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Sample records for radioiodine removing activated

  1. Characterization and restoration of performance of 'aged' radioiodine removing activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these 'failed' carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.P. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Radioiodine removal in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Technical means are reviewed available for the retention of radioiodine in nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants, its immobilization, storage, and disposal. The removal of iodine species from gaseous effluents of nuclear power plants using impregnated activated charcoal is dealt with. Various scrubbing techniques for trapping iodine from the head-end and dissolver off-gases are discussed as well as solid adsorbents for iodine which may be used to clean up other gaseous streams. Current practices and activities for radioiodine treatment and management in Belgian, Dutch, Swedish, USSR and UK nuclear installations are presented

  4. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wangchang; Huang Yuying; Wu Yianwei; Jia Ming; Guo Liangtian

    1993-01-01

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  5. Behavior of gasketless deep bed charcoal filters for radioiodine removal in LWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Deuber, H.; Furrer, J.; Gerlach, K.

    1981-01-01

    The removal efficiency of radioiodine filters can be affected by mechanical leakage, aging and poisoning, desorption of radioiodine originally removed by the activated carbon and also by the occurrence of penetrating iodine compounds. To provide high decontamination factors only the gasketless deep bed filter type seems to be appropriate. The experience gathered and the data given in this paper are based on the surveillance testing of radioiodine filters in all German nuclear power plants and on laboratory research work which has been done over years to evaluate the operating behavior of deep bed radioiodine filters and to prove their reliability

  6. Radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaduban, M.

    1978-01-01

    The physical, chemical radiochemical and radiometric properties of radioiodine significant for the radiochemical analysis are summarized. The occurrence of iodine, especially in the biosphere organic part, the calculation of the amount of iodine radioisotopes formed under different conditions, the spectrometric and integral methods of measuring the radioactivity of the most important iodine radioisotopes, the methods of separating iodine and its respective chemical forms are described. (M.K.)

  7. A study of the effect of coatings operation on radioiodine removing adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Enneking, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear air treatment systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants from air. If the contaminants are gaseous in form (iodine and its compounds), activated carbon is employed to remove them from the air stream by the process of adsorption. The ability of the carbon to perform its function is checked periodically by sending representative samples to a laboratory for testing. Test methods and conditions are included in the plant technical specification along with failure criteria. When a test sample fails to perform as specified, the carbon in the air cleaning unit must be replaced with new material. Solvents from coating operations can poison carbon by blocking or reducing the surface area available for subsequent reaction of radioiodine compounds. NUCON has developed mathematical models to predict the amount of solvent in the air and residual solvents remaining in the coating at any given time during a coating operation for both normal and accident ventilation modes

  8. A New Technology Developed to Remove Aqueous Radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioiodine is considered as a critical radionuclide by the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) in terms of the radiation and radiotoxicity risks to nature and human health. In addition, there were reports about great increases of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus from 1990. In natural environments, there were several reports for the unusual increase of radioactive iodine ratios in most environmental samples (i.e. soils, vegetables, and seafoods). Iodine usually exists as iodide, iodate, and organic iodine in the environment. Iodide is considered as the most difficult form among the iodine species to treat by the conventional adsorption-based technology. This is why urgent new technology is needed to suppress such a progressive accumulation of radioiodine in natural environments. The conventional methods based on the anion-exchange and adsorption techniques have been difficult to manage the growing release of radioiodine for decades. Here we suggest a new solution that uses a biostimulant way to isolate radioiodine. We discovered that natural SRB can play an important intermediary role to get anionic iodide and cationic copper combined strongly as perfect counterions by enzymatic Cu-reduction.

  9. Performance study of coal-base charcoals for removing radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Wu Yanwei; Guo Liangtian; Jia Ming; Lu Xueshi; Zhang Hong

    1988-01-01

    In authos' laboratory sveral types of domestic coal-base charcoals are selected and impregnated and examined for their main physical and chemical performances. The results show that under the test conditions the iodine-removing efficiencies of these impregnated coal-base charcoals charcoals are not poorer than that of the impregnated fruit-shell base charcoals (such as coconut shell charcoal) and most of their physical properties can satisfy the requirements of the nuclear grade charcoals assigned in USA standards. More detailed studies will be made in the next programme

  10. Removal of radioiodine species from gaseous stream on inorganic absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujisic, L.

    1978-11-01

    As a contribution to the development of an impregnated absorbent for the removal of airborne iodine species in the off-gas streams of nuclear facilities the adsorption of 131 l-labelled methyl iodide on impregnated alumina was investigated. Alcoa alumina H-151 was impregnated with metal nitrates (Ag, Ag+Cd, Ag+Pb) and with triethylenediamine (TEDA). The removal efficiency of CH 3 l was experimentally evaluated, as functions of relative humidity of air-stream, its temperature and flow rate and of the amount of impregnated materials. Under constant temperature, relative humidity and face velocity, the retention of CH 3 l increases as the total amount of Ag impregnation increases. In a wet air-stream the only efficient impregnation was found to be with silver nitrate. At constant temperature the CH 3 l retention decreases with increasing relative humidity or face velocity of the stream. An increase of temperature favours the CH 3 l retention. Very low retention of CH 3 l was found on TEDA impregnated alumina

  11. Treatment with radioiodine of Graves' disease. Calculated activity; fixed activity or ablation. Were are we going?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.

    2006-01-01

    The new tendencies of radioiodine ( 131 I) treatment of Graves'disease are presented . One group have the objective of administrate an activity of radioiodine to bring back the patient to euthyroidism , using individual activities to each patient. Others propose a fixed dose, with high activity to cure the disease and anticipating the hypothyroidism of the patient. The third group propose directly the ablation of the thyroids with a calculated activity to deliver 300 Gy .This calculi demand the investigation of the maximum uptake of radioiodine, the biological half life, and the thyroid weight with adequate method (US, TC, MR) Finally, the dose to not thyroid tissues are discussed and the risk of these procedures are presented. (author)

  12. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Teng; Stark, R.; Borysiewicz, L.K.; Weetman, A.P. (Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Level 5, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)); Munro, A.J. (Department of Clinical Oncology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); McHardy Young, S. (Department of Medicine, Central Middlesex Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cell subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dualcolour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR(la) and CDw26/Tal (p<0.025 in both cases). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the primed population containing memory cells, also increased (p<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting T cells or in the CD4 to CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contrasuppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (p<0.025). The changes did not appear to be related to antithyroid drug treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients continued such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contrasuppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine. The T cell changes could also contribute to the worsening of ophthalmopathy seen in some radioiodine-treated patients. (author).

  13. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valachis, Antonis; Nearchou, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity

  14. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valachis, Antonis [Dept. of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala,, (Sweden)], e-mail: Valachis@hotmail.com, Antonis.Valachis@akademiska.uu.se; Nearchou, Andreas [Dept, of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity.

  15. Airborne radioiodine species sampler and it's application for measuring removal efficiencies of large charcoal adsorbers for ventilation exhaust air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, D.; Hetzer, D.; Pelletier, C.A.; Barefoot, E.D.; Cline, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A program, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, is underway to determine the chemical species of radioiodine coming from LWR power plants and their persistence in the nearby environment. In support of this program, an airborne radioiodine sampler, developed and used by the AEC was modified and tested. This sampler consists of five components. The components are: (1) a particulate filter, (2) CdI 2 on a matrix of chromosorb-P to retain I 2 , (3) 4-Iodophenol on a matrix of activated alumina to retain HOI, (4) silver exchanged molecular sieve-13X to retain organic iodides, and (5) impregnated charcoal to serve as a control. The AEC sampler has not been proof-tested for periods over 48 hours or for flow rates above 0.10 l/s. For maximum sensitivity, a sampler is required to be used for periods of one to two weeks and at a flow rate giving a bed residence time of 0.1 sec. The AEC sampler was scaled up in size to attain an air sampling rate of 0.9 l/s. Each media for this sampler (except the particulate filter) was tested in the laboratory for retention of the iodine species; I 2 , Organic, and HOI. The tests were conducted at typical conditions observed at the main iodine release points at nuclear power plants. Confirmatory tests were run at operating nuclear power plants. The test results showed that under normal plant conditions the sampler could be operated at flow rates up to 0.80 l/s and differentiate the iodine species I 2 , HOI, and CH 3 I. The retention efficiencies of each media for its specie of radioiodine were found to be: I 2 on CdI 2 - 87 +- 5%, HOI on IPH 94 +- 4%, and CH 3 I on Ag 13-X or KI charcoal 99 +- 1%

  16. Estimation of the specific activity of radioiodinated gonadotrophins: comparison of three methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englebienne, P [Centre for Research and Diagnosis in Endocrinology, Kain (Belgium); Slegers, G [Akademisch Ziekenhuis, Ghent (Belgium). Lab. voor Analytische Chemie

    1983-01-14

    The authors compared 3 methods for estimating the specific activity of radioiodinated gonadotrophins. Two of the methods (column recovery and isotopic dilution) gave similar results, while the third (autodisplacement) gave significantly higher estimations. In the autodisplacement method, B/T ratios, obtained when either labelled hormone alone, or labelled and unlabelled hormone, are added to the antibody, were compared as estimates of the mass of hormone iodinated. It is likely that immunologically unreactive impurities present in the labelled hormone solution invalidate such comparison.

  17. Comparison of Fixed versus Calculated Activity of Radioiodine for the Treatment of Graves Disease in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail U. Canto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRadioactive iodine as a treatment modality has been shown in several studies to be a safe and effective therapy for Graves disease. However, there is still no uniformity regarding optimal dosing method. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of calculated and fixed dosing of radioiodine for the treatment of Graves disease.MethodsA hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with Graves disease were randomized to receive either fixed or calculated dose of radioiodine. Those randomized to fixed activity received either low fixed activity at 9.9 mCi for thyroid gland size <40 g or high fixed activity at 14.9 mCi for thyroid gland size 40 to 80 g, and those grouped to calculated activity received 160 µCi/g of thyroid tissue adjusted for 24 hours radioiodine uptake. Thyroid function tests (free thyroxine [T4] and thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] were monitored at 10, 16, and 24 weeks after radioactive iodine therapy. The primary outcome, treatment failure was defined as persistently elevated free T4 and low TSH.ResultsOf the 122 patients randomized, 56 in the fixed dose group and 56 in the calculated dose group completed the follow-up. At the end of 6 months, the percentage of treatment failure was 37.50% in the calculated dose group versus 19.64% in the fixed dose group with a relative risk of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.98 favoring the fixed dose group.ConclusionFixed dose radioiodine has a significantly lower incidence of persistent hyperthyroidism at 6 months post-radioactive therapy.

  18. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Weiping; Weetman, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cells subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dual-colour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR (Ia) and CDW 26/Ta 1 (P<0.025 in both case). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the prime population containing memory cells, also increased (P<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting cells or in the CD4/CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contra-suppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (P<0.025). The change did not appear to be related to antithyroid drugs treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients convinced such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contra-suppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine therapy

  19. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, Klaus E-mail: kopka@uni-muenster.de; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [{sup 123}I]NaI or [{sup 125}I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [{sup 123}I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[{sup 123}I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo.

  20. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopka, Klaus; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [ 123 I]NaI or [ 125 I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [ 123 I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[ 123 I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo

  1. Determination of very small activities of radioiodine and plutonium in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlweck, K.; Karg, V.; Schoenfeld, T.; Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1982-01-01

    A mobile high volume sampler with the following characteristics was developed: air flow rate 5000 m 3 .h - 1 , total cross section of the seven activated charcoal filter units 0.6 m 2 , diameter of each filter unit 33 cm, thickness of charcoal layer 4 - 7 cm. The sorbed radioiodine is eluted from the charcoal in a circulation unit by a circulating solution (sodium hydroxide/hydrazine) and is transfered into a sorbent containing silver (ion exchange resin with colloidal silver), thereby bringing about a reduction in volume by a factor of approximately 1000. The radioiodine activity is then determined by gamma spectrometric measurement of the silver containing sorbent. The overall radioiodine yield measured with 123 I spike (sorption on charcoal and transfer to the silver containing sorbent) is 75 (+- 7)%. A detection limit of 0.02 mBq.m - 3 is achieved for 131 I. If the sampler is operated with the standard throughput of 5000 m 3 .h - 1 , this limit applies to one hour average concentration values. Results of environmental monitorings for the period 1979 - 1982 at the Research Center Seibersdorf for 131 I (up to 2,6 mBq/m 3 ) and for plutonium (up to 4 μBq/m 3 ) are given. (Author)

  2. A prospective study of the effects of radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients with minimally active graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Petros; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Neoh, Chris; Frewin, Sarah; Dickinson, Jane

    2005-09-01

    Radioiodine is an effective and safe treatment for hyperthyroidism but has been implicated as a risk factor for deterioration or new presentation of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Prophylactic glucocorticoids appear to prevent this effect. The objective of this study was to document the course of GO after radioiodine therapy. This was a prospective observational study. Patients were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, and 12 months after radioiodine therapy. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Seventy-two GO patients with minimally active eye disease participated in the study. A fixed dose of radioiodine was administered. T(4) was commenced 2 wk later to prevent hypothyroidism. Change in activity and severity of GO were analyzed. Exophthalmometer readings, the width of the palpebral aperture, diplopia scores, and the clinical activity score improved significantly. By clinically significant criteria, the eye disease improved in four patients (transiently in three of the four cases), most likely attributable to the natural course of the disease. No patient's eyes deteriorated. Radioiodine is not associated with deterioration of GO in patients with minimally active eye disease when postradioiodine hypothyroidism is prevented.

  3. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine targeted activity: A comparison between two dosimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Ernesto; Campennì, Alfredo; Leotta, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Rosaria M; Baldari, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Radioiodine therapy is an effective and safe treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, toxic multinodular goiter. We compared the outcomes of a traditional calculation method based on an analytical fit of the uptake curve and subsequent dose calculation with the MIRD approach, and an alternative computation approach based on a formulation implemented in a public-access website, searching for the best timing of radioiodine uptake measurements in pre-therapeutic dosimetry. We report about sixty-nine hyperthyroid patients that were treated after performing a pre-therapeutic dosimetry calculated by fitting a six-point uptake curve (3-168h). In order to evaluate the results of the radioiodine treatment, patients were followed up to sixty-four months after treatment (mean 47.4±16.9). Patient dosimetry was then retrospectively recalculated with the two above-mentioned methods. Several time schedules for uptake measurements were considered, with different timings and total number of points. Early time schedules, sampling uptake up to 48h, do not allow to set-up an accurate treatment plan, while schedules including the measurement at one week give significantly better results. The analytical fit procedure applied to the three-point time schedule 3(6)-24-168h gave results significantly more accurate than the website approach exploiting either the same schedule, or the single measurement at 168h. Consequently, the best strategy among the ones considered is to sample the uptake at 3(6)-24-168h, and carry out an analytical fit of the curve, while extra measurements at 48 and 72h lead only marginal improvements in the accuracy of therapeutic activity determination. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of radioiodine on stimulatory activity of Graves' immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.; McGregor, A.M.; Kendall-Taylor, P.; Peterson, M.M.; Smith, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 131 I therapy on the activity of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and thyrotrophin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) in nineteen patients with Graves' disease have been studied. Prior to 131 I administration, TSAb was detected in 84%, and TBII in 68% of patients. Following 131 I administration TSAb and TBII were detectable in 100% of patients. The elevation 3 months after treatment of the means of both the TSAb and TBII indices for the group of nineteen patients was highly significant compared with pretreatment values. All the patients went into remission during the course of the study and the TSAb index declined in all patients, becoming undetectable in eleven; TBII also declined in most patients but remained detectable in thirteen. The study furthermore afforded the opportunity for a direct comparison of binding with stimulatory activity. These results show that after 131 I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism there is a transient increase in TSAb as well as TBII, followed by a decline, and that the measurement of binding and stimulatory activities are in good general agreement. (author)

  5. Clinical outcomes after estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, A; Vandenbroucke, J P; Smit, J W A; Stokkel, M P M; Dekkers, O M

    2009-11-01

    Despite the long experience with radioiodine for hyperthyroidism, controversy remains regarding the optimal method to determine the activity that is required to achieve long-term euthyroidism. To compare the effect of estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine in hyperthyroidism. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for randomized and nonrandomized studies, comparing the effect of activity estimation methods with dosimetry for hyperthyroidism. The main outcome measure was the frequency of treatment success, defined as persistent euthyroidism after radioiodine treatment at the end of follow-up in the dose estimated and calculated dosimetry group. Furthermore, we assessed the cure rates of hyperthyroidism. Three randomized and five nonrandomized studies, comparing the effect of estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine on clinical outcomes for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, were included. The weighted mean relative frequency of successful treatment outcome (euthyroidism) was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.16) for estimated versus calculated activity; the weighted mean relative frequency of cure of hyperthyroidism (eu- or hypothyroidism) was 1.03 (95% CI 0.96-1.10). Subgroup analysis showed a relative frequency of euthyroidism of 1.03 (95% CI 0.84-1.26) for Graves' disease and of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.19) for toxic multinodular goiter. The two main methods used to determine the activity in the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine, estimated and calculated, resulted in an equally successful treatment outcome. However, the heterogeneity of the included studies is a strong limitation that prevents a definitive conclusion from this meta-analysis.

  6. Radioiodinated bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, S.E.; Liu, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Radioiodinated bleomycin is a useful imaging agent for body tissues. Its production by iodination of bleomycin with radioactive iodide ions in the presence of an oxidizing agent is described. 7 claims, no drawings

  7. Radioiodine dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R [Biomedical Research Branch, Health Sciences Div., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Lab.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of individual doses for radiation protection and for risk assessment purposes from a radioiodine intake requires a knowledge of the distribution and retention of the radioiodine (primarily in the thyroid), and a knowledge of the average energy deposited in each organ of interest per radioactive decay (S-factors). This paper reviews a model for distribution and retention used previously for adults, and extends the model to include all ages. The extended model also includes the effects of stable iodine intakes on radioiodine uptakes explicitly. Included in the paper is a tabulation of existing adult S-factors for selected radioiodines and the extension of S-factors for the thyroid to all age groups. Finally, doses per unit intake are calculated and tabulated. A discussion and some calculations of the effects of stable iodine intake on committed doses are given.

  8. Radioiodine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of individual doses for radiation protection and for risk assessment purposes from a radioiodine intake requires a knowledge of the distribution and retention of the radioiodine (primarily in the thyroid), and a knowledge of the average energy deposited in each organ of interest per radioactive decay (S-factors). This paper reviews a model for distribution and retention used previously for adults, and extends the model to include all ages. The extended model also includes the effects of stable iodine intakes on radioiodine uptakes explicitly. Included in the paper is a tabulation of existing adult S-factors for selected radioiodines and the extension of S-factors for the thyroid to all age groups. Finally, doses per unit intake are calculated and tabulated. A discussion and some calculations of the effects of stable iodine intake on committed doses are given. (author)

  9. Application of activated carbon fiber to a filter used for airborne radioiodine sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Murata, Mikio; Yoshikazu, Yoshida

    1988-01-01

    An airborne radioiodine sampling filter is required to have low pressure drop, mechanical strength enough to a practical use and high collection efficiency under high relative humidity(RH). To develop a filter to meet the requirements, the influences of impregnation amount of triethylenediamin(TEDA) on the collection efficiencies for methyl iodide and the reaction rates were investigated for several kinds of activated carbon fiber varied in specific surface area, pore diameter, etc. Silver silica gel(Sut Chemi, AC6120), silver zeolite(CTI Nuc., AgX Type III), silver alumina(Hitachi Co.) and granular activated charcoal were also examined for comparison. A new type filter made of activated carbon fiber (ACF filter) was developed based on the above experimental results. The ACF filter was examined for the pressure drop by the filter and collection efficiency for methyl iodide being compared with other types of filters such as an activated charcoal cartridge (ACC) and an activated charcoal filter paper (ACP)

  10. Radioiodine therapy and thyrostatic drugs and iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmannstrasse 9, 50924 Koeln (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Radioiodine therapy is now the most common definite treatment for persistent hyperthyroidism. The outcome of radioiodine therapy depends mainly on the absorbed energy dose in the diseased thyroid tissue. The administered activity and the resulting target dose in the thyroid depend on both the biokinetics of radioiodine and the actual therapeutic effect of radioiodine in the thyroid. Thyrostatic drugs have a major influence on the kinetics of radioiodine in the thyroid and may additionally have a radioprotective effect. Pre-treatment with thyrostatic medication lowers the effective half-life and uptake of radioiodine. This can reduce the target dose in the thyroid and have a negative influence on the outcome of the therapy. Discontinuation of medication shortly before radioiodine administration can increase the absorbed energy dose in the thyroid without increasing the whole-body exposure to radiation as much as would a higher or second radioiodine administration. Furthermore, administration of non-radioactive iodine-127 2-3 days after radioiodine administration can also increase the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid. Thus, improving the biokinetics of radioiodine will allow lower activities to be administered with lower effective doses to the rest of the body, while achieving an equally effective target dose in the thyroid. (orig.)

