WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioisotope based molecular

  1. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio-isotopes

  2. Use of radioisotopes in agriculture: DNA based molecular markers in crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Seetharama, N.; Kannan, Seetha

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has always benefited from the use of radioisotopes in many ways. In the beginning radioisotopes were mostly used for physiological studies to measure photosynthetic efficiency, nutrient uptake, and for mutation breeding. Radioisotopes have now become a part of the biotechnological tools that are being increasingly used in improving crops and production systems. The tools of biotechnology are being increasingly used to hasten breeding and address problems of biotic and abiotic stresses. Some of the non-radioactive methods have replaced radiotracer techniques and thus led to automation often at high cost. However, still there remain many applications where radioisotopes seem almost indispensable. For some of the applications like comparative genome mapping, the confirmation of transgenics, and establishment of gene copy number, use of RFLP with radioisotopes is essential. The following research areas at ICRISAT use radioisotopes: (1) physiological basis of adaptation to abiotic stresses (ii) development and use of appropriate DNA markers crop improvement; (iii) characterization of cytoplasmic male sterile systems and genetic diversity of breeding materials, land races and the wild relatives and (iv) molecular basis of disease resistance; (v) comparative genome mapping across cereals, (vi) isolation and characterization of genes of potential value to genetic improvement and (vii) verification of genetic transformation events. (author)

  3. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  4. Dose estimate of exposure to radioisotopes in molecular and cellular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onado, C.; Faretta, M.; Ubezio, P.

    1999-01-01

    A method for prospectively evaluating the annual equivalent doses and effective dose to biomedical researchers working with unsealed radioisotopes, and their classification, is presented here. Simplified formulae relate occupational data to a reasonable overestimate of the annual effective dose, and the equivalent doses to the hands and to the skin. The procedure, up to the classification of personnel and laboratories, can be made fully automatic, using a common spreadsheet on a personal computer. The method is based on occupational data, accounting for the amounts of each radioisotope used by a researcher, the time of exposure and the overall amounts employed in the laboratories where experiments are performed. The former data serve to forecast a contribution to the dose arising from a researcher's own work, the latter to a forecast of an 'environmental' contribution deriving simply from the presence in a laboratory where other people are working with radioisotopes. The estimates of the doses due to one's own radioisotope handling and to 'environment' were corrected for accidental exposure, considered as a linear function of the manipulated activity or of the time spent in the laboratories respectively, and summed up to give the effective dose. The effective dose associated with some common experiments in molecular and cellular biology is pre-evaluated by this method. (author)

  5. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  6. RSG-Gas Based Radioisotopes And Sharing Program For Regional Back Up Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenardjo, Sunarhadijoso; Tamat, Swasono R.; Suparman, Ibon; Purwadi, Bambang

    2003-01-01

    As the owner of the reactors used for radioisotope production, BATAN needs to increase the effectiveness of the reactor operation cost that can be achieved by simultaneously exploiting all the existing irradiation facility, supported by full utilization of the radioisotopes produced. On the other hand, the domestic demand of radioisotopes is much lower than the production capability but sometimes the request is compulsory to be suspended due to reactor operation schedule. As this condition is mostly similar to that of several countries of RCA Member States, a sharing program for regional back up supply seems to be a positive thought to support expectation on the effectiveness of reactor operation cost and the continuity of radioisotope product services as well as the utilization of radioisotopes produced. Based on radioactivity achieved in each production batch at the present, 131 I, 99 Mo, 153 Sm, 125 I and 32 p radioisotopes may be offered for back up supply program. Due to consideration on conformity of user demands with reactor operation and radiochemical processing costs, the concept of back up supply program should performed first by means of full utilization of the available products and not by increasing reactor operation frequency. An information and communication network system, therefore, is absolutely needed to support information exchange between the radioisotope producer, members of back up supply program and radioisotope customers

  7. Radioisotope power system based on derivative of existing Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the results of a system design study of a 75-watt(c) RSG (Radioisotope Stirling Generator) for possible application to the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. That study was based on a Stirling engine design generated by MTI (Mechanical Technology, Inc.). The MTI design was a derivative of a much larger (13 kwe) engine that they had developed and tested for NASA's LERC. Clearly, such a derivative would be a major extrapolation (downsizing) from what has actually been built and tested. To avoid that, the present paper describes a design for a 75-watt RSG system based on derivatives of a small (11-watt) engine and linear alternator system that has been under development by STC (Stirling Technology Company) for over three years and that has operated successfully for over 15,000 hours as of March 1995. Thus, the STC engines would require much less extrapolation from proven designs. The design employs a heat source consisting of two standard General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, coupled to four Stirling engines with linear alternators, any three of which could deliver the desired 75-watt(e) output if the fourth should fail. The four engines are coupled to four common radiators with redundant heatpipes for rejecting the engines' waste heat to space. The above engine and radiator redundancies promote system reliability. The paper describes detailed analyses to determine the effect of radiator geometry on system mass and performance, before and after an engine or heatpipe failure

  8. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  9. Peace propaganda and biomedical experimentation: influential uses of radioisotopes in endocrinology and molecular genetics in Spain (1947-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental endocrinology and one in molecular biology. For both groups foreign funds were instrumental in the early establishment of their laboratories. The combination of funding and access to previously scarce radioisotopes helped position these groups at the forefront of research in Spain.

  10. Present status of unsealed radioisotope therapy in Japan based on the nation-wide questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, clinical application of unsealed radioisotopes is strictly regulated. Especially in the field of therapy, we are allowed to use only Na 131 I at present. Under such circumstances, the present status of therapeutic nuclear medicine in Japan was surveyed by means of a nation-wide questionnaire, conducted in 193 hospitals. Then, 113 hospitals replied to such questionnaire (recovery rate: 58.5%), and it was found that in 77 hospitals, radioisotope therapy is being performed for Graves' disease and/or thyroid cancer. The questionnaire covered the following points: for Graves' disease-the basic strategy of 131 I therapy, its indications, absorbed doses planned to be given, whether the therapy had been conducted on outpatient basis or in-patient basis, method of thyroid weight estimation, interval of administration in case of multiple doses, number of patients treated per year (1996) etc., and for thyroid cancer-strategy for thyroid remnant, the doses to be given, the maximum doses permitted by the authorities in each hospital both per day and per year, handling of highly contaminated urine in each hospital, interval of administration in case of multiple doses, number of patients treated per year (1996) etc. Also questioned were dissatisfaction with the present regulation by the authorities and/or requests for the better daily work, if any. Based on the above questionnaire, the present status of unsealed radioisotope therapy in Japan was investigated. (author)

  11. Implementation of EPICS based Control System for Radioisotope Beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Mult-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been operating 100 MeV proton linear accelerator . For operating 100 MeV linac, various control system has been implemented such as vacuum, power supply, RCCS and etc. KOMAC is operating two beam lines so that clients can use 100 MeV proton beam for their experiment. KOMAC sends beam to beam line and target room using two dipole magnets and several quadrupole magnets. As demand for experiments and Radius Isotope using beam is increased, another beam line is under construction and RI beam line control system is need. To synchronize with KOMAC control system, RI beam line control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) software. The beam is transported to RI beam line to control magnet power supply and vacuum. Implementation of RI beam line control system is presented and some preliminary results are reported. The base RI beam line control system is implemented. It can control beam direction and vacuum. Comparing archived data and current data, RI beam line and control system will be improved. In the future, scroll pump and gate control system will be implemented using programmable logic controller PLC. RI beam interlock sequence will be added to KOMAC interlock system to protect linac.

  12. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  13. The interchangeability of radioisotope and X-ray based measurements of bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, J.D.; Webber, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured with a Novo radioisotope based dual photon densitometer and with a Lunar X-ray densitometer in 94 subjects attending a Metabolic Bone Disease Clinic. There was a strong correlation between results obtained from each machine. The correlation coefficients for the spine and femoral neck were 0.97 and 0.88, respectively. Differences between results from each machine were normally distributed with a mean bias of 37.5% (spine) and 27.8% (femur), arising principally from differences in machine calibration. In each case the BMD was greater measured by X-ray absorptiometry. The range for the bias was approximately 25-50% for the spine and 10-45% for the femoral neck. The results from these two machines are not interchangeable. When subjects participating in long term studies using a radioisotope densitometer are transferred to an X-ray densitometer, an individual conversion factor must be measured at each site for each subject. (author)

  14. Proton linac for hospital-based fast neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.; Hendrickson, F.R.; Swenson, D.A.; Winje, R.A.; Young, D.E.

    1989-09-01

    Recent developments in linac technology have led to the design of a hospital-based proton linac for fast neutron therapy. The 180 microamp average current allows beam to be diverted for radioisotope production during treatments while maintaining an acceptable dose rate. During dedicated operation, dose rates greater than 280 neutron rads per minute are achievable at depth, DMAX = 1.6 cm with source to axis distance, SAD = 190 cm. Maximum machine energy is 70 MeV and several intermediate energies are available for optimizing production of isotopes for Positron Emission Tomography and other medical applications. The linac can be used to produce a horizontal or a gantry can be added to the downstream end of the linac for conventional patient positioning. The 70 MeV protons can also be used for proton therapy for ocular melanomas. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations and structural descriptors of radioisotope glass vectors for in situ radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Jamieson K; Tilocca, Antonio

    2012-10-18

    The low solubility (high durability) of yttrium aluminosilicate (YAS) glass is one of its most important properties for use in in situ radiotherapy. Simple parameters, such as silica or yttria content or network connectivity, are not sufficient to rationalize the dependence of the solubility on the glass composition observed experimentally. We performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of eight different YAS glasses of known solubility and analyzed the MD trajectories to identify specific structural features that are correlated and can be used to predict the solubility. We show that the (Si-)O-Si coordination number CN(SiOSi), the yttrium-yttrium clustering ratio R(YY), and the number of intratetrahedral O-Si-O bonds per yttrium atom N(intra) can be combined into a single structural descriptor s = f(CN(SiOSi),R(YY),N(intra)) with a high correlation with the solubility. The parameter s can thus be calculated from MD simulations and used to predict the solubility of YAS compositions, allowing one to adjust them to the range required by radiotherapy applications. For instance, its trend shows that high-silica- and low-yttria-content YAS glasses should be sufficiently durable for the radiotherapy application, although additional clinical considerations may set a lower limit to the yttria content.

  16. Detection of HCV genotypes using molecular and radio-isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Baig, S.M.; Shah, W.A.; Khattak, K.F.; Khan, B.; Qureshi, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for most cases of acute and chronic non-A and non-B liver diseases. Persistent HCV infection may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Six major HCV genotypes have been recognized. Infection with different genotypes results in different clinical pictures and responses to antiviral therapy. In the area of Faisalabad (Punjab province of Pakistan), the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus infection had never been investigated before. In this study, we have made an attempt to determine the prevalence, distribution and clinical significance of HCV infection in 1100 suspected patients of liver disease by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) over a period of four years. HCV genotypes of isolates were determined by dot-blot hybridization with genotype specific radiolabeled probes in 337 subjects. The proportion of patients with HCV genotypes 1,2,3 and 4 were 37.38%, 1.86%, 16.16% and 0.29% respectively. Mixed infection of HCV genotype was detected in 120 (35.6%) patients, whereas 31 (9.1%) samples remained unclassified. This study revealed changing epidemiology of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and 3 in the patients. Multiple infection of HCV genotype in the same patient may be of great clinical and pathological importance and interest. (author)

  17. Elementary study of encapsulation of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni radio-voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector. the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package has been evaluated in the previous work. in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supply effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  18. Nanoplatform-based molecular imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoplathform-Based Molecular Imaging provides rationale for using nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, then discusses general strategies for this underutilized, yet promising, technology...

  19. Characterization of mercury based Indian herbomineral drug by radioisotope induced EDXRF and synchrotron based EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Saxena, A.; Joseph, Rajeeta; Rajput, P.; Nayak, C.; Bhattacharya, D.; Jha, S.N.; Natrajan, V.

    2014-01-01

    An Indian herbomineral drug was characterized for its trace elements by radioisotope induced EDXRF. The drug contains minerals like mercury, sulfur and arsenic disulfide, along with herbs such as dhaturra, bhrami, vacha etc. All the above ingredients were processed together in a step wise manner (6 steps). Hence the motive was to expect some change in the drug molecule at every step of processing it. The 6 samples are the samples collected at every step of drug preparation. These 6 samples which are collected as intermediatary samples would be then evaluated for its role in various neuropsychological (psychosis, depression etc) disorders in experimental animals such as rats/mice. Hence it was required to find the elements/trace elements composition, details of chemical components present in the drug samples. It was seen that using EDXRF it was possible to determine As and Hg. The EXAFS results also showed the presence of As in their sulphide form. (author)

  20. Study of solid target preparation for developing I-124, Pd-103, Cu-64 radioisotopes based cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hong; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hee Dong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The decay characteristics of I-124, Pd-103 and Cu-64 radioisotopes produced by cyclotron have considered useful agents for diagnostic imaging or therapy. Numbers of radioisotopes used in medical applications or promised for development are produced with solid targets. The aims of developing solid targets are to obtain large quantities of radionuclides from accelerators. The scope of the study is to develop optimized target system and chemical procedures of these radioisotopes. In order to increase the availability of the radionuclides, the investigation for the design of the solid target and different procedures yielding efficient production of high specific activity will be carrying. In this work, we will present the issue of the primary target design concept.

  1. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  2. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  3. A new integrative methodology for desertification studies based on magnetic and short-lived radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, F.; Higgitt, S.R.; Maher, B.A.; Appleby, P.G.; Scoullos, M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of mineral magnetic measurements and short-lived radioisotope studies with 210 Pb and 137 Cs is discussed within the ecosystem watershed conceptual framework. Used in conjunction with geomorphological, sedimentological, palaeoecological and geochemical techniques, these methods can form the core of an integrated multidisciplinary study of desertification and erosion processes on all relevant temporal and spatial scales. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  4. New anti-tumour therapies based on the use of radioisotopes; Nuevas terapias antitumorales con radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G.

    2009-07-01

    The fundamental limitation of radiotherapy lies in the need to confine its activity to the target organ or tissue, in order to prevent damage to nearby organs and a loss of efficiency due to dispersal throughout the organism. Now, new radioisotopes that allow these disadvantages to be avoided are being used. (Author)

  5. Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-source energy harvester based on solar and radioisotope energy sources is designed and simulated in this work. We established the calculation formulas for the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, and then studied and analyzed the optimization thickness of the semiconductor, doping concentration, and junction depth with simulation of the transport process of β particles in a semiconductor material using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP (version 5, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In order to improve the efficiency of converting solar light energy into electric power, we adopted PC1D (version 5.9, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia to optimize the parameters, and selected the best parameters for converting both the radioisotope energy and solar energy into electricity. The results concluded that the best parameters for the multi-source energy harvester are as follows: Na is 1 × 1019 cm−3, Nd is 3.8 × 1016 cm−3, a PN junction depth of 0.5 μm (using the 147Pm radioisotope source, and so on. Under these parameters, the proposed harvester can achieve a conversion efficiency of 5.05% for the 147Pm radioisotope source (with the activity of 9.25 × 108 Bq and 20.8% for solar light radiation (AM1.5. Such a design and parameters are valuable for some unique micro-power fields, such as applications in space, isolated terrestrial applications, and smart dust in battlefields.

  6. Radioisotope camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  7. Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Anatomical bases and physiopathological conditions observed with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberson, R.

    1975-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid circulation (tertiary circulation) was studied by lumbar or sub-occipital injection of radiotracers. The method is divided into three techniques which differ by the location of the injection and the space which is explored. Radio-isotopic cisternography is primarily concerned with the leptomeningitic space of the skull, and sub-occipital injection is preferred. Myelo-scintigraphy is the study principally of the rachidian leptomeningitic space and lumbar injection is preferred in this case. Radio-isotopic ventriculography explores the ependymal space, e.g. the ventricular system. The radiotracer is injected directly or indirectly by Rickham's reservoir, into a horn of a lateral ventricle; these three spaces communicate. Various radiotracers were utilized, the DTPA complex and sup(99m)Tc being preferred. The documents obtained are scintigrams from a scintillation camera [fr

  8. Simultaneous detection and removal of radioisotopes with modified alginate beads containing an azo-based probe using RGB coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ara; Jang, Geunseok; Namgung, Ho; Kim, Choongho; Kim, Daigeun; Kim, Yujun; Kim, Jongho; Lee, Taek Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified alginate with azo-based probe (ABO) was synthesized by a reaction between sodium alginate and azo-based probe (BO2). • BO2 was found to be a good probe molecule for radioisotopes using colorimetric analysis. • Detection of Co 2+ and Sr 2+ was mainly carried out via interaction between BO2 and metal ions. • Simultaneous removal of radioisotopes was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in sodium alginate. • The alginate beads with dual functions of detection and removal of metal ions are successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We prepared alginate beads that were modified with an azo-based probe molecule to monitor simultaneously the removal (by alginate) and probing (by the azo-probe molecule) of radioisotopes such as cobalt, strontium, and cesium ions. As an azo-probe molecule, Basic Orange 2 (BO2) was immobilized to the alginate bead. The BO2 in aqueous solution exhibited a slight red shift in absorption with a change in color from orange to dark orange upon addition of cobalt and strontium ions. In contrast, the color of BO2 did not change upon exposure to cesium ions. Thus, the covalently embedded BO2 in alginate beads could adsorb cobalt and strontium ions resulting in recognizable color change of the beads, which was induced by the formation of a complex between BO2 and metal ions. The color changes of the beads in the presence of metal ions were determined quantitatively using RGB color coordinate values. In addition to effectively removing metal ions, the colorimetric coordinate method provides a convenient and simple sensing technique for naked-eye metal ion detection.

  9. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  10. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  11. Radioisotope production linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.; Hansborough, L.D.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 70-MeV proton beam would open a new family of medical radioisotopes (including the important 123 I) to wide application. A 70-MeV, 500-μA linac is described, based on recent innovations in accelerator technology. It would be 27.3 m long, cost approx. $6 million, and the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable to existing cyclotrons. By operating the rf-power system to its full capability, the same accelerator is capable of producing a 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons. The technology to build such a linac is in a mature stage of developmnt, ready for use by industry

  12. Decontamination of medical radioisotopes from hard surfaces using peelable polymer-based decontamination agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, Amanda E.; Walter, Ken J.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Medical radioisotopes used to treat and diagnose patients often contaminate surfaces in patient treatment rooms. They are typically short-lived and decay within a matter of days or weeks. However, down time in a medical facility related to radioisotope contamination is costly and can impact patient care. Most liquid or solid spills can be contained and disposed in radioactive wastes fairly completely and quickly; however residual contamination may remain on the contacted surface. Although liquid decontamination agents can be used to address the issue of residual contamination, they often require multiple applications with attendant scrubbing and wiping. Liquid decontamination can also produce large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. To look at reducing radioactive waste volumes, research was conducted on the efficacy of three low-volume peel able decontamination agents. Testing was performed on hard surfaces, such as vinyl composition floor tiles and stainless steel, which are found in many hospitals, research laboratories, and universities. The tiles were contaminated with the medical use isotopes of 99m Tc, Tl-201, and I-131 and subsequently decontaminated with one of the three decontamination agents. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained for each of three different peel able decontamination agent formulations. Quantitative data included environmental temperature and relative humidity, application thickness, dry time, contact time, and decontamination efficacy of the agents on the tested surfaces. Qualitative factors included ease of application and pee lability, as well as sag resistance and odor of each agent. Initial studies showed that under standard conditions there were reproducible differences in the decontamination efficacies among the three different decontamination formulations. (author)

  13. Polypeptides Based Molecular Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lam, Yeng M; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Li, Lain-Jong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Shekhawat, Gajendra S; Suri, Raman

    2008-01-01

    ... the formation of molecular devices such as transistors, diodes, and sensors. We have designed the peptides, arranged them on substrates using self-assembly, Dip-PEN nanolithography, and also e-beam assisted lithography...

  14. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  15. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  16. Radioisotope generators for nuclear medicine based on Fajans adsorption on glass microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, G.J.; Symes, S.; Guimon, R.K.; Zinn, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Several radioisotope generator systems exist in which the carrier-free daughter product would precipitate if present in macro amounts at pH levels at which the parent is soluble. Included among these are the 68 Ge/ 68 Ga, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 47 Ca/ 47 Sc pairs. This paper reveals that in these systems, chemical separation can be achieved by Fajans adsorption of the radiocolloidal daughter products onto surfaces such as activated glass microspheres at an appropriate pH. This is followed by washing to remove the parent solution and desorption of the daughter crop by acid washes. Investigation of the Ge/Ga and Sr/Y systems demonstrated that this solid-phase extraction method is erratic, but can give daughter yields as high at 89% with separation factors up to ∼ 10,000 form parent isotope. This method has the potential for producing daughter isotopes with a minimum of metal and organic impurities for labeling cells, receptor binding ligands, and antibodies for diagnostic and radiotherapeutic purposes

  17. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  18. Radioisotope detection with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.S.; Muller, R.A.; Tans, P.P.

    1979-12-01

    High energy mass spectrometry is a new and very sensitive technique of measuring rare radioisotopes. This paper describes the techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample and the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications

  19. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  20. Elementary concepts of the radioisotopes uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.

    2004-01-01

    Endocrinology has been one of the specialties earlier benefited for the radioisotopes uses in the diagnosis and treatment of different affections. These applications are based on the radioisotopes property of biochemical behaving as non- radioactive molecules, and at the same time, radiations emitting that can be detected by suitable means (diagnostic utility) or that have effects on biological systems (therapeutic action). (author) [es

  1. Elementary study on encapsulation reliability of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni Radio-Voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector, the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package was evaluated in the previous work, in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supplies effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  2. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Menossi, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  3. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  4. Radioisotopes production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Application of radioisotopes for both medical and industrial applications constitutes one of the most important peaceful uses of atomic energy. The striking diffusion and the exciting perspective of radioisotope for a plethora of medical and industrial applications are mainly attributable to the penetrating and ionization properties of radiation emanating from radioisotopes. The revolutionary medical applications of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of diseases are causing a rapid expansion of the nuclear medicine field. While the industrial uses of radioisotopes are not expanding as quickly, also require large amounts of radioisotopes. Production of radioisotopes is not only the first step, but also the most crucial for the success as well as sustainable growth of radioisotope applications. With the rapid growth and expanding areas of applications, the demands for isotopes have increased several folds. A number of radioisotopes of different physical half-life, energy of the particle or gamma emission, specific activity and chemistry are now regularly produced both at commercial centers as well as at selected nuclear science research institutes utilizing reactors and cyclotrons to meet the ever growing need

  5. Development of an experimental radioisotope based process tomography system for research applications in a cold trickle bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Madhusudan; Kumar, Pravesh; Kumar, Umesh; Acharya, Rajesh; Singh, Gursharan

    2009-01-01

    In chemical and petrochemical engineering applications, random and structured packing are used in process columns to enhance the heat and mass transfer between two phases. The packing used in such columns is meant to obtain a high specific interfacial area. It is of paramount importance for scale-up and design of trickle bed process columns, to understand and predict the complex multiphase fluid dynamics. In simplified terms, the phase holdup, solid packing distribution in terms of density and gas and liquid velocities among other important parameters need to be qualitatively and quantitatively understood. In the petrochemical industry, many processes are carried out using fixed bed reactors with concurrent upward and downward gas and liquid flows. In order to characterize the liquid and gas flow distribution through a mock-up column, data on planar and volume density distribution using computed tomographic measurements are very helpful. The paper describes the development efforts of a multi-detector 137 Cs radioisotope based in-situ tomography scanner suitable for 600mm dia. cold trickle bed reactor. The development work is at present in progress. The schematics and development of the scanner gantry is described in this paper. (author)

  6. Development of Molybdenum Adsorbent for 99Mo/99mTc Radioisotope Generator Based on Irradiated Natural Molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohadi Awaludin; Hotman Lubis; Sriyono; Abidin; Herlina; Endang Sarmini; Indra Saptiama; Hambali

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc radioisotope generator using irradiated natural molybdenum requires an adsorbent with high absorption capacity. Zirconium-based materials (ZBM), adsorbent with adsorption capacity of about 183 mg(Mo) / g(adsorbent), has been successfully synthesized. However, the adsorbent was easily broken in the Mo adsorption process due to many fractures in the grain. To increase the hardness, the material was immersed in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and coated by TEOS flow in a column. The hardness test results showed that the ZBM with TEOS treatment was not broken when immersed into the Mo solution. Observations using SEM showed that the fractures formed on the ZBM were successfully removed by TEOS treatment. Measurements using EDS showed that after TEOS treatment, the silicon was detected and the oxygen content increased in the material surface. Adsorption test results showed that the TEOS immersion decreased the adsorption capacity of molybdenum from 183 to 79.8 mg of Mo per gram of adsorbent. The TEOS flow-in a column gave material with relatively high adsorption capacity, 140 mgMo per gram adsorbent. The content of Silicon in the surface was lower than that of adsorbent immersed in TEOS. (author)

  7. Reducing Disparity in Radio-Isotopic and Astrochronology-Based Time Scales of the Late Eocene and Oligocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Kuiper, Klaudia F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258125772

    2017-01-01

    A significant discrepancy of up to 0.6 Myr exists between radio-isotopically calibrated and astronomically tuned time scales of the late Eocene-Oligocene. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy through the acquisition of “high-precision” 206Pb/238U dating of zircons from 11 volcanic ash

  8. Effect of updated data base and improved analysis on performance of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of RTPV space power systems published by the authors were based on a number of approximations employed to permit early dissemination of preliminary results pending availability of fuller experimental data need3d to conduct more rigorous analyses. Among those approximations were: (1) the use of limited test data and optimistic projections of the spectral transmissivity of the RTPV's selective IR filters and of the spectral quantum efficiency of the GaSb PV cells; (2) the use of theoretical formulas instead of experimental measurements of the PV cell's open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and optimum voltage instead of its measured current-voltage characteristics; (3) rough estimates of the TPV converter's active-area fraction instead of computed values based on detailed designs; (4) inadequate accounting for the effect of radiation reflected by the IR filter and absorbed by the emitter in reducing the generator's required heat input; and (5) omission of the shadowing effect and ohmic losses caused by the PV cell's grid lines. The above-listed shortcomings of the previously published analyses are addressed in the present paper, which describes revised analyses based on recently obtained experimental data of IR filter reflectivities and PV cell quantum efficiencies and current-voltage characteristic, measured by EDTEK under an OSC-initiated subcontract to its ongoing DOE contract. Their test results show that EDTEK has been eminently successful in improving the reflectivities of the IR filters and in reproducing the quantum efficiencies of Boeing's best PV cells, but their initial (Dec-95) PV cell fell far short of matching the open-circuit voltages and fill factors predicted by theory

  9. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1967-01-01

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  10. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  11. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  12. Revealing smuggled nuclear material covered by a legitimate radioisotope shipment using CdTe-based gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lakosi, L; Zsigrai, J; Safar, J

    2003-01-01

    Illicit trade of nuclear materials (NM) represents a serious challenge to radiation monitoring upon scenarios, when legitimate radioisotope shipments are used to obscure the weak radiation of NM. Planar and hemispherical Cd(Zn)Te detectors with a portable mini-multichannel analyzer were proven to be suitable, in measuring times of 10 min order, for revealing the presence of low-enriched or natural U-bearing reactor fuel pellets in amounts of kg order, placed beside transport containers of lead or depleted uranium, which contain high activity sup 6 sup 0 Co (10 GBq range) or sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir (TBq range) radioisotope sources. Such a hand-held or portable device may help authorities combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.

