiency showed decreased yield when the volume was increased. The survival rate was unchanged over 0.5 ml of reaction volume. During labelling procedure only a few cells (6%) survived in the incubation volume was less than 0.4 ml. Changing the incubation time the radiolabelling yield increased for 10 minutes, and thereafter practically did not change. The optimum conditions of sperm labelling yielded a high labelling efficiency (70-80%) and survival rate (50-60%). The 99m Tc-HM-PAO labelled sperm cells seem to be suitable to study the in vivo and in vitro sperm transport. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Radiolabeled adenoviral sub-unit proteins for molecular imaging and therapeutic applications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Our group has initiated investigations on the use of radiolabeled adenoviral (Ad) sub-unit proteins for delivering suitable radionuclides into tumor cells for molecular imaging as well as for combined gene/radionuclide therapy of cancer. A number of issues involved in developing combined gene/radionuclide delivery into tumors mediated by Ad vectors have been identified and are being addressed. Whereas current clinical trials of gene therapy using Ad vectors involve non-systemic delivery of therapeutic genes, the delivery of radionuclides preferably would involve systemic (i.v.) administration. The distribution and delivery of Ad sub-unit proteins following i.v. administration is not understood and must be studied and optimized. In addition, retention of the selective binding and internalization into tumor cells of the radiolabeled viral vectors remains an unmet challenge. We used the intact adenovirus (Ad, ∼80 nm diameter), native adenoviral fiber protein (AdFP, 180 kD trimer, purified from infected human cultured cells) and the adenoviral fiber 'knob' protein (recombinant AdFKP, 60 kD, synthesized in E. Coli), all of which interact with the in-vivo cellular receptor, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) through the knob domain of the adenovirus fiber protein. Our initial studies were aimed at optimizing the labeling conditions using I-131 and In-111 to maintain CAR binding activity of the radiolabeled preparations. The CAR-binding was retained as determined using reaction with biotinylated CAR followed by chemiluminescence detection. The biodistribution results in mice and rats following i.v. administration (autoradiography, tissue counting) showed that all three vectors localized preferentially in CAR-expressing organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney), as expected. The CAR-binding of Ad-2 wild serotype was better (∼8 x stronger) than Ad-12, in particular following radiolabeling. Based on the above results, we further focused on the recombinant knob

  13. Iodogen-mediated radiolabeling of Bevacizumab with I-123 for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemps, R. de; Desruet, M.; Bacot, S.; Ahmadi, M.; Ghezzi, C.; Desruet, M.; Fagret, D.; Berger, F.

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody, directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and is currently used in various types of cancers (breast, lung, colorectal). In order to administer to humans glioblastomas, we developed its iodine 123 radiolabeling for in vitro and in vivo studies subsequent. The aim of the study is to choose the best radioiodination conditions based on feasibility in a hospital radiopharmacy: Quick one step method under mild condition, reproducible, using materials for pharmaceutical use and in a closed-system. Method Bevacizumab was radiolabeled with "1"2"3I using Iodogen, the most widely used oxidants in direct labelling techniques for tyrosyl residues-containing compounds. We have been explored two crucial parameters for clinical transfer: the amount of oxidant required (50μg and 100μg) and the choice of the purification column (size exclusion column or anion exchange resin), respectively. Quality control was performed before and after purification of each condition in order to evaluate the radiochemical purity (RCP) and purification efficiency. The stability of the radiolabeled molecule is evaluated over time and also when the solution is diluted with unlabeled bevacizumab. Moreover, the in vitro stability of "1"2"3I-bevacizumab was determined in presence of human blood at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. Labeling yield before purification was 96.5% for the first condition (50μg Iodogen) and 95.5% for the second one (100μg Iodogen). The radiochemical purity was 99.5% after purification on a size exclusion column and 99% after purification on anion exchange resin. The purification yield with size exclusion column is 75%, compared with 81% of the anionic exchange resin. The stability in the labeling medium of "1"2"3I-bevacizumab at 3, 6, 24 and 30 h after labeling showed a RCP at 100%, 93%, 99.8% and 99.8% for condition 1 so that it was found to be 99.2%, 100%, 99.3%, 99.5% for condition 2, respectively. In vitro incubation with