  11. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Debyani; Santos, Elmer; Ryder, Mabel; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Kolesnick, Richard; Thin, Tin Htwe; Rosen, Neal; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.; Refetoff, Samuel; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced human thyroid cancers, particularly those that are refractory to treatment with radioiodine (RAI), have a high prevalence of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations. However, the degree to which these cancers are dependent on BRAF expression is still unclear. To address this question, we generated mice expressing one of the most commonly detected BRAF mutations in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (BRAFV600E) in thyroid follicular cells in a doxycycline-inducible (dox-inducible) manner. Upon dox induction of BRAFV600E, the mice developed highly penetrant and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors. Discontinuation of dox extinguished BRAFV600E expression and reestablished thyroid follicular architecture and normal thyroid histology. Switching on BRAFV600E rapidly induced hypothyroidism and virtually abolished thyroid-specific gene expression and RAI incorporation, all of which were restored to near basal levels upon discontinuation of dox. Treatment of mice with these cancers with small molecule inhibitors of either MEK or mutant BRAF reduced their proliferative index and partially restored thyroid-specific gene expression. Strikingly, treatment with the MAPK pathway inhibitors rendered the tumor cells susceptible to a therapeutic dose of RAI. Our data show that thyroid tumors carrying BRAFV600E mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of its expression or activity is associated with tumor regression and restoration of RAI uptake in vivo in mice. These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. PMID:22105174

  12. Accuracy and optimal timing of activity measurements in estimating the absorbed dose of radioiodine in the treatment of Graves' disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, S.; Horowitz, J.; Traino, A. C.; Chipkin, S. R.; Hollot, C. V.; Chait, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Calculation of the therapeutic activity of radioiodine 131I for individualized dosimetry in the treatment of Graves' disease requires an accurate estimate of the thyroid absorbed radiation dose based on a tracer activity administration of 131I. Common approaches (Marinelli-Quimby formula, MIRD algorithm) use, respectively, the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid and the time-integrated activity. Many physicians perform one, two, or at most three tracer dose activity measurements at various times and calculate the required therapeutic activity by ad hoc methods. In this paper, we study the accuracy of estimates of four 'target variables': time-integrated activity coefficient, time of maximum activity, maximum activity, and effective half-life in the gland. Clinical data from 41 patients who underwent 131I therapy for Graves' disease at the University Hospital in Pisa, Italy, are used for analysis. The radioiodine kinetics are described using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. The distributions of the target variables in the patient population are characterized. Using minimum root mean squared error as the criterion, optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules are determined for estimation of the target variables, and probabilistic bounds are given for the errors under the optimal times. An algorithm is developed for computing the optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-point sampling schedules for the target variables. This algorithm is implemented in a freely available software tool. Taking into consideration 131I effective half-life in the thyroid and measurement noise, the optimal 1-point time for time-integrated activity coefficient is a measurement 1 week following the tracer dose. Additional measurements give only a slight improvement in accuracy.

  13. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  14. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  15. Iodine prophylaxis intensification. Influence on radioiodine uptake and activity of {sup 131}I used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczyk, M.; Ziemnicka, K.; Sowinski, J. [Karol Marcinkowski Univ. School of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases; Junik, R. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology and Diabetology

    2005-07-01

    Poland, a country with mild/moderate iodine deficiency introduced an obligatory iodination salt system in 1996. Aim: To compare the results of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) uptake after 5 h and 24 h with the activity of radioiodine used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease in the years 1995 and 2003. Patients, methods: The marker of iodine content in the diet was urinary iodine excretion. 1000 randomly chosen patients (average age: 46{+-}12 years) were included in the study. Every patient had routinely estimated radioiodine uptake after 5 h and 24 h and the activity of {sup 131}I was calculated using scintigraphy and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. Urinary iodine excretion in samples from year 1995 and 2003 was also determined in some patients and healthy volunteers. Results: The iodine load in the diet increased from 66 {mu}g (average) in the year 1995 to 115 {mu}g in the year 2003. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was 40% lower in comparison with the results from 1995. The average activity of {sup 131}I given in the year 2003 (10 mCi) was about 40% higher than in the year 1995 (7 mCi). Conclusion: There was significant negative correlation between higher iodine content in the diet and lower values of radioiodine uptake, which led to the application of the higher activity of {sup 131}I during treatment. (orig.)

  16. Iodine prophylaxis intensification. Influence on radioiodine uptake and activity of 131I used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczyk, M.; Ziemnicka, K.; Sowinski, J.; Junik, R.

    2005-01-01

    Poland, a country with mild/moderate iodine deficiency introduced an obligatory iodination salt system in 1996. Aim: To compare the results of radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake after 5 h and 24 h with the activity of radioiodine used in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease in the years 1995 and 2003. Patients, methods: The marker of iodine content in the diet was urinary iodine excretion. 1000 randomly chosen patients (average age: 46±12 years) were included in the study. Every patient had routinely estimated radioiodine uptake after 5 h and 24 h and the activity of 131 I was calculated using scintigraphy and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. Urinary iodine excretion in samples from year 1995 and 2003 was also determined in some patients and healthy volunteers. Results: The iodine load in the diet increased from 66 μg (average) in the year 1995 to 115 μg in the year 2003. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was 40% lower in comparison with the results from 1995. The average activity of 131 I given in the year 2003 (10 mCi) was about 40% higher than in the year 1995 (7 mCi). Conclusion: There was significant negative correlation between higher iodine content in the diet and lower values of radioiodine uptake, which led to the application of the higher activity of 131 I during treatment. (orig.)

  17. Is administered radioiodine activity appropriate? The effects of pre- treatment antithyroid drugs on the therapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanayakkara, D.; Udugama, C.; Perera, K.; Herath, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Although radioiodine (RAI) therapy has been used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, there are both wide variations in current practice and deficiencies in outcome. There is concern as to decide the optimum activity to achieve better therapeutic outcome and uncertainty over the effects of pretreatment antithyroid drugs (ATD) on the post therapy outcome. Use of ATD (carbimazole) to control the severity of the disease prior to RAI therapy is a common accepted practice. The Royal college of Physicians (RCP) guideline on radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis has recommended activity of 400mBq for Graves' disease (GD) and 15mCi for toxic multi nodular disease (TMND) to achieve euthyroidism with an incidence of hypothyroidism around 15-20% at 2 years. However, in the clinical setting, many patients have become hypothyroid very early than the expected time period. This study was carried out to see the fixed dose RAI therapy outcome of both GD and TMND. Another objective is to assess the effects of pre therapy ATD on the RAI therapy for both GD and TMND at 1 year. Post RAI therapy outcome was analyzed in thyrotoxic patients who received RAI at our institute from 2001-2005. Diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis was made on the basis of biochemical thyroid function tests and thyroid uptake scans. Both GD and TMND patients were selected. Patients who were treated with ATD were advised to stop drugs for at least 4 weeks before administration of RAI therapeutic dose. GD patients received 400mBq and TMND received 550mBq of RAI irrespective of the size of the thyroid gland. Both GD and TMND were further categorized into two groups on the basis of whether they have given ATD prior to RAI therapy. Patients with solitary toxic nodular disease were excluded from the study. Post therapy thyroid functions (free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone) were done at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months intervals. Therapy outcome over time was defined on the basis of thyroid function and

  18. Production of radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments and, more recently, radiolabeled peptides have been extensively studied in order to develop radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The radioiodination of proteins can be done by a direct method, with radioiodine being incorporated in to a tyrosine residue of the protein by electrophilic substitution. The main problem in the use of radioiodinated proteins, is that they are often dehalogenated in vivo by the action of specific enzymes, probably because of the structural similarity between iodophenyl groups and thyroid hormones. Several protein radioiodination methods have been developed in order to minimize this in vivo dehalogenation using prosthetic groups for indirect labeling. In this case, the radioiodine is first incorporated in to the prosthetic group that is subsequently attached to a terminal amino group or to a ε-amino group of lysine residue. The aim of this work is to obtain a radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect labeling of proteins. The prosthetic group selected was the N-succinimidyl-4-radioiodine benzoate (SIB), obtained by the iodination of the p-bromobenzoic acid followed by the reaction with TSTU (0-(N-succinimidyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl uronium tetrafluoroborate) The results of these studies showed that the p-radio iodobenzoic acid was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 92% and a labeling yield of about 65%. Some reaction parameters were studied like temperature, time and Cu Cl mass (cataliser). The SIB was quantitatively obtained from p-radio iodobenzoic acid, using basic medium and after removing the water from the reaction using an nitrogen stream. The kinetic of this reaction is very fast with complete consumption of the p-radioiodebenzoic acid after 5 minutes. The coupling of the SIB prosthetic group to the protein was studied using Human Immunoglobulin (IgG) as a protein model. In a comparative way, the same protein was used on direct labeling

  19. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  20. Direct n.c.a. radioiodination of weakly activated arenes using metal salts

    OpenAIRE

    Mennicke, E.; Holschbach, M.; Coenen, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    The direct electrophilic no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) aromatic radioiodination was examined using various metal salts in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as in situ oxidation agents. Two different types of metal salts were used comprising TFA-soluble (Pb(CH3CO2)(4), Mn(CH3CO2)(3), KMnO4, Tl(CF3CO2)(3), AgCF3SO3) and TFA-insoluble (Ce(CF3SO3)(4), RuCl3, FeBr3, K2Cr2O7) salts. Optimization of both labelling systems has been performed using Pb(CH3CO2)(4), Ce(CF3SO3)(4) and benzene as a model substrate. A...

  1. Evaluation of methods for retention of radioiodine during processing of irradiated 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.; Kelley, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Methods of removing radioiodine from 237 Np-- 238 Pu dissolver solution and process off-gas were investigated. This program is part of a continuing effort to reduce releases of radionuclides from plant operations. Experimental data show: Greater than 99.9 percent of the radioiodine in dissolver solution can be removed by precipitation, in situ, of manganese dioxide. Silver zeolite will sorb greater than 99.9 percent of radioiodine in process off-gas. Other solid sorbents and nitric acid-mercuric nitrate scrubber solutions do not remove appreciable amounts of radioiodine from process off-gas, because radioiodine is present principally as relatively unreactive organic iodine compounds. (U.S.)

  2. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H.; Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  3. In-vivo characteristics of high and low specific activity radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] for imaging sigma-1 receptor in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Mori, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In this study, (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4- iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol ((+)-[ 125 I]-p- iodovesamicol) [(+)-[ 125 I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to the sigma-1 receptor both in vitro and in vivo, was tested to compare the in vivo characteristics between high and low specific activity (+)-[ 125 I]pIV to image sigma-1 receptor in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, no significant difference was observed between two methods. Accumulation of (+)- [ 125 I]pIV in rat brain was significant (approximately 3% of the injected dose) and its retention was prolonged. In the blocking study, the accumulation of (+)-[ 125 I] pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the co-administration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 in both methods. But the blocking effect was relatively stronger in the study using high specific activity radioiodinated (+)pIV. Though, the distribution of high and low specific activity (+)-[ 125 I] pIV was more or less similar to bind to sigma-1 receptor in the central nervous system in vivo, high specific activity radioiodinated (+) pIV might have a better specificity to bind sigma-1 receptor in brain. (author)

  4. A theoretical model for prescription of the patient-specific therapeutic activity for radioiodine therapy of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, F.; Traino, A.C.; Lazzeri, M.; Brill, A.B.; Stabin, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental function of the thyroid is to extract iodine from the blood, synthesize it into thyroid hormones, and release it into the circulation under feedback control by pituitary-secreted hormones. This capability of the thyroid, termed as functionality, can in principle be related to the severity of hyperthyroidism in individual patients. In this paper the uptake and release of 131 I by the thyroid following the administration of 131 I therapy for Graves' disease has been theoretically studied. The kinetics of iodine in the thyroid and blood have been evaluated using a two-compartment model. This simplified model appears to be adequate for dosimetry purposes and allows one to correlate levels of increased thyroid functionality (hyperthyroidism) with clinically measurable kinetic parameters. An expression has been derived for the rate of change of thyroid mass following therapy; this has the same form as an empirical relationship described in an earlier work. A method is presented for calculation of the amount of radioiodine activity to be administered to individual patients in order to achieve the desired final functionality of the gland. The activity to be administered is based on measurements of 131 I kinetics after the administration of a 'low-activity' (1850 kBq) tracer for treatment planning. (author)

  5. Influence of prosthetic radioiodination on the chemical and biological behavior of chemotactic peptides labeled at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Oscar R.; Sajaroff, Elisa O.; Edreira, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of radioiodination made through prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-3-[ 131 I]iodo-benzoate ([ 131 I]SIB) on the behavior of small peptides was investigated using as model the chemotactic hexapeptide Nα-for-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys. No carrier added labeled peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with coupling efficiencies up to 59-75%. Biodistribution in normal and infected C57 mice showed mainly a hepatobiliary clearance, a very low thyroid uptake and the highest uptake at the infection site was within 1h of injection. Superoxide production and competitive binding assays studies in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed a preserved biological activity and high-affinity specific binding. However, the results indicated that the changes observed in the receptor-binding properties with an IC 50 almost twice than the unlabeled peptide and the increasing in the hepatobiliary excretion could be the consequence of the increased lipophicity observed due to the presence of the prosthetic group together with a strong influence of the radioisotope per se

  6. Influence of prosthetic radioiodination on the chemical and biological behavior of chemotactic peptides labeled at high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Oscar R. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: oscar.pozzi@duke.edu; Sajaroff, Elisa O. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Edreira, Martin M. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-06-15

    The influence of radioiodination made through prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-3-[{sup 131}I]iodo-benzoate ([{sup 131}I]SIB) on the behavior of small peptides was investigated using as model the chemotactic hexapeptide N{alpha}-for-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys. No carrier added labeled peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with coupling efficiencies up to 59-75%. Biodistribution in normal and infected C57 mice showed mainly a hepatobiliary clearance, a very low thyroid uptake and the highest uptake at the infection site was within 1h of injection. Superoxide production and competitive binding assays studies in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed a preserved biological activity and high-affinity specific binding. However, the results indicated that the changes observed in the receptor-binding properties with an IC{sub 50} almost twice than the unlabeled peptide and the increasing in the hepatobiliary excretion could be the consequence of the increased lipophicity observed due to the presence of the prosthetic group together with a strong influence of the radioisotope per se.

  7. Chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1979-01-01

    Release of radioiodine built-up during reactor operations presents a potential problem from the standpoint of environmental safety. Among the chemical forms of radioiodine, depending upon the circumstances, organic iodides cast a most serious problem because of its difficulties in the trapping and because of its stability compared to other chemical forms. Furthermore, pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) fuel failures in LWR fuel rods are believed to be stress corrosion cracks caused by embrittling fission product species, radioiodine. To deal with these problems, knowledge is required on the chemical behaviors of radioiodine in and out of fuels, as well as the release behaviors from fuels. Here a brief review is given of these respects, in aiming at clearing-up the questions still remaining unknown. The data seem to indicate that radioiodine exists as a combined form in fuels. upon heating slightly irradiated fuels, the iodine atoms are released in a chemical form associated with uranium atoms. Experiments, however, as needed with specimen of higher burnup, where the interactions of radioiodine with metallic fission products could be favored. The dominant release mechanism of radioiodine under normal operating temperatures will be diffusion to grain boundaries leading to open surfaces. Radiation-induced internal traps, however, after the rate of diffusion significantly. The carbon sources of organic iodides formed under various conditions and its formation mechanisms have also been considered. (author)

  8. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications

  9. Radioiodine in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour was studied of radioiodine in different soil subtypes sampled in the vicinity of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. Radioiodine sorption is mainly affected by the amount of humus and by the clay fraction of soil. The highest sorption was recorded for meadow chernozem and the lowest for rendzina soils. At the same pH, soils with a higher level of organic matter adsorb more radioiodine. Upon applying radioiodate in soil samples, reduction to iodide takes place. Under the action of anions, radioiodine sorption decreases, the effect decreasing as follows: H 2 PO 4 - >SO 2- >Cl - >NO 3 - . The highest desorption was caused by 0.1 N NaOH solution. (author)

  10. Metal organic framework MIL-101 for radioiodine capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Thaer; Assfour, Bassem

    2017-09-01

    we report on the use of metal organic frameworks(MOFs) for radioiodine recovery and storage. One MOF (namely MIL-101) was prepared and investigated in detail to demonstrate the iodine removal efficiency and capacity of MOFs. The typical sorption kinetics and uptake isotherms were measured using radioactive iodine (123 I) for the first time. Our measurements indicate that MOFs can capture and store radioiodine in very high efficiency and fast kinetics.

  11. The history of radioiodine therapy beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This report contains historical review of radioiodine therapy invention and clinical implementation for the treatment of patients with diffuse toxic goiter and differentiated thyroid cancer. In 1923 Henry Plummer has strongly recommended to prescribe stable iodine in patients with Grave’s diseases after surgery in order to prevent thyrotoxic storm. Radioactive isotopes of iodine for the first time were obtained by Enrico Fermi in 1934 in laboratory. Clinical implementation of radioiodine was started in 40th years of past century. In 1940 experimentally have been shown that thyroid gland with Grave’s disease accumulated as much as 80% of radioiodine administered activity. Saul Hertz was the first physician who used radioactive iodine in January, 1941 with purpose to treat diffuse toxic goiter patients. Samuel Seidlin was first who used radioiodine in March, 1943 to treat patient with functioned differentiated thyroid cancer metastases. In Russia radioiodine treatment of patients started since 1982 in Medical Radiological Research Centre (former Institute of Medical Radiology, Obninsk.