  13. Economical Radioisotope Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  14. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  15. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupon, Michel.

    1978-09-01

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles [fr

  16. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Azuddin Ali; Abdul Rahman Mohamad Ali.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm -2 S -1 ) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 10 13 n.cm -1 S -1 ). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  17. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  18. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  20. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  1. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culwell, J. P.

    1963-01-01

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  2. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  3. Radioisotope clocks in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, R E.M. [Oxford Univ. (UK). Research Lab. for Archaeology

    1979-09-06

    Methods of absolute dating which use the rate of disintegration of a radioactive nucleus as the clock, are reviewed. The use of the abundant radioisotopes (/sup 40/K, Th and U) and of the rare radioisotopes (/sup 14/C, /sup 10/Be, /sup 26/Al, /sup 32/Si, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 41/Ca, /sup 53/Mn) is discussed and radiation integration techniques (fission track dating, thermoluminescence and related techniques) are considered. Specific fields of use of the various methods and their accuracy are examined.

  4. Radioisotopes in soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Soils form a thin veneer of the Earth that sustain the entire flora and fauna of the terra firma. To that extent the soil as a natural resource is very precious and needs to be managed in a sustainable manner. The fate of degradation of pesticides in soil and build-up of heavy metals in the overall biosafety scenario is also studied gainfully using radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are a very potent tool in the hands of the Soil Scientists, perhaps, the most important among the peaceful applications in service of the mankind

  5. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  6. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  7. Radioisotopic heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  8. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  9. Radio-isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamins, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    A device is claimed for interrupting an elution process in a radioisotope generator before an elution vial is entirely filled. The generator is simultaneously exposed to sterile air both in the direction of the generator column and of the elution vial

  10. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  11. Stantardization problems in radioisotopic techniques for measuring rock density and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubin, O.V.; Pavlov, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the main technical characteristics is given of radioisotope densimeters and hydrometers taken as a base for the State Standard design for field radioisotope instruments for measuring density and moisture of the soil and rocks

  12. Radioisotope battery for particular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Tianjian; Liang Daihua; Cai Jianhua; Dai Zhimin; Xia Huihao; Wang Jianhua; Sun Sen; Yu Guojun; Wang Xiao; Wang Dongxing; Liu Xin

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotope battery, as a new type of power source, was developed in 1960s. It is advantageous in terms of long working life, high reliability, flexibility to rugged environment, maintenance free, and high capacity rate, hence its unique applications in space, isolated terrestrial or ocean spots, deep waters, and medicine. In this paper, we analysz the primary performances and classification of radioisotope thermoelectric generator, as well as characteristic, basic principle,and structure of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), which is the most popular in application of radioisotope battery in space, undersea, terrestrial and medicine. A prospect for development and application of radioisotope battery in the 21 st century is given, too. (authors)

  13. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are: 3 H, 14 Ca, 32 P, 35 S, 38 Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198 Au, 134 Cs, 131 I, 86 Rb, 65 Zn, 59 Fe, 45 Ca, 24 Na, 22 Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  14. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:{sup 3}H, {sup 14}Ca, {sup 32}P, {sup 35}S, {sup 38}Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: {sup 198}Au, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 24}Na, {sup 22}Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs.

  15. Bases moleculares de las leucemias agudas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martínez Antuña

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El gran desarrollo de la biología molecular en los últimos años ha contribuido a un importante avance en los conocimientos relacionados con las bases moleculares de las leucemias agudas (LA. Ademas de profundizar en la biología de estas enfermedades y conocer las bases moleculares, ha renido también gran impacto en mejorar el resultado de los tratamientos y disminuir la toxicidad de las terapias.

  16. First research co-ordination meeting on development of reference charged particle cross section data base for medical radioisotope production. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.

    1996-03-01

    The present report contains the summary of the First Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross Section Data Base for Medical Radioisotope Production'', held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 15 to 17 November 1995. The project focuses on monitor reactions and production reactions for gamma emitters and positron emitters induced with light charged particles of incident energies up to about 100 MeV. Summarized are technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme, including actions and deadlines. Attached are an information sheet on the project, the agenda and a list of participants of the meeting. Also attached is brief information on the adjacent Consultant's Meeting on ''Automated Synthesis Systems for the Cyclotron Production of 18 F and 123 I and their Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals''. (author)

  17. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  18. NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letule, T.

    2017-01-01

    NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Supplies around 20% of the world's medical radioisotopes used. NTP is a pioneer in the introduction and growth of nuclear medicine as in South Africa. Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that involves the use of radioactive isotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nuclear medicine contributes to enhancing the lives of the society. There is a compelling need for nuclear medicine to be promoted and utilized in the rest of Africa, due to the increasing prevalence of cancer. Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease

  19. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  20. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies

  1. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  2. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies.

  3. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Radioisotopic control and automation of food mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Domestic and foreign experience in application of radioisotope devices to process control in fool industry, is described. The diagrams of devices to block and account the production in systems of process monitoring and control are considered. The methods of determining chemical composition of substances are discussed, as sell as the devices used for those purposes and based on recording β-and γ-radiation absorption by substance. The methods for determining dust and smoke content in premises using radioisotope devices. Level indicators, moisture gages and densitimeters usedf ctol level humidity, density and concentration of food products in the process of production are described [ru

  5. A set of portable radioisotopic control and measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospeev, V.V.; Sidorov, V.N.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Uleksin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems and perspectives are examined of the portable radioisotope instruments application in agriculture, building industry, engeeniring and geological survay and in melioration. Principles are given of creation a series of radioisotopic instruments based on the principle of ganging. The series described consists of radioisotopic densimeters and moisture gages of the portable type, based on the ganging principle. The instruments differ in the measuring converters and have unified information processing and power supply devices. Criteria are stated for the ganging principle estimation, in particular, estimation of the technical means' compatibility. Four different types of compatibility are distinguished: an information compatibility; a metrological compatibility; structural and operational compatibility. Description is given of the unified information processing device - the unified pulse counter of the SIP-1M type and description of a row of radioisotopic measuring converters, which provides a possibility for completing the portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-2 type, intended for measuring densities of concrets and soils in the surface layer up to 30 cm and the density range from 1000 to 2500 kg/m 3 ; portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-1 type having measuring range from 600 to 1500 kg/m 3 ; surface-depth radioisotopic densimeter of the PPGR-1 type and surface-depth radioisotopic moisture gage of the VPGR-1 type [ru

  6. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jae Jo; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Don Soon; Choi, Byung Jong; Jang, Dong Soon; Kim, Hye Sook

    2007-06-01

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  7. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1988-06-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author) [pt

  8. Developments in radioisotope production and labelling of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in both reactor and accelerator production of radioisotopes finding applications in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research are summarised. The priorities for the production of 48 different cyclotron radioisotopes; and for 42 reactor produced radioisotopes finding biomedical applications are identified. Each includes 5 generator systems. The rapid expansion of cyclotron based radioisotope production and automated synthesis of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals with the position-emitting radionuclides continues to gain momentum. Recent feasibility studies of the cyclotron production of 186 Re, 99m Tc and of 99 Mo are cited as examples of motivation to develop accelerator alternatives to use of nuclear reactors for medical radioisotope production. Examples of SPET and PET radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 131 I, 123 I, 124 I, 18 F, and with therapeutic radionuclides are highlighted. (author)

  9. Production of radioisotopes using accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator produced radioisotopes find applications in many fields. Most of them are ideally suited for in-vivo studies of physiological functions. A brief review of various types of accelerators used for radioisotope production is given. The 'state of art' technology relevant to the production of radioisotopes is briefly discussed. Some of the recent advances in nuclear data measurements, target development, chemical processing and quality control are described. There appears to be a definite shift from multipurpose accelerators to dedicated machines, and greater emphasis is placed now on the production of radioisotopes with high radionuclidic purity by choosing a suitable nuclear reaction in a proper energy range. (author)

  10. Applications of radioisotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, N.

    2012-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine is many folds. They can be classified into two main groups. (a) The radioisotope tagged labeled compounds suitable for safe administration in the body for diagnosis of various diseases of vital organs such as brain, kidney, thyroid etc and for treatment known as radiotherapy (b) The sealed source of radioisotopes for utilizing the radiation emitted from the radioisotope for treatment, particularly for radiation therapy of cancer. The former application of radioisotope in the field of medicine has led to the formation of special branch of medicine termed Nuclear Medicine - the branch of medicine deals with the use of radioisotope in the from of radiopharmaceuticals for investigation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioisotopes in the form of radiolabelled compound and bio-chemicals that are pharmaceutically and radiologically safe for administration in the body for diagnosis and treatment are called radiopharmaceuticals. The radiopharmaceuticals are the results of world-wide effort to bring nuclear energy in a tangible form for diagnosis and treatment. Radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals thus constitute one of the key requirements for nuclear medicine investigation and radiotherapy. In the case of sealed radioisotope source the radiation emitted by the radioactive source is utilized for the treatment and this mode of treatment is called radiation therapy where no radioactive substance is administrated into the body. This does not form the part of nuclear medicine

  11. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  13. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  14. Administration of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  15. Radioisotope relay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakov, V.N.; Sazonov, O.L.; Taksar, I.M.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Yanushkovskij, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a radioisotope relay device containing a radiation source, a detector, an electronic relay block with a comparative threshold mechanism. The device differs from previously known ones in that, for the purpose of increasing stability and speed of action, the electronic relay block is a separate unit and contains two threshold pulse generators which are joined up, across series-connected ''and'' and ''or'' elements, with one of the inputs of the comparative threshold mechanism, whose second input is connected with a detector and whose outputs are connected with a relay element connected by feedback with the above-mentioned ''and'' elements. (author)

  16. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  17. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  18. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  19. The safe handling of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-12-31

    A narrative account of a minor contamination accident in a laboratory is used to demonstrate the important role of radiation protection measures in radioisotope work and the necessity of giving proper regard to such measures. It is primarily directed towards the research scientists and medical workers using radioisotopes on a relatively small scale

  20. Support housing for radioisotope generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A support housing for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features countercurrent batch flow of the eluting reagent interior of the housing. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  1. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  2. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  3. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  4. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors.

  5. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  6. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ''neutron rich'' and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail

  7. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  8. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  9. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  10. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  11. Generation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek-Finda, H.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing radioisotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications is claimed. A physiological solution is used to elute a radioactive daughter isotope from a fission-produced parent isotope adsorbed on an adsorbent. The eluate containing the daughter isotope is purified with a cation-exchange material. In separate claims: the parent isotope is molybdenum-99; aluminium oxide which contains fully or partly hydrated manganese dioxide is used as the adsorbent for the parent isotope; a resin is used as the cation-exchange material; a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been neutralized is used as a resin; and a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been converted into the Na + , K + or NH 4 + form is used as a resin; an isotope generator system is also claimed

  12. Comparison of RT-PCR-Dot blot hybridization based on radioisotope 32P with conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Assays for blood screening of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Andi Yasmon

    2011-01-01

    There are many commercial ELISA and rapid test kits that have been used for blood screening; however, the kits can give false positive and negative results. Therefore, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) - Dot Blot Hybridization based on radioisotope 32 P (RDBR) method was developed in this research, to compare the method with the conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Enzyme-Linked lmmunosorbent Assay) kit. This method is efficient for screening of large blood specimens and surveillance study. Eighty seven samples were used and serum of the samples were tested by ELISA to detect HIV-1. The HIV-l RNA genome was extracted from plasma samples and tested using the RT-PCR and RDBR methods. Of 87 samples that were tested, the rates of positive testing of the RT-PCR, the RDBR, and the ELISA were 71.26%, 74.71%, and 80.46%, respectively. The RDBR (a combination of RTPCR and dot blot hybridization) was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR by showing 3.45% in increase number of positive specimens. The results showed that of 9 samples (10.34%) were negative RDBR and positive ELISA, while 4 samples (4.60%) were negative ELISA and positive RDBR. The two methods showed slightly difference in the results but further validation is still needed. However, RDBR has high potential as an alternative method for screening of blood in large quantities when compared to method of conventional RT-PCR and ELISA. (author)

  13. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1994-09-01

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  14. Comparison between Radioisotopic and Non-radioisotopic Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) Procedures in the Detection of Mutations at the rpoB Gene Associated with Rifampicin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Bang, H.E.; Johnson, R.; Jordaan, A.M.; Victor, T.C. . E-mail : tv@sun.ac.za; Dar, L.; Khan, B.K.; Cho, S.N. . E-mail : raycho@yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of mutations at the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis would be of great importance for proper management of tuberculosis (TB) patients and control of multi-drug resistant TB. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) using both radioisotopic and non-radioisotopic methods have been widely used for detecting such mutations. However, the silver staining method, which is the most frequently employed in PCR-SSCP, has been reported to be producing results of varying sensitivity. Radioisotope-based methods have shown greater sensitivity in detecting the rpoB mutations than the silver staining method. The primary objective of this study was therefore to compare the radioisotopic method with the silver staining method detection of mutations of rpoB gene by PCR-SSCP in the same laboratory. Purified DNAs from M. tuberculosis H37Rv were serially diluted and used for PCR amplification with and without radionuclides. The PCR products were then detected by silver staining and autoradiography methods. In addition, clinical isolates were analyzed by PCR-SSCP. The radioisotopic method showed about four-fold increase in the detection of PCR products over ethidium bromide staining in agarose gel. When compared with silver staining, the radioisotopic method gave a sensitivity of more than 10-fold in detecting PCR products and about 8-fold in PCR-SSCP. Radioisotope-based detection methods provided a clearer resolution in PCR-SSCP than the silver staining method when applied to clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Radioisotope-based detection method was shown to be more sensitive than non-isotope-based method in detecting PCR products and mutations at the rpoB gene of M. tuberculosis by PCR-SSCP. It may be noted that mutations in the rpoB gene as a marker have significant clinical importance because of the increasing number of MDR-TB cases in the world. It is especially relevant to MDR and Extreme Drug Resistance TB

  15. Application of positron annihilation to polymer and development of a radioisotopes-based pulsed slow positron beam apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenori

    2004-01-01

    Positrons injected into polymer behave as nanometer probes, which can detect the size and amount of intermolecular spaces among polymer structures. Although positrons can probe the characteristics of polymer, they induce a radiation effect on polymer samples. At low temperature, the radiation effect induces free electrons, which can be trapped in a shallow potential created among intermolecular structures after freezing molecular motions. These trapped electrons can be released after the disappearance of the shallow potential due to the reappearance of molecular motion above the relaxation temperature. Thus, positrons can be used as a probe for relaxation studies. Coincidence of Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) can improve the S/N ratio to 10 7 , which makes it possible to detect trace elements, since CDBS can separate the high-momentum component of core electrons. A pulsed slow positron beam apparatus is necessary for measuring holes in the polymer film and allows the measurement of the characteristics of thin film coated on semiconductors used widely in electronics industries. (author)

  16. Gas Sensors Based on Molecular Imprinting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-07-04

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT); often described as a method of designing a material to remember a target molecular structure (template); is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with custom-made binding sites complementary to the target molecules in shape; size and functional groups. MIT has been successfully applied to analyze; separate and detect macromolecular organic compounds. Furthermore; it has been increasingly applied in assays of biological macromolecules. Owing to its unique features of structure specificity; predictability; recognition and universal application; there has been exploration of the possible application of MIPs in the field of highly selective gas sensors. In this present study; we outline the recent advances in gas sensors based on MIT; classify and introduce the existing molecularly imprinted gas sensors; summarize their advantages and disadvantages; and analyze further research directions.

  17. Fluorescence based molecular in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging represents a modern research area that allows the in vivo study of molecular biological process kinetics using appropriate probes and visualization methods. This methodology may be defined- apart from the contrast media injection - as non-abrasive. In order to reach an in vivo molecular process imaging as accurate as possible the effects of the used probes on the biological should not be too large. The contrast media as important part of the molecular imaging can significantly contribute to the understanding of molecular processes and to the development of tailored diagnostics and therapy. Since more than 15 years PTB is developing optic imaging systems that may be used for fluorescence based visualization of tissue phantoms, small animal models and the localization of tumors and their predecessors, and for the early recognition of inflammatory processes in clinical trials. Cellular changes occur during many diseases, thus the molecular imaging might be of importance for the early diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Fluorescent dyes can be used as unspecific or also as specific contrast media, which allow enhanced detection sensitivity

  18. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  19. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  20. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The botanical family Ranunculaceae contains important medicinal plants. To obtain new evolutionary evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular phylogenies to test relationships based on the internal transcribed spacer region. The results of phylogenetic analysis of 92 ...

  2. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  3. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S M; Kim, E H [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  4. Graphene-based nanoprobes for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shixing; Li, Fuwu; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Shiping

    2015-10-07

    In recent years, graphene has received widespread attention owing to its extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties. Lately, considerable interest has been focused on exploring the potential applications of graphene in life sciences, particularly in disease-related molecular diagnostics. In particular, the coupling of functional molecules with graphene as a nanoprobe offers an excellent platform to realize the detection of biomarkers, such as nucleic acids, proteins and other bioactive molecules, with high performance. This article reviews emerging graphene-based nanoprobes in electrical, optical and other assay methods and their application in various strategies of molecular diagnostics. In particular, this review focuses on the construction of graphene-based nanoprobes and their special advantages for the detection of various bioactive molecules. Properties of graphene-based materials and their functionalization are also comprehensively discussed in view of the development of nanoprobes. Finally, future challenges and perspectives of graphene-based nanoprobes are discussed.

  5. Orthonormal Wavelet Bases for Quantum Molecular Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymczak, C.; Wang, X.

    1997-01-01

    We report on the use of compactly supported, orthonormal wavelet bases for quantum molecular-dynamics (Car-Parrinello) algorithms. A wavelet selection scheme is developed and tested for prototypical problems, such as the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the local density approximation to atomic and molecular systems. Our method shows systematic convergence with increased grid size, along with improvement on compression rates, thereby yielding an optimal grid for self-consistent electronic structure calculations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Health problems of industrial applications of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrna, J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation hygiene problems of industrial radioisotope applications are discussed. The observance of regulations is emphasised. Radiation protection is based on the principle of preventing early radiation damage and limiting late radiation damage to an acceptable level. The basic requirement is that the cumulated dose should be as low as possible, i.e., as low as is practically feasible in considering economic and social aspects. Notices 59/72 and 65/72, Collection of Laws, rule that if the limit of 3/10 of the maximum permissible dose is likely to be reached, control zones should be defined and marked at places of work where radioisotopes are handled. The characteristics of such a control zone are listed and the measures to be taken in case of accident are outlined. (B.S.)

  7. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-06-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental data show that an Au nanodisk array, coated with rotaxane molecular machines, switches its localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) reversibly when it is exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants. Conversely, bare Au nanodisks and disks coated with mechanically inert control compounds, do not display the same switching behavior. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), these observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound "molecular machines" can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices. ©2009 IEEE.

  8. Evaluation of glycodendron and synthetically-modified dextran clearing agents for multi-step targeting of radioisotopes for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Yoo, Barney; Boughdad, Sarah; Punzalan, Blesida; Yang, Guangbin; Dilhas, Anna; Torchon, Geralda; Pu, Jun; Axworthy, Don B.; Zanzonico, Pat; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Larson, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of N-acetylgalactosamine-dendrons (NAG-dendrons) and dextrans bearing biotin moieties were compared for their ability to complex with and sequester circulating bispecific anti-tumor antibody (scFv4) streptavidin (SA) fusion protein (scFv4-SA) in vivo, to improve tumor to normal tissue concentration ratios for targeted radioimmunotherapy and diagnosis. Specifically, a total of five NAG-dendrons employing a common synthetic scaffold structure containing 4, 8, 16, or 32 carbohydrate residues and a single biotin moiety were prepared (NAGB), and for comparative purposes, a biotinylated-dextran with average molecular weight (MW) of 500 kD was synthesized from amino-dextran (DEXB). One of the NAGB compounds, CA16, has been investigated in humans; our aim was to determine if other NAGB analogs (e.g. CA8 or CA4) were bioequivalent to CA16 and/or better suited as MST reagents. In vivo studies included dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging of 124I-labelled-scFv4-SA clearance and dual-label biodistribution studies following multi-step targeting (MST) directed at subcutaneous (s.c.) human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts in mice. The MST protocol consists of three injections: first, a bispecific antibody specific for an anti-tumor associated glycoprotein (TAG-72) single chain genetically-fused with SA (scFv4-SA); second, CA16 or other clearing agent; and third, radiolabeled biotin. We observed using PET imaging of 124I-labelled-scFv4-SA clearance that the spatial arrangement of ligands conjugated to NAG (i.e. biotin) can impact the binding to antibody in circulation and subsequent liver uptake of the NAG-antibody complex. Also, NAGB CA32-LC or CA16-LC can be utilized during MST to achieve comparable tumor- to-blood ratios and absolute tumor uptake seen previously with CA16. Finally, DEXB was equally effective as NAGB CA32-LC at lowering scFv4-SA in circulation, but at the expense of reducing absolute tumor uptake of radiolabeled biotin. PMID:24219178

  9. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Ryohei; Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  10. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Han, H.S.; Park, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  11. Towards the molecular bases of polymerase dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1991-03-01

    One aspect of the strong relationship that is known to exist between the processes of DNA replication and transcription is manifest in the coupling of the rates of movement of the replication fork (r f ) and RNA polymerase (r t ). We address two issues concerning the largely unexplored area of polymerase dynamics: (i) The validity of an approximate kinematic formula linking r f and r t suggested by experiments in which transcription is initiated in some prokaryotes with the antibiotic streptolydigin, and (ii) What are the molecular bases of the kinematic formula? An analysis of the available data suggests possible molecular bases for polymerase dynamics. In particular, we are led to a hypothesis: In active chromatin r t may depend on the length (λ t ) of the transcript of the primary messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). This new effect is subject to experimental verification. We discuss possible experiments that may be performed in order to test this prediction. (author). Refs, 6 tabs

  12. Progress on RNAi-based molecular medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; Xie, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Jing Chen, Jianping XieInstitute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Ministry of Education Eco-Environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, ChinaAbstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy to suppress the expression of disease-relevant genes and induce post-transcriptional gene silencing. Their simplicity and stability endow RNAi with great advantages in molecular medicine. Several RNA...