  14. Synthesis and Radiolabeling of Modified Peptides Attached to Heterocyclic Rings and Their Possible Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams El-Din, H.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping in mind the pharmacological potential of heterocyclic rings as well as the advantage of biodegradability and biocompatibility of amino acids/peptides, in this thesis we were prompted for the following: 1. Synthesis of novel dipeptide derivatives coupled with different heterocyclic rings (pyridine, 1,2,4-triazol-pyridine, 1,3,4-oxadiazolpyridine and tetrazol-pyridine rings). 2. Characterization of the synthesized compounds on the basis of their spectral data (IR, Mass and 1 H-NMR spectra). 3. Study their antimicrobial activity as one of their expected biological activities. 4. Study the radioiodination of some synthesized dipeptide derivatives. 5. Study the biodistribution of the radiolabeled compounds in normal mice as preliminary studies for the possibility of using them as agents for imaging and treatment.

  15. Improved tumor imaging with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies by plasma clearance with anti-antibody column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Feyerabend, A.; Bunn, P.; Dienhart, D.G.; Johnson, T.K.; Glenn, S.D.; Maddock, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on imaging of tumors with use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAs) that often hindered by high levels of background activity. The ability to lower blood pool MoA activity at a selected time after injection offers a potential method to reduce background while preserving tumor uptake. Toward this goal, the authors investigated the process of clearing MoA from patients' plasma with use of an anti-antibody column. One patient with breast cancer and four with lung cancer were given intravenous injection of 5 mCi of indium-111 KC4 (Coulter Immunology) and imaged at 20, 24, 48, and 72 hours with use of a whole-body canner coupled to a computer. Plasma clearance was performed between the 20- and 24-hour images with use of a COBEIA system. Images were inspected visually and analyzed by region-of-interest quantification

  16. The alginate layer for improving doxorubicin release and radiolabeling stability of chitosan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeong Il; Lee, Chang Moon; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Hwang, Hyo Sook; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Cyclotron Research Center, Institute for Medical Science, Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Moon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Chitosan hydrogels (CSH) formed through ionic interaction with an anionic molecule are suitable as a drug carrier and a tissue engineering scaffold. However, the initial burst release of drugs from the CSH due to rapid swelling after immersing in a biofluid limits their wide application as a drug delivery carrier. In this study, alginate layering on the surface of the doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded and I-131-labeled CSH (DI-CSH) was performed. The effect of the alginate layering on drug release behavior and radiolabeling stability was investigated. Chitosan was chemically modified using a chelator for I-131 labeling. After labeling of I-131 and mixing of Dox, the chitosan solution was dropped into tripolyphosphate (TPP) solution using an electrospinning system to prepare spherical microhydrogels. The DI-CSH were immersed into alginate solution for 30 min to form the crosslinking layer on their surface. The formation of alginate layer on the DI-CSH was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential analysis. In order to investigate the effect of alginate layer, studies of in vitro Dox release from the hydrogels were performed in phosphate buffered in saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at 37 °C for 12 days. The radiolabeling stability of the hydrogels was evaluated using ITLC under different experimental condition (human serum, normal saline, and PBS) at 37 °C for 12 days. Formatting the alginate-crosslinked layer on the CSH surface did not change the spherical morphology and the mean diameter (150 ± 10 μm). FT-IR spectra and zeta potential values indicate that alginate layer was formed successfully on the surface of the DI-CSH. In in vitro Dox release studies, the total percentage of the released Dox from the DI-CSH for 12 days were 60.9 ± 0.8, 67.3 ± 1.4, and 71.8 ± 2.5 % for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg Dox used to load into the hydrogels, respectively. On the other hand, after formatting alginate layer, the percentage of the

  17. Preparation of crotalus venom radiolabeled with technetium99m as a tool for biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Simal, Carlos Jorge Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Technetium- 99m ( 99m Tc) has been the radionuclide of choice for nuclear medicine procedures and experimental research. Because of its optimal nuclear properties, 99m Tc is suitable for high efficiency detection with the advantage of reduced radiological waste. Crotalus venom (CV) has been shown to reduce tumors in clinical studies and tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical use. The goal of this work was to obtain CV labeled with 99m Tc which preserves its biological activity. After labeling, biological activity was assessed by hemolytic activity evaluation. Labeled and crude venom caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contained an exogenous source of lecithin. High yield radiolabeled-CV was obtained and biological activity was preserved. The results suggest that 99m Tc-CV can be a useful tool for biodistribution studies. (author)

  18. An alternative procedure for incorporating radiolabelled cholesteryl ester into human plasma lipoproteins in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.C.K.; Miller, N.E.; Price, S.G.L.; Crook, D.; Cortese, C.; Ville, A. La; Masana, L.; Lewis, B.