  12. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  13. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavinas, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[ 123 l/ 131 l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies of the

  14. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  15. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  16. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  17. Radioiodination via isotope exchange in pivalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichert, J.P.; Van Dort, M.E.; Groziak, M.P.; Counsell, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of benzoic and aryl aliphatic mono and polyiodinated acids and esters (sterol, triglyceride) were radioiodinated in 55-99% radiochemical yield by isotope exchange with Na 125 i in a melt of pivalic acid. In general, the reaction was complete in 1 h at 155 0 C with little or no substrate decomposition. High specific activity studies afforded 125 I-labeled iopanoic acid with a specific activity of over 700 Ci/mmol. (author)

  18. Removal of active species from liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, N.J.; Ritchie, S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical assessments were made of recirculating liquid membrane technology applied to the removal of active species from liquid effluent. Caesium and strontium were extracted from neutral, aqueous liquor by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in odourless kerosine and subsequently stripped by nitric acid. Flowrates to the membrane modules influenced the extraction and stripping mass transfer coefficients (MTC) for caesium, but not strontium. The acid strength of the strip solution affected the stripping MTC. When both ions were co-processed, caesium transfer was retarded. Potassium cobalt ferrocyanide and polyantimonic acid were used as adsorbers for caesium and strontium respectively in the strip loop. Caesium was more quickly adsorbed than strontium. A scale-up assessment of a recirculating liquid membrane was performed and compared to SIXEP at Sellafield. (author)

  19. Radioiodinated tracers for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.V.; Corbett, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficient production of high purity radioiodine (123I) and new efficient radiolabeling techniques have allowed the development of new classes of cardiovascular radiopharmaceuticals. These include 123I-labeled fatty acids to assess myocardial metabolism, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for myocardial neuronal activity, labeled monoclonal antibodies for myocardial necrosis, and labeled lipoproteins for receptor concentration. 123I-labeled fatty acids and MIBG are under clinical investigation with encouraging results. 123I- and 111In-labeled fragments of monoclonal antibodies to myosin have been used for imaging myocardial necrosis in humans. The development of radiotracers for imaging of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors is still in the experimental stage. Recent advances in imaging instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals have resulted in cardiac imaging applications beyond blood pool ventriculography, perfusion, and infarct-avid imaging. Developments of radioiodine (123I)-labeled agents promise to play an important role in the assessment of myocardial metabolism, neuronal activity, and receptor concentration. The chemistry of iodine is well defined compared with that of 99mTc; therefore, iodine isotopes are well suited for labeling biologically important molecules. Among the iodine isotopes, 123I has nearly ideal nuclear properties for nuclear medical applications with a 13.3-hour half-life (T1/2) and 159 keV gamma emission (83%). Despite the nearly ideal chemical and nuclear properties of 123I, the widespread application of 123I-based radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice has been limited by high production costs (123I is produced in a cyclotron), relatively limited availability, and the presence of undesirable radionuclidic impurities (124I, T1/2 = 4.2 days; 125I, T1/2 = 60 days; 126I, T1/2 = 13.1 days). 77 references

  20. Calculation of therapeutic activity of radioiodine in Graves' disease by means of Marinelli's formula, using technetium (99mTc) scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumowski, Piotr; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Abdelrazek, Saeid; Sykała, Monika; Amelian-Fiłonowicz, Anna; Jurgilewicz, Dorota; Myśliwiec, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    The therapeutic activity of 131 I administered to patients with Graves' disease can be calculated by means of Marinelli's formula. The thyroidal iodine uptake ( 131 IU max ) needed for the calculation is usually determined with the use of 131 I. The purpose of the paper was to estimate 131 IU max on the basis of technetium uptake in the thyroid at 20 min ( 99m TcU 20min ). Eighty patients suffering from Graves' disease were qualified for radioiodine therapy with measurement of fT 4 , fT 3 , thyroid-stimulating hormone and its receptor (TRAb). Prior to the treatment, all the patients were euthyroid. 131 IU max for each patient was determined according to the levels of 131 I after 24 h ( 131 IU 24h ), while effective half-life (T eff ) according to the measurements of 131 IU 24h and 131 I uptake after 48 h ( 131 IU 48h ). Additionally, on the day before measuring 131 IU 24h , 99m TcU 20min was calculated for each patient. It was demonstrated that there existed a correlation, with statistical significance at p  10 IU/ml. It is possible to predict thyroid iodine uptake 131 IU 24h in Graves' disease on the basis of measuring the uptake of 99m TcU 20min . This shortens the time necessary for diagnosis and enables the calculation of 131 I activity using Marinelli's formula.

  1. Clinical experience with outpatient radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csenkey-Sinko, I.; Roka, R.; Sera, T.; Csernay, L.; Pavics, L.; Valkusz, Z.; Julesz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1993, outpatient radioiodine therapy has been available in Hungary. The reported study evaluated the efficacy of outpatient radioiodine treatment in subjects with hyperthyroidism. The data on 238 patients with Graves' disease and 123 patients with thyroid autonomy were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated within the period 1994 - 1999. The activities of radioiodine were calculated individually. The dose applied in Graves' disease was 150 Gy, and that in thyroid autonomy was 300 Gy. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated 3,6 and 12 months after radioiodine therapy. In patients with persistent hyperthyroidism, repeated therapy was performed. Overall,the radioiodine therapy was successful in 84% of the Graves' disease patients. In thyroid autonomy, treatment with 300 Gy was successful in 79% of the patients. The efficacy of radioiodine treatment was similar to the results of one-dose application. It was concluded that radioidine therapy with an absorbed dose of 150 Gy in Graves' disease and with an absorbed dose of 300 Gy in thyroid autonomy proved successful by the method applied. (author)

  2. Radioiodination of proteins by reductive alkylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panuska, J.R.; Parker, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of the aliphatic aldehyde, para-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde as the reactive moiety in the radioiodination of proteins by reductive alkylation is described. The para-hydroxyphenyl group is radiolabeled with 125 I, reacted through its aliphatic aldehyde group with primary amino groups on proteins to form a reversible Schiff base linkage which can then be stabilized with the mild reducing agent NaCNBH 3 . The introduction of the methylene group between the benzene ring and the aldehyde group increases its reactivity with protein amino groups permitting efficient labeling at low aldehyde concentrations. Using this method, radioiodinated proteins with high specific activity can be produced. The reductive alkylation procedure is advantageous in that the labeling conditions are mild, the reaction is specific for lysyl residues, and the modification of the epsilon-ammonium group of lysine results in ionizable secondary amino groups avoiding major changes in protein charge

  3. Contributions of short-lived radioiodines to thyroid doses received by evacuees from the Chernobyl area estimated using early in vivo activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.; Kaidanovsky, G.; Zvonova, I.; Kovtun, A.; Bouville, A.; Luckyanov, L.; Voilleque, P.

    2003-01-01

    A series of in-vivo gamma spectrometric measurements of 65 people, evacuated from Pripyat 1.5 days after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 explosion was performed in St. Petersburg, Russia, as early as 30 April 1986. The historical spectra and interviews were recently processed and the results used for thyroid dose estimation. Activities of 131 I in thyroid and 132 Te in lungs were determined easily; for estimation of 132 I and 133 I activities in thyroid, sophisticated methods of spectra processing were developed. According to thyroid measurement data, the mean ratio of 133 I/ 131 I activities (at the time of the accident) inhaled by residents of Pripyat was 2.0. The mean ratio of thyroid dose from 133 I inhalation to that caused by 131 I amounts to 0.3, which confirms accuracy of dose estimates based on the evolution of the Chernobyl accident. The mean ratio of 132 I activity in thyroid to that of 132 Te in lungs was assessed from the human measurement data to be 0.2, which is in reasonable agreement with the metabolic properties of these radionuclides. The mean ratio of thyroid dose from 132 I originating from 132 Te deposited in lungs to the dose caused by 131 I was 0.13 ± 0.02 for Pripyat residents who did not take KI pills and 0.9 ± 0.1 for persons who took KI pills. Thus, the contribution of short-lived radioiodines to total thyroid dose of Pripyat residents, which was on average 30% for persons who did not apply stable iodine prophylaxis, and about 50% for persons who took KI pills on 26-27 April, should be accounted for in the assessment of thyroid health effects. (author)

  4. Radioiodine uptake in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) retarded in growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysak, A.

    1978-01-01

    In the light of results obtained in recent years, radioiodine disposition in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), retarded in growth is described. The pharynx centre accumulates most of the administered radioiodine. Activation of renal centre takes place already after 10 days of intensive feeding. (author)

  5. Teenage hyperthyroidism and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.A.; Nisa, L.; Hoque, M.; Jehan, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in teenage patients with hyperthyroidism. Method: The medical records of 28 patients (age range 16 -18 years) were purposely selected from a pool of 3637 hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine during the period January 1982 to December 2006. Data for analysis included the age, sex, clinical symptoms, type of hyperthyroidism, antithyroid medications received, doses of radioiodine therapy given and the outcome of the therapy after one and five years. Results: The mean age of the patients treated for hyperthyroidism was 17.60 ± 0.73 years and 82 % were females. The most common type of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease (75%). All patients were pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for variable duration periods (6 months to 2 years). The mean administered dose of radioiodine was 10.69 ± 2.77 mCi. The dose of I-131 was calculated on the basis of gland size and morphology (assessment by palpation and scintigraphy) and percentage of radioactive iodine uptake. Effective control of hyperthyroidism after radioiodine treatment occurred in 60.72% patients with a single dose, 35.71% required a second dose and 3.57% required more than two doses. Frequency of early hypothyroidism within one year was 38.09 % in Graves' disease and 33.33% in toxic multinodular goiter. Most patients (66.66%) in the toxic nodule group remained euthyroid up to one year after I-131 therapy. Overall incidence rates of hypothyroidism after 1 year and 5 years of radioiodine therapy were 32.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism in the teen group of patients was effectively controlled with radioiodine. There were no early side effects. The only long-term effect was hypothyroidism. Appearance of early/late hypothyroidism showed a direct relationship with the type of hyperthyroidism and the dose of radioiodine administered. In general, patients with Graves' disease showed a greater tendency in the evolution of early

  6. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres-Barrenechea, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    A ten year study (1988-98) was done at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center on radioiodine (RAI) therapy for hyperthyroidism. A total of 162 patients received 131-I after careful selection hence was included in this study. A predominantly female population was seen (81%) compared to only (19%) males. The most frequent age group were in the third and fourth decades of life. Those included had clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis aside from the abnormal thyroid function tests and elevated RAI uptake. Almost all were given antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers prior to RAI ablation. Doses ranged from 7 to 12 mCi depending on gland size and degree of toxicity. Success rate of treatment was 92% which meant that the symptoms were abated and there was shrinkage of the thyroid gland after a single dose of iodine. The most common short term complications were sialitis and local neck tenderness while hypothyroidism was the commonest long term complication. (author)

  7. Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.V.; Hurley, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a clinical symptom complex caused by elevated thyroid hormone levels. Of the disorders in which it appears, the most common is Graves' disease; toxic nodular goiter (Plummer's disease) is considerably less frequent. Recent studies suggest that Graves' disease is autoimmune in origin and is probably caused by a genetic defect in immunoserveillance in which thyroid-stimulating antibodies interact with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor sites on thyroid follicular cell membranes to increase synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Toxic nodular goiter is characterized by the secretion of increased amounts of thyroid hormone by localized autonomous areas of increased function within the thyroid gland. Other forms of hyperthyroidism are discussed. Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism is described

  8. A method for the radiohalogenation of proteins resulting in decreased thyroid uptake of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M.R.; Narula, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE). Adequate removal of unreacted ATE from [ 125 I]ATE was necessary for optimal protein radioiodination. Labelling efficiencies of greater than 60% could be obtained after a 20 min incubation of goat IgG with [ 125 I]ATE at 4 0 C. Paired-label experiments with goat IgG labeled with 125 I using ATE and 131 I using Iodogen demonstrated that use of the ATE reagent for protein labeling significantly reduced (P < 0.005) the thyroid uptake of radioiodine. (author)

  9. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling; Radioiodacao de proteina por via direta e indireta: estudo comparativo da marcacao de peptideo quimiotatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinas, Tatiana

    2004-07-01

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 123}l/{sup 131}l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies

  10. Adjuvant thyroid remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma confined to the thyroid. A comparison of ablation success with different activities of radioiodine (I-131)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prpic, M.; Dabelic, N.; Stanicic, J.; Jukic, T.; Kusic, Z.; Milosevic, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess efficiency of various I-131 activities on thyroid remnant ablation in thyroid cancer patients. The significance of patients' characteristics, pathologic features and levels of Tg were analyzed. This study included 259 consecutive differentiated thyroid cancer patients, with disease confined to the thyroid, treated with I-131 after total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into the three groups: 80 patients receiving low [1110-1850 MBq (30-50 mCi)], 121 intermediate [2775 MBq (75 mCi)] and 58 high [3700 MBq (100 mCi)] postoperative I-131 activities. Six to eight months after the application of radioiodine, measurements of TSH, Tg, anti-Tg antibodies (in hypothyroid state) together with ultrasound exam and whole-body scintigraphy were performed. The ablation was significantly more effective (after the first application) in patients receiving 100 mCi of I-131-89.7% than in patients receiving lower activities (P=0.016). There was no significant difference in ablation rate between the 30-50 mCi (77.5%) and 75 mCi (70.2%) groups. In the group receiving 30-50 mCi, patients with solitary tumors had significantly higher ablation rate (P=0.038). In patients receiving 75 mCi ablation rates were higher among older patients (P=0.005), with infiltration of the single lobe (P=0.005), and with solitary tumor (P=0.012). The rates of successful ablation after the second application of I-131 (after 12-16 months) amounted to 96, 97 and 96% in the 30-50, 75 and 100 mCi groups, respectively. The activity of I-131 and age were independent factors for thyroid ablation failure after the first application of I-131 (model of binary logistic regression). The results of remnant ablation were satisfactory with all activities applied. Although after the first application of I-131 the activity of 100 mCi is significantly more effective in thyroid ablation than the administration of 30-50 mCi and 75 mCi, the ablation rates between all the three groups are

  11. Radioiodination of antibodies for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the great potential of radioiodinated antibody for the detection and treatment of cancer, the present article deals with the various techniques of radioiodination of antibody and their uses. Topics include methods of iodination of antibody, advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and effects of radioiodination on the antibody molecules with respect to their physiochemical and immunologic reactivity. In addition, the clinical usefulness of radioiodinated antibodies is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Hexavalent chromium removal using aerobic activated sludge batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: activated sludge alone; activated sludge with an external electron donor (5 g/. of lactose); activated sludge with PAC addition (4 g/.); activated sludge with both PAC and lactose; and PAC alone. The results reported here showed that activated sludges are capable of ...

  13. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  14. REMOVAL OF IMIDACLOPRID USING ACTIVATED CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Chemical activation, Adsorption, Activated carbon, Pesticide ..... density solvent based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for quantitative extraction of ... El-Hamouz, A.; Hilal, H.S.; Nassar, N.; Mardawi, Z. Solid olive waste in ...

  15. Effect of temperature on the radioiodination of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed-Ali, S.A.; Salacinski, P.R.; Landon, J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to assess the effect of altering the temperature at which human growth hormone is radioiodinated on the incorporation of 125 I and the immunoreactivity and stability of the labelled hormone. Employing highly purified monomeric hormone it proved possible, by the iodogen procedure, to prepare a labelled product of high specific activity irrespective of temperature. However, in radioiodinations performed at ambient temperature (20 to 25 degrees) significant amounts of the labelled hormone were in an aggregated form which was less immunoreactive than the 125 I-labelled monomeric hormone. Such aggregation was largely prevented by radioiodinating at low temperature (0 to 4 degrees) and even the large monomeric peak was more immunoreactive (about 95% bound in antibody excess) than the monomeric peak from iodinations performed at room temperature

  16. Experience with antimony activity removal process in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mittal, Vinit K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Bhat, H.R.; Krishna Rao, K.S.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of antimony (Sb) activity during decontamination was first encountered in NAPS-1 and Sb activity deposition took place during the decontamination resulting in poor decontamination factors (DF). Sb problem has been observed in PWRs and PHWRs elsewhere also. These utilities use an oxidative process involving the addition of H 2 O 2 to remove these Sb activities from the core and remove it on ion exchange resins. Experience in CANDU PHWRs indicated disappearance of H 2 O 2 in quantities higher than that observed in PWRs. This is attributed to the higher pick-up of H 2 O 2 by the magnetite/ferrites over large carbon steel surface present in the primary coolant system of PHWRs. Systematic work was carried out to understand the deposition of Sb on PHT system surfaces and a new method was evolved to remove the Sb activities from the system. This alternative reductive chemical process involve the addition of Nitrilo Tri Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Rodine-92B and circulating the chemicals for a short period and then the Sb and other activities released from the core are removed by the mixed bed. Subsequent to the Sb removal process, the normal chemical decontamination of the system is carried out to remove 60 Co and other activities. This non-oxidizing Sb removal process was applied to NAPS-2 primary system prior to EMCCR. During this Sb removal process of NAPS-2, around 450 μCi/L activity of 124 Sb was released from the system surfaces to the formulation. Activity measurement in the samples collected and the on-line radiation field data indicated that deposition of Sb activities on system surfaces has been prevented by Rodine-92B and subsequently these activities have been removed by mixed bed IX columns. Antimony removal process worked successfully, but in the second normal decontamination process around 150 μCi/L activities came in the formulation which was not anticipated. As a result DF observed immediately after the decontamination campaign was not good

  17. Preparation and characterization of a radioiodinated bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulevitch, R J [Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, Calif. (USA)

    1978-03-01

    Radioiodinated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli 0111:B4 has been prepared by reacting p-OH methylbenzimidate with 0111:B4 LPS at alkaline pH. The resulting LPS derivative has been radiolabeled with Na/sup 125/I. Specific activities of up to 5..mu..Ci/..mu..g LPS may be obtained by this technique and significantly the preparation of the radioiodinated LPS does not alter the biophysical, immunologic or biologic properties of 0111:B4 LPS. The methods described here are applicable to any 'protein free' LPS preparation containing primary amino groups.

  18. COD and colour removal from molasses spent wash using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of COD and colour from a melanoidin solution with this activated carbon was carried out using an experimental design taking 4 factors into account. These were adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial COD concentration, with removal of COD and colour as response variables. COD reduction was ...

  19. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F. Anders

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented

  20. Removal of active species from liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, N.J.; Ritchie, S.; Robinson, K.S.

    1990-08-01

    The extraction and stripping of a strontium feed solution at 1000ppm and pH 7 has been investigated using a recirculating liquid membrane system. Feed solution was circulated through the tube-side of a hollow fibre unit, contacting an extractant solution of 20% v/v di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in odourless kerosine at the inner wall. The partition coefficient for this extraction was 56000. The extractant was then pumped to the shell-side of a second hollow fibre unit, containing the strip solution of nitric acid in the tube-side of the fibres. Strontium removal from the feed solution was virtually complete after one hour, but the stripping time scale was at least an order or magnitude longer. Flowrates of each phase did not appear to affect the overall mass transfer coefficients for extraction or stripping operations. The extraction coefficient based on the feed phase was estimated to be 3.9 x 10 -6 m s -1 . Stripping coefficients based on the strip phase were measured at 1.6 x 10 -9 and 2.2 x 10 -9 m s -1 for strip solutions of 0.1M and 1.0M nitric acid. These values compare reasonably well with published correlations. (author)

  1. REMOVAL OF IMIDACLOPRID USING ACTIVATED CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    known to be in most cases limited, to use a long procedure or to be costly. ..... Figure 4. (A) Isotherm adsorption of imidacloprid onto akpi activated carbon, plots of .... such as wastewater treatment, chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Radioiodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauby, A.; Saas, A.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed in order to follow the pathways of radioiodine, 129 I especially, through the various compartments of nuclear plant environment: atmosphere, soil, plants, precipitations, ... A partial evaluation of the results is made. Data are supplied on iodine transfer into soil, iodine distribution one year later, release of iodine at the level of soil and plants. The intake of various forms of iodine in a soil and the evaluation of availability to plants by chemical tests showed that radioactive iodine ( 125 I) reached equilibrium with stable iodine after 120 - 140 days of incubation. During this time, there was a large amount of iodine exchangeable against a KI solution N/10. Equilibrium was reached progressively by iodine transfer on soil organic molecules. According to the origin of contamination, the transfer was more or less fast and differences were especially noticed in volatile iodine release and on chemical mobility. During intake, potential hazard of soil, groundwater, plant and atmospheric contaminations was greater. Iodine-129 is presently one of the chief contributors to air pollution around nuclear installations because of its radioactive half-life (1.72 x 10 7 yr) rather than on account of the amounts released. Just as with iodine-131, it is released into the atmosphere under many chemical forms. However, 129 I reaches man through several food chains and not only through the air-grass-cow-milk food chain. The values of its deposition rate on soil and plants are fairly dispersed because of its changing reactivity due to its chemical instability. On account of this chemical complexity, the transfer of iodine along the air-soil-plant system was studied using 125 I. (author)

  3. Adsorption Studies for Arsenic Removal Using Activated Moringa oleifera

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sumathi; G. Alagumuthu

    2014-01-01

    A new low cost adsorbent, activated Moringa oleifera has been developed for aqueous arsenic removal. Batch experiments were revealed that As removal was up to 71.3% using activated Moringa oleifera. Kinetics studies revealed that Langmuir isotherm was followed with a better correlation than the Freundlich isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG were computed from the experimental data. These values show that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Thus, ...