  13. Investigation of the present management status of calibration source based on the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Kunihiro; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2007-01-01

    An amendment concerning the enforcement of the law on the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc., and the medical service law enforcement regulations were promulgated on June 1, 2005. This amendment concerned international basic safety standards and the sealing of radiation sources. Sealed radiation sources ≤3.7 MBq, which had been excluded from regulation, were newly included as an object of regulation. Investigation of the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system instituted in hospitals indicated that almost all institutions adhere to the new amendment, and the calibration source, the checking source, etc., corresponding to this amendment were maintained appropriately. Any institutions planning to return sealed radioisotopes should refer to this report. (author)

  14. SIDA - System for importation distribution and acquisition of radioisotope - User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The SIDA manual (system for importation, distribution and acquisition of radioisotopes) is presented. The SIDA is a system of consult and update to control importation and distribution of radioisotopes in the country. It allows to accompany processes from importation requirement to distribution of radioisotopes, executing the accountancy of I-125, which is distributed for several interprises. The system was developed in CLIPPER87 using DBASE III PLUS data base management. (M.C.K.)

  15. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  16. Radioisotope techniques in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabuddha

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

  17. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  18. Radioisotope detection and dating with accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T S; Muller, R A [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1980-07-01

    The status of the new technique of high energy mass spectrometry is reviewed. This sensitive method of measuring isotope concentrations has been applied to the detection of rare radioisotopes used for age estimation. The techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample are described and then the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications is reviewed.

  19. As bases moleculares da hemofilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferreira Pio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As hemofilias são doenças hemorrágicas resultantes da deficiência de fator VIII (hemofilia A ou de fator IX (hemofilia B da coagulação, decorrentes de mutações nos genes que codificam os fatores VIII ou IX, respectivamente. A hemofilia A é mais frequente que a hemofilia B e acomete aproximadamente 1:10.000 nascimentos masculinos. A gravidade e frequência dos episódios hemorrágicos está relacionado ao nível residual de atividade de fator VIII presente no plasma e este relaciona-se ao tipo de mutação associada à doença. A clonagem do gene do fator VIII tornou possível o conhecimento das bases moleculares da hemofilia A, sendo hoje conhecidas mais de 1.000 mutações associadas à doença. O conhecimento das bases moleculares da hemofilia A permite uma melhor compreensão da relação genótipo-fenótipo da doença, tomada de condutas clínicas diferenciadas em casos de mutações associadas a um maior risco de desenvolvimento de inibidor, determinação da condição de portadora de hemofilia em mulheres relacionadas aos pacientes, implementação de programa de aconselhamento genético/orientação familiar e melhor compreensão das relações estruturais-funcionais do gene-proteína. Este artigo propõe revisar as bases moleculares da hemofilia A, os métodos laboratoriais utilizados para a caracterização das mutações e as implicações clínicas envolvidas no diagnóstico molecular da hemofilia A.Hemophilias are bleeding disorders due to deficiency of the blood coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A or factor IX (hemophilia B, resulting from mutation on the gene coding for factor VIII or factor IX. Hemophilia A is more frequent than hemophilia B and affects 1:10,000 male newborns. The severity and frequency of hemorrhagic episodes is related to residual activity of factor VIII present in the plasma and relates to the type of mutation associated with the disorder. Cloning of the factor VIII gene has enabled researchers to

  20. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  1. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioisotopes in engineering and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of radioisotope techniques in engineering and materials quality control are shown. The inventory of mercury in electrolytical cells, the transit and residence time measurements in several processes and radiotracer control are studied. The radioactive tracers in hydrologycal problems is evaluated. (M.J.C.) [pt

  3. Radioisotopes point the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiochemicals as tracers in medicine is discussed, with particular reference to the choice of radioisotope to be used, its properties, quality control and its detection and measurement in tracer experiments. The development of autoradiography is discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  5. Organic-based molecular switches for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Noelia; Martín-Lasanta, Ana; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Ribagorda, Maria; Parra, Andres; Cuerva, Juan M

    2011-10-05

    In a general sense, molecular electronics (ME) is the branch of nanotechnology which studies the application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components. Among the different types of molecules, organic compounds have been revealed as promising candidates for ME, due to the easy access, great structural diversity and suitable electronic and mechanical properties. Thanks to these useful capabilities, organic molecules have been used to emulate electronic devices at the nanoscopic scale. In this feature article, we present the diverse strategies used to develop organic switches towards ME with special attention to non-volatile systems.

  6. Advanced molecular devices based on light-driven molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen

    2015-01-01

    Nature has provided a large collection of molecular machines and devices that are among the most amazing nanostructures on this planet. These machines are able to operate complex biological processes which are of great importance in our organisms. Inspired by these natural devices, artificial

  7. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal

    2013-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  8. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal, E-mail: rma8@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  9. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  10. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  11. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  12. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131 I (solution and capsule), 131 I-MIBG, 131 I-Hippuran, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-HA, and 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  13. Economical and technical feasibility study of some radioisotopes production for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L.A.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    The economical and technical feasibility study of the production in reactors of some radioisotopes most used in medicine, are presented. The clinical applications of each radioisotope as well as its radioactive concentrations and specific activities are related. Irradiation procedures based in the foregoing data are given. Part of the study is dedicated to quality control. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Some results of radioisotope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1974-10-01

    The accumulation of radioisotopes by brucellae depends on the consistency of the feed medium on which they are grown. The uptake of P-32 is a factor of 5 to 16 greater, and that of sulfur-35 in the form of sodium sulfate is a factor of 30 to 100 greater when grown on a complex solid agar than in a bouillion solution of the same ingredients. Brucellae are readily tagged with /sup 32/P and /sup 35/S simultaneously. These tagged brucellae were used to study in vitro storage under various temperature regimes. Brucellae actively incorporate iron. The uptake of methionine and cystine tagged with sulfur-35 by brucellae was investigated. Methionine is absorbed directly for the most part by brucellae, while the sulfur-35 in sodium sulfate is primarily transformed to cystine and cysteine. The uptake of various radioisotopes can be used to type various strains of brucellae. Isotopes are used to trace the course of various diseases in animals. (SJR)

  16. Radioisotopes in Burmese agricultural research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The Burmese authorities decided to start a laboratory for the use of radioisotope techniques in agricultural r e search. The laboratory was set up at the Agricultural Research Institute at Gyogon, on the outskirts of Rangoon. Under its technical assistance program, IAEA assigned an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes for this project. Discussions were held with regional representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the best lines of research to be adopted at the laboratory in its early stages. As the most important crop in Burma is rice, a series of experiments were planned for a study of the nutrition of rice, particularly its phosphorus uptake, with special reference to comparative responses on a range of typical paddy soils. The experiments began last year and are being continued.

  17. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  18. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjian

    1987-01-01

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  20. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  1. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Meera

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30 P, by bombardment of 27 Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  2. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, G.B.; Lazor, C.J.

    1976-10-01

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author) [es

  3. Gas Sensors Based on Molecular Imprinting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT); often described as a method of designing a material to remember a target molecular structure (template); is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with custom-made binding sites complementary to the target molecules in shape; size and functional groups. MIT has been successfully applied to analyze; separate and detect macromolecular organic compounds. Furthermore; it has been increasingly applied in assays of biological mac...

  4. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, G.J.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  5. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, G J; Krishnamoorthy, P N

    1960-07-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  6. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, S.; Seviour, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of "2"4Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that "2"4Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. - Highlights: • We show that neutron interrogation of food can produce many radioisotopes. • We show a strong dependance between food and certain radioisotopes. • Some isotopes are shown to have an energy dependence. • Previous claims that 24Na is the main threat is shown to only apply in special cases.

  7. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hercik, F.; Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  8. Clinical evaluation of Proscillaridin-A with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.D.A.; Cordovil, I.L.; Rocha, A.F.G.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty patients with cardiac insufficiency were evaluated under the use of Proscillaridin-A. The analysis was based on classic clinical parameters and 11 patients through the circulation time with the radioisotopic technique. The results obtained are analysed and discussed about the absence of side effects, considering as well the therapeutic use of the drug [pt

  9. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer/Metal Organic Framework Based Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes recent advances in the concept of molecular imprinting using metal organic frameworks (MOF for development of chemical sensors. Two main strategies regarding the fabrication, performance and applications of recent sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers associated with MOF are presented: molecularly imprinted MOF films and molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using MOF as core. The associated transduction modes are also discussed. A brief conclusion and future expectations are described herein.

  11. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  12. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  14. Gene transfer technology and genetic radioisotope targeting therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaqiong; Wang Zizheng

    2004-01-01

    With deeper cognition about mechanisms of disease at the cellular and molecular level, gene therapy has become one of the most important research fields in medical molecular biology at present. Gene transfer technology plays an important role during the course of gene therapy, and further improvement should be made about vectors carrying target gene sequences. Also, gene survey is needed during gene therapy, and gene imaging is the most effective method. The combination of gene therapy and targeted radiotherapy, that is, 'Genetic Radioisotope Targeting Therapy', will be a novel approach to tumor gene therapy

  15. The industrial application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the two main fields of the industrial application of radioisotopes are introduced. In the field of process controlling device and control first about the transmission and the backscattering methods is reported. Then the x-ray fluorescence method and the moisture gauging with neutrons are mentioned. Also the measuring of depth of charge. In the field of tracer investigations about all kinds of flow and intermixture measurements is reported. And investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and precise location of nonmetallic pipe lines are mentioned. (Author)

  16. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  17. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  18. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  19. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Yang, Ying-Wei; Jensen, Lasse; Fang, Lei; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Weiss, Paul S.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular ... Ranunculaceae is a family of flowering plants known as ... and in the analysis of the evolutionary rate for lower level phylogeny ...

  1. Present status of application of radiation and radioisotopes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Anwar

    1984-01-01

    Bangladesh has proceeded with the atomic energy programme in three phases: (1) research and development using radiation and radioisotopes and application of the results, (2) building the infrastructure in nuclear technology and (3) production of electricity from nuclear sources and development of associated facilities. It has entered the second phase of the programme. The following main areas of research and application were referred to: agriculture, food preservation, medical sterilization and radiation biology, medicine, non-destructive testing, isotope hydrology, elemental analysis, particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods, radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence (RIXFA) methods, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) methods, molecular absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, health physics, and future programme with research reactor. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daryoko, M.; Yatim, S.; Suseno, H.; Wiratmo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na 2 , sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10 -3 μCi/cm 2 . This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO 4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  3. Aspects of radioisotopes utilization in clinical medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G.; Lima e Forti, C.A. de; Cunha, M. da C.; Souza Maciel, O. de

    1973-01-01

    A revision concerning radioisotope use in Medicine have been dow. Harmless and effeciency of radioisotopes are shown. Techniques and advantages of tracers used for brain scintiscanning, lung scintiscanning, liver scintinscanning, spleen scintiscanning, bone scintiscanning and thyroid scintiscanning are described and images of them are presented [pt

  4. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  5. Logic circuits based on molecular spider systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dandan; Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-08-01

    Spatial locality brings the advantages of computation speed-up and sequence reuse to molecular computing. In particular, molecular walkers that undergo localized reactions are of interest for implementing logic computations at the nanoscale. We use molecular spider walkers to implement logic circuits. We develop an extended multi-spider model with a dynamic environment wherein signal transmission is triggered via localized reactions, and use this model to implement three basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) and a cascading mechanism. We develop an algorithm to automatically generate the layout of the circuit. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate circuit computations, and we analyze circuit complexity: our design scales linearly with formula size and has a logarithmic time complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected and compiled on radioisotopes produced and sold by Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and on services rendered by DOE facilities. Compiled data were published and distributed in the document list of DOE Radioisotope Customers with Summary of Radioisotope Shipments, FY 1986, PNL-6361, October 1987. The DOE facilities that supplied information for the compilation were Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River Plant, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. (Hanford). The data provided were reported in several different ways: (1) a list of radioisotopes and services provided by each facility; (2) a list of radioisotope customers, the supplying DOE facility, and the radioisotope or service provided to each customer; and (3) a list of the quantity and value of each radioisotope or service sold by each DOE facility. The sales information covered foreign customers, domestic private customers, and domestic DOE customers

  7. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  8. 82Sr--82Rb radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Erdal, B.R.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved 82 Sr- 82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be greater than 10 7 . Approximately 80 percent of the 82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH 4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be greater than 10 5 , and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three 82 Sr half lives. 2 claims, no drawings

  9. Design of radioisotope power systems facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.C.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems currently produced for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Special Applications by the Mound Laboratory at Miamisburg, Ohio, have been used in a variety of configurations by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A forecast of fugure radioisotope power systems requirements showed a need for an increased production rate beyond the capability of the existing Mound Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford Company is modifying the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to install the new Radioisotope Power Systems Facility for assembling future radioisotope power systems. The facility is currently being prepared to assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996

  10. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuiqing

    1996-12-01

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60 Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  11. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co

  12. Piezoelectric sensors based on molecular imprinted polymers for detection of low molecular mass analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, Yildiz; Piletsky, Sergey A; Turner, Anthony P F; Cooper, Matthew A

    2007-11-01

    Biomimetic recognition elements employed for the detection of analytes are commonly based on proteinaceous affibodies, immunoglobulins, single-chain and single-domain antibody fragments or aptamers. The alternative supra-molecular approach using a molecularly imprinted polymer now has proven utility in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to bioassays. Despite inherent advantages compared with biochemical/biological recognition (which include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs) there are few contributions that describe quantitative analytical applications of molecularly imprinted polymers for relevant small molecular mass compounds in real-world samples. There is, however, significant literature describing the use of low-power, portable piezoelectric transducers to detect analytes in environmental monitoring and other application areas. Here we review the combination of molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition elements with piezoelectric biosensors for quantitative detection of small molecules. Analytes are classified by type and sample matrix presentation and various molecularly imprinted polymer synthetic fabrication strategies are also reviewed.

  13. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  14. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  15. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguis T, C.

    1975-01-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  16. Radioisotopic studies in renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levasseur, A.; Robillard, R.; Lemieux, R.; Dandavino, R.; Girard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopic evaluation of kidney graft function has greatly reduced the need for more invasive studies such as arteriography, retrograde pyelograpy and graft biopsy. The schedule of sequential studies beginning the day after transplant may be modified according to the patient's clinical or biochemical status. The combined use of I 131 Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc DTPA allows early detection of graft rejection and its differentiation from tubular necrosis. Scintigraphic images may have a characteristic appearance in cases of arterial, venous or urinary obstruction, urinary fistule, infarction, abcess and lymphocele. This non-invasive diagnostic study requiring only an intravenous injection is simple, rapid, accurate and may be repeated as often as necessary. (auth) [fr

  17. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRossi; Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  18. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  19. [Department of the molecular bases of semiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovyĭ, K S

    1995-01-01

    Department of molecular basis of semiotics was organized in 1986. The main task of the department was to work out new approaches in estimation of the state of immune and blood system at the tissue, cell and molecular levels, using biochemical, biophysical and molecular biology techniques. There are several main directions of scientific investigations at the department. Most informational methods were collected in "immunological portrait" for differential diagnostic and complex investigation of the immune system of autoimmune patients. This group of techniques was used to study changes in the immune system of Kievites after the Chernobyl disaster. A decrease of complement and thymic serum activity was detected. Antibodies against nuclear components appeared in 20% of donors. And a higher of circulating immune complex of low molecular weight was observed. Low level of thymic serum activity in blood of autoimmune patients with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, diabetes, herpes and other depends on the appearance of zinc-independent timuline inhibitor less then 2000 D. Another kind of thymic hormone inhibitors was detected in thymectomized adult mice. Its effect disappears when zinc added in blood rather due to competition for lymphocyte surface receptors timuline and its inactive analogue than other mechanism. Therapeutic effect of UV irradiation of patients' blood was shown to be closely connected with the changes in thymic serum activity in respect to stabilization of thymic hormone/inhibitor ratio. The immunochemical techniques were used to detect and investigate tumor-associated chromatin antigens in human and animal tumor cells. Antigens not found in normal tissues were detected when using rabbit antibodies against chromatin of rat hepatocarcinoma and human colon and carcinoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated

  1. Potential medical applications of the plasma focus in the radioisotope production for PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, M.V.; Razaghi, S.; Asghari, F.; Rawat, R.S.; Springham, S.V.; Lee, P.; Lee, S.; Tan, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Devices other than the accelerators are desired to be investigated for generating high energy particles to induce nuclear reaction and positron emission tomography (PET) producing radioisotopes. The experimental data of plasma focus devices (PF) are studied and the activity scaling law for External Solid Target (EST) activation is established. Based on the scaling law and the techniques to enhance the radioisotopes production, the feasibility of generating the required activity for PET imaging is studied. - Highlights: • Short lived radioisotopes for PET imaging are produced in plasma focus device. • The scaling law of the activity induced with plasma focus energy is established. • The potential medical applications of plasma focus are studied

  2. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  3. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  4. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Berridge, M.; Maziere, B.; Crouzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the preparation of radioisotopes for biochemical and physiological studies and the principal methods for their incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, while pointing out the problems encountered with their use and considering their medical interest in the following areas: distribution and flow of fluids, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Inorganic and organic radiopharmaceuticals presently in use and most probable to be used in the future are reviewed. It is anticipated that three types of products labelled with 15 O, 13 N, 11 C and 18 F will be developed in the future. The first type includes products which trace general phenomena such as fluid movement or metabolism of sugars, fats and proteins. The compromise between physiological accuracy and imaging technology is discussed in relation to the use of 11 C and 18 F. The second type of product is one to measure more specific parameters such as those of molecular transport kinetics, membrane permeability, cellular pH and receptor-ligand interactions, again with particular reference to 11 C and 18 F. The third type of product discussed is that intended for pharmacology studies, particular reference being made to 68 Ga, 82 Rb. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  6. The production and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolution of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop. (author)

  7. Twenty years of Korea radioisotope association history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.

  8. Molecular bases of methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Krasnova, Irina N

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, whose abuse has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The addiction to METH is a major public concern because its chronic abuse is associated with serious health complications including deficits in attention, memory, and executive functions in humans. These neuropsychiatric complications might, in part, be related to drug-induced neurotoxic effects, which include damage to dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals, neuronal apoptosis, as well as activated astroglial and microglial cells in the brain. Thus, the purpose of the present paper is to review cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be responsible for METH neurotoxicity. These include oxidative stress, activation of transcription factors, DNA damage, excitotoxicity, blood-brain barrier breakdown, microglial activation, and various apoptotic pathways. Several approaches that allow protection against METH-induced neurotoxic effects are also discussed. Better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH toxicity should help to generate modern therapeutic approaches to prevent or attenuate the long-term consequences of psychostimulant use disorders in humans.

  9. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  10. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  11. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  12. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984

  15. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  16. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  17. Application of radioisotopes in oil, gas and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    The fundaments and the methodology of the principal radioisotope techniques used in the construction and operation of oil-pipes are described. These techniques deal with gamma radiography of weids, scraper tracking, leak localization in underground pipes and interface detection. The practical use of the mathematical formulas deduced during the theoretical treatment of each method is illustrated through several examples of application. A proceeding for the design of an interface detector based on gamma ray attenuation is presented [pt

  18. Radioisotopic diagnosis in pediatrics. Radioizotopnaya diagnostika v pediatrii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubovskij, G A

    1983-01-01

    The material concerning the possibilities of modern radiodiagnostic methods in the practice of pediatric cardiology, pulmonology, uronephrology, gastroentorology, osteology, endocrinology and perinatology is presented. The data on techniques for production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation loads on child and personnel and the rules of radiation safety are given. The value and the place of radioisotopic diagnosis in the complex of clinicoroentgenologic and instrumental investigations in pediatrics are based.

  19. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  20. Production of radioisotopes with BR2 facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallais, C.J.; Morel de Westfaver, A.; Heeren, L.; Baugnet, J.M.; Gandolfo, J.M.; Boeykens, W.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief account on the isotopes production evolution in the industrialized countries the irradiation devices and the types of standardized capsules used in the BR2 reactor are described as well as the thermal neutron flux. Production of most important radioisotopes like 131 Iodine, 60 Cobalt, 192 Iridium and 99 Molybdenum and their main utilizations (uses)are described. The mean specific activities and the limit of use for different radioisotopes are reported. (A.F.)

  1. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  2. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  3. Technical diagnosis of industrial plants with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of radioisotopes in technical diagnosis of industrial plants. Proceeding from the economic importance and the state of the art of radioisotope applications, the principles of tracer techniques are outlined including topical examples of application such as passage of coal through a steam generator, wear in impact crashing of coal, wear and corrosion in pipelines, testing the effective cross section of pipes, and investigations of microstructures. Limits and restrictions of applications are briefly discussed

  4. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  5. Cost-benefit aspects of radioisotope methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The cost-benefit relations in the complex application of radioisotpe techniques increased in the last years to up to 1/10 to 1/15. The most essential cause of this trend is the increase of the capacity of production processes, controlled and automatized by means of radioisotopes, and the solution of qualitatively new technological problems of a high economic relevance. A collection of statistical data about the expediture and benefit of different radioisotopes techniques is presented. (author)

  6. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  7. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  8. Controlling charge current through a DNA based molecular transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnia, S., E-mail: s.behnia@sci.uut.ac.ir; Fathizadeh, S.; Ziaei, J.

    2017-01-05

    Molecular electronics is complementary to silicon-based electronics and may induce electronic functions which are difficult to obtain with conventional technology. We have considered a DNA based molecular transistor and study its transport properties. The appropriate DNA sequence as a central chain in molecular transistor and the functional interval for applied voltages is obtained. I–V characteristic diagram shows the rectifier behavior as well as the negative differential resistance phenomenon of DNA transistor. We have observed the nearly periodic behavior in the current flowing through DNA. It is reported that there is a critical gate voltage for each applied bias which above it, the electrical current is always positive. - Highlights: • Modeling a DNA based molecular transistor and studying its transport properties. • Choosing the appropriate DNA sequence using the quantum chaos tools. • Choosing the functional interval for voltages via the inverse participation ratio tool. • Detecting the rectifier and negative differential resistance behavior of DNA.

  9. Bibliographic data base on atomic and molecular data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu.

    1983-03-01

    A comparative study is made on three bibliographic data bases: INSPEC, ORNL - AMPIC, GAPHYOR. An on - line retrieval is carried out for searching a number of specific atomic and molecular data. Characteristics of each data base are clarified and suggestions are given for use of those data bases. (author)

  10. Agent-Based Modeling in Molecular Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilypour, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2018-06-08

    Molecular systems orchestrating the biology of the cell typically involve a complex web of interactions among various components and span a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. Computational methods have advanced our understanding of the behavior of molecular systems by enabling us to test assumptions and hypotheses, explore the effect of different parameters on the outcome, and eventually guide experiments. While several different mathematical and computational methods are developed to study molecular systems at different spatiotemporal scales, there is still a need for methods that bridge the gap between spatially-detailed and computationally-efficient approaches. In this review, we summarize the capabilities of agent-based modeling (ABM) as an emerging molecular systems biology technique that provides researchers with a new tool in exploring the dynamics of molecular systems/pathways in health and disease. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Optimal separable bases and molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, L.W.

    1997-12-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the efficient determination of Green's functions and eigenstates for quantum systems of two or more dimensions. For a given Hamiltonian, the best possible separable approximation is obtained from the set of all Hilbert space operators. It is shown that this determination itself, as well as the solution of the resultant approximation, are problems of reduced dimensionality for most systems of physical interest. Moreover, the approximate eigenstates constitute the optimal separable basis, in the sense of self-consistent field theory. These distorted waves give rise to a Born series with optimized convergence properties. Analytical results are presented for an application of the method to the two-dimensional shifted harmonic oscillator system. The primary interest however, is quantum reactive scattering in molecular systems. For numerical calculations, the use of distorted waves corresponds to numerical preconditioning. The new methodology therefore gives rise to an optimized preconditioning scheme for the efficient calculation of reactive and inelastic scattering amplitudes, especially at intermediate energies. This scheme is particularly suited to discrete variable representations (DVR's) and iterative sparse matrix methods commonly employed in such calculations. State to state and cumulative reactive scattering results obtained via the optimized preconditioner are presented for the two-dimensional collinear H + H 2 → H 2 + H system. Computational time and memory requirements for this system are drastically reduced in comparison with other methods, and results are obtained for previously prohibitive energy regimes

  12. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F.

    1991-10-01

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  13. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  14. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Faber, K.; Klijn, N.; Lemmens, C.; Wissink, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131 I its rather short half life, for 137 Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90 Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137 Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  15. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  16. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N; Tejera, A; Bulbulian, S; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  17. Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    This brochure is intended to present the state-of -the-art in techniques for gamma scanning and neutron backscattering for troubleshooting inspection of columns, vessels, pipes, and tanks in many industrial processing sectors. It aims to provide not only an extensive description of what can be achieved by the application of radioisotope sealed sources but also sound experience-based guidance on all aspects of designing, carrying out and interpreting the results of industrial applications. Though it is written primarily for radioisotope practitioners, the brochure is also intended to function as an ambassador for the technology by promoting its benefits to governments, to the general public and to industrial end-users

  18. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  19. Prospective production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in divisions of IPPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, G.O.