    1985-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for labelling human plasma lipoproteins to high specific radioactivity with radioactive cholesteryl esters in vitro. After isolation by preparative ultracentrifugation, the selected lipoprotein was incubated for 30 min at 4 0 C in human serum (d > 1.215) that had been prelabelled with [4- 14 C]cholesteryl oleate or [1,2- 3 H]cholesteryl linoleate, and was then re-isolated by ultracentrifugation. All major lipoprotein classes were labelled by the procedure. Specific radioactivities of up to 18 d.p.m. .pmol -1 (46d.p.m. .ng -1 ) were achieved. When radiolabelled high-density lipoprotein was infused intravenously, the radioactive cholesteryl ester behaved in vivo indistinguishably from endogenous cholesteryl esters produced by the lecithin (phosphatidylcholine): cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. (author)

  19. Tc-99m Radiolabeled Alendronate Sodium Microemulsion: Characterization and Permeability Studies Across Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, Yetkin; Ekinci, Meliha; Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Gundogdu, Evren; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2018-01-01

    Alendronate sodium (ALD) is used orally but it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For this reason, microemulsion system was chosen to evaluate ALD from the GI tract after oral delivery. This study was aimed to prepare water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion formulation of ALD and evaluate the permeability of ALD microemulsion from Caco-2 cell lines with radioactive and nonradioactive studies. The ALD microemulsion was developed by using pseudo-ternary phase diagram and composed of Soybean oil, Colliphor EL, Tween 80, Transcutol and distilled water. The prepared ALD microemulsion was characterized by physical appearance, droplet size, viscosity, pH, electrical conductivity and refractive index. The stability of the formulation was investigated for 6 months at 25±2°C/60±5% of relative humidity (RH) as well as at 40±2°C/75±5% RH. After that 1 mg of ALD was radiolabeled with 99mTc and added to microemulsion. The permeability studies were performed with both 99mTc-ALD microemulsion and ALD microemulsion. The experimental results suggested that ALD microemulsion presented adequate stability with droplet size varying from 37.8±0.9 to 39.9±1.2 nm during incubation time. In addition, ALD microemulsion was radiolabeled with high labeling efficiency (>95%). In a non-radioactive study, ALD permeability was found to be 45 µg.mL-1 and microemulsion has high permeability percentage when compared to another study. The novel w/o microemulsion formulation has been developed for oral delivery of ALD. Based on the results, permeability of ALD could be significantly improved by the microemulsion formulation. In addition, 99mTc-ALD microemulsion in capsule can be used for bone disease treatment and diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Radiolabeling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mengatti, Jair

    2009-01-01

    Somatostatine receptors are widely expressed by several tumors, especially of the neuroendocrine origin. In vivo images of these tumors using radiolabeled somatostatine analogues became a useful clinical tool in oncology. The aim of this work was the radiolabeling of the somatostatine analogue HYNIC-TOC with 99mTc as well as the evaluation of the radiochemical stability and quality control of labeled complex. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was produced by labeling conditions using 20 μg of peptide, 20 mg of tricine and 10 mg of EDDA as coligands, 1110 MBq of 99mTc (99Mo-99mTc IPEN-TEC generator) and 15 μg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. The reaction proceeds for 10 minutes at boiling water bath. Radiochemical purity of labeled preparation was evaluated by different chromatographic systems: ITLC-SG in methanol:ammonium acetate (1:1); TLC-SG in sodium citrate buffer 0.1 N pH 5.0 and methylethylketone, and HPLC employing column C-18, 5 μm, 4.6 mm x 250 mm, UV (220 nm), radioactivity detectors, 1 mL/minute flow of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid solution 0.1 %. Labeled compound has been found radiochemically stable for 5 hours and radiochemical purity was higher than 90 %. The thin layer chromatographic systems enabled the separation of radiochemical species presented in the labeled mixture as well as HPLC system. The labeling procedure studied resulted in high radiochemical yield and easy preparation. Future works include the preparation of a lyophilized reagent to make feasible the preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC at nuclear medicine services in order to study the clinical potential of the radiopharmaceutical in diagnostic and staging of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)