  4. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  5. Thyrotropin receptor antibody activities significantly correlate with the outcome of radioiodine (131I) therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Koki; Yamamoto, Makiko; Sakurada, Toshiro; Saito, Shintaro; Yoshinaga, Kaoru

    1991-01-01

    The outcome of 131 I therapy for 109 patients with Graves' disease was analysed according to pretreatment laboratory data including thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) activities. Forty-five percent of patients became euthyroid, and 13% of patients became hypothyroid within one year after 131 I therapy. Forty-two percent of patients remained hyperthyroid one year after 131 I therapy. Pretreatment values for serum T 4 , T 3 , and the estimated weight of the thyroid were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid group. The mean for the TRAb index of the hyperthyroid group was significantly higher than that of the euthyroid group. Life table analysis revealed a significant effect of the TRAb index on the rate of hyperthyroidism after 3 months or later. These results appear to suggest that the TRAb index is one of the factors which influence the outcome of 131 I therapy for Graves' disease. (author)

  6. Quality control of radioiodinated gastrin for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginabreda, M.G.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Bettarello, A.

    1988-07-01

    Radioiodinated human gastrin has been prepared at IPEN laboratory for radioimmunoassay use. This work developed the quality control of this tracer analyzing parameters of the labelling reaction, chromatographic purification and radioimmunoassay. The radioiodination yield obtained in five experiments was reproducible and similar when analyzed on 7% polyaraylamide gel eletrophoresis - PAGE - (mean + - SD of 51.70 + - 10.76%) and by1 25 I incorporation checked through thrichloroacetic acid precipitation - TCA - (57-36 + - 9.69%). Similary, after purification the labelled gastrin revaled high and reproducible purity degree when submitted to PAGE (96.57 + - 1.06%) and CA (94.82 + - 4.20%) analysis. The respective specific activities varied from 62 to 307 uCi/ug, being determined by the self-displacement method, which is based on the immunoactivity of the tracer. In this way, the antibody titers required to bind 50% of the tracer ranged from 1:32.000 to 1:180.000. Consequently, the respective doses producing 50% fall in the maximum response of the radioimmunoassays ranged from 155.0 to 24.0 pmol/1, but remained unchanged for each tracer even after three months of its preparations. The tracers presented very low non-specific binding values (1.78 + - 0.79%), stablespecific binding values (46.49 + - 5.65%) and a good between-assay precision, evaluated by an internal quality control sample (25.71 + - 4.30%) with coefficient of variation of 16.74%). The PAGE analysis of the unlabeled gastrin used in the first and last radioiodination revealed an unique and unaltered component, confirming the quality of the tracers. (author) [pt

  7. Radioiodine therapy and subsequent pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Carmen Dolores G.; Miranda, Angelica E.; Corres, Nilson Duarte; Sieiro Neto, Lino; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate abortion and fetal congenital anomaly rates in women previously submitted to radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Study design: A case-control study of 108 pregnant women, 48 cases whose pregnancies were evaluated after they had undergone radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the control group consisted of 60 healthy pregnant women. Results: Of a total of 66 pregnancies, 14 conceived within the first year, 51 one or more years after the last administration of 131 I, the medical record of one patient was not available. The interval between the last radioiodine therapy administration and conception ranged from 1 month to 10 years. There were a total of 4 miscarriages, 2 of them for unknown reasons. There was one case of congenital anomaly and two preterms birth. Nine women presented the following pregnancy events: placental insufficiency, hypertensive crisis, placental detachment, risk of miscarriage, preterm labour and four miscarriages. No statistical difference was observed between the studied and control groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine was followed by no significant increase in untoward effects in neither the pregnancy nor the offspring. (author)

  8. Active Debris Removal and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 7 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in technology development, engineering, and operations. This paper outlines the fundamental rationale for considering active debris removal and addresses the two possible objectives of the operations -- removing large debris to stabilize the environment and removing small debris to reduce the threat to operational spacecraft. Technological and engineering challenges associated with the two different objectives are also discussed.

  9. Radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, L.; Yin, D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, increasing biochemical and radiochemical research has been performed to develop radiolabelled peptides as specific ligands for tumour associated receptors. VIP, a 28-amino acid peptide containing two tyrosines and three lysines, has demonstrated that various tumour cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP-receptors and could be applied to the clinic diagnosis. For these purposes, radiohalogenation of VIP by direct and indirect method was studied. Direct labelling works well for radioiodine but is limited to dehalogenation of labelling products in vivo. Conjugate labelling methods including Boltonhunter and wood reagents were developed but introduction of such a molecule to peptides may lead to the decrease of biological activity in vivo. In order to resolve these problems, N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-nbutylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was elected for the radioiodination of VIP and already employed to radioiodination of IgG successfully. The in vitro stability and biological activity would be compared in these two methods. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and human immunoglobulin (IgG) were radioiodinated by direct and indirect methods. Iodogen was employed in direct method and N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was applied as a prosthetic group in the conjugation labelling. The subject of our study was optimizing the radiohalogenation of IgG and VIP followed by separation and analysis of reaction products. The advantages and disadvantages were illustrated by comparing the in vitro stability and biological activity in these two methods. Na 123 I was prepared by nuclear reaction of 124 Te(p, 2n) 123 I using cyclone-30. More than 95% of radiochemical purity, more than 95% of radionuclide purity and about 100 mCi/mL of radioactivity concentration were obtained. ATE was supplied by Dr. Pozzi and radioiodinated with iodogen and 96% of labelling efficiency was obtained. The stability of radioactive S 125 IB kept well in dark at 4

  10. Removal of dye by immobilised photo catalyst loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Chan, Sook Keng; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photo degrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of removing organic pollutants is shared between activated carbon and titanium dioxide. Immobilisation is selected to avoid unnecessary filtering of adsorbent and photo catalyst. In this study, mixture of activated carbon and titanium dioxide was immobilised on glass slides. Photodegradation and adsorption studies of Methylene Blue solution were conducted in the absence and presence of UV light. The removal efficiency of immobilised TiO 2 / AC was found to be two times better than the removal by immobilised AC or immobilised TiO 2 alone. In 4 hours and with the concentration of 10 ppm, TiO 2 loaded activated carbon prepared from 1.5 g/ 15.0 mL suspension produced 99.50 % dye removal. (author)

  11. Lithium as an adjunct to radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease for prolonging the intrathyroidal effective half-life of radioiodine. Useful or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Kuenstner, H.; Nabavi, E.; Eberlein, U.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Zentrum fuer Radiologie

    2006-07-01

    Aim: Evaluation of intrathyroidal kinetics of radioiodine with and without lithium as adjunct with respect to the increase in radiation dose delivered to the thyroid. Patients, methods: 267 patients in three groups were included in the study. Group I with 227 patients served as control group, Group II with 21 patients and Group III with 19 patients were distinguished by an intrathyroidal half-life of radioiodine below 3.5 days in the diagnostic test. Patients in Group III received 885 mg lithium carbonate a day for 2 weeks as adjunct to radioiodine therapy. Both diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine kinetics were followed up by at least 10 uptake measurements within a minimum of 48 h. Kinetics of radioiodine were defined mathematically as balance of the thyroidal iodine intake and excretion by a two-compartment model. Results: Under therapy the maximum uptake of radioiodine was reduced by nearly 10% in all groups, in Group I, the effective half-life as well as the product of maximum uptake x effective half-life as an equivalent of radiation dose independent of thyroid volume was lowered in the same magnitude. In Group II, the energy-dose equivalent remained constant under therapy. With adjunct lithium in Group III, the effective half-life was prolonged significantly by factor 1.61{+-}0.49 and the volume-independent energy-dose equivalent by factor 1.39{+-}0.37. No severe side effects of lithium were observed. Conclusion: Using lithium as adjunct to radio-iodine therapy increases the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid by 39% on average and nearly 30% of radioiodine activity can be saved in these patients. Lithium is recommended in patients with very short effective half-life in the diagnostic test in order to reduce the activity required and whole-body radiation dose. (orig.)

  12. The synthesis of radioiodinated carbohydrates and butyrothenones as potential imaging agents for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    Positron Emission tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are two relatively new imaging techniques which allow for the non-invasive evaluation of biochemical processes in living subjects. Currently, SPECT is more widely accessible than PET, however, only a limited number of radiotracers have been successfully developed for imaging by SPECT. Two classes of radioiodinated compounds were developed as potential imaging agents for SPECT: (1) Radioiodinated carbohydrates for the assessment of glucose metabolism and (2) Radioiodinated butyrothienones for the evaluation of dopamine D 2 receptors in the brain. In both classes of compounds, the radioiodine was attached to an sp 2 hybridized carbon atom to provide radiotracers that were chemically and metabolically stable. Radioiodine incorporation was easily accomplished by radioiododestannylation of vinyl- and aryl-trialkylstannanes in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The incorporation of radioiodine into small molecules can have a significant effect on the biological activity of the resulting radiotracer because of the relatively large size and lipophilicity of the iodine atom. Preliminary evaluations of the effectiveness of the radioiodinated carbohydrates and butyrothienones as imaging agents are presented

  13. Adsorption Studies for Arsenic Removal Using Activated Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sumathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new low cost adsorbent, activated Moringa oleifera has been developed for aqueous arsenic removal. Batch experiments were revealed that As removal was up to 71.3% using activated Moringa oleifera. Kinetics studies revealed that Langmuir isotherm was followed with a better correlation than the Freundlich isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG were computed from the experimental data. These values show that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Thus, this recently developed cost-effective novel biosorbent, activated Moringa oleifera can be used as household level to mitigate the arsenic problem.

  14. Comparison of thyroid stimulating activities measured by cyclic AMP production, those by radioiodine uptake in FRTL-5 cells and TSH-binding inhibitory activities in patients with hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Arai, Keisuke; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-01-01

    By using an assay measuring cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSab) were detected in all of 15 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease (EG) and of 26 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease (HG). There was no signicant difference between TSab activities in Eg and in HG. In an effort to elucidate why EG patients remain euthyroid in spite of having TSab, we investigated the effect of the patient's crude immunoglobulin fractions 125 I uptake in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, one of the indices of stimulation subsequent to cAMP production. The 125 Iuptake stimulation (IUS) activity was positive in 46,7% (7/15) of EG patients and 88.5% (23/26) of HG patients, being significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 0.401, P 99m Tc thyroid uptake in comparison to 19 HG patients with a similar range of IUS activities. There was a good correlation between thyroid weight and 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 8.827, P 99m Tc and presumably radioiodine in vivo, might be a factor responsible for keeping EG patients euthyroid despite the presence of TSab. (author)

  15. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated

  16. Radiation protection principles for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Lassmann, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany, approximately 30,000 treatments with radioiodine are performed yearly on patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases. These are carried out generally in specialized therapy wards which are equipped with radiation protection facilities. Ambulant (fractionated) radioiodine treatment is not permitted in Germany. More recently, the situation has been that the discharge of patients is permitted, when they have spent a stay of at least 48 hours in the ward without the dose rate exceeding 3.5 μSv/hour at 2 meters distance from them, corresponding to 1 mSv/year (this correlates to a residual activity in the body of the patient of 250 MBq). The radiation exposure of personnel in the therapy ward due to both external and internal exposure lies within a range of a few mSv per year. According to recent studies, the exposure to family members and close friends via external exposure, inhalation or incorporation does not exceed the effective dose of 1 mSv/year. This value has been laid down in a recommendation by the European Union as the dose constraint for children; for adults younger than 60 years of age, 3 mSv are recommended, for older persons 15 mSv. (orig.) [de

  17. New prospects in radioiodine production technologies and radioiodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Izotopintezete

    1984-01-01

    A new economical dry distillation procedure was developed to produce /sup 131/I or /sup 125/I from irradiated TeO/sub 2/ melt and xenon gas, respectively. The method can be applied to the thermodesorptive radioiodination of different types of water soluble or insoluble organic compounds: oleic acid, prostaglandin, insulin, ACTH, antipyrine. The labelling procedure is based on the thermolysis of the stable Pt(I) surface compound.

  18. Stunning in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease. Quantification and therapeutic relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, T.; Meyer, P.T.; Knollmann, D.; Nowak, B.; Schaefer, W.M.; Ocklenburg, C.

    2008-01-01

    In radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease, a reduction of radioiodine uptake is known for consecutive administrations of 131I, which needs to be considered in therapy planning. Aim: Analysis of uptake reduction with regard on the time interval between radioiodine administration and the delivered dose to the thyroid tissue. Patients, methods: 200 patients were enrolled in the study and distributed into two groups (matched for diagnoses), each containing 32 patients with Graves' disease (target dose 250 Gy), 24 with focal (400 Gy), 44 with disseminated thyroid autonomy (150 Gy). In one group, a second fraction of radioiodine was given after 48 h (2d) due to an unexpected low radioiodine uptake or effective half-life, whereas in the other group the second fraction was given after 96 h (4d). Results: There was no significant difference between delivered doses due to the first fraction after four days: 2d: 86 ± 48 Gy (extrapolated) vs. 4d: 87 ± 41 Gy, p > 0.05. In 2d, delivered dose at time of second administration was significantly lower (51 μ 29 Gy) than in 4d (p < 0.01). The radioiodine uptake of the second fraction relative to the initial uptake was significantly lower in the 4d (4d: 63 ± 25% vs. 2d: 82 ± 24%, p < 0.01). In addition, a correlation between uptake reduction and delivered dose and an influence of the time interval between radioiodine administrations could be shown. Conclusions: Relative uptake of subsequent radioiodine fractions decreases with time after first administration and with increasing delivered dose to the thyroid. If a second fraction of 131I is given at an earlier time, the same therapeutic effect can be reached using lower amounts of activity, minimising radiation exposure and increasing efficiency of radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  19. RADIOIODINATION OF OCHRATOXIN TO STUDY THE ROLE OF YEAST IN COUNTERACTING ITS EFFECT ON JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; EL-BARKOUKY, E.E.; AYYOUB, S.M.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioiodination of ochratoxin using iodogen as an oxidizing agent was studied. The factors affecting the radioiodination yield, such as reaction time, concentration of substrate and oxidizing agent, pH, stability of iodogen coated tubes have been investigated. Separation and purification of the labelled product using thin layer chromatography and gel chromatography on sephadex G-25 column were described.A total number of 80 quail chicks at eight weeks age were divided into two groups 40 birds each. The first group (control) feed basal diet and the second group was supplemented with 0.5% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in basal diet. All groups were given orally labelled ochratoxin. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours from oral feeding, the quails (5 birds from every group) were slaughtered and blood samples were collected when slaughtering. The organs; liver, heart, spleen lung, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine content, kidney, testis, ovary, oviduct, breast and thigh, were removed and weighed individually and their weights related to body weight have been calculated. Also, manure and eggs were collected. The radioactivity levels in the second group that supplemented yeast in diet was lower than the first group (control) except manure

  20. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  1. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  2. Radioiodine treatment of Grave's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, P.; Vogt, H.; Dorn, R.; Graf, G.; Kopp, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany radioiodine therapy of Grave's disease is performed in patients older than 20 years, after at least one year of unsuccessful antithyroid therapy, intolerance against antithyroid medication, recurrences after surgical interventions and small goiters. Hyperthyroidism is eliminated with an ablative dose concept (300 Gy) in more than 90% associated with rate of hypothyroidism in the outcome of also more than 90%. Adverse prognostic factors are an insufficient dose to the thyroid and/or concomitant antithyreoid medication. Radioiodine therapy in Germany must be an inpatient single time approach due to quality assurance and radiation protection reasons. The mean hospitalization is only 3-4 days with the patient being discharged at an annual dose of less than 1 mSv at 2 m distance (dose rate at discharge [de

  3. Abnormal radioiodine uptake on post-therapy whole body scan and sodium/iodine symporter expression in a dermoid cyst of the ovary: report of a case and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenni, Alfredo; Baldari, Sergio, E-mail: acampenni@unime.ittalia [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e Funzionali, Unità di Medicina Nucleare, Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina (Italy); Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Rosaria M. [Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Unità di Endocrinologia, Università degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Tuccari, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Patologia Umana, Università degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Fogliani, Simone [Unità di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Milazzo, Messina (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer, the whole-body scan (WBS) with 131-radioiodine, especially when performed after a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I, represents a sensitive procedure for detecting thyroid remnant and/or metastatic disease. Nevertheless, a wide spectrum of potentially pitfalls has been reported. Herein we describe a 63-year-old woman affected by follicular thyroid cancer, who was accidentally found to have an abdominal mass at post-dose WBS (pWBS). pWBS showed abnormal radioiodine uptake in the upper mediastinum, consistent with lymph-node metastases, and a slight radioiodine uptake in an abdominal focal area. Computed tomography revealed an inhomogeneous mass in the pelvis, previously unrecognized. The lesion, surgically removed, was found to be a typical dermoid cyst of the ovary, without any evidence of thyroid tissue. By immunohistochemistry, a moderate expression of the sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) was demonstrated in the epithelial cells, suggesting a NIS-dependent uptake of radioiodine by the cyst. (author)

  4. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  5. The risk for cancer and genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.

    1997-01-01

    According to recent studies, the risk for thyroid cancer is not increased after radioiodine treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Only the risk of cancer of the stomach seems to be increased slightly in patents treated with I-131 because of functional autonomy. However, the risk for gastric cancer is not increased after higher activities of I-131 because of thyroid cancer. There is no increased risk for genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  6. Nitrogen removal from urban wastewater by activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with nitrogen removal from urban wastewater employing the activated sludge process at low temperature. It aims at determining the performances and rates of nitrification, and characterising the autotrophic biomass (concentration and kinetic parameters) at 11°C and for F/M ratios higher than the ...

  7. Treatment options for active removal of renal stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, G.J.J.; Laet, De K.; Wijn, R.P.W.F.; Wijn, P.F.F.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an update on the technological aspects of the methods for active removal of renal stones. Currently, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) are the available options. Findings are based upon recent literature from

  8. Diclofenac removal from water with ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Pocostales, Pablo; Alvarez, Pedro; Oropesa, Ana

    2009-04-30

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been treated in water with ozone in the presence of various activated carbons. Activated carbon-free ozonation or single ozonation leads to a complete degradation of DCF in less than 15 min while in the presence of activated carbons higher degradation rates of TOC and DCF are noticeably achieved. Among the activated carbons used, P110 Hydraffin was found the most suitable for the catalytic ozonation of DCF. The influence of pH was also investigated. In the case of the single ozonation the increasing pH slightly increases the TOC removal rate. This effect, however, was not so clear in the presence of activated carbons where the influence of the adsorption process must be considered. Ecotoxicity experiments were performed, pointing out that single ozonation reduces the toxicity of the contaminated water but catalytic ozonation improved those results. As far as kinetics is concerned, DCF is removed with ozone in a fast kinetic regime and activated carbon merely acts as a simple adsorbent. However, for TOC removal the ozonation kinetic regime becomes slow. In the absence of the adsorbent, the apparent rate constant of the mineralization process was determined at different pH values. On the other hand, determination of the rate constant of the catalytic reaction over the activated carbon was not possible due to the effect of mass transfer resistances that controlled the process rate at the conditions investigated.