    2001-01-01

    The first reason to commence the work on production of radioisotope production in IPPE, was the requirement of Russia medicine for original generators of technetium. The essential extension of their production in conditions of Moscow city has met the declaiming of the Moscow urban authorities. The important moment was that, in IPPE were objective possibilities to deployment the production of radioisotope production. Nowadays, nomenclature of the radioisotopes which have been produced in IPPE, constitutes 29 positions. The profile of production of radioisotope production was generated also. Restricted possibilities of the ray base, from one side, and the needs(requirement) of domestic medicine with other, in main have spotted this profile. The raw isotopes constitute a minority - on sales volumes ∼ 20 % (in main abroad), the defining part is constituted the form ready for the use by ∼ 80 % (in main in Russia). All 'know-how' is conditionally possible to divide into 3 categories: Base. It is technologies provided with an operating production sector, guaranteeing stable on quality production having a rather wide seller's market; Perspective. It is those technologies, in which the main stages of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT are fulfilled with positive result, but the working sites yet are not generated, and on the market are delivered only some samples of production. Are guessed RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT on perfecting the technology; Preparative. The technology, on which there are no regular orders, is not required of an individual working site. Sometimes it is rather precision operations, bound with usage of unique raw material, with a very stiff price of production. (authors)

  20. A Survey on the Usage and Demand of Medical Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceuticals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurazi Ahmad Fadzil; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Azahari Kasbollah; Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa

    2016-01-01

    Medical radioisotope is a small quantity of radioactive substance used for the purpose of diagnostic and therapy of various diseases. In Malaysia, the emerging of new nuclear medicine centers or institutions in both government and private sectors rose abruptly for the past few years. Currently, there are no data available on the usage and demand of these medical radioisotope or radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to assess current medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals usage and also to provide data on current medical radioisotope and radiopharmaceuticals demand for both private and government hospitals or institutions in Malaysia. A survey for a period of 3 months was conducted across Malaysia. The survey was divided into five (5) main parts and it was distributed among health care professionals involved working with medical radioisotope and radiopharmaceuticals in private, government and university based hospitals or institutions and was distributed manually either by hand, mail or e-mail. Data is presented in either pie chart or bar chart. Survey results found out that the highest demand and the highest usage among all radioisotopes are Technetium-99m and radioiodine isotopes such as the iodine-131, iodine-131 MIBG, iodine-123 and iodine-123 MIBG. Technetium-99m is the backbone of nuclear medicine whereby more than 80 % of Nuclear Medicine services utilize this radioisotope. Technetium-99m supply chain is unstable globally and in coming future, two main reactors that produce 60 % of world Molybdenum-99 will shut down and the supply of molybdenum-99 will be disrupted. In radioiodine services, currently, Iodine-123 cannot be obtained in Malaysia and neighboring countries due to its short half-life. Iodine-123 is useful in diagnostic of thyroid related diseases. As for PET services, the highest demands are F-18 FDG and gallium-68 Generator. It is important for Malaysia to self-produced medical radioisotope and radiopharmaceuticals to meet the

  1. Radioisotope requirements and usage in the radiopharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used extensively in many different productive and beneficial human endeavors. Amersham International, a U.K.-based company originating in the British Scientific Civil Service during World War II, has been actively involved in many of these activities for more than 50 yr. Today they are one of the world's largest suppliers of radioactive compounds and scaled radiation sources for use in industrial quality and safety assurance, life science research, and medicine. This paper outlines one of these applications: the use of radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive nuclides and labeled compounds that have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of (human) disease. They are manufactured via highly controlled processes and have gone through regulatory scrutiny and approval far in excess of other radioisotopes used in other applications. Radiopharmaceuticals can be conveniently split into two categories. One type is simply an active analog that mimics the physiological behavior of its inactive counterpart in the body. The other involves an actual pharmacological compound that exhibits the desired physiological behavior, which is then labeled with a radionuclide suitable for either imaging or the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose as appropriate but which plays no part in the mechanism of action of the drug. The latter type, which is the more common of the two, can be supplied either as an active compounded product or as a open-quotes cold kit,close quotes which is then labeled with the appropriate radiopharmaceutical-grade radionuclide to yield the final product

  2. A comparative study of different contaminant radioisotopes in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    An order was established between the various radioisotopes, in order to compare which of them are a major problem concerning the contamination they originate in the materials using during their process, transportation and protection, consequently a sampling of contaminated materials was realized. These materials were submitted to a decontamination process with different reagents (acids, bases and organic and inorganic salts) varying their concentration through dilution with water. Besides for the same kind of reagent two processes were used, one with turbulence in the reagent through mechanical stirring, and the other static maintaining similar volumes of liquid in the two processes as well as a similar material, form and size of the object during the processes, detection of radiation in the samples were realized through a Geiger-Muller detector in similar periods of time, establishing this way a parallel system of comparison which allowed us to observe gains in the necessary period of time for reaching the same grade of decontamination in the two processes, it was concluded that it is very difficult to reach an order of comparison in the contamination because the periods of treatment vary as a function of the chemical compound containing the radioisotope(s). Besides we can reduce considerably the period of time in a stirring process and predict this necessary period of time for reaching the determined decontamination, provided that there are not permanent contaminations. (author)

  3. Environmental Phosphorus Recovery Based on Molecular Bioscavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix

    Phosphorus is a ubiquitous element of all known life and as such it is found throughout numerous key molecules related to various cellular functions. The supply of phosphorus is tightly linked to global food security, since phosphorus is used to produce agricultural fertilizers, without which...... it would not be possible to feed the world population. Sadly, the current supply of phosphorus is based on the gradual depletion of limited fossil reserves, and some estimates predict that within 15-25 years we will consume more phosphorus than we can produce. There is therefore a strong international...... pressure to develop sustainable phosphorus practices as well as new technologies for phosphorus recovery. Nature has spent billions of years refining proteins that interact with phosphates. This has inspired the present work where the overall ambitions are: to facilitate the development of a recovery...

  4. Radioisotope production in the I. Ph. P. E. cyclotron for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Dmitriyev, P.P.; Konjakhin, N.A.; Ognev, A.A. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Obninsk. Fiziko-Ehnergeticheskij Inst.)

    1982-01-01

    The production methods for seven radioisotopes, Ga-67, Sr-85, Pd-103, In-111, Tm-167, Hg-197 and Pb-203, by using a classical 1.5m cyclotron in the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, USSR, are described. At present, more than 50 cyclotrons in different countries are used for the production of radioisotopes applied to medicine. Radioisotopes are produced with the cyclotron in the I.Ph.P.E. in the form of irradiated targets, which are delivered to Moscow radiopharmaceutical factory, where radiopharmaceuticals are produced on the base of these targets. The cyclotron is operated in two regimes providing the acceleration of protons, deuterons and alpha -particles. Two types of target assemblies are used for irradiation, the one is intended for the internal beam, and the other is for the external beam. The reactions used for the production of seven radioisotopes described above, the types of targets, particle energy, respective irradiated materials, beam current, thick target yield and the amount of respective radioisotopes produced per year are reported. Metals have large heat conductivity, therefore the use of metal targets increases beam current, and increases the production rate of radioisotopes.

  5. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  6. Radioisotope detection with tandem electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, H E; Elmore, D; Ferraro, R [Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Nuclear Structure Research Lab.; Beukens, R P; Chang, K H; Kilius, L R; Lee, H W; Litherland, A E [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Purser, K H [General Ionex Corp., Newburyport, MA (USA)

    1980-01-01

    An MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Rochester has been employed since May 1977 to detect /sup 14/C in terrestrial samples, /sup 36/Cl in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples and /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al in samples produced by reactor and accelerator irradiation. The sample sizes ranged from about 10 to less than 1 mg and the ratio of the radioisotope to the stable isotopes approached one part in 10/sup 16/ for /sup 14/C and /sup 36/Cl and one part in 10/sup 14/ for /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al. /sup 14/C has been measured in a number of samples of geological and archaelogical interest. /sup 36/Cl has been measured in various groundwater samples as well as samples at Antarctic meteorites and ice. Dedicated systems for /sup 14/C dating and geological measurements based on the tandem electrostatic accelerator principle are presently under construction for laboratories in the U.S.A., U.K. and Canada.

  7. Radioisotopes investigations of copper ore dressing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryka, L.; Furman, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes radioisotope applications in the copper industry, mainly for the examination of comminution, classification, and flotation processes for selected physical parameters. Measurements were performed by a mobile laboratory containing the electronics for experiment control and data recording and processing using special computer software. This system makes it possible to determine measurements in an industrial environment. The data acquisition system provides 24 spectrometric channels, consisting of scintillation probes, high-voltage (HV) power supplies, and pulse-height analyzers, as well as an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter interfaced to the IBM personal computer. The sampling time is fully programmable and interrupt based and can vary from 1 ms to hours and may be set separately for each channel. The milli-second sampling time technique has been applied to high-resolution flow velocity measurements. On the other hand, longer sampling time enables the system to be left unattended for days to monitor, for example, copper ore concentration or efficiency of the flotation process

  8. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators, the radio lanthanides: 151 Pm, 147 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho, 177 Lu, 131 I and the 32 P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the 99m Tc and the 188 Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  9. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators for implanted pacemakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Bovin, A.V.; Fedorets, V.I.; Shapovalov, V.P.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of long-life lithium batteries and the problems associated with miniature radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) with service lives of 10 years or longer. On eof the main problems encountered when devising a radioisotope heat source (RHS) for an RITEG is to obtain biomedical /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ with a specific neutron yield of 3.10/sup 3/-4.10/sup 3/ (g /SUP ./ sec)/sup -1/, equivalent to metallic Pu 238, and with a content of gamma impurities sufficient to ensure a permissible exposure a permissible exposure does rate (EDR) of a mixture of neutron and gamma radiation. After carrying out the isotope exchange and purifying the initial sample of its gamma impurity elements, the authors obtain biomedical Pu 238 satisfying the indicated requirements king suitable for use in the power packs of medical devices. Taking the indicated specifications into account, the Ritm-1o and gamma radioisotope heat sources were designed, built, tested in models and under natural conditions, and then into production as radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to power the electronic circuits of implanted pacemakers. The Ritm-MT and Gemma radioisotope thermoelectric generators described are basic units, which can be used as self-contained power supplies for electronic equipment with power requirements in the micromilliwatt range.

  10. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.; Rechard, R.

    2001-01-01

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  11. Seven Things to Know about Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Each atomic element knows exactly how many protons and neutrons it needs at its centre (nucleus) in order to be stable (stay in its elemental form). Radioisotopes are atomic elements that do not have the correct proton to neutron ratio to remain stable. With an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons, energy is given off by the atom in an attempt to become stable. For example, a stable carbon atom has six protons and six neutrons. Whereas its unstable (and therefore radioactive) isotope carbon-14, has six protons and eight neutrons. Carbon-14 and all other unstable elements are called radioisotopes. This movement towards stability, which involves emitting energy from the atom in the form of radiation, is known as radioactive decay. This radiation can be tracked and measured, making radioisotopes very useful in industry, agriculture and medicine

  12. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  13. Safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc. (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An (interim) report by an ad hoc expert committee to the Nuclear Safety Commission, on the safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc., was presented. For the utilization of radioisotopes, etc., there is the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injury Due to Radioisotopes, etc. with the advances in this field and the improvement in international standards, the regulations by the law have been examined. After explaining the basic ideas of the regulations, the problems and countermeasures in the current regulations are described: legal system, rationalization in permission procedures and others, inspection on RI management, the system of the persons in charge of radiation handling, RI transport, low-level radioactive wastes, consumer goods, definitions of RIs, radiation and sealed sources, regulations by group partitioning, RI facilities, system of personnel exposure registration, entrusting of inspection, etc. to private firms, and reduction in the works for permission among governmental offices. (author)

  14. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1976-12-01

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  15. Random-process excursions in radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galochkin, D.V.; Polovko, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate expressions are derived for the mathematical expectation, variance, and distribution of the durations of the excursions of the output signal from a ratemeter in a radioisotope relay instrument. The tabulated comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculation shows good agreement over the mean value and the variance of the excursion duration for T 0.2 sec as calculated and as obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with a computer using 5000 realizations. It is suggested that the results should be used in choosing the optimum parameters of radioisotope relay instruments

  16. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  17. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  18. Clinical evaluation of radioisotope examination in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukochi, H [National Konodai Hospital (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    Although many approaches are tried for the diagnoses of malignant tumor, radiological examinations act surely main parts. Among the radiological examinations, radioisotope techniques are not well evaluated instead of their usefulness in this field. The reason may depend on the complexity and difficulty in legal limitations, however, the lack of knowledge in this field is also a main reason. In this paper, the present status of the evaluation of radioisotope techniques is discussed in selected region of the body and some characteristic cases are demonstrated.

  19. Next Generation Extended Lagrangian Quantum-based Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negre, Christian

    2017-06-01

    A new framework for extended Lagrangian first-principles molecular dynamics simulations is presented, which overcomes shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while maintaining important advantages of the unified extended Lagrangian formulation of density functional theory pioneered by Car and Parrinello three decades ago. The new framework allows, for the first time, energy conserving, linear-scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, which is necessary to study larger and more realistic systems over longer simulation times than previously possible. Expensive, self-consinstent-field optimizations are avoided and normal integration time steps of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics can be used. Linear scaling electronic structure theory is presented using a graph-based approach that is ideal for parallel calculations on hybrid computer platforms. For the first time, quantum based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulation is becoming a practically feasible approach in simulations of +100,000 atoms-representing a competitive alternative to classical polarizable force field methods. In collaboration with: Anders Niklasson, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. Optical materials based on molecular nano/microcrystals and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    generation capability of these ultrathin films are dimini- shed due to aggregation. The efficient solution to this problem based on polyelectrolyte templating is described. Current efforts in our laboratory are focused on the ex- ploitation of these molecular nanostructures for potential applications in sensors and photonics.

  1. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...

  2. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  3. Molecular Recognition: Detection of Colorless Compounds Based on Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafi, Lida; Kashani, Samira; Karimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students measure the amount of cetirizine in allergy-treatment tablets based on molecular recognition. The basis of recognition is competition of cetirizine with phenolphthalein to form an inclusion complex with ß-cyclodextrin. Phenolphthalein is pinkish under basic condition, whereas it's complex form…

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  5. Use of radioisotopes and nuclear methods in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehber, K.

    1976-01-01

    Some kinds of using radioisotope methods and instruments for regulation and control of metallurgical processes are reviewed. Computized data processing is described as well. The efficiency of industrial application of radioisotopes is remarked

  6. Calculation correlations for radioisotope level gages with relay tracing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Pakhunkov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship was examined between the operational and instrumental parameters of radioisotope tracking level indicators. The relationships were obtained permitting to check the reliability of the tracking regime, and also of the equilibrium state of the radioisotope tracking level indicator

  7. Molecular detection of drug resistance in microbes by isotopic techniques: The IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, L.; Boussaha, A.; Padhy, A.K.; Khan, B.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports various programmes on the uses of radionuclide techniques in the management of human communicable diseases. An important issue, being addressed through several technology transfer projects, is the detection of drug resistance in microbes by radioisotope based molecular-biology diagnostic procedures. The techniques employed include dot blot hybridisation with P-32 labelled oligonucleotide probes to detect point mutations, associated with drug resistance, in microbial genes amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular methods have been used for the detection of drug resistance in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Radioisotope based molecular-biology methods have been demonstrated to have comparative advantages in being sensitive, specific, cost-effective, and suitable for application to large-scale molecular surveillance for drug resistance. (author)

  8. Potentialities of radioisotope aniocardiography in diagnosis of acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, G.A.; Mikaelyan, R.S.; Dumpe, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    On the base of the examination of 40 patients with acquired heart diseases and 5 people without heart diseases for control determined are the most charactreristic signs of the acquired heart disease of visual observation on RPP transit (albumin of human serum labelled by sup(99m)Tc) through the heart cavities and magistral vessels. It is shown that there is a close connection between central and intracardial hemodynamics which permjts to judge on the cardiac output on the base of mean circulation time (MCT). Radioisotopic angiocardiography permits to find redistribution of lung blood flow in patients with acquired heart diseases, which can serve as indirect index of long hypertension

  9. Intelligent DNA-based molecular diagnostics using linked genetic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system for molecular diagnostics, and its application to fully automated diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders. Molecular diagnostic information is used in clinical practice for determining genetic risks, such as carrier determination and prenatal diagnosis. Initially, blood samples are obtained from related individuals, and PCR amplification is performed. Linkage-based molecular diagnosis then entails three data analysis steps. First, for every individual, the alleles (i.e., DNA composition) are determined at specified chromosomal locations. Second, the flow of genetic material among the individuals is established. Third, the probability that a given individual is either a carrier of the disease or affected by the disease is determined. The current practice is to perform each of these three steps manually, which is costly, time consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone. As such, the knowledge-intensive data analysis and interpretation supersede the actual experimentation effort as the major bottleneck in molecular diagnostics. By examining the human problem solving for the task, we have designed and implemented a prototype knowledge-based system capable of fully automating linkage-based molecular diagnostics in X-linked genetic disorders, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Our system uses knowledge-based interpretation of gel electrophoresis images to determine individual DNA marker labels, a constraint satisfaction search for consistent genetic flow among individuals, and a blackboard-style problem solver for risk assessment. We describe the system`s successful diagnosis of DMD carrier and affected individuals from raw clinical data.

  10. Chemical sensors based on molecularly modified metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haick, Hossam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of molecularly modified metal nanoparticles in or as chemical sensors. This paper attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in sensors based on molecularly modified metal nanoparticles, including those established upon electrochemical, optical, surface Plasmon resonance, piezoelectric and electrical transduction approaches. Finally, this paper discusses briefly the main advantages and disadvantages of each of the presented class of sensors. (review article)

  11. A molecular shift register based on electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfield, J. J.; Onuchic, Josenelson; Beratan, David N.

    1988-01-01

    An electronic shift-register memory at the molecular level is described. The memory elements are based on a chain of electron-transfer molecules and the information is shifted by photoinduced electron-transfer reactions. This device integrates designed electronic molecules onto a very large scale integrated (silicon microelectronic) substrate, providing an example of a 'molecular electronic device' that could actually be made. The design requirements for such a device and possible synthetic strategies are discussed. Devices along these lines should have lower energy usage and enhanced storage density.

  12. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  13. Nanocluster metal films as thermoelectric material for radioisotope mini battery unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisyuk, P.V.; Krasavin, A.V.; Tkalya, E.V.; Lebedinskii, Yu.Yu.; Vasiliev, O.S.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kozlova, T.I.; Fetisov, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the thermoelectric and structural properties of films based on metal nanoclusters (Au, Pd, Pt). The experimental results of the study of single nanoclusters’ tunneling conductance obtained with scanning tunneling spectroscopy are presented. The obtained data allowed us to evaluate the thermoelectric power of thin film consisting of densely packed individual nanoclusters. It is shown that such thin films can operate as highly efficient thermoelectric materials. A scheme of miniature thermoelectric radioisotope power source based on the thorium-228 isotope is proposed. The efficiency of the radioisotope battery using thermoelectric converters based on nanocluster metal films is shown to reach values up to 1.3%. The estimated characteristics of the device are comparable with the parameters of up-to-date radioisotope batteries based on nickel-63.

  14. Gesture Interaction Browser-Based 3D Molecular Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an open source system that allows the user to interact with a 3D molecular viewer using associated hand gestures for rotating, scaling and panning the rendered model. The novelty of this approach is that the entire application is browser-based and doesn't require installation of third party plug-ins or additional software components in order to visualize the supported chemical file formats. This kind of solution is suitable for instruction of users in less IT oriented environments, like medicine or chemistry. For rendering various molecular geometries our team used GLmol (a molecular viewer written in JavaScript). The interaction with the 3D models is made with Leap Motion controller that allows real-time tracking of the user's hand gestures. The first results confirmed that the resulting application leads to a better way of understanding various types of translational bioinformatics related problems in both biomedical research and education.

  15. Clustering the Orion B giant molecular cloud based on its molecular emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Emeric; Daudon, Chloé; Pety, Jérôme; Levrier, François; Gerin, Maryvonne; Gratier, Pierre; Orkisz, Jan H; Guzman, Viviana; Bardeau, Sébastien; Goicoechea, Javier R; Liszt, Harvey; Öberg, Karin; Peretto, Nicolas; Sievers, Albrecht; Tremblin, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud. We use a machine learning clustering method, namely the Meanshift algorithm, to cluster pixels with similar molecular emission, ignoring spatial information. Clusters are defined around each maximum of the multidimensional Probability Density Function (PDF) of the line integrated intensities. Simple radiative transfer models were used to interpret the astrophysical information uncovered by the clustering analysis. A clustering analysis based only on the J = 1 - 0 lines of three isotopologues of CO proves suffcient to reveal distinct density/column density regimes ( n H ~ 100 cm -3 , ~ 500 cm -3 , and > 1000 cm -3 ), closely related to the usual definitions of diffuse, translucent and high-column-density regions. Adding two UV-sensitive tracers, the J = 1 - 0 line of HCO + and the N = 1 - 0 line of CN, allows us to distinguish two clearly distinct chemical regimes, characteristic of UV-illuminated and UV-shielded gas. The UV-illuminated regime shows overbright HCO + and CN emission, which we relate to a photochemical enrichment effect. We also find a tail of high CN/HCO + intensity ratio in UV-illuminated regions. Finer distinctions in density classes ( n H ~ 7 × 10 3 cm -3 ~ 4 × 10 4 cm -3 ) for the densest regions are also

  16. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  17. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  18. The form and interpretation of clearance curves for injected radioisotopes based on negative power laws, especially for 47Ca and estimated bone accretion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many hundreds of clearance curves for plasma and urine after a single injection of tracer are well fitted by y=Σsub(i=1)sup(r)Asub(i)exp(-Bsub(i)t),r=2 or 3, based on models with homogeneous compartments. Reanalyzing such sums as in a plot of log y versus log t shows that many of the original curves would fit y=Atsup(-α) or Atsup(-α)exp(-βt) over wide ranges of time and specific activity. Results of such reanalyses for a complete published series for serum albumin 131 I are given, and an outline of those for various compounds in the human body labeled by 3 H. For radiocalcium two such power laws can be fitted in one curve, with a transition between about 1 and 3 days, so that much of the log y versus log t plot consists of two straight lines. These lines are used for starting a numerical analysis that splits the curve into 2 non-linear components, plus a third one that is negligible after 5 min from injection. An outline of the iteration method is given. The components are interpreted physiologically and used to predict total bone activities by (de)convolution, and these are compared with observed ankle activities and with excretion rates. The bone accretion rate is obtained mainly from the middle component and comes to 2 to 3 g Ca/day, while return of 47 Ca from bone to plasma begins at about 1/2 day. These results seem incompatible while any based on compartments. The concept of biological half-life then needs to be reconsidered. (Auth.)

  19. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  20. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  2. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  3. How to find out in radioisotope methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections entitled: tracing books by topic; radioisotope methodology cross reference structure; finding a review; journals and how to trace journal articles; abstract; theses and dissertations; research and development reports; critical reviews and information summaries; data books; dictionaries and encyclopedias; guides to the literature; whom to contact; expert advice, research in progress, institutions. (U.K.)