  9. Exhalation of I-131 after radioiodine therapy: time dependence and chemical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomaecker, K.; Fischer, T.; Eschner, W.; Gaidouk, M.I.; Schicha, H.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The change of both amount and chemical forms of radioiodine exhaled in the air of rooms with patients on the therapy ward should be investigated depending on radioactivity applied, time after application, and kind of thyroid disease. Methods: The air of ward-rooms of 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma, Graves' Disease, and autonomy which received different therapy doses, was investigated with an portable constant air flow sampler. Different chemical iodine species (organic, elemental, aerosol bound) were collected during 8 hr in various filters until 3 days after application of the radioiodine capsule, according to their chemical form. The radioactivity in the filters was measured with a well counter on defined time points after application. Results: The radioactivity exhaled was between 0,008 and 0,03% related to activity of radioiodine applied. The percentage of radioiodine exhaled related to the activity applied, differed significantly depending on disease and changed as follows: Grave's disease > autonomy > carcinoma. The exhalation of radioiodine became stronger with increasing applied activities and showed an exponential decrease with time. The most part of radioiodine was present in organic bound form. This organic portion decreased with time in favour of the other iodine species. Conclusion: The degree of accumulation of radioiodine orally applied within thyroid seems to be in direct proportion to the extend of its exhalation. Further measurements directly in the breathing air of RIT-patients are necessary, in order to clarify the relationship between degree of thyroid uptake and quantity as well as chemical form of radioiodine exhaled. (orig.) [de

  10. Radioiodine therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: usefulness of an implemented dose calculation algorithm allowing reduction of radioiodine amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Pomposelli, E; Altrinetti, V; Calamia, I; Camerieri, L; Giusti, M; Pesce, G; Reitano, C; Bagnasco, M; Caputo, M

    2013-09-01

    Radioiodine is a common option for treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Due to the expected selective radioiodine uptake by adenoma, relatively high "fixed" activities are often used. Alternatively, the activity is individually calculated upon the prescription of a fixed value of target absorbed dose. We evaluated the use of an algorithm for personalized radioiodine activity calculation, which allows as a rule the administration of lower radioiodine activities. Seventy-five patients with single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule eligible for 131I treatment were studied. The activities of 131I to be administered were estimated by the method described by Traino et al. and developed for Graves'disease, assuming selective and homogeneous 131I uptake by adenoma. The method takes into account 131I uptake and its effective half-life, target (adenoma) volume and its expected volume reduction during treatment. A comparison with the activities calculated by other dosimetric protocols, and the "fixed" activity method was performed. 131I uptake was measured by external counting, thyroid nodule volume by ultrasonography, thyroid hormones and TSH by ELISA. Remission of hyperthyroidism was observed in all but one patient; volume reduction of adenoma was closely similar to that assumed by our model. Effective half-life was highly variable in different patients, and critically affected dose calculation. The administered activities were clearly lower with respect to "fixed" activities and other protocols' prescription. The proposed algorithm proved to be effective also for single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule treatment and allowed a significant reduction of administered 131I activities, without loss of clinical efficacy.

  11. Removal of Sulfate from Waste Water by Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sadeq Salman

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon was Produced from coconut shell and was used for removing sulfate from industrial waste water in batch Processes. The influence of various parameter were studied such as pH (4.5 9.) , agitation time (0 120)min and adsorbent dose (2 10) gm.The Langmuir and frandlich adsorption capacity models were been investigated where showed there are fitting with langmmuir model with squre regression value ( 0.76). The percent of removal of sulfate (22% - 38%) at (PH=7) in the isotherm ...

  12. Assessment of active methods for removal of LEO debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakima, Houman; Emami, M. Reza

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of five active methods for removal of large low Earth orbit debris. The removal methods, namely net, laser, electrodynamic tether, ion beam shepherd, and robotic arm, are selected based on a set of high-level space mission constraints. Mission level criteria are then utilized to assess the performance of each redirection method in light of the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation provides an insight into the removal time, performance robustness, and propellant mass criteria for the targeted debris range. The remaining attributes are quantified based on the models provided in the literature, which take into account several important parameters pertaining to each removal method. The means of assigning attributes to each assessment criterion is discussed in detail. A systematic comparison is performed using two different assessment schemes: Analytical Hierarchy Process and utility-based approach. A third assessment technique, namely the potential-loss analysis, is utilized to highlight the effect of risks in each removal methods.

  13. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Liu, J.; Martens, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); and others

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity v{sub Rn} of radon and v{sub Xe} of xenon in the trap with v{sub Rn}/v{sub Xe}=(0.96{+-}0.10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at -85 Degree-Sign C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  14. Chemical activation of gasification carbon residue for phosphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpimaa, Sari; Runtti, Hanna; Lassi, Ulla; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of waste materials provides an economical and environmentally significant method to reduce the amount of waste. Bioash formed in the gasification process possesses a notable amount of unburned carbon and therefore it can be called a carbon residue. After chemical activation carbon residue could be use to replace activated carbon for example in wastewater purification processes. The effect of chemical activation process variables such as chemical agents and contact time in the chemical activation process were investigated. This study also explored the effectiveness of the chemically activated carbon residue for the removal of phosphate from an aqueous solution. The experimental adsorption study was performed in a batch reactor and the influence of adsorption time, initial phosphate concentration and pH was studied. Due to the carbon residue's low cost and high adsorption capacity, this type of waste has the potential to be utilised for the cost-effective removal of phosphate from wastewaters. Potential adsorbents could be prepared from these carbonaceous by-products and used as an adsorbent for phosphate removal.

  15. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M [Labelled Compounds Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of {omega} - (Br) or (I) fatty acids ({omega}) - Br or I-(C H{sub 2}){sub n} Co{sub 2} H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na{sup 13I} for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na{sup 131} I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs.

  16. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of ω - (Br) or (I) fatty acids (ω) - Br or I-(C H 2 ) n Co 2 H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na 13I for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na 131 I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs

  17. Radioiodine Therapy for Graves’ Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdomi, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of grave diseases include Antithyroid medications, Iodine-131 therapy and Surgery. First patient treated with radioiodine (Iodine-130) in 1941, while Iodine-131 therapy was introduced in 1946. Factors affecting treatment include Iodine uptake; Size of goitre; Length of time I-131 is retained in the gland; Homogeneity of distribution within the gland; Radiosensitivity of thyroid cells and Drug interactions. Some side effects include Transient sore throat or mild dysphagia; Exacerbation of ophthalmopathy; Radiation thyroiditis and no increase in incidence of thyroid cancer and Leukemia or other malignancies. There no harmful effect upon Health of progeny; Fertility and Reproductive history

  18. La3+-modified activated alumina for fluoride removal from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jiemin; Meng, Xiaoguang; Jing, Chuanyong; Hao, Jumin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A La 3+ -modified activated alumina adsorbent was prepared for effective removal F − . • SEM/EDS and EXAFS analyses determined the formation of La(OH) 3 coating on the AA. • The La-AA had much high adsorption rate and capacity than the AA. • The La-AA was promising adsorbent for effective removal of F − from water. - Abstract: A La 3+ -modified activated alumina (La-AA) adsorbent was prepared for effective removal of fluoride from water. The surface properties of adsorbent were characterized with zeta potential analysis, SEM-EDS and EXAFS. Batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate improvement of F − removal by the La-AA. SEM/EDS and EXAFS analyses determined the formation of La(OH) 3 coating on the AA and strong bonding interactions between La 3+ and the Al atoms. The points of zero charge (pH PZC ) of AA and La-AA were at pH 8.94 and 9.57, respectively. Batch experimental results indicated that the La-AA had much higher adsorption rate and capacity than the AA. The F − adsorption processes on La-AA and AA followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm. Column filtration results shows that the La-AA and AA treated 270 and 170 bed volumes of the F − -spiked tap water, respectively, before F − breakthrough occurred. The results demonstrated that the La-AA was a promising adsorbent for effective removal of F − from water

  19. Removal of Organic Micropollutants by Aerobic Activated Sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Nan

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the removal mechanism of non-acclimated and acclimated aerobic activated sludge for 29 target organic micropollutants (OMPs) at low concentration. The selection of the target OMPs represents a wide range of physical-chemical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge state as well as a diverse range of classes, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. The removal mechanisms of OMPs include adsorption, biodegradation, hydrolysis, and vaporization. Adsorption and biodegradation were found to be the main routes for OMPs removal for all target OMPs. Target OMPs responded to the two dominant removal routes in different ways: (1) complete adsorption, (2) strong biodegradation and weak adsorption, (3) medium biodegradation and adsorption, and (4) weak sorption and weak biodegradatio. Kinetic study showed that adsorption of atenolol, mathylparaben and propylparaben well followed first-order model (R2: 0.939 to 0.999) with the rate constants ranging from 0.519-7.092 h-1. For biodegradation kinetics, it was found that benzafibrate, bisphenol A, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine and DEET followed zero-order model (K0:1.15E-4 to 0.0142 μg/Lh-1, R2: 0.991 to 0.999), while TCEP, naproxen, dipehydramine, oxybenzone and sulfamethoxazole followed first-order model (K1:1.96E-4 to 0.101 h-1, R2: 0.912 to 0.996). 4 Inhibition by sodium azide (NaN3)and high temperature sterilization was compared, and it was found that high temperature sterilization will damage cells and change the sludge charge state. For the OMPs adaptation removal study, it was found that some of OMPs effluent concentration decreased, which may be due to the slow adaptation of the sludge or the increase of certain bacteria culture; some increased due to chromic toxicity of the chemicals; most of the OMPs had stable effluent concentration trend, it was explained that some of the OMPs were too difficutl to remove while other showed strong quick adaptation

  20. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the available data consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically-determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) -exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = λ/sub r/ - λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time or maximum uptake an the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptakes at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  1. Actinide removal from aqueous solution with activated magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochen, R.L.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    An actinide aqueous waste treatment process using activated magnetite has been developed at Rocky Flats. The use and effectiveness of various magnetites in lowering actinide concentrations in aqueous solution are described. Experiments indicate that magnetite particle size and pretreatment (activation of the magnetite surface with hydroxyl ions greatly influence the effective use of magnetite as an actinide adsorbent. With respect to actinide removal, Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was more effective over a broader pH range than was NaOH-activated magnetite. About 50% less Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was required to lower plutonium concentration from 10 -4 to 10 -8 g/l. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water Using Modified Activated Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosaferi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering contamination of drinking water to arsenic in some villages ofIran. In order to develop a simple method for household water treatment in rural areas, efficiency of  modified activated alumina with iron compounds- a product of Alcan Company with trade name of AAFS-50- was studied Equilibrium batch experiments were carried out using shaker incubator and arsenic was analyzed with SDDC method. Effects of initial concentration of arsenic, adsorbent dose, oxidation state of arsenic, pH and oxidation with chlorine on adsorption were studied. Correlation coefficient of Freundlich and Laungmuier  isotherms  for As(V and As(III were 0.964 , 0.991 and 0.970, 0.978 respectively . These results show that adsorption of arsenic on modified activated alumina is compatible with both models specially Laungmuier models. Removal efficiency of As(V at 0.5 ,1 and 2 hr increased with doubling the adsorbent dose from 44.8 to 72%, 69.6 to 90.8 and 92.4 to 98% ; respectively. Experiments using different concentrations of arsenic showed that adsorption of arsenic on activated alumina are a first order reaction that is, rate of reaction is dependent on intial; concentration of arsenic. Removal efficiency for concentration of 0.250 mg/L of arsenic, with increasing of reaction time from 15 min to 60 min, increased 1.54 times and reached from 61% to 94%. During 2hrs, removal of As(V and As(III were 96% and 16% respectively. Using 1.5 mg/L Chlorine as oxidant agent, removal of As(III was increased to 94%. In the case of pH effect, rate of adsorption increased for arsenite, with increasing of pH to 8 and decreased with more increasing, so that adsorption at pH 14 was equal to pH 2. For arsenate, the most adsorption was observed at pH between 6 to 8 . These results show that by using the studied activated alumina, there will not be need for adjustment of pH and the activated alumina used in this study could have application as a safe adsorbent for removal of

  3. Therapeutic outcome after radioiodine and surgery treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Zlatko P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate late follow-up results in surgery and radioiodine treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma and compare incidence of hypothyroidism and recurrence hyperthyroidism in treated patients. Material and Methods: We observed 93 treated patients (77 female, 26 male, age range 18-76 years) with adenoma toxicum. 29 (32.2 %) patients underwent surgery (adenectomia), while 64 (67.8 %) patients received 131 I therapy (555-1100 MBq).The long term results of the treatment were followed 1-15 years after therapy (median 9,2 years). Results: Recurrent hyperthyroidism occurred in 4/29 (13.8%) patients after surgery adenectomia in comparison to 5/64 (7.8 %) patients after radioiodine therapy. The patients after enucleation of autonomous nodule of the thyroid show increase incidence of late recurrent hyperthyroidism. These results are likely to be due to persistent functional autonomy in the parenchyma surrounding the autonomous adenoma. Apparently this persistent autonomy could be successfully removed by radioiodine. Appear of hypothyroidism was observed in 6/64 (9.3 %) patients treated with 131 I, while after surgery had in 3/29 (10.3 %) patients. Incidence of hypothyroidism between operated patients and radioiodine treated patients was approximately the same. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy is useful, economical and effective treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma that provides a safe protection in preventing late recurrent hyperthyroidism and is more successful therapy that surgery treatment. (author)

  4. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  5. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s

  6. Radioiodine uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of radioiodine by wheat, maize and peas from various types of soil have been studied. The uptake depends on the type of soil, on its content of organic matter and on the amount of fertilizer. Radioiodine is mainly accumulated in the roots. Accumulation in above-ground plant parts decreases in the following order: wheat, maize, peas. Uptake was highest from humus and clay soils and lowest from black and meadow soils. Application of chloride fertilizer or carrier iodine lead to an increase of radioiodine uptake in the whole plant. (author)

  7. Assessments of conversion coefficients between equivalent dose and accumulated activity using pre-dose scanning images of patients subjected to radioiodine treatment and the Fax/Egs4 computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Filho, Ferdinand de J.; Vieira, Jose W.; Andrade Lima, Fernando R. de

    2008-01-01

    The radioiodine is a technique for treatment of thyroid cancer. In this technique, the patients are submitted to the incorporation of the radioactive substance sodium iodide (Na 131 I), which reacts with physiologically metastasis, thyroid tissue remains of and other organs and tissues of the human body. The locations of these reactions are known as areas of highest concentration, hipercaptured areas, hiperconcentrator areas, 'hot areas' or organ-sources and are viewed through images of nuclear medicine scan known as pre-dose (front and rear). To obtain these images, the patient receives, orally, a quantity of 131 I with low activity (± 74 MBq) and is positioned in the chamber of flicker. According to the attendance of hot areas shown in the images, the doctor determines the nuclear activity to be administered in treatment. This analysis is purely qualitative. In this study, the scanning images of pre-dose were adjusted to the dimensions of FAX voxel phantom, and the hot areas correspond to internal sources of the proposed model. Algorithms were developed to generate particles (photons and electrons) in these regions of the FAX. To estimate the coefficients of conversions between equivalent dose and accumulated activity in major radiosensitive organs, FAX and algorithms source were coupled to the Monte Carlo EGS4 code (Electron Gamma Shower, version 4). With these factors is possible to estimate the equivalent doses in the radiosensitive organs and tissues of patients as long as is know the activity administered and the half-life of organic sources. (author)

  8. Technology Combination Analysis Tool (TCAT) for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, B.; Richard, M.; Salmon, T.; Pisseloup, A.; Cougnet, C.; Axthelm, R.; Saunder, C.; Dupont, C.; Lequette, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper present the work of the Swiss Space Center EPFL within the CNES-funded OTV-2 study. In order to find the most performant Active Debris Removal (ADR) mission architectures and technologies, a tool was developed in order to design and compare ADR spacecraft, and to plan ADR campaigns to remove large debris. Two types of architectures are considered to be efficient: the Chaser (single-debris spacecraft), the Mothership/ Kits (multiple-debris spacecraft). Both are able to perform controlled re-entry. The tool includes modules to optimise the launch dates and the order of capture, to design missions and spacecraft, and to select launch vehicles. The propulsion, power and structure subsystems are sized by the tool thanks to high-level parametric models whilst the other ones are defined by their mass and power consumption. Final results are still under investigation by the consortium but two concrete examples of the tool's outputs are presented in the paper.

  9. Variants and pitfalls on radioiodine scans in pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Mohamed; Vali, Reza; Chan, Jeffrey; Omarkhail, Yusuaf; Shammas, Amer [University of Toronto, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Medical Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Potentially false-positive findings on radioiodine scans in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma can mimic functioning thyroid tissue and functioning thyroid carcinomatous tissue. Such false-positive findings comprise variants and pitfalls that can vary slightly in children as compared with adults. To determine the patterns and frequency of these potential false-positive findings on radioiodine scans in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We reviewed a total of 223 radioiodine scans from 53 pediatric patients (mean age 13.3 years, 37 girls) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Focal or regional activity that likely did not represent functioning thyroid tissue or functioning thyroid carcinomatous tissue were categorized as variants or pitfalls. The final diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing the concurrent and follow-up clinical data, correlative ultrasonography, CT scanning, serum thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody levels. We calculated the frequency of these variants and pitfalls from diagnostic and post-therapy radioiodine scans. The most common variant on the radioiodine scans was the thymic activity (24/223, 10.8%) followed by the cardiac activity (8/223, 3.6%). Salivary contamination and star artifact, caused by prominent thyroid remnant, were the most important observed pitfalls. Variants and pitfalls that mimic functioning thyroid tissue or functioning thyroid carcinomatous tissue on radioiodine scan in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are not infrequent, but they decrease in frequency on successive radioiodine scans. Potential false-positive findings can be minimized with proper knowledge of the common variants and pitfalls in children and correlation with clinical, laboratory and imaging data. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of radioiodinated fatty acids for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Progress report, March 1, 1984-February 28, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were developed to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids and an iodovinyl derivative of 1-aminocyclobutane carboxylic acid. New methods were developed for introducing nitrogen and oxygen isotopes, bromine 77, fluorine 18, and carbon 11 into physiologically active materials. 22 references

  11. Activated carbons employed to remove ionic liquids from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Tufail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been separated from aqueous solutions by adsorption using a raw Chinese activated carbon (CAC), a bleached Chinese activated carbon (BAC) and an acid treated Chinese activated carbon (AAC) as adsorbent. Adsorption isotherms data of ionic liquids on activated carbons has been obtained. The influence of both cations and anions was analyzed by studying three different ILs. The role of surface chemistry of the adsorbent was also examined using activated carbons modified by oxidative treatments. The BET surface area of activated carbons was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The results of this work indicate that activated carbon is an attractive adsorbent to remove ionic liquids from water streams. It has also been demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophilic ionic liquids can be improved by modifying the amount and nature of oxygen groups on the activated carbon surface specially by increasing basic groups. The adsorption data for isotherms was studied at acidic, neutral and basic pH values. (author)

  12. Removal of target odorous molecules on to activated carbon cloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Leuch, L M; Subrenat, A; Le Cloirec, P

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon materials are adsorbents whose physico-chemical properties are interesting for the treatment of odorous compounds like hydrogen sulfide. Indeed, their structural parameters (pore structure) and surface chemistry (presence of heteroatoms such as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus) play an important role in H2S removal. The cloth texture of these adsorbents (activated carbon cloths) is particularly adapted for dealing with high flows, often found in the treatment of odor emissions. Thus, this paper first presents the influence of these parameters through adsorption isothermal curves performed on several materials. Secondly, tests in a dynamic system are described. They highlight the low critical thickness of the fabric compared to granular activated carbon.