  4. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  5. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  6. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  7. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  8. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  9. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  10. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  11. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author) [fr

  12. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  13. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  14. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationships of major clades within the Arthropoda remain one of the most contentious issues in systematics, which has traditionally been the domain of morphologists. A growing body of DNA sequences and other types of molecular data has revitalized study of arthropod phylogeny and has inspired new considerations of character evolution. Novel hypotheses such as a crustacean-hexapod affinity were based on analyses of single or few genes and limited taxon sampling, but have received recent support from mitochondrial gene order, and eye and brain ultrastructure and neurogenesis. Here we assess relationships within Arthropoda based on a synthesis of all well sampled molecular loci together with a comprehensive data set of morphological, developmental, ultrastructural and gene-order characters. The molecular data include sequences of three nuclear ribosomal genes, three nuclear protein-coding genes, and two mitochondrial genes (one protein coding, one ribosomal). We devised new optimization procedures and constructed a parallel computer cluster with 256 central processing units to analyse molecular data on a scale not previously possible. The optimal 'total evidence' cladogram supports the crustacean-hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

  15. Radioisotopes preparation with GA Siwabessy for application in health/medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarhadijoso-Soenarjo

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals (CDRR) has to improve its role and potency to comply domestic demand in radioisotope preparations. The radioisotopes are used as both primary radioisotopes and labeled compounds, especially for medical diagnosis and therapy as radiopharmaceutical preparations. The implementation of capability in production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals is fully affected by the readiness of operational function of supporting facilities in regard to maintain safety system, process and personnel as well. For those reasons, activities program has been carried out with the aims of : (a). To faithful capability in production of GA Siwabessy reactor based radioisotopes, labeled compounds and radiopharmaceutical kits, (b). To optimize normal operational function of supporting facilities and utilities, and (c). To perform invention and modification of heater and temperature control units on the air handling unit (AHU) system. Some kinds of radioactive products are dominant during the year of 2002, i.e. 153 SmCl 3 , Na 2 99 MoO 4 and Na 186 ReO 4 primary radioisotopes and 153 Sm-EDTMP labeled compound. The main utilization of the products is for research and development of processing technology and medical application as diagnostic or therapeutic agent. The operational function of supporting facilities and utilities was well performed meeting the requirement of the users. Some units of the systems partially showed degradation of working performance but it did not cause trouble in security and safety of the system, process and personnel. A heater device completed with control system has been installed as a modified part of AHU system and has been tested successfully. The operation of the heater device is significantly influential to the air temperature and humidity in working area. The required air condition, e.g. 22 - 25 o C of temperature and 40 - 50 % of humidity, can be complied on the blower motor

  16. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions

  17. International codes concerning the security of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Explained is the title subject with international and Japanese official argument or publications and actions, where the security is defined as protection of sealed and unsealed radioisotopes (RI) from malicious acts. IAEA worked out the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in 2004 based on its preceding argument and with the turning point of the terrorism 3.11 (2001), and Nuclear Security Recommendations on radioactive material and associated facilities (2011), for whose prerequisite, Security of radioactive sources: implementing guide (2009) and Security in the transport of radioactive material (2008) had been drawn up. The Code of Conduct indicates the security system to regulate the sealed sources that each nation has to build up through legislation, setup of regulatory agency, registration of the sources, provision of concerned facilities with radiation protection, etc. For attaining this purpose, IAEA defined Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (2005, 2012), Categorization of radioactive sources (2005) and Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-VALUES) (2006). For updating the related matters, IAEA holds international conferences somewhere in the world every year. The Nuclear Security Recommendations indicate the nation's responsibility of building up and maintaining the security system above with well-balanced measures between the safe and secure use of RI without the invalid inhibition of their usage. Japan government worked out the concept essential for ensuring the nuclear security in Sep. 2011, in which for RI, defined were the risk and benefit in use and security, and securing role of the present legal systems concerning the safety handling and objective RI involved in their registration system. Securing measures of RI in such usage as medical and industrial aids must be of advanced usefulness and safety in harmony with activities of other countries. (T.T)

  18. Nuclear energy in the service of biomedicine: the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's radioisotope program, 1946-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2006-01-01

    The widespread adoption of radioisotopes as tools in biomedical research and therapy became one of the major consequences of the "physicists' war" for postwar life science. Scientists in the Manhattan Project, as part of their efforts to advocate for civilian uses of atomic energy after the war, proposed using infrastructure from the wartime bomb project to develop a government-run radioisotope distribution program. After the Atomic Energy Bill was passed and before the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was formally established, the Manhattan Project began shipping isotopes from Oak Ridge. Scientists and physicians put these reactor-produced isotopes to many of the same uses that had been pioneered with cyclotron-generated radioisotopes in the 1930s and early 1940s. The majority of early AEC shipments were radioiodine and radiophosphorus, employed to evaluate thyroid function, diagnose medical disorders, and irradiate tumors. Both researchers and politicians lauded radioisotopes publicly for their potential in curing diseases, particularly cancer. However, isotopes proved less successful than anticipated in treating cancer and more successful in medical diagnostics. On the research side, reactor-generated radioisotopes equipped biologists with new tools to trace molecular transformations from metabolic pathways to ecosystems. The U.S. government's production and promotion of isotopes stimulated their consumption by scientists and physicians (both domestic and abroad), such that in the postwar period isotopes became routine elements of laboratory and clinical use. In the early postwar years, radioisotopes signified the government's commitment to harness the atom for peace, particularly through contributions to biology, medicine, and agriculture.

  19. A method for performance assessment of medical radioisotope equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, T.; Slavtchev, Ath.; Nedeltchev, M.; Kjurktchiev, T.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of tests and procedures exist for the performance assessment of radioisotope diagnostic equipment. The complex performance index which has been introduced to date is based on an heuristic approach. The present work tries to interconnect algorithmically the most important factors as the influence of the measurement geometry, the statistic peculiarities for lower activities and the information loss at high count rates. All this is reflected in a criterion which integrates the spatial resolution, the effective detector's field of vision, the radionuclide's sensitivity, the background count rate and the effective dead-time of the system under investigation. (Auth.)

  20. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  1. Novel Radioisotope Applications in Industry Promoted by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to world-wide industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40:1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  2. Forcefields based molecular modeling on the mechanical and physical properties of emeraldine base polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Yuan, C.A.; Wong, K.Y.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular mechanical (MM) analysis are carried out to provide reliable and accurate model for emeraldine base polyaniline. This study validate the forcefields and model with the physical and mechanical properties of the polyaniline. The temperature effects on non-bond

  3. Basic Research and Feasibility Study of Radioisotope Production using 100 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, K. H.; Yoon, K. S.; Cho, W. J.; Park, S. I.; Han, H. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jeon, K. S.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, T. K.

    2010-04-01

    Results of the project are various nuclei, such as 82 Rb, 68 Ga, 67 Cu, 22 Na and so on, can be produced by irradiating 100 MeV proton beam, by irradiating proton beam to the nat Ga target, the 68 Ge, mother nucleus of positron emitting 68 Ga, is produced based on the nat Ga(p,x) 68 Ge reaction, the target system for the high-energy of proton beam can produce more than 2 species of radioisotope at the same time by employing tandem targets, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator, 82 Sr(25.34d)/ 82 Rb generator - 67 Cu production method, 70 Zn electroplating technology based on the electrochemistry, the container, whose weight is about 3 ton, is made by depleted uranium and because of the unstable situation for the supply and demand of reactor produced radioisotope, the need for the cyclotron produced radioisotopes is dramatically increased all over the world.

  4. Quantitative analysis of education effect by the number of contamination in an unsealed radioisotope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Okumura, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    The educational program for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. However, there appears no distinct criterion for quantitative evaluation of the education effect on radiation safety. The effectiveness of education was assessed by the number and the frequency (number of contamination/number of users) of contamination, a major incident involving radioactive materials, based on the long-term contamination surveillance data from 1996 to 2001 in Nagasaki University Radioisotope Center. Facility staffs monitored contamination in the facility every day. In 1996 and 1997, the yearly total number and the frequency of contamination found in a molecular biology room, a most frequently-used laboratory, were 150 and 1.21, respectively. The improvement of education program, including introduction of technical procedures to avoid contamination in molecular biological experiments, pre-entry instruction for fresh workers to demonstrate radiation safety practices on site, and spreading the new concept 'contamination happens by all means' through the radiation workers, markedly reduced both the number and the frequency of contamination to 33 and 0.48, respectively. This reduction seemed to be attributable for two different reasons; improvement of skills to avoid contamination, and thorough execution of monitoring and decontamination. These results suggested that contamination was a possible criterion for evaluating effectiveness of education program for radiation workers. (author)

  5. Simple fluorescence-based detection of protein kinase A activity using a molecular beacon probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbei; Lv, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Kemin; Jin, Shunxin; Liu, Haisheng; Wu, Kefeng; Zeng, Weimin

    2017-11-02

    Protein kinase A was detected by quantifying the amount of ATP used after a protein kinase reaction. The ATP assay was performed using the T4 DNA ligase and a molecular beacon (MB). In the presence of ATP, DNA ligase catalyzed the ligation of short DNA. The ligation product then hybridized to MB, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement of the MB. This assay was capable of determining protein kinase A in the range of 12.5∼150 nM, with a detection limit of 1.25 nM. Furthermore, this assay could also be used to investigate the effect of genistein on protein kinase A. It was a universal, non-radioisotopic, and homogeneous method for assaying protein kinase A.

  6. Design of two and three input molecular logic gates using non-Watson-Crick base pairing-based molecular beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-03-21

    This study presents a single, resettable, and sensitive molecular beacon (MB) used to operate molecular-scale logic gates. The MB consists of a random DNA sequence, a fluorophore at the 5'-end, and a quencher at the 3'-end. The presence of Hg(2+), Ag(+), and coralyne promoted the formation of stable T-Hg(2+)-T, C-Ag(+)-C, and A2-coralyne-A2 coordination in the MB probe, respectively, thereby driving its conformational change. The metal ion or small molecule-mediated coordination of mismatched DNA brought the fluorophore and the quencher into close proximity, resulting in collisional quenching of fluorescence between the two organic dyes. Because thiol can bind Hg(2+) and remove it from the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB, adding thiol to a solution of the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB allowed the fluorophore and the quencher to be widely separated. A similar phenomenon was observed when replacing Hg(2+) with Ag(+). Because Ag(+) strongly binds to iodide, cyanide, and cysteine, they were capable of removing Ag(+) from the C-Ag(+)-C-based MB, restoring the fluorescence of the MB. Moreover, the fluorescence of the A2-coralyne-A2-based MB could be switched on by adding polyadenosine. Using these analytes as inputs and the MB as a signal transducer, we successfully developed a series of two-input, three-input, and set-reset logic gates at the molecular level.

  7. Control of the technological processes at ''Azovstal'' plant using radioisotope devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochenko, O V; Overchenko, Z V; Karpov, O I; Deryabina, G N

    1980-05-01

    Considered is the state of radioisotope control of the technological process at 'Azovstal' plant which has permitted to increase the quality of metal and of metal production. With the help of radioisotope densimeter PR-1024 carried out is the control of the density of the lime solution used for hearth spraying at pig iron casting. A system of automatic correction of skip coke supply according to indications of moisture gauges ''Neutron 3-1'' is implemented at blast furnaces. A radioisotope thickness gauge of hot rolling is positioned on the section of finishing stand of thick-sheet plant, its operation is based on the ..gamma.. radiation weakening in dependence on sheet thickness. The introduction of thickness gauges in the automatized system of rolling control is planned. A radioisotope device ''Paza 2'' for measuring of continuous ingot skin thickness is tested successively at the plant. Gamma-relay devices are used to control the level of loose materials in bunkers. Noted is the prospects of using radioisotopic means of control and automatization of technological processes in ferrous matallurgy.

  8. Efficient thermo-mechanical generation of electricity from the heat of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.; Yeats, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    The thermomechanical generator uses a thermomechanical oscillator to convert heat efficiently into a mechanical oscillation which in turn excites a suitable transducer to generate alternating electricity. The thermomechanical oscillator used is based on the Stirling cycle, but avoids the need for rotary motion and for sliding pistons by having a mechanically-resonant, spring-suspended displacer, and by using an oscillating metal diaphragm to provide the mechanical output. The diaphragm drives an alternator consisting of a spring-suspended permanent magnet oscillating between fixed pole pieces which carry the electrical power output windings. Because a thermomechanical generator is much more efficient than a thermo-electric generator at comparable temperatures, it is particularly suitable for use with a radioisotope heat source. The amounts of radioisotope and of shielding required are both greatly reduced. A machine heated by radioisotopes and delivering 10.7W ac at 80Hz began operating in October, 1974. Operating experience with this machine is reported, and these results, together with those obtained with higher-powered machines heated by other means, are used to calculate characteristics and performance of thermo-mechanical radioisotope generators capable of using heat sources such as the waste-management 90 Sr radioisotope sources becoming available from the US nuclear waste management programme. A design to use one of these heat sources in a 52-W underwater generator is described

  9. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  10. Hybrid Imaging Labels: Providing the Link Between Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Pathology and Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van der Wal, Steffen; van Malderen, Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; van Unen, Vincent; Peters, Ruud J.B.; van Bemmel, Margaretha E.M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear medicine. In this study a bimodal (or rather, hybrid) tracer that contains both a fluorescent dye and a chelate was used to evaluate the existence of a direct link between mass spectrometry (MS) and in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging findings using fluorescence and radioisotopes. At the same time, the hybrid label was used to determine whether the use of a single isotope label would allow for MS-based diagnostics. Methods: A hybrid label that contained both a DTPA chelate (that was coordinated with either 165Ho or 111In) and a Cy5 fluorescent dye was coupled to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) targeting peptide Ac-TZ14011 (hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011). This receptor targeting tracer was used to 1) validate the efficacy of (165Ho-based) mass-cytometry in determining the receptor affinity via comparison with fluorescence-based flow cytometry (Cy5), 2) evaluate the microscopic binding pattern of the tracer in tumor cells using both fluorescence confocal imaging (Cy5) and LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho), 3) compare in vivo biodistribution patterns obtained with ICP-MS (165Ho) and radiodetection (111In) after intravenous administration of hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011 in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho) was linked to fluorescence-based analysis of excised tissue samples (Cy5). Results: Analysis with both mass-cytometry and flow cytometry revealed a similar receptor affinity, respectively 352 ± 141 nM and 245 ± 65 nM (p = 0.08), but with a much lower detection sensitivity for the first modality. In vitro LA-ICP-MS imaging (165Ho) enabled clear discrimination between CXCR4 positive and negative cells, but fluorescence microscopy was required to determine the

  11. Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Medicine. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dynamics Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Observations on the temporal patterns of uptake, metabolism, clearance or excretion of administered radioactive materials form the basis of many important applications of radioisotopes in clinical medicine and research. Such applications include studies of organ function, of regional blood flow and of the turnover of various substances in the human body. Newly available radioisotopes, new instruments such as gamma came ras, new techniques and new methods of data analysis based on the use of analogue and digital computers are continually enlarging the scope of the applications. Progress in these matters was discussed at the Symposium on Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, organized by the lnternational Atomic Energy Agency and held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, from 31 August to 4 September 1970. A total of 315 participants nominated by 39 countries and 4 international organizations attended, and the 70 papers presented cove r the theoretical aspects of dynamic studies, the development of techniques and instruments for such studies, and specific applications in studies of thyroid, renal, hepatic and splenic function, mineral metabolism, regional blood flow, and cardiac and pulmonary function. The proceedings include the full texts of all the papers presented together with the edited discussions. Invited review papers deal with the general aspects of the various main groups of applications covered. Many of the applications described have already reached the stage of routine use; others are still in the developmental stage. Of particular note in the latter connection are applications based on the quantitative analysis of scintillation camera data. The many papers presented on these topics and the ensuing discussions indicate the great interest now shown in this promising area of development. It is hoped that the proceedings will provide a valuable guide to the present status of the subject

  12. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  13. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  14. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Programmable molecular recognition based on the geometry of DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungwook; Rothemund, Paul W K

    2011-07-10

    From ligand-receptor binding to DNA hybridization, molecular recognition plays a central role in biology. Over the past several decades, chemists have successfully reproduced the exquisite specificity of biomolecular interactions. However, engineering multiple specific interactions in synthetic systems remains difficult. DNA retains its position as the best medium with which to create orthogonal, isoenergetic interactions, based on the complementarity of Watson-Crick binding. Here we show that DNA can be used to create diverse bonds using an entirely different principle: the geometric arrangement of blunt-end stacking interactions. We show that both binary codes and shape complementarity can serve as a basis for such stacking bonds, and explore their specificity, thermodynamics and binding rules. Orthogonal stacking bonds were used to connect five distinct DNA origami. This work, which demonstrates how a single attractive interaction can be developed to create diverse bonds, may guide strategies for molecular recognition in systems beyond DNA nanostructures.

  16. Pseudo-random generator to allow to an electronic pulse simulator the ability to emulate radioisotopes spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucianna F A; Carrillo M A; Mangussi M J

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a pseudo-random system to provide to a simulator pulse of radiation detectors the ability to emit pulses patterns similar to those recorded when measuring actual radioisotope. The idea is that the system can emulate characteristic spectral distributions of known radioisotopes, as well as creating individual spectra for specific purposes. This design is based on an improvement in terms of software from earlier development that only supplied predefined amplitude pulses at constant intervals (author)

  17. Clustering the Orion B giant molecular cloud based on its molecular emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Emeric; Daudon, Chloé; Pety, Jérôme; Levrier, François; Gerin, Maryvonne; Gratier, Pierre; Orkisz, Jan H.; Guzman, Viviana; Bardeau, Sébastien; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Liszt, Harvey; Öberg, Karin; Peretto, Nicolas; Sievers, Albrecht; Tremblin, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Context. Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Aims: We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud. Methods: We use a machine learning clustering method, namely the Meanshift algorithm, to cluster pixels with similar molecular emission, ignoring spatial information. Clusters are defined around each maximum of the multidimensional probability density function (PDF) of the line integrated intensities. Simple radiative transfer models were used to interpret the astrophysical information uncovered by the clustering analysis. Results: A clustering analysis based only on the J = 1-0 lines of three isotopologues of CO proves sufficient to reveal distinct density/column density regimes (nH 100 cm-3, 500 cm-3, and >1000 cm-3), closely related to the usual definitions of diffuse, translucent and high-column-density regions. Adding two UV-sensitive tracers, the J = 1-0 line of HCO+ and the N = 1-0 line of CN, allows us to distinguish two clearly distinct chemical regimes, characteristic of UV-illuminated and UV-shielded gas. The UV-illuminated regime shows overbright HCO+ and CN emission, which we relate to a photochemical enrichment effect. We also find a tail of high CN/HCO+ intensity ratio in UV-illuminated regions. Finer distinctions in density classes (nH 7 × 103 cm-3, 4 × 104 cm-3) for the densest regions are also

  18. Radioisotopes for nuclear medicine: the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine occupies an important niche in the spectrum of medical capability. Since its initial application on a routine basis over 30 years ago its importance has continued to grow. For example, it is expected that over 430,000 Australians will have a nuclear medicine procedure in 1998. Current procedures using nuclear medicine are mainly concerned with diagnosis of oncology, cardiology and neurology. The main radioisotope used in nuclear medicine is Tc 99m, which is produced by a 'so called' Mo-Tc 99m generator. Other isotopes which currently find routine use are Ga-67, Th-201 and I-131. The selective uptakes by particular organs or structures is facilitated by the use of 'cold kits' which after the chemistry of the radioisotope many of the recent advances have been concerned with increasing the selectivity for a particular organ structure. Several of these new agents show increased selectivity using antibody a peptide recognition units

  19. Application state of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tomoyoshi

    1979-01-01

    Application of unsealed radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals has been increasing year by year with the development of nuclear medicine. As for the radioisotopes for in vivo use which are internally administered and are detected by external scanning, the consumption of Tc-99 m drugs has increased rapidly. The sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo use including 131 I, etc. amounted to four billion Yen in 1977. The consumption of the isotopes used in vitro for radioimmunoassay has made more rapid increase, and the sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use amounted to seven billion Yen in 1977. Radiopharmaceuticals have been used in 1,134 institutes all over Japan in 1978. 534 among them have applied radiopharmaceuticals to both in vivo and in vitro uses. Radioactive wastes have been increasing with the application of these unsealed radiopharmaceuticals, and their disposal method should be examined as there is a limit in their storage. (Kobatake, H.)

  20. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  1. Medical radioisotope production - the Australian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian government, through its instrumentality, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), owns and operates a 10-MW Dido-class research reactor at Lucas Heights on the southern outskirts of Sydney. This is the only operating nuclear reactor in Australia. It was built in 1958 and has a maximum flux of 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. ANSTO also jointly owns and operates a 30-MeV IBA negative ion cyclotron at Camperdown in central Sydney, which began operation in 1992. ANSTO is predominantly a research organization; however, radioisotopes are commercially produced through Australian Radioisotopes (ARI), an ANSTO business entity. Seventy-four people are employed by ARI, which is a vertically integrated organization, i.e., everything from target preparation to sale of products is undertaken.

  2. Cosmogenic radioisotopes in Gebel Kamil meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Bhandari, N.; Sinha, N.; Di Martino, M.; Vivaldo, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently a small (45 m in diameter) and very young (radioisotope activity generated by cosmic rays in the meteoroids as they travel through the interplanetary space before falling on the Earth. From the 26Al activity measurement and its depth production profiles, we infer (i) that the radius of the meteoroid should be about 1 m, constraining to 30-40 ton the range of pre-atmospheric mass previously proposed and (ii) that the fragment should have been located deeply inside the meteoroid, at a depth > 0.7 m. The 44Ti activity is under the detection threshold of the apparatus; using the depth production profiles of this radioisotope and its half-life T1/2 = 59.2 y, we deduce an upper limit to the date of fall.

  3. Modern radioisotope production technologies for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, V.; Schweickert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of the accelerator production of radioisotopes for medical purposes, are, above all, the high specific activity attainable as well as the possibility of the generation of nuclei with only a few neutrons which disintegrate due to β + emission or electron capture. It is, for example, possible to diagnostically utilize the developing long-range γ quanta by means of computerized tomography. The production of I-123 at the cyclotron of Karlsruhe (nuclear reaction, target, irradiation arrangement) as well as of ultra-pure I-123 with the help of compact cyclotrons, and the plant developed for this are described in brief. As another radioisotope which can be produced with the help of the compact cyclotron, Rb-81 is mentioned, the disintegration product Kr-81m of which is used in pulmonary diagnostics. (RB) [de

  4. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  5. Development of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, H.; Kato, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1962, we have been developing methods and technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources by using the JAERI's reactors, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and providing the products to domestic users. At present, 29 nuclides and 31 products are on our list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short-lived nuclides are being produced regularly for distribution, but most of the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles and Ir-192 pellets for industrial use and Gd-153 pellet, 7 kinds of Ir-192 and Au-198 grain for medical applications are produced and distributed routinely. (author)

  6. Mathematical models and accuracy of radioisotope gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical expressions relating the variance and mean value of the intrinsic error with the parameters of one and multi-dimensional mathematical models of radioisotope gauges are given. Variance of the intrinsic error at the model's output is considered as a sum of the variances of the random error which is created in the first stages of the measuring chain and the random error of calibration procedure. The mean value of the intrinsic error (systematic error) appears always for nonlinear models. It was found that the optimal model of calibration procedure not always corresponds to the minimal value of the intrinsic error. The derived expressions are applied for the assessment of the mathematical models of some of the existing gauges (radioisotope belt weigher, XRF analyzer and coating thickness gauge). 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  7. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  8. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua

    1987-01-01

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  9. Radioisotopes in the treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    Radiation treatment of malignant growths is not, of course, a novel procedure; both radium implants and X-rays generated at medium voltages (up to 250 kV) have been used all over the world for many years. However, large scale production of radioisotopes in atomic reactors has made radiotherapy available for the first time in less developed areas of the world. Moreover, the treatment has been simplified and, in many cases, made more effective

  10. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  11. Visualization of Radioisotope Detectability Over Time.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Brady [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A radioactive isotope is an atom that has an unstable nucleus. The isotope can undergo radioactive decay, the process in which excessive nuclear energy is emitted from the nucleus in many different forms, such as gamma radiation, alpha particles, or beta particles. The important thing to note is that these emissions act as a signature for the isotope. Each radioisotope has a particular emission spectrum, emitting radiation at different energies and at different rates.

  12. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  13. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C 14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  15. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  16. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in 32 P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of 32 P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 μCi/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 μCi/ml 32 P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 μCi/ml respectivelly. (author)

  17. New Directions In Radioisotope Spectrum Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  18. Present status of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    Since 1962, the technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources has been developed by using the reactors, JRR-1, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and the products have been offered to domestic users. At present, 31 products of 29 nuclides are on the list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short lived nuclides are produced for regular distribution, but the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles for industrial use, Ir-192 pellets for the nondestructive inspection of pipelines, Gd-153 pellets for the diagnosis of born mineral and seven kinds of brachy therapy Ir-192 and Au-198 grains are produced and distributed regularly. The organic compounds labeled with H-3 and C-14 are widely used. In fiscal year 1992, 34 batches and total amount 12 TBq of processed radioisotopes and 100 batches, 1.2 PBq of radiation sources were produced as scheduled. The development of the techniques for producing the sources emitting high energy β ray used for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is in progress. The method of producing new isotopes is developed. (K.I.)

  19. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  20. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41 Ar, 79 Kr or 85 Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products, 140 La and 24 Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  1. Current status and recent developments of industrial radioisotope applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    The current status of application of radioisotopes to industry in Japan is briefly reviewed. Radioisotope gauges are widely used in industry, but most of the radioactive tracer applications are performed in laboratories. as for the recent developments, it is noted that the majority of them are related to high technologies in industry. Some typical examples are described. They include: high accuracy coke moisture guage--dual channel gauging on-line analyzers based on 252 Cf, simultaneous neutron and gamma radiography; tracer techniques in civil engineering field, electronics industry, automobile industry and iron and steel industry.(M.G.B.)

  2. Treatment Algorithms Based on Tumor Molecular Profiling: The Essence of Precision Medicine Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria; Bedard, Philippe; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Rouleau, Etienne; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Servant, Nicolas; Alt, Marie; Rouzier, Roman; Paoletti, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier; Bièche, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of high-throughput molecular technologies, several precision medicine (PM) studies are currently ongoing that include molecular screening programs and PM clinical trials. Molecular profiling programs establish the molecular profile of patients' tumors with the aim to guide therapy based on identified molecular alterations. The aim of prospective PM clinical trials is to assess the clinical utility of tumor molecular profiling and to determine whether treatment selection based on molecular alterations produces superior outcomes compared with unselected treatment. These trials use treatment algorithms to assign patients to specific targeted therapies based on tumor molecular alterations. These algorithms should be governed by fixed rules to ensure standardization and reproducibility. Here, we summarize key molecular, biological, and technical criteria that, in our view, should be addressed when establishing treatment algorithms based on tumor molecular profiling for PM trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. An Updated Comprehensive Risk Analysis for Radioisotopes Identified of High Risk to National Security in the Event of a Radiological Dispersion Device Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alexandra R.

    An updated global survey of radioisotope production and distribution was completed and subjected to a revised "down-selection methodology" to determine those radioisotopes that should be classified as potential national security risks based on availability and key physical characteristics that could be exploited in a hypothetical radiological dispersion device. The potential at-risk radioisotopes then were used in a modeling software suite known as Turbo FRMAC, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, to characterize plausible contamination maps known as Protective Action Guideline Zone Maps. This software also was used to calculate the whole body dose equivalent for exposed individuals based on various dispersion parameters and scenarios. Derived Response Levels then were determined for each radioisotope using: 1) target doses to members of the public provided by the U.S. EPA, and 2) occupational dose limits provided by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The limiting Derived Response Level for each radioisotope also was determined.

  4. Polarizable Atomic Multipole-based Molecular Mechanics for Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Pengyu; Wu, Chuanjie; Ponder, Jay W

    2011-10-11

    An empirical potential based on permanent atomic multipoles and atomic induced dipoles is reported for alkanes, alcohols, amines, sulfides, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides, aromatics and other small organic molecules. Permanent atomic multipole moments through quadrupole moments have been derived from gas phase ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The van der Waals parameters are obtained by fitting to gas phase homodimer QM energies and structures, as well as experimental densities and heats of vaporization of neat liquids. As a validation, the hydrogen bonding energies and structures of gas phase heterodimers with water are evaluated using the resulting potential. For 32 homo- and heterodimers, the association energy agrees with ab initio results to within 0.4 kcal/mol. The RMS deviation of hydrogen bond distance from QM optimized geometry is less than 0.06 Å. In addition, liquid self-diffusion and static dielectric constants computed from molecular dynamics simulation are consistent with experimental values. The force field is also used to compute the solvation free energy of 27 compounds not included in the parameterization process, with a RMS error of 0.69 kcal/mol. The results obtained in this study suggest the AMOEBA force field performs well across different environments and phases. The key algorithms involved in the electrostatic model and a protocol for developing parameters are detailed to facilitate extension to additional molecular systems.

  5. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Salomone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.

  6. DNA barcode-based molecular identification system for fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Eo, Hae-Seok; Koo, Hyeyoung; Choi, Jun-Kil; Kim, Won

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we applied DNA barcoding to identify species using short DNA sequence analysis. We examined the utility of DNA barcoding by identifying 53 Korean freshwater fish species, 233 other freshwater fish species, and 1339 saltwater fish species. We successfully developed a web-based molecular identification system for fish (MISF) using a profile hidden Markov model. MISF facilitates efficient and reliable species identification, overcoming the limitations of conventional taxonomic approaches. MISF is freely accessible at http://bioinfosys.snu.ac.kr:8080/MISF/misf.jsp .

  7. Molecular neuron based on the Franck–Condon blockade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, C; Di Ventra, M

    2013-01-01

    Electronic realizations of neurons are of great interest as building blocks for neuromorphic computation. Electronic neurons should send signals into the input and output lines when subject to an input signal exceeding a given threshold, in such a way that they may affect all other parts of a neural network. Here, we propose a design for a neuron that is based on molecular-electronics components and thus promises a very high level of integration. We employ the Monte Carlo technique to simulate typical time evolutions of this system and thereby show that it indeed functions as a neuron. (paper)

  8. Molecular tools for the construction of peptide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, B E I; van Hest, J C M; Löwik, D W P M

    2014-04-21

    Proteins and peptides are fundamental components of living systems where they play crucial roles at both functional and structural level. The versatile biological properties of these molecules make them interesting building blocks for the construction of bio-active and biocompatible materials. A variety of molecular tools can be used to fashion the peptides necessary for the assembly of these materials. In this tutorial review we shall describe five of the main techniques, namely solid phase peptide synthesis, native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, NCA polymerisation, and genetic engineering, that have been used to great effect for the construction of a host of peptide-based materials.

  9. Acidity constants from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulpizi, Marialore; Sprik, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we review our recently developed method for the calculation of acidity constants from density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The method is based on a half reaction scheme in which protons are formally transferred from solution to the gas phase. The corresponding deprotonation free energies are computed from the vertical energy gaps for insertion or removal of protons. Combined to full proton transfer reactions, the deprotonation energies can be used to estimate relative acidity constants and also the Broensted pK a when the deprotonation free energy of a hydronium ion is used as a reference. We verified the method by investigating a series of organic and inorganic acids and bases spanning a wide range of pK a values (20 units). The thermochemical corrections for the biasing potentials assisting and directing the insertion are discussed in some detail.

  10. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  11. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  12. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  13. HAC and production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews different methods for the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds that make use of hot atom reactions. Subsequently he discusses the production of radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals; enrichment of (n,γ) products, recoil labelling and related methods (neutron reaction products, cyclotron production, excitation labelling, radiation and discharge induced labelling). The final section offers a survey of radioisotope production using accelerators. Only a selection of the various conditions used in practical RI production is considered. (Auth.)

  14. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  15. The Research and Development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfelds, E.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Prelas, M.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The project of developing radioisotope energy conversion system (RECS) involves analytical computational assisted design and modeling and also laboratory research. The computational analysis consists of selecting various geometries and materials for the main RECS container and the internally located radioisotope, computing the fluxes of the beta (-) particles and of the visible (or ultraviolet) photons produced by the beta (-) s, computing the transport of these photons to the photovoltaic cells, and computing the overall efficiency of useful conversion of the radioisotope power

  16. Stable Molecular Diodes Based on π-π Interactions of the Molecular Frontier Orbitals with Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Guerin, Sarah; Tan, Sherman Jun Rong; Annadata, Harshini Venkata; Yu, Xiaojiang; Scully, Micheál; Han, Ying Mei; Roemer, Max; Loh, Kian Ping; Thompson, Damien; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2018-03-01

    In molecular electronics, it is important to control the strength of the molecule-electrode interaction to balance the trade-off between electronic coupling strength and broadening of the molecular frontier orbitals: too strong coupling results in severe broadening of the molecular orbitals while the molecular orbitals cannot follow the changes in the Fermi levels under applied bias when the coupling is too weak. Here, a platform based on graphene bottom electrodes to which molecules can bind via π-π interactions is reported. These interactions are strong enough to induce electronic function (rectification) while minimizing broadening of the molecular frontier orbitals. Molecular tunnel junctions are fabricated based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of Fc(CH 2 ) 11 X (Fc = ferrocenyl, X = NH 2 , Br, or H) on graphene bottom electrodes contacted to eutectic alloy of gallium and indium top electrodes. The Fc units interact more strongly with graphene than the X units resulting in SAMs with the Fc at the bottom of the SAM. The molecular diodes perform well with rectification ratios of 30-40, and they are stable against bias stressing under ambient conditions. Thus, tunnel junctions based on graphene with π-π molecule-electrode coupling are promising platforms to fabricate stable and well-performing molecular diodes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Plasmon-Based Colorimetric Nanosensors for Ultrasensitive Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Longhua; Li, Jinghong

    2017-07-28

    Colorimetric detection of target analytes with high specificity and sensitivity is of fundamental importance to clinical and personalized point-of-care diagnostics. Because of their extraordinary optical properties, plasmonic nanomaterials have been introduced into colorimetric sensing systems, which provide significantly improved sensitivity in various biosensing applications. Here we review the recent progress on these plasmonic nanoparticles-based colorimetric nanosensors for ultrasensitive molecular diagnostics. According to their different colorimetric signal generation mechanisms, these plasmonic nanosensors are classified into two categories: (1) interparticle distance-dependent colorimetric assay based on target-induced forming cross-linking assembly/aggregate of plasmonic nanoparticles; and (2) size/morphology-dependent colorimetric assay by target-controlled growth/etching of the plasmonic nanoparticles. The sensing fundamentals and cutting-edge applications will be provided for each of them, particularly focusing on signal generation and/or amplification mechanisms that realize ultrasensitive molecular detection. Finally, we also discuss the challenge and give our future perspective in this emerging field.

  18. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  19. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  20. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  1. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  2. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1981-10-01

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  4. Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieve based Nanocarriers: Transpiring Drug Dissolution Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Pathak, Kamla

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of oral bioavailability through enhancement of dissolution for poorly soluble drugs has been a very promising approach. Recently, mesoporous silica based molecular sieves have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the dissolution velocity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the factors influencing the drug release from these carriers, the kinetics of drug release and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This comprehensive review provides an overview of different methods adopted for synthesis of mesoporous materials, influence of processing factors on properties of these materials and drug loading methods. The drug release kinetics from mesoporous silica systems, the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the safety and biocompatibility issues related to these silica based materials are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Selective interface transparency in graphene nanoribbon based molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, K P; Kaun, C C; Zhang, R Q

    2018-03-08

    A clear understanding of electrode-molecule interfaces is a prerequisite for the rational engineering of future generations of nanodevices that will rely on single-molecule coupling between components. With a model system, we reveal a peculiar dependence on interfaces in all graphene nanoribbon-based carbon molecular junctions. The effect can be classified into two types depending on the intrinsic feature of the embedded core graphene nanoflake (GNF). For metallic GNFs with |N A - N B | = 1, good/poor contact transparency occurs when the core device aligns with the center/edge of the electrode. The situation is reversed when a semiconducting GNF is the device, where N A = N B . These results may shed light on the design of real connecting components in graphene-based nanocircuits.

  6. Molecular medicine of fragile X syndrome: based on known molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Yu; Wu, Ling-Qian; Duan, Ran-Hui

    2016-02-01

    Extensive research on fragile X mental retardation gene knockout mice and mutant Drosophila models has largely expanded our knowledge on mechanism-based treatment of fragile X syndrome (FXS). In light of these findings, several clinical trials are now underway for therapeutic translation to humans. Electronic literature searches were conducted using the PubMed database and ClinicalTrials.gov. The search terms included "fragile X syndrome", "FXS and medication", "FXS and therapeutics" and "FXS and treatment". Based on the publications identified in this search, we reviewed the neuroanatomical abnormalities in FXS patients and the potential pathogenic mechanisms to monitor the progress of FXS research, from basic studies to clinical trials. The pathological mechanisms of FXS were categorized on the basis of neuroanatomy, synaptic structure, synaptic transmission and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) loss of function. The neuroanatomical abnormalities in FXS were described to motivate extensive research into the region-specific pathologies in the brain responsible for FXS behavioural manifestations. Mechanism-directed molecular medicines were classified according to their target pathological mechanisms, and the most recent progress in clinical trials was discussed. Current mechanism-based studies and clinical trials have greatly contributed to the development of FXS pharmacological therapeutics. Research examining the extent to which these treatments provided a rescue effect or FMRP compensation for the developmental impairments in FXS patients may help to improve the efficacy of treatments.

  7. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlock, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m 2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  8. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  9. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.; Laidler, R.I.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  10. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  11. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  12. Industrial measurement instruments that use radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monno, Asao

    2004-01-01

    An example of a large-scale system for controlling hot rolling, and recent developments for a gamma-ray thickness gauge for the inner-mill housing of a plate and a thickness gauge for a hot seamless tube mill are introduced. The dramatically higher speed response, versatile intelligent elements, larger data capacity and formation of a database are advantages of these instruments over conventional devices. Moreover, Fuji Electric's industrial measuring instruments that use radioisotopes are manufactured and marketed to be compatible with those of Hitachi, and we have already compiled a track record of many deliveries. (author)

  13. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  14. Photoredox-Based Actuation of an Artificial Molecular Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kevin P; Greene, Angelique F; Danielson, Mary K; Colley, Nathan D; Wellen, Andrew; Fisher, Jeremy M; Barnes, Jonathan C

    2018-01-24

    The use of light to actuate materials is advantageous because it represents a cost-effective and operationally straightforward way to introduce energy into a stimuli-responsive system. Common strategies for photoinduced actuation of materials typically rely on light irradiation to isomerize azobenzene or spiropyran derivatives, or to induce unidirectional rotation of molecular motors incorporated into a 3D polymer network. Although interest in photoredox catalysis has risen exponentially in the past decade, there are far fewer examples where photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes are employed to actuate materials. Here, a novel mode of actuation in a series of redox-responsive hydrogels doped with a visible-light-absorbing ruthenium-based photocatalyst is reported. The hydrogels are composed primarily of polyethylene glycol and low molar concentrations of a unimolecular electroactive polyviologen that is activated through a PET mechanism. The rate and degree of contraction of the hydrogels are measured over several hours while irradiating with blue light. Likewise, the change in mechanical properties-determined through oscillatory shear rheology experiments-is assessed as a function of polyviologen concentration. Finally, an artificial molecular muscle is fabricated using the best-performing hydrogel composition, and its ability to perform work, while irradiated, is demonstrated by lifting a small weight. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Forms of vitamin B12 in radioisotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, J.A.; Hall, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Since the presence of analogues of vitamin B 12 (B 12 , cobalamin, Cbl) has been postulated as the basis for the high values obtained by some radioisotope dilution assays (RIDA) of serum Cbl, serum was examined for analogues. None could be demonstrated in the extracts of serum prepared for RIDA as sought by both direct and indirect techniques. The natural forms of serum Cbl were converted to cyanocobalamin (CN Cbl) by this process of extraction which included cyanide (CN). The correctly performed RIDA for Cbl based on R binder gave higher values than a RIDA based on intrinsic factor or than by bioassay. By exclusion, the difference appeared to be due to unidentified factors rather than the presence of analogues. (author)

  16. Bases moleculares de alfa-talasemia en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen G Scheps

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La α-talasemia, es uno de los desórdenes hereditarios más frecuentes mundialmente. Al presente, el diagnóstico molecular es la única herramienta que permite el diagnóstico certero. El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las bases moleculares de estos síndromes en nuestro medio, y establecer relaciones genotipo-fenotipo. Mediante la complementación de distintas técnicas de biología molecular e hibridación fluorescente in situ (FISH, se logró poner en evidencia la presencia de mutaciones α-talasémicas en 145 de 184 (78.8% pacientes estudiados con perfil hematológico compatible con α-talasemia. Dentro de este grupo, las deleciones correspondieron al defecto genético más frecuente, prevaleciendo la mutación -α3.7 en genotipos heterocigotas y homocigotas. Asimismo, en pacientes con fenotipo α0 las deleciones prevalentes fueron -MED y -CAL/CAMP. Este estudio permitió también describir una deleción de la región sub-telomérica en un paciente con α-talasemia y retraso mental. En el 7.6% de los pacientes caracterizados clínicamente como posibles α-talasémicos (microcitosis con valores de Hb A2 inferiores al 3.5%, se hallaron mutaciones β-talasémicas en estado heterocigota. Se lograron establecer perfiles hematológicos asociados a los genotipos α+ y α0 para pacientes adultos y niños. Esperamos que este trabajo pueda servir como guía para reconocer posibles portadores α-talasémicos. También permite destacar el trabajo en conjunto de médicos hematólogos, el laboratorio (bioquímico y de biología molecular y de los médicos genetistas, con el fin de proporcionar adecuado consejo genético.

  17. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  18. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F.

    2006-01-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  19. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h.

  20. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  1. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  2. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, E H [Post-graduate Medical School, Hammersmith, London (United Kingdom)

    1961-07-15

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias.

  3. Discrete radioisotopic relays of a cyclic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klempner, K.S.; Vasil'ev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A functional diagram of discrete radioisotopic relay equipment (RRP) with cyclic action was examined. An analysis of its rapid action and reliability under stationary conditions and transition regimes is presented. A structural diagram of radioisotopic relay equipment shows three radiation detectors, a pulse standardizer, an integrator and a power amplifier with a threshold cut-off device. It was established that the basic properties of the RRP - rapid action and reliability - are determined entirely by the counting rate of the average frequency of pulses from the radiation detector, n 0 and n 1 , in the 0 and 1 states (absence of current in the electromagnetic relay winding and activation of the winding of the output relay), capacities N 1 and N 2 of the dual counters, and the frequency of the transition threshold, f, of the generator. Formulas are presented which allow making engineering calculations for determining the optimum RRP parameters. High speed and reliability are shown, which are determined by the production purposes of the relay

  4. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Pinkert, J.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.Y.; Wang, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  5. Report of Radioisotope Inspection Technical Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of unifying the method of performance test for the routine management of the performance of RI equipments, the check-up of performance at the time of purchasing the equipments or research works, the Committee has continued the investigation on the method of performance test on RI equipments. Now, the definite plans have been decided regarding the method of performance test on radioisotope monitoring instruments and the measuring instruments for RI samples, therefore they are reported hereinafter. As for the radioisotope monitoring instruments, Curie meter, area monitor, water monitor, gas monitor and hand, foot and cloth monitor were taken up, and the items of inspection, the purposes, the testing methods, the expression of measured results and their evaluation were discussed. The accuracy of measurement of absolute radio-activity is important in Curie meter, the stability of continuous monitoring is important in general monitors, and the limit of measurement is important in the hand, foot and cloth monitor. As for the measuring instruments for radioactive materials, the efficiency of counting, linearity and stability were taken up as the items of performance test, and other matters to which attention should be paid were added. These were described, dividing into well type scintillation counter and liquid scintillation counter. (Kako, I.)

  6. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey; Shah, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  7. Light-operated machines based on threaded molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credi, Alberto; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Rotaxanes and related species represent the most common implementation of the concept of artificial molecular machines, because the supramolecular nature of the interactions between the components and their interlocked architecture allow a precise control on the position and movement of the molecular units. The use of light to power artificial molecular machines is particularly valuable because it can play the dual role of "writing" and "reading" the system. Moreover, light-driven machines can operate without accumulation of waste products, and photons are the ideal inputs to enable autonomous operation mechanisms. In appropriately designed molecular machines, light can be used to control not only the stability of the system, which affects the relative position of the molecular components but also the kinetics of the mechanical processes, thereby enabling control on the direction of the movements. This step forward is necessary in order to make a leap from molecular machines to molecular motors.

  8. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  9. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  10. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  11. Shielded radioisotope generator and method for using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclide generator for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features batch flow of eluting reagent interior of the generator in a completely shielded environment

  12. Dissecting plasmodesmata molecular composition by mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Maria Françoise Bayer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the intercellular communication through the membranous channels called plasmodesmata (PD; singular plasmodesma plays pivotal roles in the orchestration of development, defence responses and viral propagation. PD are dynamic structures embedded in the plant cell wall that are defined by specialised domains of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. PD structure and unique functions are guaranteed by their particular molecular composition. Yet, up to recent years and despite numerous approaches such as mutant screens, immunolocalisation or screening of random cDNAs, only few PD proteins had been conclusively identified and characterised. A clear breakthrough in the search of PD constituents came from mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approaches coupled with subcellular fractionation strategies. Due to their position, firmly anchored in the extracellular matrix, PD are notoriously difficult to isolate for biochemical analysis. Proteomic-based approaches have therefore first relied on the use of cell wall fractions containing embedded PD then on free PD fractions whereby PD membranes were released from the walls by enzymatic degradation. To discriminate between likely contaminants and PD protein candidates, bioinformatics tools have often been used in combination with proteomic approaches. GFP fusion proteins of selected candidates have confirmed the PD association of several protein families. Here we review the accomplishments and limitations of the proteomic based strategies to unravel the functional and structural complexity of PD. We also discuss the role of the identified PD associated proteins.

  13. Dissecting plasmodesmata molecular composition by mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Magali S; Bayer, Emmanuelle M F

    2012-01-01

    In plants, the intercellular communication through the membranous channels called plasmodesmata (PD; singular plasmodesma) plays pivotal roles in the orchestration of development, defence responses, and viral propagation. PD are dynamic structures embedded in the plant cell wall that are defined by specialized domains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM). PD structure and unique functions are guaranteed by their particular molecular composition. Yet, up to recent years and despite numerous approaches such as mutant screens, immunolocalization, or screening of random cDNAs, only few PD proteins had been conclusively identified and characterized. A clear breakthrough in the search of PD constituents came from mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approaches coupled with subcellular fractionation strategies. Due to their position, firmly anchored in the extracellular matrix, PD are notoriously difficult to isolate for biochemical analysis. Proteomic-based approaches have therefore first relied on the use of cell wall fractions containing embedded PD then on "free" PD fractions whereby PD membranes were released from the walls by enzymatic degradation. To discriminate between likely contaminants and PD protein candidates, bioinformatics tools have often been used in combination with proteomic approaches. GFP fusion proteins of selected candidates have confirmed the PD association of several protein families. Here we review the accomplishments and limitations of the proteomic-based strategies to unravel the functional and structural complexity of PD. We also discuss the role of the identified PD-associated proteins.

  14. POLYANA-A tool for the calculation of molecular radial distribution functions based on Molecular Dynamics trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulis, Christos; Raptis, Theophanes; Raptis, Vasilios

    2015-12-01

    We present an application for the calculation of radial distribution functions for molecular centres of mass, based on trajectories generated by molecular simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo). When designing this application, the emphasis was placed on ease of use as well as ease of further development. In its current version, the program can read trajectories generated by the well-known DL_POLY package, but it can be easily extended to handle other formats. It is also very easy to 'hack' the program so it can compute intermolecular radial distribution functions for groups of interaction sites rather than whole molecules.

  15. Charged particle cross-section database for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic radioisotopes and monitor reactions. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Medical applications of nuclear radiation are of considerable interest to the IAEA. Cyclotrons and accelerators, available in recent years in an increasing number of countries, are being used for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The physical basis of this production is described through interaction of charged particles, such as protons, deuterons and alphas, with matter. These processes have to be well understood in order to produce radioisotopes in an efficient and clean manner. In addition to medical radioisotope production, reactions with low energy charged particles are of primary importance for two major applications. Techniques of ion beam analysis use many specific reactions to identify material properties, and in nuclear astrophysics there is interest in numerous reaction rates to understand nucleosynthesis in the Universe. A large number of medically oriented cyclotrons have been running in North America, western Europe and Japan for more than two decades. In recent years, 30-40 MeV cyclotrons and smaller cyclotrons (E p < 20 MeV) have been installed in several countries. Although the production methods are well established, there are no evaluated and recommended nuclear data sets available. The need for standardization was thus imminent. This was pointed out at three IAEA meetings. Based on the recommendations made at these meetings, the IAEA decided to undertake and organize the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross-Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production. The project was initiated in 1995. It focused on radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes and on the related beam monitor reactions in order to meet current needs. It constituted the first major international effort dedicated to standardization of nuclear data for radioisotope production. It covered the following areas: Compilation of data on the most important reactions for monitoring light ion

  16. Radioisotope electric propulsion for robotic science missions to near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    The use of radioisotope electric propulsion for sending small robotic probes on fast science missions several hundred astronomical units (AU) from the Sun is investigated. Such missions would address a large variety of solar, interstellar, galactic and cosmological science themes from unique vantage points at 100 to 600 AU, including parallax distance measurements for the entire Milky Way Galaxy, sampling of the interstellar medium and imaging of cosmological objects at the gravitational lens foci of the Sun (≥ 550 AU). Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on multi-hundred watt, radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. In a previous work, the flight times for rendezvous missions to the outer planets (< 30 AU) using REP were found to be less than fifteen years. However fast prestellar missions to several hundred AU are not possible unless the probe's energy can be substantially increased in the inner Solar System so as to boost the final hyperbolic excess velocity. In this paper an economical hybrid propulsion scheme combining chemical propulsion and gravity assist in the inner Solar System and radioisotope electric propulsion in the outer Solar System is studied which enables fast prestellar missions. Total hyperbolic excess velocities of 15 AU/year and flight times to 550 AU of about 40 years are possible using REP technology that may be available in the next decade

  17. General dosimetry model for internal contamination with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino, L.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose by inner contamination with radioisotopes is not measured directly but evaluated by the application of mathematical models of fixation and elimination, taken into account biological activity of each organ with respect to the incorporated material. Models proposed by ICRP for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (30) seems that they should not be applied independently because of the evident correlation between them. In this paper both models are integrated in a more general one with neither modification nor limitation of the starting models. It has been applied to some patients in the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, who received some I-131 dose via oral and results are quite similar to dose experimentally obtained via urine spectrograms. Based on this results the method was formalized and applied to professional exposed personnel of the medical staff at the same Institute; due to high doses found in some of the urine samples, probable I-131 air contamination could be supposed

  18. Radioisotopic synovectomy using ferric hydroxide macroaggregated for chronic arthritis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Carla Flavia; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Synovectomy radioisotopic is an arthritis treatment used in specific clinical conditions whose main goal is to sterilized the synovia. This treatment has specific and precise indications and it is considered to have an adequate response. The present work presents a modeling of an articulation (joint) based on its real geometric anatomy and chemical constitution. The internal dosimetry is evaluated by the Monte Carlo Code. The majority of the radionuclides were considered in the simulations. The syntheses of the ferric hydroxide macroaggregates with dysprosium and samarium have been prepared (Dy 165 -MHF and Sm 153 -MHF). Obtaining the cintilographic images of rabbits in which Dy 165 -MHF is injected is in progress. Biodistribution studies in addition with the internal dosimetry will certify the dose in the membrane of the synovia. (author)

  19. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  20. Radioisotope production by reactors and cyclotrons in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radioisotope production in Japan and the increasing demand from various fields are generally reviewed. Future problems associated with the shortage of economical supply are also discussed. The first half of this report is devoted to general review of the increasing demand for various radioisotopes from increasing number of users. The present status and future trends of the distribution of users of specific radioisotopes and their demands are shown. The remaining half of this report reviews the production with reactors and cyclotrons. The Japanese reactors producing radioisotopes are limited to low flux (10 13 ) research reactors at JAERI. Some problems associated with the improvement of availability and with the organizational structure are discussed. As for the production with cyclotrons, available facilities and the method of production are explained in detail. For clinical use, especially for the production of short lived radioisotopes, the advantage of a small special purpose cyclotron at each medical organization is emphasized. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Isotopes in molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, P.S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in molecular biology, with particular reference to the structure and functions of DNA, RNA and the cellular synthesis of proteins, is discussed. The use of labelled DNA and RNA in diagnostic techniques is presented. (U.K.)