  13. A review of age dependent radioiodine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Age dependent models of radioiodine metabolism in humans have been described. These models have been used to calculate age dependent committed doses to the thyroid from intakes of radioiodines. A model of fetal iodine metabolism is also described and used to calculate fetal thyroid doses from intakes of radioiodines by the mother. These doses are calculated using model parameter values thought to be representative of average for North American/European populations. Considerable variability from these results can be expected for individuals. In addition, population with significant differences in stable iodine intake, and in body parameters, will have model parameters somewhat different than the ones described in this paper. These different model parameters will result in different doses from intakes of radioiodines, but it is doubtful if the differences in population would be as large as the variation between individuals. 25 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  14. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  15. Recommendation for KIT-formulation of radioiodinated [{sup *}I] meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (M*IBG). Vol. 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M; El-Bayoumy, S [Radioisotope Production and Labelled Compounds Department, Cairo (Egypt); Zakareia, N [Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Department, Hot laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A recommended simple technique for preparation of radioiodinated [{sup *}I{sup -}] meta - iodobenzylguanidine (M{sup *} IBG) is presented. The technique is based on a schematic procedure for the synthesis of inactive M IBG using meta -iodo benzoic as substrate, results into a chemical yield of 80% as pure as M IBG 0.5 substrate, then recrystallized from water - ethyl alcohol as crystalline powder of M.P. 165 Degree C - 167 degree C. The radioiodination process is performed through an isotropic exchange reaction between the inactive M IBG and radioiodine as iodine ion ({sup *}I{sup -}) in 0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.2 - 4.25 at 100 degree C within 30 min in the presence of metal as exchange catalyst. Following these processes, the reaction solution is allowed for purification by passing it through an AgCl - impregnated filter to remove the unreacted radioiodine as Ag{sup *}I (5%). According of these results and reaction conditions it was possible to develop a technology for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated M{sup *} IBG using the currently used short - lived radioiodine nuclides by a simple kit like - type technique, where the radiochemical yield % is 95 - 99% as pure as M{sup *} IBG. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Recommendation for KIT-formulation of radioiodinated [*I] meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (M*IBG). Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.; El-Bayoumy, S.; Zakareia, N.

    1996-01-01

    A recommended simple technique for preparation of radioiodinated [ * I - ] meta - iodobenzylguanidine (M * IBG) is presented. The technique is based on a schematic procedure for the synthesis of inactive M IBG using meta -iodo benzoic as substrate, results into a chemical yield of 80% as pure as M IBG 0.5 substrate, then recrystallized from water - ethyl alcohol as crystalline powder of M.P. 165 Degree C - 167 degree C. The radioiodination process is performed through an isotropic exchange reaction between the inactive M IBG and radioiodine as iodine ion ( * I - ) in 0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.2 - 4.25 at 100 degree C within 30 min in the presence of metal as exchange catalyst. Following these processes, the reaction solution is allowed for purification by passing it through an AgCl - impregnated filter to remove the unreacted radioiodine as Ag * I (5%). According of these results and reaction conditions it was possible to develop a technology for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated M * IBG using the currently used short - lived radioiodine nuclides by a simple kit like - type technique, where the radiochemical yield % is 95 - 99% as pure as M * IBG. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Radioiodine treatment for pediatric hyperthyroid Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ma; Jiawei, Xie; Guoming, Wang; Jianbin, Liu; Wanxia, Liu; Driedger, Al; Shuyao, Zuo; Qin, Zhang

    2009-10-01

    Grave's disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Treatment for pediatric GD includes (1) antithyroid drugs (ATD), (2) radioiodine, and (3) thyroidectomy. Yet, the optimal therapy remains controversial. We collected studies from all electronically available sources as well as from conferences held in China. All studies using radioiodine and/or ATD and/or thyroidectomy were included. Information was found on 1,874 pediatric GD patients treated with radioiodine, 1,279 patients treated with ATD and 1,362 patients treated surgically. The cure rate for radioiodine was 49.8%; the incidence of hypothyroidism, 37.8%; of relapse, 6.3%; of adverse effects, 1.55%; and of drop outs, 0.6%. These data show that radioiodine treatment is safe and effective in pediatric GD with significant lower incidence of relapse and adverse effects but significantly higher incidence of hypothyroidism as compared with both ATD and thyroidectomy. For the time being, radioiodine treatment for pediatric GD remains an excellent first-line therapy and a good second-line therapy for patients with ATD failure, severe complications, or poor compliance.

  18. Removal of toxic chemicals from water with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Activated carbon was effective in removing fish toxicants and anesthetics from water solutions. Its capacity to adsorb 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), antimycin, NoxfishA? (5% rotenone), Dibrorms, juglone, MSa??222, and benzocaine ranged from 0.1 to 64 mg per gram of carbon. The adsorptive capacity (end point considered as a significant discharge) of activated carbon for removal of TFM was determined at column depths of 15, 30, and 60 cm; temperatures of 7, 12, 17, and 22 C; pH's of 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5; and flow rates of 50, 78, 100, 200, and 940 ml/min. Adsorptive capacity increased when the contact time was increased by reducing the flow rate or increasing the column depth. The adsorptive capacity was not significantly influenced by temperature but was substantially higher at pH 6.5 than at the other pH's tested. A practical and efficient filter for purifying chemically treated water was developed.

  19. APPLICATION OF POWDERY ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR REMOVAL IBUPROFEN FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Puszkarewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies on the use of adsorptive properties of selected powdered activated carbons (Norit SA Super and Carbopol MB5 for removal of ibuprofen from water. The tests were performed on non-flow conditions, series depending on the type and dose of powdered adsorbents. The research was carried out on a model solution of ibuprofen at initial concentration C0 = 20 mg/dm3, at 200 C. Froundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used. Lagergrene kinetic models (PFO and Ho (PSO were used to describe adsorption kinetics. Both carbons exhibited a higher affinity for the adsorbent at a pH above 7. The better adsorbent was the Norit SA Super, for which, the highest adsorption capacity q = 0.448 g/g was achieved with dose D = 35 mg/dm3. The effectiveness of adsorption (decrease of ibuprofen in water was 78%. Total removal of ibuprofen was obtained for a dose of carbon D = 200 mg/dm3. With respect to Carbopol, the highest adsorption capacity (q = 0.353 g / g was achieved at a dose of 30 mg / dm3, resulting in a 53% efficiency. Studies have shown that both tested powdered activated carbons have contributed to effective cleaning of aqueous solutions containing ibuprofen.

  20. Production of radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect protein labeling; Obtencao de grupamento prostetico radioiodado para marcacao de proteinas por via indireta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2001-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments and, more recently, radiolabeled peptides have been extensively studied in order to develop radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The radioiodination of proteins can be done by a direct method, with radioiodine being incorporated in to a tyrosine residue of the protein by electrophilic substitution. The main problem in the use of radioiodinated proteins, is that they are often dehalogenated in vivo by the action of specific enzymes, probably because of the structural similarity between iodophenyl groups and thyroid hormones. Several protein radioiodination methods have been developed in order to minimize this in vivo dehalogenation using prosthetic groups for indirect labeling. In this case, the radioiodine is first incorporated in to the prosthetic group that is subsequently attached to a terminal amino group or to a {epsilon}-amino group of lysine residue. The aim of this work is to obtain a radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect labeling of proteins. The prosthetic group selected was the N-succinimidyl-4-radioiodine benzoate (SIB), obtained by the iodination of the p-bromobenzoic acid followed by the reaction with TSTU (0-(N-succinimidyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl uronium tetrafluoroborate) The results of these studies showed that the p-radio iodobenzoic acid was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 92% and a labeling yield of about 65%. Some reaction parameters were studied like temperature, time and Cu Cl mass (cataliser). The SIB was quantitatively obtained from p-radio iodobenzoic acid, using basic medium and after removing the water from the reaction using an nitrogen stream. The kinetic of this reaction is very fast with complete consumption of the p-radioiodebenzoic acid after 5 minutes. The coupling of the SIB prosthetic group to the protein was studied using Human Immunoglobulin (IgG) as a protein model. In a comparative way, the same protein was used on

  1. An engagement factor for caregiver radiation dose assessment with radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Kuk; Hong, Seong Jong; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Jung, Jae Won; Kim, Seong Min; Kang, Yun-Hee; Han, Man Seok

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to suggest ways to better manage thyroid cancer patients treated with high- and low-activity radioiodine ( 131 I) by assessing external radiation doses to family members and caregivers and the level of radiation in the surrounding environment. The radiation doses to caregivers of 33 inpatients (who were quarantined in the hospital for 2-3 d after treatment) and 31 outpatients who received radioiodine treatment after thyroidectomy were measured using passive thermoluminescence dosemeters. In this study, 33 inpatients were administered high-activity (100-200 mCi) 131 I, and 31 outpatients were administered low-activity (30 mCi) 131 I. The average doses to caregivers were measured at 0.61 mSv for outpatients and 0.16 mSv for inpatients. The total integrated dose of the recovery (recuperation) rooms where the patients stayed after release from hospital was measured to be 0.83 mSv for outpatients and 0.23 mSv for inpatients. To reflect the degree of engagement between the caregiver and the patient, considering the duration and distance between two during exposure, the authors used the engagement factor introduced by Jeong et al. (Estimation of external radiation dose to caregivers of patients treated with radioiodine after thyroidectomy. Health Phys 2014;106:466-474.). This study presents a new engagement factor (K-value) of 0.82 obtained from the radiation doses to caregivers of both in- and out-patients treated with high- and low-activity radioiodine, and based on this new value, this study presented a new predicted dose for caregivers. A patient treated with high-activity radioiodine can be released after 24 h of isolation, whereas outpatients treated with low-activity radioiodine should be isolated for at least 12 h. (authors)

  2. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease - A retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, B.R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Dutta, P.; Bhansali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine is a safe form of treatment for all patients with primary hyperthyroidism. The thyroid's unique capacity to store iodine (thus also radioiodine) makes it a natural target for radioiodine therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of radioiodine therapy in a cohort of 151 patients of primary hyperthyroidism treated on an outpatient basis in our institute from January 2001 to November 2006. Of these 151 patients, 113 (38 male, 75 female; age range: 17- 65 years) were of Graves' disease. The median duration of symptoms in these patients was 4 years. (Range: 3 months to 20 years). Diagnosis was established on basis of clinical, biochemical and scintigraphic features. All the patients were treated medically with Neomercazole (Carbimazole) for varying durations (median 3.5 years). The dose range varied from 5 to 80 mg per day (median 20 mg per day). Clinical assessment of thyroid size revealed 39 patients with grade 0, 14 with grade 1, 30 with grade 2, and 30 with grade 3 goiters. Pre-therapy radioactive iodine uptake was done in 28 patients, which showed median values of 50 % at 4 hrs, 57.45 % at 24 hrs, and 56.2 % at 48 hrs respectively. These patients were treated empirically with I-131 in a dose range of 5 to 15 mCi, depending upon the clinical presentation and the RAIU values. Remission of symptoms with a single dose therapy was noticed in 68 patients. Of the 83 patients, 15 became hypothyroid within 3 months. These patients were on Neomercazole for a varying period of 2 to 20 years, at a dose range of 10 to 80 mg per day. 14 patients achieved remission after 2 doses with a cumulative RAI dose in the range of 10 to 19 mCi, at a median period of 7 to 24 months. Eight patients still showed hyperthyroid activity even after a second dose and are on follow-up. Seven patients achieved remission with a cumulative dose range of 17 to 35 mCi at a median duration of 10 months. One patient of Graves' disease who took Neomercazole for 10 years, at

  3. Dosimetry in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases. Background and practice; Dosimetrie bei Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankungen. Hintergrund und Durchfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockisch, A.; Sonnenschein, W.; Jentzen, W.; Hartung, V.; Goerges, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases (focal = [toxic adenoma], multifocal, disseminated autonomy, Grave's disease or clinical relevant goitre) needs to be and can be performed individually for each patient. Most frequently a radioiodine test is performed applying a small activity of iodine-131 ({sup 131}I). The paper discusses some protocols for pre- or posttherapeutic dosimetry and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. All are based on the volumetry of the target tissue as well as the radioiodine kinetics in the target volume what may be represented by maximum uptake and half life of iodine retention in the thyroid. Possible disturbances and measuring uncertainties of these parameters are presented and discussed. In spite of the discussed uncertainties in dosimetry, due to its high therapeutic width radioiodine therapy is a very successful procedure to cure hyperthyroidism or to reduce goitre volume with only little side effects. (orig.)

  4. Radiostatine and radioiodine uptake characterization in sodium iodine symporter-expressing cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrich, T.; Helmeke, H.J.; Meyer, G.J.; Knapp, W.H.; Poetter, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for cancer gene therapy. Here we investigated NIS-mediated transport of the high LET α-emitter astatine, 211 At, in comparison to radioiodine. A constitutive expression vector harbouring the human NIS cDNA was used in combination with reporter gene vectors for transient transfection of 13 different human cancer cell lines. Radioiodine uptake was measured as well as transfection efficiencies. Six stable NIS-expressing cell lines (3 derived from thyroid carcinomas, 2 colon carcinoma, 1 glioblastoma) were generated by antibiotic selection. NIS expression was monitored by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Subsequently the radioastatine and radioiodine uptake characteristics of genetically modified cells were studied in comparison to the respective control cells. After xenotransplantation in nude mice in vivo tumor imaging by scintigraphy and biodistribution studies following organ removal were performed. Transient transfection of NIS cDNA led to high specific sodium perchlorate-sensitive radioiodine uptake in NIS-expressing cells that roughly correlates to transfection efficiencies. Similarly, stable NIS-expressing cell lines were able to concentrate high levels of radioiodine and in addition showed comparable transport capacity for radioastatine. Accumulation of 211 At was inhibited by sodium perchlorate like iodide uptake and displayed dependency an extracellular Na + - and I - -ions as well. Compared to wash-out experiments in cell culture the effective half life of radioiodine and radioastatine in vivo was significantly prolonged. Preliminary dose calculations by MIRD concepts indicated higher tumor radiation doses for 211 At compared to 131 I. Tumor cells of different origins transfected with the NIS-expression vector specifically and significantly take-up radioiodine and radioastatine in vitro and in vivo. The data provide direct evidence that the NIS efficiently transports

  5. Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modelling studies have suggested that the commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward. Fifty-four years after the launch of Sputnik 1, satellites have become an integral part of human society. Unfortunately, the ongoing space activities have left behind an undesirable byproduct orbital debris. This environment problem is threatening the current and future space activities. On average, two Shuttle window panels are replaced after every mission due to damage by micrometeoroid or orbital debris impacts. More than 100 collision avoidance maneuvers were conducted by satellite operators in 2010 to reduce the impact risks of their satellites with respect to objects in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. Of the four known accident collisions between objects in the SSN catalog, the last one, collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009, was the most significant. It was the first ever accidental catastrophic destruction of an operational satellite by another satellite. It also signaled the potential collision cascade effect in the environment, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome," predicted by Kessler and Cour-Palais in 1978 [1]. Figure 1 shows the historical increase of objects in the SSN catalog. The majority of the catalog objects are 10 cm and larger. As of April 2011, the total objects tracked by the SSN sensors were more than 22,000. However, approximately 6000 of

  6. Removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions using activated granular Carbon and activated vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Din, M.R.; Atta, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of both activated granular carbon (AGC) and activated vermiculite (AV) in removal of phenol from aqueous waste solutions is of great interest. The aim of the present study is to compare the absorbance capacities of both AGC and AV for the removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions and to identify the factors affecting the sorption process. The experimental results were in the form of batch sorption measurements for the removal of phenol at ambient temperature (29 ± 1 degree C) and for times up to 40 min and 180 min for AGC and AV, respectively. The results indicated that activated carbon has good efficiency to adsorb phenol. Freundlich equation has been fitted to both AGC and AV for the contaminant removal. The adsorption capacities of both AGC and AV to phenol were 17.4 mg g-1 and 4.5 mg g-1, respectively. The maximum desorption percent of phenol from both loaded AGC and loaded AV were 9 % and 0 %, respectively, and it attained within about 200 min. accordingly, it is recommended that activated carbon is preferred in the applied field for removing phenol from radioactive aqueous wastes

  7. Active Debris Removal mission design in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Th.; Pérot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.

    2013-03-01

    Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ― defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ― from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (˜500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.

  8. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients. The...

  9. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [ 123 I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [ 123 I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [ 123 I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  10. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Critical analysis of radioiodination techniques for micro and macro organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid Mushtaq; Jongho Jeon; Beom Su Jang; Sang Hyun Park; Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon; Aqeela Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    A variety of radioiodination methods is available in the literature depending upon the nature of organic compound to be labeled, however only few can completely fulfill manufacturing requirements.Ideally a selected method should be one which offers maximum benefits like regioselectivity, minimum reaction steps, minimum reaction time, high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. In this review radioiodination techniques were critically analyzed. Advantages, drawbacks, possible mode of action and special reaction conditions required to get high radiochemical yield were taken into account. The influence of iodine introduction on physicochemical properties, in vivo or in vitro pharmacological properties of pharmaceutical due to increase of lipophilicity were discussed along with examples. (author)

  12. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Eschner, W.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Koeln Univ.; Lassmann, M.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Wuerzburg Univ.; Leisner, B.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg; Reiners, C.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The version 3 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline previously published in 2003. The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium-iodine crystal, alternatively or additionally the gamma camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodine in vitamin- and electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.)

  13. The Chernobyl accident: Thyroid exposure among the population due to radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilin, Yu I; Shinkarev, S M [Biophysics Inst., Russian Federation State Science Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stepanenko, V F [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Domaratskij, V P; Moroz, G L [Scientific Research Inst. for Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hrushtch, V T [State Scientific Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Different aspects of internal and external exposure to thyroid of inhabitants from the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine are discussed in the paper. In the case of consumption of contaminated foods contribution to total absorbed dose from internal radioiodine exposure was more than 90%, otherwise (in the case of only inhalation radioiodine intake), not lesser than 85%. {sup 131}I exposure to thyroid was the main contribution to internal exposure, and exposure to thyroid from short-lived radioiodines was significant only for the inhabitants who did not consume contaminated foods. Peculiarities of formation of ``measured`` doses are considered. Semiempirical model of relationships between the average internal thyroid dose received by people in the rural settlements and the ground-deposition density of radionuclides in these settlements is presented. It has been indicated the necessity of intensification of {sup 129}I measurements in soil. Practical efficiency of used countermeasures for majority people to reduce radioiodine intake is estimated as high as approximately 2 times and caused mainly by removing people from contaminated areas. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Advanced biological activated carbon filter for removing pharmaceutically active compounds from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Luca; Comas, Joaquim; Fenu, Alessio; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2018-04-28

    Through their release of effluents, conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a major pollution point sources for pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in water bodies. The combination of a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) unit was evaluated as an advanced treatment for PhACs removal at pilot scale. The BAC-UF pilot plant was monitored for one year. The biological activity of the biofilm that developed on the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles and the contribution of this biofilm to the overall removal of PhACs were evaluated. Two different phases were observed during the long-term monitoring of PhACs removal. During the first 9200 bed volumes (BV; i.e., before GAC saturation), 89, 78, 83 and 79% of beta-blockers, psychiatric drugs, antibiotics and a mix of other therapeutic groups were removed, respectively. The second phase was characterized by deterioration of the overall performances during the period between 9200 and 13,800 BV. To quantify the respective contribution of adsorption and biodegradation, a lab-scale setup was operated for four months and highlighted the essential role played by GAC in biofiltration units. Physical adsorption was indeed the main removal mechanism. Nevertheless, a significant contribution due to biological activity was detected for some PhACs. The biofilm contributed to the removal of 22, 25, 30, 32 and 35% of ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, ofloxacin, azithromycin and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%

  16. A review of available countermeasures to reduce radioiodine transfer to milk. With special regard to the use of stable iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.