  2. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  3. BASES MOLECULARES DA ABSORÇÃO DO FERRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. MACHADO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O ferro é um elemento essencial a todos os organismos vivos e alterações em sua homeostase resultam em quadro de deficiência ou acúmulo, ambos com alta prevalência e relevância clínica. A última década foi marcada pela geração de conhecimentos importantes, que estão contribuindo para a elucidação dos mecanismos moleculares da homeostase do ferro. Foram identificadas proteínas, envolvidas na absorção intestinal do ferro não-heme, e progressos significativos foram feitos no entendimento da regulação da absorção intestinal do ferro, sendo identificadas várias moléculas candidatas. As bases moleculares da homeostase do ferro ainda não foram totalmente elucidadas, porém as informações já existentes sugerem que, em condições fisiológicas, a absorção, o transporte e o armazenamento sejam feitos por moléculas altamente especializadas e, em especial, a absorção, com mecanismos saturáveis em baixa concentração. No entanto, a absorção pode ocorrer por vias menos sujeitas ao controle, dependendo da sobrecarga e da natureza química do composto utilizado. Estas informações advogam a favor de uma revisão nas estratégias de combate à anemia ferropriva. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Absorção do ferro; DMT-1; hepahestina; ceruloplasmina; ferroportina; hepcidina.

  4. Molecular biology-based diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hayato; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Mainly described are author's investigations of the title subject through clinical and basic diagnosis/therapeutic approach. Based on their consideration of carcinogenesis and pathological features of pancreatic cancer (PC), analysis of expression of cancer-related genes in clinically available samples like pancreatic juice and cells biopsied can result in attaining their purposes. Desmoplasia, a pathological feature of PC, possibly induces resistance to therapy and one of strategies is probably its suppression. Targeting stem cells of the mesenchyma as well as those of PC is also a strategy in future. Authors' studies have revealed that quantitation of hTERT (coding teromerase) mRNA levels in PC cells micro-dissected from cytological specimens is an accurate molecular biological diagnostic method applicable clinically. Other cancer-related genes are also useful for the diagnosis and mucin (MUC) family genes are shown to be typical ones for differentiating the precancerous PC, PC and chronic pancreatisis. Efficacy of standard gemcitabine chemotherapy can be individualized with molecular markers concerned to metabolism of the drug like dCK. Radiotherapy/radio-chemotherapy are not so satisfactory for PC treatment now. Authors have found elevated MMP-2 expression and HGF/c-Met signal activation in irradiated PC cells, which can increase the invasive capability; and stimulation of phosphorylation and activation of c-Met/MARK in co-culture of irradiated PC cells with messenchymal cells from PC, which possibly leads to progression of malignancy of PC through their interaction, of which suppression, therefore, can be a new approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. Authors are making effort to introducing adenovirus therapy in clinic; exempli gratia (e.g.), the virus carrying wild type p53, a cancer-suppressive gene, induces apoptosis of PC cells often having its mutated gene. (T.T.)

  5. Molecular dosimetry based on radiation induced degradation of polyisobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    1999-01-01

    This project investigates the possibility of qualitative measurement of radiation doses through detection of changes in the average molecular weight in the polymer Polyisobutylene (PIB). Changes in molecular weight and molecular weight distribution is detected by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The aim of the project is to decide whether or not it is possible to determine a quality difference between α-radiation ( 241 Am, 5,5 MeV) and γ-radiation ( 60 Co, 1,25 MeV) in the dose range 0,5 to 10 kGy by irradiation of PIB. Irradiation with 60 Co changes the average number molecular weight M n by 12% per kGy and the average weight molecular weight M w by 23% per kGy. The presence of antioxidant in the irradiated sample inhibits a change in average molecular weight by 5% and 16% for M n and M w respectively. (au)

  6. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A 1 and A 2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A 2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A 2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  7. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  8. Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Based Impedimentric Sensor for Theophylline Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratautaite, Vilma; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Haenen, Ken; Nesládek, Milos; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Baleviciute, Ieva; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensor based on polypyrrole imprinted by theophylline (MIP) deposited on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond was developed. • This structure was applied as impedimetric sensor sensitive for theophylline. • Optimal polymer formation conditions suitable for MIP formation were elaborated. • Some analytical parameters were determined and evaluated. - Abstract: In this study development of impedimetric sensor based on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD:O) modified with theophylline imprinted polypyrrole is described. Hydrogen peroxide induced chemical formation of polypyrrole molecularly imprinted by theophylline was applied for the modification of conducting silicon substrate covered by B:NCD:O film. Non-imprinted polypyrrole layer was formed on similar substrate in order to prove efficiency of imprinted polypyrrole. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied for the evaluation of analyte-induced changes in electrochemical capacitance/resistance. The impact of polymerization duration on the capacitance of impedimetric sensor was estimated. A different impedance behavior was observed at different ratio of polymerized monomer and template molecule in the polymerization media. The influence of ethanol as additive to polymerization media on registered changes in capacitance/resistance was evaluated. Degradation of sensor stored in buffer solution was evaluated

  9. Pathological Bases for a Robust Application of Cancer Molecular Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J. Diaz-Cano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Any robust classification system depends on its purpose and must refer to accepted standards, its strength relying on predictive values and a careful consideration of known factors that can affect its reliability. In this context, a molecular classification of human cancer must refer to the current gold standard (histological classification and try to improve it with key prognosticators for metastatic potential, staging and grading. Although organ-specific examples have been published based on proteomics, transcriptomics and genomics evaluations, the most popular approach uses gene expression analysis as a direct correlate of cellular differentiation, which represents the key feature of the histological classification. RNA is a labile molecule that varies significantly according with the preservation protocol, its transcription reflect the adaptation of the tumor cells to the microenvironment, it can be passed through mechanisms of intercellular transference of genetic information (exosomes, and it is exposed to epigenetic modifications. More robust classifications should be based on stable molecules, at the genetic level represented by DNA to improve reliability, and its analysis must deal with the concept of intratumoral heterogeneity, which is at the origin of tumor progression and is the byproduct of the selection process during the clonal expansion and progression of neoplasms. The simultaneous analysis of multiple DNA targets and next generation sequencing offer the best practical approach for an analytical genomic classification of tumors.

  10. Study on application of radiation and radioisotopes -Development of the radioisotope production facilities for the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Bok; Woo, Jong Sub; Kang, Byung Woi; Baek, Sam Tae; Jeong, Un Soo; Park, Yong Chul; Jeon, Young Keon; Chang, Chun Ik; Lee, Bong Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Development and construction of the lead hot cell for radioisotope production and related facility. 1. Fabrication and installation of the lead H/C system. 2. Development and installation of the hydraulic transfer system. 3. Development of the radiation monitoring system. 4. Fabrication and installation of the fire extinguishing system in the H/C. 5. Fabrication and installation of the fume hood. 4 tabs.,10 figs. (Author).

  11. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  12. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  13. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  14. Radio-isotope powered light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spottiswoode, N.L.; Ryden, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The light source described comprises a radioisotope fuel source, thermal insulation against heat loss, a biological shield against the escape of ionizing radiation and a material having a surface which attains incandescence when subject to isotope decay heat. There is then a means for transferring this heat to produce incandescence of the surface and thus emit light. A filter associated with the surface permits a relatively high transmission of visible radiation but has a relatively high reflectance in the infra red spectrum. Such light sources require the minimum of attention and servicing and are therefore suitable for use in navigational aids such as lighthouses and lighted buoys. The isotope fuel sources and thus the insulation and shielding and the incandescent material can be chosen for the use required and several sources, materials, means of housing etc. are detailed. Operation and efficiency are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  16. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  17. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  18. Production of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, Tatsuo

    1977-01-01

    As problems in the process of production of short-lived radioisotopes for medical use and in clinical application of them, the following three items were mentioned: 1. separation and purification in a short time, 2. devices to decrease exposure dose in workers, and 3. preservation of radiochemical purity and chemical purity, and avoidance of mixture of impurities. In consideration of these problems, an outline of on-line production system of radioactive gases (from irradiation by accelerated particles to separation, purification, and administration of them), which was exploited in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, was described. Production of 13 NH 3 , the aqueous solution of 18 F, and 123 I was also given an outline. Simultaneous production method of many nuclides by means of laminated target and compounds labelled with positron emitter were also described. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), the daughter of Molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo), is the most commonly used medical radioisotope in the world. It accounts for over twenty-five million medical procedures each year worldwide, comprising about 80% of all radiopharmaceutical procedures. 99 Mo is mostly prepared by the fission of uranium-235 targets in a nuclear reactor with a fission yield of about 6.1%. Currently over 95% of the fission product 99 Mo is obtained using highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Smaller scale producers use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Small quantities of 99 Mo are also produced by neutron activation through the use of the (n, γ) reaction. The concept of a compact homogeneous aqueous reactor fuelled by a uranium salt solution with off-line separation of radioisotopes of interest ( 99 Mo, 131 I) from aliquots of irradiated fuel solution has been cited in a few presentations in the series of International Conference on Isotopes (ICI) held in Vancouver (2000), Cape Town (2003) and Brussels (2005) and recently some corporate interest has also been noticeable. Calculations and some experimental research have shown that the use of aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) could be an efficient technology for fission radioisotope production, having some prospective advantages compared with traditional technology based on the use of solid uranium targets irradiated in research reactors. This review of AHR status and prospects by a team of experts engaged in the field of homogeneous reactors and radioisotope producers yields an objective evaluation of the technological challenges and other relevant implications. The meeting to develop this report facilitated the exchange of information on the 'state of the art' of the technology related to homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors, especially in connection with the production of radioisotopes. This publication presents a summary of discussions of a consultants meeting which is followed by the technical

  20. Applications of radioisotopes for studying refractory wear-out in Bhilai Steel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, R.S.; Bose, U.P.; Shipstone, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    In Bhilai Steel Plant, investigations were carried out to study the refractory wear-out of (i) hearth bottom of blast furnaces, (ii) roof of open hearth furnaces, and (iii) hot metal mixer lining, by using radioisotope tracer techniques with a view to evaluate the life of the refractory lining at various locations and to help in planning its timely hot and cold repairs. The life of the refractory lining has the effective bearing on the overall production and hence on the economy of the plant. The two radiometric methods employed for studying the erosion of the refractory lining, by using isotope inserted bricks at various positions without damaging the lining are (i) based on recording the penetration of gamma rays emitting from the radioactive isotopes inserted at definite points of the brick lining and, (ii) by detecting the radioactivity of the pig iron or steel arising due to washing away of the respective radioactive isotopes previously inserted in the lining. In hot mixers also radioisotope sources were placed in the critical location of refractory lining and the washing out of radioisotope due to refractory brick wear out was detected by radiogauging at site. It has been found that radiotracer technique with periodic radiogauging is very useful method for tracing the radioisotope source if more than one refractory brick with isotope is placed, as in the case of open hearth furnaces. The results of radioanalysis revealed that radioactivity coming alongwith hot metal steel has been far below the permissible limit of concentration i.e. 20 micro-curie per ton of metal. Further, during dismantling of the residual refractory lining of open hearth furnaces or hot metal mixers, bricks containing radioisotopes have been successfully retrieved for safe disposal. (auth.)

  1. Determination of the radiological impact of radioisotope waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The AECB commissioned this study to determine the doses to individuals working in municipal waste management systems and to populations of cities where small amounts of radioisotopes are disposed of through the municipal waste management systems. To carry out this study, it was necessary to select a city having: (1) a population size representative of many cities in Canada, (2) many different types of radioisotope users, (3) all the possible municipal waste management systems, (4) a well established data base on its waste management systems. Using this criteria, the Hamilton-Burlington area surrounding Hamilton Harbour was selected. The pathways and dosimetry models were put into a computer spread sheet, to give the model flexibility so that it could be easily modified to model other cities. The model was developed using conservative assumptions and conservative estimates for some parameter values so that the doses calculated by the model are over estimates. Within the occupational critical group, the maximum doses were calculated for the Hamilton sewage treatment plant sludge worker at 1.4E-6 Sv/a. If this individual were also a member of the critical group in the general population the maximum dose would be 2.2E-6 Sv/a. Individual doses to the critical group within the general population were calculated as 7.7E-7 Sv/a for adults and 6.8E-8 Sv/a for infants. These compare to AECB regulatory limits of 5.0E-2 Sv/a per person for atomic radiation workers and 5.0E-3 Sv/a per person for the general public. The collective population dose for the study area was 1.37E-1 person-Sv/a for the 525,000 population

  2. Molecular clips based on propanediurea : synthesis and physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robertus Johannes

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and physical properties of a series of molecular clips derived from the concave molecule propanediurea. These molecular clips are cavity-containing receptors that can bind a variety of aromatic guests. This binding is a result of hydrogen bonding and pi-pi

  3. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  4. Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using tracers (chemical, dyes, etc.) in the investigation of complex physical phenomena has always attracted the attention of scientists and engineers. When radioactive isotopes became available it was immediately recognized that they offered an almost ideal solution to tracer selection. This book is devoted to reviewing the present status of the tracer method as such and to its applications to those branches of industry which have derived large benefits from the use of this modern technology. The main objectives of the IAEA's Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section is to help Member States in introducing to their own industries the different isotope and radiation techniques which have become available as a result of developments in the nuclear sciences. This section proposed the preparation of this guidebook, putting together various radiotracer methods and the experience obtained so far in their industrial use. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the general concept of tracers, technology and safety aspects, as well as data evaluation and interpretation. In chapter 5, therefore, general applications are discussed. In chapter 6, specialists in selected fields discuss their experience in radiotracer applications in various types of industrial activity. Most case studies are illustrated by at least one detailed example of an experiment carried out at an industrial installation. Current trends in the development of radiotracer methods are discussed in chapter 7, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint. Some possible new RTT applications in the future are also discussed here. Sealed radioactive sources are used almost as often as radioisotope tracers in industrial measurements. Annex I gives a short review of these techniques. Readers who are interested in the basic principles of radioisotope production will find the necessary information in Annex II. Annexes III, V and VI provide a demonstration of fundamental relations and properties; useful

  5. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  6. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  7. Molecular microenvironments: Solvent interactions with nucleic acid bases and ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Pohorille, A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of reconstructing plausible sequences of events in prebiotic molecular evolution is limited by the lack of fossil remains. However, with hindsight, one goal of molecular evolution was obvious: the development of molecular systems that became constituents of living systems. By understanding the interactions among molecules that are likely to have been present in the prebiotic environment, and that could have served as components in protobiotic molecular systems, plausible evolutionary sequences can be suggested. When stable aggregations of molecules form, a net decrease in free energy is observed in the system. Such changes occur when solvent molecules interact among themselves, as well as when they interact with organic species. A significant decrease in free energy, in systems of solvent and organic molecules, is due to entropy changes in the solvent. Entropy-driven interactioins played a major role in the organization of prebiotic systems, and understanding the energetics of them is essential to understanding molecular evolution.

  8. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi, E-mail: mehmetyola@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of citrinin. • The nanomaterial and citrinin-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods. - Abstract: In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10{sup −12}–1.0 × 10{sup −10} M and 2.0 × 10{sup −13} M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  10. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Eren, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of citrinin. • The nanomaterial and citrinin-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods. - Abstract: In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H_3PW_1_2O_4_0, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10"−"1"2–1.0 × 10"−"1"0 M and 2.0 × 10"−"1"3 M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  11. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Eren, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H3PW12O40, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10-12-1.0 × 10-10 M and 2.0 × 10-13 M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, D; Phillips, F M

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes (10)Be, (14)C,(26)A1, 36Cl, and (129)1 can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10(-12) to 10(- 5) and as few as 10(5) atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of halflives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  13. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  14. Radioisotope applications in industry and environment: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology in industry, medicine and agriculture form an important part of India's programme of using nuclear technology for societal benefits. Radioisotope production in India started on a modest scale soon after 1 MW APSARA reactor at Trombay, Mumbai became critical in 1956. The scope of activities expanded thereafter. With the commissioning of 40 MW CIRUS reactor in 1960, the setting up of modern radioisotope processing laboratories in late sixties and the production of cobalt-60 in power reactors in megacurie quantities in late seventies made India self-sufficient in radioisotope production. The radioisotope production received a major boost in 1985 with the commissioning of high flux 100 MW DHRUVA reactor, which provided opportunity to extend the range of radioisotopes available in the country both in quantity as well in specific activity. The CIRUS reactor has been shutdown in year 2010 and 1 MW APSARA reactor is presently being upgraded to 5 MW. Today, The DHRUVA reactor operating at its full capacity is being used for production of 100 different radioisotopes those are used in industry, agriculture and medicine. (author)

  15. Computerized control system for administration of the radioisotope use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago, Tsutomu; Ito, Shin; Isozumi, Yasuhito; Kurihara, Norio

    1986-01-01

    An on-line computer system for administration of the radioisotope use has been developed. This system consists of a multi-job type host computer and two sets of personal computers with identification card-readers. The personal computers are employed as terminal devices for radioisotope users. By the use of an identification card, entrance and leaving times are recorded automatically. Furthermore, an easy operation of the personal computer permits users to access to the information of their resistered radioisotopes, such as nuclides, chemical forms, updated activities, storage locations, and history of usage. A recording sheet on which those data are printed is provided from the personal computer. After the use of radioisotopes, users can record their data on the recording sheets. These records are used as the input data to this system to update the data of the used radioisotopes. Owing to the concise format of the recording sheet and various sorting programs developed in present work, this system enables us to grasp the exact flow of the radioisotopes from purchase to disposal. Out-put data from high-speed kanji printer can provide many important books which are legally requested to be kept for administration of the radioisotope use. (author)

  16. Future radioisotope power needs for missions to the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Underwood, M.L.; Nesmith, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA and DOE plan a cooperative team effort with industry, government laboratories and universities to develop a near term, low cost, low power (100 watt electric class), low mass (<10 kg), advanced radioisotope space power source (ARPS) and in the process reduce the plutonium-related costs as well. The near term is focused on developing an advanced energy converter to use with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The GPHS was developed and used for the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Advanced energy converter technologies are needed as a more efficient replacement for the existing thermoelectric converters so that the space radioisotope power source mass and cost can be reduced. a more advanced technology space radioisotope power system program is also planned that addresses a longer-term need. Twenty first century robotic scientific information missions to the outer planets and beyond are planned to be accomplished with microspacecraft which may demand safe, even more compact, lower-power, lower-mass radioisotope power sources than those which can be achieved as a result of the near term efforts. The longer-term program focuses not only on converter technology but also on lower power, more compact radioisotope heat source technology and smaller, lower mass radioisotope heater units for second generation microspacecraft. This more ambitious, longer time-horizon focus necessarily occurs at this time on the technology R and D level rather than at the system technology level

  17. MrGrid: a portable grid based molecular replacement pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Schmidberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The crystallographic determination of protein structures can be computationally demanding and for difficult cases can benefit from user-friendly interfaces to high-performance computing resources. Molecular replacement (MR is a popular protein crystallographic technique that exploits the structural similarity between proteins that share some sequence similarity. But the need to trial permutations of search models, space group symmetries and other parameters makes MR time- and labour-intensive. However, MR calculations are embarrassingly parallel and thus ideally suited to distributed computing. In order to address this problem we have developed MrGrid, web-based software that allows multiple MR calculations to be executed across a grid of networked computers, allowing high-throughput MR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MrGrid is a portable web based application written in Java/JSP and Ruby, and taking advantage of Apple Xgrid technology. Designed to interface with a user defined Xgrid resource the package manages the distribution of multiple MR runs to the available nodes on the Xgrid. We evaluated MrGrid using 10 different protein test cases on a network of 13 computers, and achieved an average speed up factor of 5.69. CONCLUSIONS: MrGrid enables the user to retrieve and manage the results of tens to hundreds of MR calculations quickly and via a single web interface, as well as broadening the range of strategies that can be attempted. This high-throughput approach allows parameter sweeps to be performed in parallel, improving the chances of MR success.

  18. A CZT-based blood counter for quantitative molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espagnet, Romain; Frezza, Andrea; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Louis-André; Lechippey, Laëtitia; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Després, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Robust quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) and in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) typically requires the time-activity curve as an input function for the pharmacokinetic modeling of tracer uptake. For this purpose, a new automated tool for the determination of blood activity as a function of time is presented. The device, compact enough to be used on the patient bed, relies on a peristaltic pump for continuous blood withdrawal at user-defined rates. Gamma detection is based on a 20 × 20 × 15 mm 3 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, read by custom-made electronics and a field-programmable gate array-based signal processing unit. A graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to select parameters and easily perform acquisitions. This paper presents the overall design of the device as well as the results related to the detector performance in terms of stability, sensitivity and energy resolution. Results from a patient study are also reported. The device achieved a sensitivity of 7.1 cps/(kBq/mL) and a minimum detectable activity of 2.5 kBq/ml for 18 F. The gamma counter also demonstrated an excellent stability with a deviation in count rates inferior to 0.05% over 6 h. An energy resolution of 8% was achieved at 662 keV. The patient study was conclusive and demonstrated that the compact gamma blood counter developed has the sensitivity and the stability required to conduct quantitative molecular imaging studies in PET and SPECT.

  19. Symbol Synchronization for Diffusion-Based Molecular Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Vahid; Ahmadzadeh, Arman; Schober, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Symbol synchronization refers to the estimation of the start of a symbol interval and is needed for reliable detection. In this paper, we develop several symbol synchronization schemes for molecular communication (MC) systems where we consider some practical challenges, which have not been addressed in the literature yet. In particular, we take into account that in MC systems, the transmitter may not be equipped with an internal clock and may not be able to emit molecules with a fixed release frequency. Such restrictions hold for practical nanotransmitters, e.g., modified cells, where the lengths of the symbol intervals may vary due to the inherent randomness in the availability of food and energy for molecule generation, the process for molecule production, and the release process. To address this issue, we develop two synchronization-detection frameworks which both employ two types of molecule. In the first framework, one type of molecule is used for symbol synchronization and the other one is used for data detection, whereas in the second framework, both types of molecule are used for joint symbol synchronization and data detection. For both frameworks, we first derive the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) symbol synchronization schemes as performance upper bounds. Since ML synchronization entails high complexity, for each framework, we also propose three low-complexity suboptimal schemes, namely a linear filter-based scheme, a peak observation-based scheme, and a threshold-trigger scheme, which are suitable for MC systems with limited computational capabilities. Furthermore, we study the relative complexity and the constraints associated with the proposed schemes and the impact of the insertion and deletion errors that arise due to imperfect synchronization. Our simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization schemes and suggest that the end-to-end performance of MC systems significantly depends on the accuracy of the symbol

  20. Production and application of radioisotopes - a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolutions of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop

  1. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  2. Determinants of molecular marker based classification of rice (Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr devi singh

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... 1Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SVP University of Agriculture and ... Basmati and non-Basmati rice adapted to different agro- ecological ..... acid soils in southern New South Wales?