    1993-03-01

    rate for different species of ruminants in the UK. Other compounds are available, such as perchlorate and thiocyanate, which also reduce the transfer to radioiodine to milk. Some of these compounds seem to be equally as effective as stable iodine and also reduce thyroid uptake of radioiodine. However, currently there is inadequate information on the dose response, the effect of the comparative timing of contamination and treatment on the rate of transfer of the compounds into milk and the possible side effects when ingested by humans. In sheep and goats the mammary gland is particularly effective in actively transporting iodide from the plasma to the milk and therefore milk and dairy products from these smaller ruminants will be more highly contaminated with radioiodine than that from dairy cows. Given the high rates of transfer to milk of these smaller animals the use of additives to reduce contamination might be most appropriate for these ruminants. (author)

  17. Can dosimetry help to predict euthyroidism after 131I radioiodine treatment of solitary thyroid nodule?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanjeti, A.; Pia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: recent SNM guidelines suggest to administer 3-8 MBq for each gram of thyroid tissue in order to reach a non hyperthyroid status, while EANM guidelines suggest to reach a dose of 100-400 Gy depending on type of disease. This second point of view is based on the principle that dosimetry, i.e. the metabolism of radioiodine within the thyroid can determine the outcome of radiation in the gland. However, although reasonable, it has not been shown unequivocally that dosimetry allows better outcome. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether dosimetry and parameters that consent a dose evaluation can be useful in order to predict outcome in hyperthyroid patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with radioiodine. Material and methods. Thirty-one consecutive patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with 131 I radioiodine were included. In 27 patients euthyroidism was durably reached during the follow up, while in 4 hypothyroid state was the final outcome. All of them underwent Radioiodine Uptake Test (RUT) with 5 measurements (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h), thyroid scintigraphy to estimate gland mass and radioiodine administration. Bi-compartmental model was used to estimate residence time and dose was estimated according to EANM guidelines based on administered activities of radioiodine. Uptake at 6 h, uptake at 24 h, mass gland, dose, age, residence time, activity and activity/mass were compared in patients with stable euthyroidism versus patients with hypothyroidism in the follow up. Results: only uptake at 6 h was different in these groups of patients (p=0.05 at Welch t-test), the logistic regression seemed to confirm the significant correlation (p=0.08) between uptake at 6 h and outcome of the treatment. The other parameters were not significantly correlated with the treatment effect. Conclusion: this pilot study, performed in a very small population, did not show any significant

  18. Cost-effectiveness-analysis: radioiodine or antithyroid drugs as first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Dederichs, B.; Schicha, H.; Hunsche, E.; Lauterbach, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: As first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease antithyroid drugs are favoured in Europe, while radioiodine therapy is favoured in the USA. Radioiodine therapy has become more economic in Germany since the new recommendations by the Federal German Radiation Protection Committee (SSK) for patient discharge guidelines. Method: Sensitivity analyses took into account the long-term relapse rate of conservative or radioiodine therapy, use of diagnostic tests, level of health insurance, drops in productivity and a discount factor. Costing models included the costs of follow-up care over 30 years. The costs of the hospitalisation for radioiodine therapy were calculated for 300 patients, discharged with 250 MBq I-131 residual activity. Result: Antithyroid drugs were considered cost-effective when they achieved relapse rate of 50% or less, a cut in the number of tests needed and reduced working hours. Failure to meet any one of these conditions makes primary radioiodine therapy more cost-effective in 1593 of 1944 calculated costing models. Repeated conservative therapies will increase clearly the overall costs. Conclusion: Radioiodine is a cost-effective, first-line therapy in patients with a special risk of relapse after primary conservative therapy (goitre, younger patient, persistent elevated TSH-receptor-antibodies or Tc-uptake). (orig.) [de

  19. Vision-based Ground Test for Active Debris Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous space development by mankind, the number of space objects including space debris in orbits around the Earth has increased, and accordingly, difficulties of space development and activities are expected in the near future. In this study, among the stages for space debris removal, the implementation of a vision-based approach technique for approaching space debris from a far-range rendezvous state to a proximity state, and the ground test performance results were described. For the vision-based object tracking, the CAM-shift algorithm with high speed and strong performance, and the Kalman filter were combined and utilized. For measuring the distance to a tracking object, a stereo camera was used. For the construction of a low-cost space environment simulation test bed, a sun simulator was used, and in the case of the platform for approaching, a two-dimensional mobile robot was used. The tracking status was examined while changing the position of the sun simulator, and the results indicated that the CAM-shift showed a tracking rate of about 87% and the relative distance could be measured down to 0.9 m. In addition, considerations for future space environment simulation tests were proposed.

  20. Removal of cadmium and lead from water by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Shafy, H.I.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; El-Gamal, I.M.; Abo-El-Wafa, O.

    1989-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium and lead from water by carbon was studied using powdered or granular carbon. The studied water artificially contaminated by cadmium and lead amounting to 1 mg/dm 3 each. Batch as well as continuous system were carried out. The batch system was used to determine the time to maintain equilibrium followed by adsorption isotherm. Results obtained by using the powered carbon were found to match with Freundlich's equation where 1/n was 2.12 and 2.096 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Corresponding constants (K) were 4.2·10 -2 and 76.0·10 -2 . The amount of powdered activated carbon required to reduce residual Cd and Pb concentration to 0.01 mg/dm 3 for each are 26.98 and 2.86 mg, respectively. Similar batch system study was carried out for the granular carbon. When granular carbon was used in a continuous system, two different contact times, namely 10 to 20 min were examined. The results obtained showed that increasing the contact time from 10 to 20 min increases the metal to carbon removal efficiency. The overall results indicated that the breakthrough point for either Cd or Pb is the reverse of their adsorption as indicated by K value. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Characteristics of activated carbon remove sulfur particles against smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Furuta, Yuzo; Peng, Wanxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur particles, which could cause diseases, were the main powder of smog. And activated carbon had the very adsorption characteristics. Therefore, five sulfur particles were adsorbed by activated carbon and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal adsorption time were 120 min of Na 2 SO 3 , 120 min of Na 2 S 2 O 8 , 120 min of Na 2 SO 4 , 120 min of Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and 120 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that activated carbon had the eight characteristic absorption of S-S stretch, H 2 O stretch, O-H stretch, -C-H stretch, conjugated C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 O stretch or CC stretch, CH 2 bend, C-O stretch and acetylenic C-H bend vibrations at 3850 cm -1 , 3740 cm -1 , 3430 cm -1 , 2920 cm -1 , 1630 cm -1 , 1390 cm -1 , 1110 cm -1 and 600 cm -1 , respectively. For Na 2 SO 3 , the peaks at 2920 cm -1 , 1630 cm -1 , 1390 cm -1 and 1110 cm -1 achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na 2 S 2 O 8 , the peaks at 3850 cm -1 , 3740 cm -1 and 2920 cm -1 achieved the maximum at 60 min. The peaks at 1390 cm -1 , 1110 cm -1 and 600 cm -1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na 2 SO 4 , the peaks at 3430 cm -1 , 2920 cm -1 , 1630 cm -1 , 1390 cm -1 , 1110 cm -1 and 600 cm -1 achieved the maximum at 60 min. For Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , the peaks at 1390 cm -1 , 1110 cm -1 and 600 cm -1 achieved the maximum at 20 min. For S, the peaks at 1630 cm -1 , 1390 cm -1 and 600 cm -1 achieved the maximum at 120 min. It provided that activated carbon could remove sulfur particles from smog air to restrain many anaphylactic diseases.

  2. Characterization of radioiodine therapy failures in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Schreckenberger, M.; Reinartz, P.; Nowak, B.; Ostwald, E.; Schaefer, W.; Block, S.; Setani, K.; Buell, U.

    2001-01-01

    Aim of this study was a characterization of radioiodine therapy (RIT) failures in Graves' disease without simultaneous carbimazole. Method: 226 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Graves' disease received 686.8 ± 376.4 MBq of iodine-131 orally for thyroid ablation. Target dose was 250 Gy. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Therapy failures were compared with successes regarding possible influencing variables initial thyroid volume, thyroid function, immune activity (TRAb), I-131 uptake, effective half-life, absorbed energy dose, age and gender. Results: 212 of 226 patients (93.8%) were treated successfully, 14 (6.2%) showed a hyperthyroidism relapse within 6 months which required a second radioiodine therapy. A success rate of 92.5% (62/67) could also be achieved with 67 patients who were hyperthyroid at the time of RIT. Compared to the therapy successes, the 14 failures achieved significantly lower absorbed doses (223.8 ± 76.6 Gy vs. 285.2 ± 82.1 Gy, p 0.2). Of the 14 failures, n = 8 reached an absorbed dose 250 Gy. Stepwise logistic regression revealed only absorbed energy dose as a variable significantly influencing therapy success (p 0.2) or gender (p = 0.13). Two-tailed Fisher's exact test showed no significant influence of gender on success rates (failures/successes: male 1/36, female 13/176, p = 0.48). Conclusions: Except for the absorbed energy dose, no other significant variable influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease without simultaneous carbimazole could be found. It should be noted, though, that 5 therapy failures (2.2%) reached an absorbed energy dose of >250 Gy. (orig.) [de

  3. Active methods of mercury removal from flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Marta; Budzyń, Stanisław; Szczurowski, Jakub; Kogut, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2018-03-23

    Due to its adverse impact on health, as well as its global distribution, long atmospheric lifetime and propensity for deposition in the aquatic environment and in living tissue, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has classified mercury and its compounds as a severe air quality threat. Such widespread presence of mercury in the environment originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Global anthropogenic emission of mercury is evaluated at 2000 Mg year -1 . According to the National Centre for Emissions Management (Pol. KOBiZE) report for 2014, Polish annual mercury emissions amount to approximately 10 Mg. Over 90% of mercury emissions in Poland originate from combustion of coal.The purpose of this paper was to understand mercury behaviour during sub-bituminous coal and lignite combustion for flue gas purification in terms of reduction of emissions by active methods. The average mercury content in Polish sub-bituminous coal and lignite was 103.7 and 443.5 μg kg -1 . The concentration of mercury in flue gases emitted into the atmosphere was 5.3 μg m -3 for sub-bituminous coal and 17.5 μg m -3 for lignite. The study analysed six low-cost sorbents with the average achieved efficiency of mercury removal from 30.6 to 92.9% for sub-bituminous coal and 22.8 to 80.3% for lignite combustion. Also, the effect of coke dust grain size was examined for mercury sorptive properties. The fine fraction of coke dust (CD) adsorbed within 243-277 μg Hg kg -1 , while the largest fraction at only 95 μg Hg kg -1 . The CD fraction physical oxidation of Hg in the flue gas, its effectiveness has increased twofold.

  4. Government-industry conference on airborne radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Working Group on Airborne Radioiodine met at AEC Headquarters on March 28, 1974. Dr. Alex Perge gave the introduction for the Division of Waste Management and Transportation, noting the Commission hopes that private industry will take a bigger share in the future in funding and initiating needed research; that there should be a greater effort in the direction of reducing the quantity of material that becomes contaminated as an avenue toward reducing the airborne radioiodine problem, and toward reducing the waste generated to a form suitable for direct storage; and that the Commission must ensure valid bases for future regulations governing airborne releases and contamination. Dr. First discussed the background of the review committee and its outgrowth from the earlier organization meeting. He noted that its function will be the coordination of efforts concerned with the radioiodine problem and the dissemination of information and research data. A major objective of this meeting was to identify subjects for discussion at the Government-Industry Conference of Adsorbers and Adsorbents which will be held in conjunction with the 13th AEC Air Cleaning Conference in August. Mr. Dempsey noted that the gaseous effluent program had been inherited by WMT from the Division of Operational Safety, and that an important function of these continuing meetings of the Working Group will be to guide WMT in the expenditure of funds and assignment of research related to the radioiodine problem. (U.S.)

  5. Immobilization of radioiodine in synthetic boracite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babad, H.; Strachan, D.M.

    1982-09-23

    A nuclear waste storage product is disclosed in which radioiodine is incorporated in a synthetic boracite. The boracite may be prepared by reacting a transition metal iodide with an alkali horate under mild hydrothermal conditions, drying the reaction product, and then hot pressing.

  6. Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F.; Unterholzner, S.; Diebold, J.; Knesewitsch, P.; Hahn, K.; Spitzweg, C.

    2006-01-01

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer. In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy 131 I scan following radioiodine therapy. CT and MR-mammography showed a focal solid lesion in the right breast suggestive of a fibroadenoma, which was confirmed by histological examination. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts. In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy 131 I scan. These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast

  7. Pesticide removal by combined ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Since the seventies, new water treatment processes have been introduced in the production of drinking water from surface water. Their major aim was to adequately cope with the disinfection of this water, and/or with the removal of pesticides and other organic micropollutants from it. This

  8. Assessments of whole body scan images (PCI) obtained in patients undergoing treatment of radioiodine (pre and post-treatment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fernanda Karolina Mendonca da; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand de Jesus; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Souza, Milena Thays Barbosa de

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty used for diagnosis and therapy of some diseases. For the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) Radioiodine therapy is employed, in order to eliminate the rest of thyroid tissue after removal of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). In radioiodine therapy is used radioisotope iodine-131 ( 131 I) as Sodium Iodide (NaI). The amount of the activity (dose) of 131 I administered is generally the responsibility of nuclear medicine, which is based on an image Research Length of the patient (pre-dose therapy PCI). PCI is also used after treatment (post-PCI therapeutic dose) to evaluate possible metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of biokinetic 131 I at length and in some organs of the patient, in order to note any similarity. Exams PCI pre-dose and post-dose were analyzed, the anterior and posterior projections of ten patients. Contours in these images (ROI - Region Of Interest) were made in the whole body and in areas with high uptake of 131 I. The total score was used in the calculation to obtain the percentage distribution of 13I in the organs of the patient. The results showed that there similarity on the biodistribution of 131 I between pre-dose and post-dose PCI. Therefore, it was found that it is valuable images of PCI pre-dose therapy as a way to assist the nuclear medicine physician in choosing the best activity to be administered to the patient in order to minimize the dose to adjacent organs. (author)

  9. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Moser, E.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, P.; Schober, O.

    2007-01-01

    Version 4 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases includes an interdisciplinary consensus ondecision making for antithyroid drugs, surgical treatment and radioiodine therapy. The quantitative description of a specific goiter volume for radioiodine therapy or operation was cancelled. For patients with nodular goiter with or without autonomy, manifold circumstances are in favor of surgery (suspicion on malignancy, large cystic nodules, mediastinal goiter, severe compression of the trachea) or in favor of radioiodine therapy (treatment of autonomy, age of patient, co-morbidity, history of prior subtotal thyroidectomy, profession like teacher, speaker or singer). For patients with Graves' disease, radioiodine therapy or surgery are recommended in the constellation of high risk of relapse (first-line therapy), persistence of hyperthyroidism or relapse of hyperthyroidism. After counseling, the patient gives informed consent to the preferred therapy. The period after radioiodine therapy of benign disorders until conception of at least four months was adapted to the European recommendation. (orig.)

  10. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro; Contreras, Edgardo M.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2

  11. A change of in vivo characteristics depending on specific activity of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] as a ligand for sigma receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Tsuji, Shiro; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    The radioiodinated (+)-p-iodovesamicol [(+)-pIV], which shows a high binding affinity for sigma-1 (σ-1) receptors, is prepared by an exchange reaction. The specific activity (SA) is fairly low and therefore is insufficient for clinical use. In this study, we prepared (+)-[ 125 I]pIV with a high SA from tributylstannyl precursor and compared the in vivo characteristics between high and low SA by imaging σ-1 receptors in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, a difference in brain accumulation was observed between the two methods. At 30 min postinjection, the brain accumulation (1.58%ID/g) of low SA [0.6-1.1 TBq/mmol (16-30 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was higher than that (1.34%ID/g) of high SA [>88.8 TBq/mmol (>2400 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. In the blocking study, the brain uptake of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was reduced more significantly by the coadministration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 than that of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. These results showed that nonspecific binding of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV in the brain was lower than that of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV, and high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV bound more specifically to σ-1 receptors in the brain than low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. In contrast, in the blood-binding study, high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (58.4%) bound to blood cells with higher affinity than low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (46.0%). In metabolite studies, blood metabolites of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (57.3±3.5%) were higher than those of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (45.5±4.1%) at 30 min postinjection. Higher SA may be apt to bind to blood cells with higher affinity and to be metabolized faster

  12. Improved radioiodination of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-IPPA via a tributyltin intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Kropp, J.; Knapp, F.F.

    1999-01-01

    1,2-Palmitoyl-3-[15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl]-rac-glyceroI (MIPAG) is a new agent for the clinical evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity and has demonstrated promise in preliminary clinical studies with patients affected with pancreatic insufficiency. Iodine-131-MIPAG was initially prepared via thallium-iodide displacement. Because of the need for a simple method which is amendable for the routine clinical use of MIPAG we have investigated the preparation and radioiodination of MIPAG utilizing the tributyltin precursor, 1,2-palmitoyl-3-[15-(-4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl] -rac-glyceroI (TBT-MIPAG, 2). Compound 2 was prepared via the condensation of 1,2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol with 15-(4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecanoic acid (TBT-PPA) prepared from 4-bromophenylacetylene. Electrophilic radioiodination using peracetic acid with sodium iodide-125 in ethanol at 80 deg. C for 60 min afforded I-125-MIPAG in 65.9% (±11.5%) yield and radiochemical purity of 94% (±3.0%) after C-18 Sep-Pak purification (n=6). This improved method for radioiodination utilizing TBT-MIPAG now provides radioiodinated MIPAG for routine clinical evaluation

  13. Improved radioiodination of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-IPPA via a tributyltin intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, D.W. E-mail: phm@oml.gov; Luo, H.; Kropp, J.; Knapp, F.F

    1999-10-01

    1,2-Palmitoyl-3-[15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl]-rac-glyceroI (MIPAG) is a new agent for the clinical evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity and has demonstrated promise in preliminary clinical studies with patients affected with pancreatic insufficiency. Iodine-131-MIPAG was initially prepared via thallium-iodide displacement. Because of the need for a simple method which is amendable for the routine clinical use of MIPAG we have investigated the preparation and radioiodination of MIPAG utilizing the tributyltin precursor, 1,2-palmitoyl-3-[15-(-4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl] -rac-glyceroI (TBT-MIPAG, 2). Compound 2 was prepared via the condensation of 1,2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol with 15-(4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecanoic acid (TBT-PPA) prepared from 4-bromophenylacetylene. Electrophilic radioiodination using peracetic acid with sodium iodide-125 in ethanol at 80 deg. C for 60 min afforded I-125-MIPAG in 65.9% ({+-}11.5%) yield and radiochemical purity of 94% ({+-}3.0%) after C-18 Sep-Pak purification (n=6). This improved method for radioiodination utilizing TBT-MIPAG now provides radioiodinated MIPAG for routine clinical evaluation.

  14. Functional results of radioiodine therapy with a 300-GY absorbed dose in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemsen, U.F.; Knesewitsch, P.; Kreisig, T.; Pickardt, C.R.; Kirsch, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the results of high-dose radioiodine therapy given to 43 patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease between 1986 and 1992. We chose an intrathyroidal absorbed dose of 300 Gy and determined the applied activity individually, which ranged from 240 to 3120 MBq with a median of 752 MBq. Hperthyroidism was eliminated in 86% of cases after 3 months and in 100% after 12 months. No patient required a second radioiodine treatment. The incidnece of hyperthyroidism was 63% after 3 months and 93% after 18 months. Neither the pretherapeutic thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin level nor the degree of co-existing endocrine ophthalmopathy was correlated with the time at which hypothyroidism developed. Patients with previous radioiodine therapy developed hypothyroidism earlier than patients with previous thyroid surgery. The results show that ablative radioiodine therapy with a 300-Gy absorbed dose is a very effective treatment of hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, but it should be restricted to patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism combined with severe co-existing disorders or episodes of unfavourable reactions to antithyroid drugs. (orig.)

  15. Functional results of radioiodine therapy with a 300-GY absorbed dose in Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemsen, U.F. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)); Knesewitsch, P. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)); Kreisig, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)); Pickardt, C.R. (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Muenchen Univ. (Germany)); Kirsch, C.M. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the results of high-dose radioiodine therapy given to 43 patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease between 1986 and 1992. We chose an intrathyroidal absorbed dose of 300 Gy and determined the applied activity individually, which ranged from 240 to 3120 MBq with a median of 752 MBq. Hperthyroidism was eliminated in 86% of cases after 3 months and in 100% after 12 months. No patient required a second radioiodine treatment. The incidnece of hyperthyroidism was 63% after 3 months and 93% after 18 months. Neither the pretherapeutic thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin level nor the degree of co-existing endocrine ophthalmopathy was correlated with the time at which hypothyroidism developed. Patients with previous radioiodine therapy developed hypothyroidism earlier than patients with previous thyroid surgery. The results show that ablative radioiodine therapy with a 300-Gy absorbed dose is a very effective treatment of hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, but it should be restricted to patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism combined with severe co-existing disorders or episodes of unfavourable reactions to antithyroid drugs. (orig.)