  3. Calculation for shielding based on the new law in the nuclear medicine facilities. Calculation methods of effective dose concerning the external and internal exposures and of radioisotope concentration concerning the exhaust gas drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Takeda, Hiromitsu; Asanuma, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Following the revision of the law which incorporated the ICRP 1990 Recommendation, the medical law enforcement rule and related notices are also revised and enforced from April 1, 2001. Revised points related with the nuclear medicine facilities involve the reported items (addition of the scheduled maximum amount to be used in the next 3 months), change of dose limits at the boundary of the controlled area (from 300 μSv/w to 1.3 mSv/3 m), change of density limits in air, exhausted air and drainage, change of evaluation of radioisotope density in air (from average density during 8 hr to 1 week), change of exposure dose limits in medical workers and change of calculation method of effective dose due to internal exposure. This paper concerns the calculation methods for above and their concepts in nuclear medicine facilities in Hokkaido area. Numerical data for shielding and conditions of the facilities for clinical practice including diagnostic nuclide are taken into consideration and the actual paper forms for these items are also shown. (K.H.)

  4. Congenital neutropenia: diagnosis, molecular bases and patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelot Christine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term congenital neutropenia encompasses a family of neutropenic disorders, both permanent and intermittent, severe ( When neutropenia is detected, an attempt should be made to establish the etiology, distinguishing between acquired forms (the most frequent, including post viral neutropenia and auto immune neutropenia and congenital forms that may either be isolated or part of a complex genetic disease. Except for ethnic neutropenia, which is a frequent but mild congenital form, probably with polygenic inheritance, all other forms of congenital neutropenia are extremely rare and have monogenic inheritance, which may be X-linked or autosomal, recessive or dominant. About half the forms of congenital neutropenia with no extra-hematopoetic manifestations and normal adaptive immunity are due to neutrophil elastase (ELANE mutations. Some patients have severe permanent neutropenia and frequent infections early in life, while others have mild intermittent neutropenia. Congenital neutropenia may also be associated with a wide range of organ dysfunctions, as for example in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (associated with pancreatic insufficiency and glycogen storage disease type Ib (associated with a glycogen storage syndrome. So far, the molecular bases of 12 neutropenic disorders have been identified. Treatment of severe chronic neutropenia should focus on prevention of infections. It includes antimicrobial prophylaxis, generally with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and also granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF. G-CSF has considerably improved these patients' outlook. It is usually well tolerated, but potential adverse effects include thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis and osteoporosis. Long-term treatment with G-CSF, especially at high doses, augments the spontaneous risk of leukemia in patients with congenital neutropenia.

  5. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  6. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yishu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2000-10-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, {gamma}-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, {sup 90}Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  7. The use of radioisotopes in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-04-15

    Some of the more important isotope applications, especially those which are or can be profitably introduced in the developing countries, are reviewed. The use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture, and hydrology is discussed

  8. Economic Contributions of Radioisotope Production Reactor in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ji Hee; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Whan

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotopes (RIs) have been used extensively in the fields of industrial, the agricultural, and the medical applications. Especially the deficiency of radioisotopes such as Mo-99 and I-131 in the medical applications recently is becoming the main issue in our society. Radioisotope with the characteristics of public goods in some aspects is mainly playing as the intermediate inputs or goods in the process of the industrial production, with being expected to produce the economic benefits by creating the new demand in the market or enlarging the value added for the related goods and services. In this study, the contribution effects for Korean economy by the construction and operation of the reactor for radioisotope production would be evaluated the effects produced by the activities such as a RI supplies into domestic industry, the RI exports, the neutron transmutation doping services called NTD, and the exports of RI production reactors

  9. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2000-01-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  10. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  11. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  12. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  13. The Synthesis And Characterization Of Wolfram Phthalocyanine For The Target Material Of High Specific Activity Radioisotope Wolfram - 188 (188W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, Duyeh

    2000-01-01

    The application of 188 Re radioisotope separation on aluminia column through elution solution has increased significantly since the last two decades. The 188 Re radioisotope has been done fram 188 Re beta-decay through a neutron capture radiation on wolfram -186 target. In trhe column separation, high specific activity of 188 W radioisotope is required to get sufficient activity in small quality 188 W radioisotope has been carried out in this research. Wolfram-phthalocyanine compound was prepared by refluxing a mixture of wolfram trioxyde, (WO 3 ) and phthalonitrile, (C 8 H 4 N 2 ) at 250 o C for two hours. The synthesis of wolfram phthalocyanine is 70% purity yield, the product are green crystals, have a 193,0-193,8 o C melting points, and has a molecular formula C 3 2H 1 6 N8 WO 2 . The infra red spectrum of wolfram-phthalocyanine was the absorption band at 964,3 cm - 1 was due to the vibration of W=O bond of the wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine. The x-ray diffraction of the wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine was similar with molybdenum dioxy-phthalocyanine compound. This fact showed that the product was wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine

  14. Computer-Based Molecular Modelling: Finnish School Teachers' Experiences and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksela, Maija; Lundell, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Modern computer-based molecular modelling opens up new possibilities for chemistry teaching at different levels. This article presents a case study seeking insight into Finnish school teachers' use of computer-based molecular modelling in teaching chemistry, into the different working and teaching methods used, and their opinions about necessary…

  15. Molecular materials and devices: developing new functional systems based on the coordination chemistry approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Henrique E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available At the onset of the nanotechnology age, molecular designing of materials and single molecule studies are opening wide possibilities of using molecular systems in electronic and photonic devices, as well as in technological applications based on molecular switching or molecular recognition. In this sense, inorganic chemists are privileged by the possibility of using the basic strategies of coordination chemistry to build up functional supramolecular materials, conveying the remarkable chemical properties of the metal centers and the characteristics of the ancillary ligands. Coordination chemistry also provides effective self-assembly strategies based on specific metal-ligand affinity and stereochemistry. Several molecular based materials, derived from inorganic and metal-organic compounds are focused on this article, with emphasis on new supramolecular porphyrins and porphyrazines, metal-clusters and metal-polyimine complexes. Such systems are also discussed in terms of their applications in catalysis, sensors and molecular devices.

  16. Analysis of noble metal on automotive exhaust catalysts by radioisotope-induce x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgart, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique was developed for the in-situ analysis of noble metals deposited on monolithic automotive exhaust catalysts. This technique is based on radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence, and provides a detailed picture of the distribution of palladium and platinum on catalyst samples. The experimental results for the cross section of a monolithic exhaust catalyst, analyzed in increments of 0.2 cm 3 , are compared with analyses for palladium and platinum obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis

  17. Evaluation of processing methods for static radioisotope scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, J.A.

    1976-12-01

    Radioisotope scanning in the field of nuclear medicine provides a method for the mapping of a radioactive drug in the human body to produce maps (images) which prove useful in detecting abnormalities in vital organs. At best, radioisotope scanning methods produce images with poor counting statistics. One solution to improving the body scan images is using dedicated small computers with appropriate software to process the scan data. Eleven methods for processing image data are compared

  18. The brain, a choice subject for radioisotopic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1996-01-01

    Progresses realized in the use of radioisotopes and in tomographic imaging techniques have permitted to access to the visualization of the human body functions. The application of this radioisotopic functional imaging (or emission tomography functional imaging) has been particularly fruitful in the study of brain functioning. This method is the only exploratory method for the biochemical aspects of the cerebral functioning and is used both by the physiologist and the therapist. (J.S.)

  19. Nanohashtag structures based on carbon nanotubes and molecular linkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Connor W.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular mechanics was used to study the noncovalent interactions between single-walled carbon nanotubes and molecular linkers. Groups of nanotubes have the tendency to form tight, parallel bundles (||||). Molecular linkers were introduced into our models to stabilize nanostructures with carbon nanotubes held in perpendicular orientations. Molecular mechanics makes it possible to estimate the strength of noncovalent interactions holding these structures together and to calculate the overall binding energy of the structures. A set of linkers were designed and built around a 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene tether with two corannulene containing pincers that extend in opposite directions from the central cyclooctatetraene portion. Each pincer consists of a pairs of "arms." These molecular linkers were modified so that the "hand" portions of each pair of "arms" could close together to grab and hold two carbon nanotubes in a perpendicular arrangement. To illustrate the possibility of more complicated and open perpendicular CNTs structures, our primary goal was to create a model of a nanohashtag (#) CNT conformation that is more stable than any parallel CNT arrangements with bound linker molecules forming clumps of CNTs and linkers in non-hashtag arrangements. This goal was achieved using a molecular linker (C280H96) that utilizes van der Waals interactions to two perpendicular oriented CNTs. Hydrogen bonding was then added between linker molecules to augment the stability of the hashtag structure. In the hashtag structure with hydrogen bonding, four (5,5) CNTs of length 4.46 nm (18 rings) and four linkers (C276H92N8O8) stabilized the hashtag so that the average binding energy per pincer was 118 kcal/mol.

  20. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Mandell, S.

    1974-01-01

    The eleventh edition of the AEC radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1974 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USAEC facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. The information is divided into four sections. Section I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Each customer has been designated a number according to its alphabetical position which provides a means of cross-referencing in the following sections. The isotopes purchased are listed after the address of the customer and the laboratory supplying each isotope is indicated by a letter set off by parentheses. Section II is an alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and again divided into the domestic and foreign categories. This section provides a quick idea of the amount of companies purchasing a particular isotope. If more information is needed, the reader can locate the customer by number and determine the laboratory supplying the isotope. The third section is an alphabetical list of states and countries, also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Section IV summarizes the FY 1974 radioisotope shipment activities of USAEC laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the Domestic, Foreign, and Project (AEC facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided. (U.S.)

  1. Bases moleculares del hipotiroidismo congénito

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón-Serrano, Estefanía; Morán-Barroso, Verónica; Coyote-Estrada, Ninel

    2006-01-01

    Las alteraciones endocrinológicas constituyen parte importante de la consulta pediátrica, la más frecuente es el hipotiroidismo congénito, grave problema de salud pública que requiere de diagnóstico neonatal. Los avances en el estudio molecular han permitido discernir las alteraciones en los procesos de organogénesis y hormonogénesis que lo producen. Se describen las principales alteraciones moleculares relacionadas con: diferenciación tiroidea, síntesis hormonal, hipotiroidismo central y con...

  2. Test Program for Stirling Radioisotope Generator Hardware at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Bolotin, Gary S.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    Stirling-based energy conversion technology has demonstrated the potential of high efficiency and low mass power systems for future space missions. This capability is beneficial, if not essential, to making certain deep space missions possible. Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-W radioisotope power system. A variety of flight-like hardware, including Stirling convertors, controllers, and housings, was designed and built under the ASRG flight development project. To support future Stirling-based power system development NASA has proposals that, if funded, will allow this hardware to go on test at the NASA Glenn Research Center. While future flight hardware may not be identical to the hardware developed under the ASRG flight development project, many components will likely be similar, and system architectures may have heritage to ASRG. Thus, the importance of testing the ASRG hardware to the development of future Stirling-based power systems cannot be understated. This proposed testing will include performance testing, extended operation to establish an extensive reliability database, and characterization testing to quantify subsystem and system performance and better understand system interfaces. This paper details this proposed test program for Stirling radioisotope generator hardware at NASA Glenn. It explains the rationale behind the proposed tests and how these tests will meet the stated objectives.

  3. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  4. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  6. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  7. Application of radioisotopes in plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiraj, G.; Pavani, Lalitha; Allimuthu, Elangovan; Yadav, Ranjeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    There are concerns that continuous uses of pesticides have negative impacts on the environment and it also results in development of resistance against pesticides in many insect species. Radioactive exposure improves quality and productivity of agricultural products along with insect, pest and disease management. They are helpful in study of optimum utilization of insecticides and pesticides in cultivated crops without harmful effects to plants and other living organisms. The control of plant virus diseases is one of the greatest problems of our day. Aphids feeding on plants containing 32 P become radioactive and retain the label for some weeks which helps in monitoring their movement. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) proposed by Knipling in 1955, relies on application of ionizing radiation as a means to effectively sterilize male insects without affecting their ability to function in the field and successfully mate with wild female insects. This technique involves release of large numbers of sterile male insects of the target species in the field crop. With relevance to plant pathogens, radioisotopes are used to measure the spread of the plant diseases. (author)

  8. Current status of radio-isotopes utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India)

    1974-08-01

    Utilization of radioisotopes were reviewed briefly in a categorized manner. In plant biochemistry, long lived radioactive carbon ,/sup 14/C, was applied to clarify such metabolic processes as photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis, etc., while radioactive oxygen ,/sup 18/O, was used to study the O/sub 2/ generation mechanism. Radioactive phosphorus ,/sup 32/P, was used to detect the amount, grain size of phosphatic fertilizer as well as the time and depth for better utilization. Radioactive sulphur ,/sup 35/S, and nitrogen ,/sup 15/N, could be of use in studies of protein metabolism in plants. Radioactive tracers of other minerals such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mo, B, and Co were also used to detect their specific role in plants. Use of radioactive isotopes in protein synthesis and transfer of genetic information was described. Radioactive iodine ,/sup 131/I, binding capacity of milk proteins, and radio trace studies in the iodine turn over in the use of radioactive iodine were summarized.

  9. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s

  10. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  11. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  12. Professor de Hevesy traces radioisotope history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Professor George de Hevesy, who was a pioneer in the field of radioactive tracers, prepared this paper for the IAEA symposium on Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, held at Salzburg in October 1964. Professor de Hevesy was born in Budapest in 1885. He studied in Budapest, Berlin and Freiburg, and spent some years at Zurich when Einstein was there. In 1911 he went to Manchester to work with Rutherford and there witnessed some of the greatest discoveries in the history of physics. At the end of 1912 he visited the Vienna Institute for Radium Research, where he worked with Paneth, and in 1913 applied the method of labelled lead for the first time. After the first world war, he worked at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen; since 1943, his chief activities have been in Sweden. In 1923, with Coster, he discovered the element hafnium. He made notable discoveries on the mobility of ions, and isotope separation, and his work on radioisotope tracers, which has had important biological applications, won him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1943

  13. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho

    1994-01-01

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  14. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a 63 Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 microCi provided a power of ∼0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications

  15. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  16. Full Length Research Paper LTR-retrotransposons-based molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LTR-retrotransposons possess unique properties that make them appropriate for investigating relationships between closely related species and populations. The aim of the current study was to employ Ty1-copia group retrotransposons as molecular markers in cultivated Egyptian cottons, G. barbadense L. Restriction site ...

  17. Molecular characterization of Cymbidium kanran cultivars based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Fifty-four Cymbidium kanran cultivars from China, Japan and Korea were examined and analyzed by using the successive screening of 3′-end extended random primer amplified polymorphic DNA (ERAPD) markers to determine their molecular diversity and relationships. In ERAPD analyses, the strand-.

  18. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-04-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. Engineering molecular motors with controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells and provide optimized device components for tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions and other signals. Here, we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies and guided by a structural model for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we have constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should make it possible to achieve spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size and branchpoint turning.

  19. Molecular filter-based diagnostics in high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Gregory S.; Samimy, MO; Arnette, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of iodine molecular filters in nonintrusive planar velocimetry methods is examined. Detailed absorption profiles are obtained to highlight the effects that determine the profile shape. It is shown that pressure broadening induced by the presence of a nonabsorbing vapor can be utilized to significantly change the slopes bounding the absorbing region while remaining in the optically-thick regime.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic implications in Brassica napus based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brassica napus L. (canola, rapeseed) is one of the most important oil crops in many countries (Abdelmigid 2012;. Fayyaz et al. 2014), and thought to have originated from a cross where the maternal donor was closely related to two diploid species, B. oleracea (CC, 2n = 18) and B. rapa (AA, 2n = 20). Here, molecular ...

  1. Dynamic combinatorial libraries based on hydrogen-bonde molecular boxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, J.M.C.A.; Mateos timoneda, Miguel; Reinhoudt, David; Crego Calama, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    This article describes two different types of dynamic combinatorial libraries of host and guest molecules. The first part of this article describes the encapsulation of alizarin trimer 2 a3 by dynamic mixtures of up to twenty different self-assembled molecular receptors together with the

  2. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells1, and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2,3. Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells, and yield optimized device components for complex tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly3. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions4,5 and other signals6. Here we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies7–11 and guided by a structural model12 for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our general strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should enable spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size13, and branchpoint turning14. PMID:22343382

  3. LTR-retrotransposons-based molecular markers in cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... LTR-retrotransposons represent a standard component of the Gossypium Genome (Zaki and Abdel Ghany,. 2003). The analysis of the molecular existence and distribution of ancient and active LTR-retrotransposons, therefore, provides a comprehensive evaluation of the evolutionary history of Gossypium.

  4. Molecular characterization of Cymbidium kanran cultivars based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-four Cymbidium kanran cultivars from China, Japan and Korea were examined and analyzed by using the successive screening of 3'-end extended random primer amplified polymorphic DNA (ERAPD) markers to determine their molecular diversity and relationships. In ERAPD analyses, the strandspecific DNA ...

  5. Economic Feasibility Study for the Utilization of Egyptian Reactor (ETRR-2) in Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kolaly, M; El-Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to discus the economic feasibility study of local radioisotope production in Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This study was divided into three sections; the first section included the marketing study which based on the expectation of the local demand and surplus production to export from 99 Mo production. The second section discussed the financial analysis and provided a model for calculating the cost per operation hour and per curie from production. The financial analysis discussed the profitable analysis and project sensitivity to change in cost and revenue. The third section discussed the effect of this project on the national return as the national income, employment, social rate of return and trade balance. This study was carried out according to the method adopted by the International Bank for Development taking into consideration the impact of applying radioisotope production technology on the society.

  6. Developing a Free-Piston Stirling Convertor for advanced radioisotope space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, John E.; White, Maurice A.; Peterson, Allen A.; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. This paper provides a description of the Flight Prototype (FP) Stirling convertor design as compared to the previous TDC design. The initial flight prototype units are already undergoing performance tuning at STC. The new design will be hermetically scaled and will provide a weight reduction from approximately 4.8 kg to approximately 3.9 kg. .

  7. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  8. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  9. Limulus amebocyte lysate technique (LAL) for bacterial endotoxin control in radiodiagnosis agents (kits) and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morote, M.; Robles, A.; Ramos, B.; Otero, M.

    1997-01-01

    A procedure based on a fast technique of LAL individual kits has been devised to control bacterial endotoxins in radiodiagnosis agents (RDA): HEMTEC, DEIDA, PPI, AMD, GHCa, RENTEC, DMSA, MAA, TSC, HERTEC, DTPA, BRATEC and EDTMP as well as in radioisotopes I-131 and Tc99m. The procedures begins with the determination of the following values, injection volume (IV), endotoxin limits (EL), maximum valid dilution (MVD), total mass (TM), reconstitution volume (RV), concentration (mg/ml), and final dilution (FD). Subsequently, a procedure is carried out to conduct an 'in vitro' control of the radiodiagnosis agents and radioisotopes with LAL individual kits; the procedures includes: reconstitution of the sample to be controlled, dilution, inoculation of the diluted sample in LAL tubes and incubation at 37 o C for an hour. Finally, results are interpreted through the observation of gel formation or not in LAL tubes

  10. Preliminary estimation of the dose rates of the operation room of the RPR radioisotope cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S.; Silva, J.J.G.; Pina, J.L.S. de; Fajardo, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    During the preliminary studies, about the installations layout of a radioisotope production reactor, the possibility of construction of a radioisotope cell at the reactor building has been investigated. The decisions about that construction has considered mainly the level of the radiation dose over the cell operator. The dose rate has been calculated based on: neutron flux and gamma radiation from fission products and activation materials inside the reactor; volatile fission products such as noble gases and iodides; tritium form ternary fission. The objective was calculate the radiation dose over the cell operator during a journey of 8 hours of work per day. For those calculations some data have been obtained from the Angra-3 reactor. (author)

  11. Design study and heat transfer analysis of a neutron converter target for medical radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud Behzad; Sang-In Bak; Seung-Woo Hong; Jong-Seo Chai; Yacine Kadi; Claudio Tenreiro; University of Talca, Talca

    2014-01-01

    A worldwide challenge in the near future will be to find a way of producing radioisotopes in sufficient quantity without relying on research reactors. The motivation for this innovative work on targets lies in the accelerator-based production of radioisotopes using a neutron converter target as in the transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing concept. Thermal analysis of a multi-channel helium cooled device is performed with the computational fluid dynamics code CFX. Different boundary conditions are taken into account in the simulation process and many important parameters such as maximum allowable solid target temperature as well as uniform inlet velocity and outlet pressure changes in the channels are investigated. The results confirm that the cooling configuration works well; hence such a solid target could be operated safely and may be considered for a prototype target. (author)

  12. Application and benefits to industry of radioisotope tracer techniques - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotopes continue to play an important role in better management of natural resources and industrial processes. The success of radioisotope applications is primarily to the ability, conferred by the unique properties of radioactive materials, to collect data, which cannot be obtained by other investigative techniques. Radioisotope-based industrial tracer techniques that have stood the test in their own right are described briefly and certain of the economic and process efficiency impacts are highlighted. The financial and other benefits of this technology, especially in Petrochemical sector have been amply demonstrated and accepted. Typical techniques employed are: Gamma ray scanning of distillation columns, leak testing of heat exchangers, deposit and blockage detection in pipe lines, homogeneous mixing, flow rate measurements and liquid interface measurements. The financial benefits by these techniques are widely accepted to exceed the cost of equipment and studies by several folds. Based on retrospective analysis of the data, it is found that an average cost-benefit ratio of 1:20 in many applications is reasonably representative. (Author)

  13. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Doi, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Eiji; Kawakami, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14 C, 3 H, 125 I and 35 S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  14. Adsorbate-driven cooling of carbene-based molecular junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Oct (2017), s. 2060-2068 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 702114 - HEATEXMOL Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adsorbate * carbene * current-induced heating and cooling * molecular junction * vibrations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  15. Extending the molecular clutch beyond actin-based cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mezanges, Xavier; Batchelder, Ellen; Plastino, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many cell movements occur via polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, forming a protrusion called a lamellipodium, while myosin contraction squeezes forward the back of the cell. In what is known as the ‘molecular clutch’ description of cell motility, forward movement results from the engagement of the acto-myosin motor with cell-matrix adhesions, thus transmitting force to the substrate and producing movement. However during cell translocation, clutch engagement is not perfect, and as a result, the cytoskeleton slips with respect to the substrate, undergoing backward (retrograde) flow in the direction of the cell body. Retrograde flow is therefore inversely proportional to cell speed and depends on adhesion and acto-myosin dynamics. Here we asked whether the molecular clutch was a general mechanism by measuring motility and retrograde flow for the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cell in different adhesive conditions. These cells move by adhering to the substrate and emitting a dynamic lamellipodium, but the sperm cell does not contain an acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Instead the lamellipodium is formed by the assembly of major sperm protein, which has no biochemical or structural similarity to actin. We find that these cells display the same molecular clutch characteristics as acto-myosin containing cells. We further show that retrograde flow is produced both by cytoskeletal assembly and contractility in these cells. Overall this study shows that the molecular clutch hypothesis of how polymerization is transduced into motility via adhesions is a general description of cell movement regardless of the composition of the cytoskeleton. (paper)

  16. Electron dopable molecular wires based on the extended viologens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolivoška, Viliam; Gál, Miroslav; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Valášek, Michal; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 23 (2011), s. 11422-11429 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA AV ČR IAA400400802; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB041006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * spectroelectrochemistry * molecular wires Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  17. Epidemiological bases and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martínez, José Manuel; de la Vieja, Antonio; García-Jiménez, Custodia

    2017-02-01

    The association between diabetes and cancer was hypothesized almost one century ago. Today, a vast number of epidemiological studies support that obese and diabetic populations are more likely to experience tissue-specific cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Obesity, diabetes, and cancer share many hormonal, immune, and metabolic changes that may account for the relationship between diabetes and cancer. In addition, antidiabetic treatments may have an impact on the occurrence and course of some cancers. Moreover, some anticancer treatments may induce diabetes. These observations aroused a great controversy because of the ethical implications and the associated commercial interests. We report an epidemiological update from a mechanistic perspective that suggests the existence of many common and differential individual mechanisms linking obesity and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to certain cancers. The challenge today is to identify the molecular links responsible for this association. Classification of cancers by their molecular signatures may facilitate future mechanistic and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Comprehensive characterization of molecular interactions based on nanomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Ghatkesar

    Full Text Available Molecular interaction is a key concept in our understanding of the biological mechanisms of life. Two physical properties change when one molecular partner binds to another. Firstly, the masses combine and secondly, the structure of at least one binding partner is altered, mechanically transducing the binding into subsequent biological reactions. Here we present a nanomechanical micro-array technique for bio-medical research, which not only monitors the binding of effector molecules to their target but also the subsequent effect on a biological system in vitro. This label-free and real-time method directly and simultaneously tracks mass and nanomechanical changes at the sensor interface using micro-cantilever technology. To prove the concept we measured lipid vesicle (approximately 748*10(6 Da adsorption on the sensor interface followed by subsequent binding of the bee venom peptide melittin (2840 Da to the vesicles. The results show the high dynamic range of the instrument and that measuring the mass and structural changes simultaneously allow a comprehensive discussion of molecular interactions.

  19. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, Gamal [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  20. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-01-01

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and, due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.