  16. Current status of radioiodine (131I) treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.V.; Hurley, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Radioiodine appears to be increasingly selected as the primary form of therapy for most hyperthyroid adults. Some controversy exists concerning the use of I-131 in children and adolescents as well as in some patients with toxic nodular goiter. The technical aspects of radioiodine administration reviewed in this chapter include the biologic basis of I-131 use, dose strategies, measurement and evaluation of radioiodine parameters, and I-125 treatment of hyperthyroidism. The management of patients before and after I-131 treatment is discussed as well as posttreatment hypothyroidism and complications of radioiodine treatment

  17. Thyrotoxicosis and radioiodine therapy: Does the dose matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 3 treatment options for thyrotoxicosis: Antithyroid drugs, Surgery and radioiodine. The choice of treatment varies geographically. Radioiodine therapy is preferred in the United States. The aim of radioiodine is to destroy sufficient thyroid tissue to cure the hyperthyroidism. There is a lack of consensus towards what dose of radioiodine should be used. Several methods are used to determine the dose. In our practice we administer 400 MBq to patients with Graves and in patients with large multinodular goiter, we would administer 800 MBq.

  18. Nucleophilic radioiodination of 6-bromocholesterol via non-isotopic exchange reaction in molten state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shaboury, G.; Farah, K.; El-Tawoosy, M.

    2001-01-01

    A synthetic method for preparing radioiodinated 6-[ 125 I]iodocholesterol [CL-6- 125 I] for adrenal evaluation is described. The radioiodine atom was incorporated onto the cholesterol molecule via non-isotopic exchange between 6-bromocholesterol [CL-6-Br] and radioiodine as iodide ion [ 125 I - ] in a molten state. The different parameters affecting the yield of exchange were investigated using 125 I (T 1/2 ≅ 60 d) to centralize the different physical and chemical reaction conditions and purification of the final product as pure as 6-[ 125 I]iodocholesterol. The method was suitable to either 131 I (T 1/2 ≅ 8 d) nucleophilic radioiodination which facilitates the scanning of the adrenal for a few days after administration or the use of 124 I (T 1/2 ≅ 4.16 d) nucleophilic radioiodination for PET evaluation of the adrenal. TLC as well as HPLC chromatographic analysis is used to determine the efficiency of the exchange reactions under different chemical reaction conditions and to monitor the stability of the final product as pure as CL-6- 125 I with radiochemical purity of ≅99%. This no-carrier-added method improved the speed of the reaction and affords high radiochemical yield of 90% and suitable specific activity due to the use of CL-6-Br rather than CL-6-I as substrate. Kinetic studies revealed second order iodine-bromine exchange reaction. The activation energy for the exchange reaction in ammonium acetate (m.p. 114 deg C) was calculated to be 4.576 kcal/mole. (author)

  19. Antithyroid drugs as a factor influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease and toxic nodular goitre?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerber, C.; Schneider, P.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C.

    2001-01-01

    There is controversy over the factors that may influence the outcome of radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases. Antithyroid medication has been claimed to negatively influence the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the influence of sex, age, antithyroid drugs, target radiation dose, target mass, applied activity, delivered dose, interval between last meal and application, and TSH, FT 3 and FT 4 levels on the outcome of radioiodine therapy. One hundred and forty-four patients (111 female, 33 male) suffering from Graves' disease (GD) and 563 patients (434 female, 129 male) with toxic nodular goitre (TNG) were entered in the study and followed up until 8 months after therapy. Treatment was defined as successful when the TSH level was found to be normal or elevated. Ninety-eight GD patients and 418 TNG patients were successfully treated. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis models retained only the target mass in GD and the applied activity in TNG as significantly associated with the outcome of therapy. The predictive value of all variables involved was extremely low in both disease groups. Whereas concomitant antithyroid medication had no influence in GD, it adversely influenced radioiodine therapy of TNG. This effect may be attributed to a radioiodine ''steal phenomenon'' induced by TSH-stimulated normal thyroid tissue, which causes overestimation of the uptake in toxic nodules. (orig.)

  20. Antithyroid drugs as a factor influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease and toxic nodular goitre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, C.; Schneider, P.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-09-01

    There is controversy over the factors that may influence the outcome of radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases. Antithyroid medication has been claimed to negatively influence the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the influence of sex, age, antithyroid drugs, target radiation dose, target mass, applied activity, delivered dose, interval between last meal and application, and TSH, FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} levels on the outcome of radioiodine therapy. One hundred and forty-four patients (111 female, 33 male) suffering from Graves' disease (GD) and 563 patients (434 female, 129 male) with toxic nodular goitre (TNG) were entered in the study and followed up until 8 months after therapy. Treatment was defined as successful when the TSH level was found to be normal or elevated. Ninety-eight GD patients and 418 TNG patients were successfully treated. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis models retained only the target mass in GD and the applied activity in TNG as significantly associated with the outcome of therapy. The predictive value of all variables involved was extremely low in both disease groups. Whereas concomitant antithyroid medication had no influence in GD, it adversely influenced radioiodine therapy of TNG. This effect may be attributed to a radioiodine ''steal phenomenon'' induced by TSH-stimulated normal thyroid tissue, which causes overestimation of the uptake in toxic nodules. (orig.)

  1. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    2006-12-15

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

  2. Results of radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1977, 102 hyperthyroidism patients were treated with 131 I. The average age of the patients was 64 years. In 78 patients, hyperthyroidism was due to decompensated autonomous adenoma, 24 patients presented with diffuse hyperthyroidism. The patients were observed for 14 to 24 months. Until early 1976, diagnosis and therapy success assessment were based on thyroid scintiscanning, radioiodine two-phase tests, PBI 131 , T 4 tests, and T 3 tests. Since 1976, the radioiodine two-phase test has been replaced by the TRH test, the TRH-RIA, and the T 4 -RIA. The patients were given 3 to 25 mCi 131 I. In 88 cases, euthyroidism was reached after a single therapy; in 8 cases, after two therapies; in 1 case, after three therapies; in 4 cases, after 4 therapies; in 1 case, after 5 therapies. Euthyroidism was thus reached in 96% of all cases after 131 I therapy of hyperthyroidism. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Transmission of radioiodine through sampling lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrein, P.J.; Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental program to measure radioiodine transmission through sampling lines is described. The transmission depends upon both deposition on and resuspension from the walls of the line. The deposition and resuspension processes are themselves controlled by the length, diameter, and material of the line and the conditions under which it is operated. The operating conditions under study are sampling flow rate, temperature and relative humidity. Measurement results have been interpreted in terms of a four-compartment model of radioiodine deposition and resuspension. The model is applied to each of twenty or more segments of the line. Experimental measurements of short-term transmission fractions and the deposition velocities derived from them are presented for six lines. Data on resuspension rates for the same lines were obtained and are also discussed

  4. Thyrotropin receptor antibody activities significantly correlate with the outcome of radioiodine ( sup 131 I) therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Koki; Yamamoto, Makiko; Sakurada, Toshiro; Saito, Shintaro; Yoshinaga, Kaoru (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-08-01

    The outcome of {sup 131}I therapy for 109 patients with Graves' disease was analysed according to pretreatment laboratory data including thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) activities. Forty-five percent of patients became euthyroid, and 13% of patients became hypothyroid within one year after {sup 131}I therapy. Forty-two percent of patients remained hyperthyroid one year after {sup 131}I therapy. Pretreatment values for serum T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and the estimated weight of the thyroid were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid group. The mean for the TRAb index of the hyperthyroid group was significantly higher than that of the euthyroid group. Life table analysis revealed a significant effect of the TRAb index on the rate of hyperthyroidism after 3 months or later. These results appear to suggest that the TRAb index is one of the factors which influence the outcome of {sup 131}I therapy for Graves' disease. (author).

  5. Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. de Ridder

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of organic micropollutants in drinking water and its sources has opened up a field of study related to monitoring concentration levels in water sources, evaluating their toxicity and estimating their removal in drinking water treatment processes. Because a large number of organic micropollutants is currently present (although in relatively low concentrations in drinking water sources, a method should be developed to select which micropollutants has to be evaluated with priority. In this paper, a screening model is presented that can predict solute removal by activated carbon, in ultrapure water and in natural water. Solute removal prediction is based on a combination of solute hydrophobicity (expressed as log D, the pH corrected log Kow, solute charge and the carbon dose. Solute molecular weight was also considered as model input parameter, but this solute property appeared to relate insufficiently to solute removal.

    Removal of negatively charged solutes by preloaded activated carbon was reduced while the removal of positively charged solutes was increased, compared with freshly regenerated activated carbon. Differences in charged solute removal by freshly regenerated activated carbon were small, indicating that charge interactions are an important mechanism in adsorption onto preloaded carbon. The predicted solute removal was within 20 removal-% deviation of experimentally measured values for most solutes.

  6. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Tavares, Leoberto C.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  7. Pollutants removal onto novel activated carbons made from lignocellulosic precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Nabais, Joao; Laginhas, Carlos; Carrott, Manuela; Carrott, Peter; Gomes, Jose; Suhas, Suhas; Ramires, Ana; Roman, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol and mercury from dilute aqueous solutions onto new activated carbons was studied. These included activated carbons produced from novel precursors, namely rapeseed, vine shoots and kenaf, and samples oxidised with nitric acid in liquid phase. The results have shown the significant potential of rapeseed, vine shoots and kenaf for the activated carbon production. The activated carbons produced by carbon dioxide activation were mainly microporous with BET apparent surface...

  8. Radon removal from different types of groundwater applying granular activated carbon filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, T.; Salonen, L.; Myllymaeki, P.

    2000-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (CAC) filters were installed in 12 private homes or vacation homes for removing unacceptably high concentrations of radon from household water. Radon removal efficiency was nearly 100% in most locations, although different water types were encountered. Other radionuclides such as uranium, radium, lead and polonium were removed less efficiently. Treated water quality remained good and no significant external radiation dose was caused to the residents. (author)

  9. Direct application of radioiodinated aminoacyl tRNA for radiolabeling nascent proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.H.; Barokas, K.; Murata, Y.; Refetoff, S.

    1985-01-01

    A two-step procedure to incorporate 125 I-iodotyrosine into protein synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate is described. In the first step, the iodination of tyrosyl tRNA was catalyzed by a solid-state glycouril compound. More than one-third of 200 microCi of radioiodine became bound to 70 micrograms of aminoacyl tRNA after 15 min at 0 degrees C. The isotope was distributed in a three-to-one ratio of monoiodotyrosine to di-iodotyrosine. In the second step, the soluble product of the radioiodination was transferred directly into a nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate coded with RNA isolated from the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Fractional recovery of radioiodine in nascent protein was maximally 7.6%. Reaction of the product of translation with antibody against alpha-antitrypsin separated an 125 I-containing protein having a molecular weight estimated as 47,000. The synthesis of unprocessed alpha-antitrypsin was confirmed by cleavage of the labeled protein with leader peptidase and by its displacement from immunocomplex formation with purified alpha-antitrypsin. The amount of 125 I incorporated into alpha-antitrypsin was proportionate to iodinated tRNA additions up to a concentration of 70 micrograms/ml. The synthesis of alpha-antitrypsin as detected in radioautograms after gel electrophoresis was more than twice as sensitive using radioiodinated aminoacyl tRNA as compared with [ 35 S]methionine. Iodine labeling of thyroxine-binding globulin was also demonstrated in the translation product of Hep G2 RNA. Since the specific activity of the radioiodine is high and the means for detection of the isotope efficient, the method described can facilitate the demonstration of quantitatively minor translation products

  10. Removal of imidacloprid using activated carbon produced from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Ricinodendron heudelotii (akpi) shells are used as precursor to prepare activated carbon via chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The characterization of the obtained activated carbon is performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Boehm titration method and adsorption of acetic acid. The results show that ...

  11. Transfer of radionuclides to crop plants through roots. Radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1987-07-01

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway. However, root uptake is also of importance specifically for /sup 129/I because of its long half life of 1.57 x 10/sup 7/ years. In order to estimate the amount of the nuclide transferred to the crop plants from contaminated field, the experiments were carried out using solution culture. Rice plant, Oryza sativa cv. koshihikari, spinach, Spinacea oleracea L., radish, Raphanus sativus L., and the other four kinds of crop plants were exposed to culture solution in which Na/sup 131/I were contained. The transfer rates, defined as the ratio of activity of plant sample per day to the mean activity of culture solution, were calculated. And the differences by the organs of each crop plant and by plant species were discussed in this paper. Temporal critical crop plants for /sup 129/I were selected.

  12. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100–1600 µgL-1) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%):

  13. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; McMurtry , Dan; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, W. David; Beringer, Jeff; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the USA have increased dramatically during the last 30 years. Effective measures are needed to control and eradicate feral swine populations without displacing animals over wider areas. Our objective was to investigate effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. We analyzed location data from 21 feral swine that we fitted with Global Positioning System harnesses in southern MO, USA. Various removal activities were applied over time to eight feral swine before lethal removal, including trapped-and-released, chased with dogs, chased with hunter, and chased with helicopter. We found that core space-use areas were reduced following the first removal activity, whereas overall space-use areas and diurnal movement distances increased following the second removal activity. Mean geographic centroid shifts did not differ between pre- and post-periods for either the first or second removal activities. Our information on feral swine movements and space use precipitated by human removal activities, such as hunting, trapping, and chasing with dogs, helps fill a knowledge void and will aid wildlife managers. Strategies to optimize management are needed to reduce feral swine populations while preventing enlarged home ranges and displacing individuals, which could lead to increased disease transmission risk and human-feral swine conflict in adjacent areas.

  14. A novel route to radioiodinated [{sup 123}I]-N-succinimidyl-3-iodobenzoate, a reagent for radioiodination of bioactive peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jammaz, I.; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amartey, J.K. E-mail: amarty@kfshrc.edu.sa

    2002-11-01

    Radiolabeled peptides continue to emerge as potential radiopharmaceuticals for targeting several diseases such as cancer, infection and inflammation and even tissue and organ rejection. The classical method for labeling these molecules has been the electrophilic route. Evidence suggests that most molecules labeled via this route perturb their biological activity. Moreover, this method is not applicable to peptides lacking a tyrosine moiety in their structure. Hence, there is the need to develop alternate methods such as the prosthetic approach. We have optimized a solid-state radioiodination by exchange to produce [{sup 123}I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine ([{sup 123}I]-mIBG). The mIBG served as a precursor to obtain an activated N-succinimidyl ester for efficient coupling to amine functions in peptides, preferably the lysine group(s). The method was used to label a model chemotactic peptide and evaluated in vivo.

  15. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([{sup 123/131}I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amartey, J.K. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: amarty@kfshrc.edu.sa; Esguerra, C. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Otaibi, B. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jammaz, I. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Qahtani, M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Parhar, R.S. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application.

  16. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([123/131I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, J.K.; Esguerra, C.; Al-Otaibi, B.; Al-Jammaz, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.; Parhar, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application

  17. Follow up of Graves' Opthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.S.R.; Paul, A. K.; Rahman, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy may first appear or worsen during or after treatment for hyperthyroidism. We followed up 158 Graves' hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine of which 49 had Grave's' ophthalmopathy during presentation in Nuclear Medicine Centre, Khulna during the period from 1995 to 2000. The aim of our study is to see the effect of radioiodine in Graves' ophthalmopathy. All the patients received radioiodine at fixed dose regime ranged from 7 mCi to 12 mCi. The duration of follow up was at least 12 months Graves' ophthalmopathy patients, 4 (4/49 i.e., 8.2%) showed exaggeration of ophthalmopathy and the rest (45/49 i.e., 91.8%) remained unchanged. None of ophthalmopathy developed among any of Graves' hyperthyroid or disappeared after radioiodine treatment during follow up period. From the study we concluded that eye changes in Graves' hyperthyroidism remain unchanged or exaggerated after radioiodine therapy and needs ophthalmologist care.(author)

  18. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  19. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  20. Application of lithium carbonate on radioiodine treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Jinshun; Huang Chunling; Jiang Tingyin; Jiang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of radioiodine for Graves' hyperthyroidism depends on retention time of 131 I in the thyroid, and may be effected by several factors, including previous treatment with antithyroid drugs,goiter volume, 24 h thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake and so on. A short course of therapy with low dose of lithium carbonate increased retention of 131 I in the thyroid and prolong the intrathyroidal effective half-life of 131 I before and after 131 I therapy in patients with Graves' disease, because of the actions that lithium blocks the release of organic iodine and thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland without affecting thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake. Therefore, using lithium as adjunct to radioiodine therapy increases the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid, to result in reduced the activity required and whole-body radiation dose in patients with very short effective half-life, and so improve the cure rate of hyperthyroidism. A short course of lithium carbonate therapy can be considered a useful adjunct to 131 I therapy for obtaining a more rapid control of thyrotoxicosis and avoiding its transient exacerbation because of methimazole withdrawal prior to 131 I administration or in patients who cannot tolerate or do not respond to antithyroid drugs, and for helping to prevent the radioiodine-associated increase in serum free thyroid hormone concentrations. In addition, lithium carbonate enhances the effectiveness of 131 I therapy, in terms of prompter control of hyperthyroidism in patients with small or large goiters. At the same time, lithium also may increases the rate of permanent control of hyperthyroidism in patients with large goiters. In summary, in the short-term lithium plays an important role as an adjunct to 131 I, since it helps to prevent the 131 I-associated increase in serum free thyroid hormone concentrations and allows a more prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. This is of particular importance in high risk patients, such as the elderly

  1. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  2. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondes, Mona Freda N.; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Ballesteros, Florencio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Above 99% of the emerging contaminants were removed in the USAMe process. • Influence of PAC dose and US frequency on removal is studied. • Improved performance is due to PAC adsorption enhancement and sonolytic degradation. • US irradiation improved efficiency and delayed declines in the removal of contaminants. • Performance of the hybrid process is better under lower frequency ultrasound irradiation. -- Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs

  3. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondes, Mona Freda N. [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Naddeo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vnaddeo@unisa.it [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084 (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Belgiorno, Vincenzo [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084 (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Ballesteros, Florencio [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Above 99% of the emerging contaminants were removed in the USAMe process. • Influence of PAC dose and US frequency on removal is studied. • Improved performance is due to PAC adsorption enhancement and sonolytic degradation. • US irradiation improved efficiency and delayed declines in the removal of contaminants. • Performance of the hybrid process is better under lower frequency ultrasound irradiation. -- Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs.

  4. Formation and removal of genotoxic activity during UV/H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.B.; Harmsen, D.J.H.; Beerendonk, E.F.; Reus, A.A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Metz, D.H.; Ijpelaar, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxic activity of water after UV/H2O2 oxidation and GAC filtration. Pre-treated surface water from three locations was treated with UV/H2O2 with medium pressure (MP) lamps and passed through granulated

  5. Adsorptive Removal of Malachite Green with Activated Carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-11-22

    Nov 22, 2012 ... The kinetics of the adsorption process was tested by means of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and ... the production of activated carbon by using agricultural ... tion Number 42 000, with the chemical formula C52H54N4O12, and ...... 40 S. Lagergren and B. K. Svenska, Band., 1893, 24, 1–13.

  6. The removal of chromium from wastewaters by activated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.; Ait Ghezala, H.; Douar, L.

    1994-12-01

    The adsorption of chromium onto activated bentonite has been investigated. Adsorption isotherms were analysed to obtain the Langmuir and freundlich constants. The operating parameters (i.e pH, contact time, solid/liquid ratio, temperatureand initial chromium concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption have been studied

  7. Adsorptive Removal of Malachite Green with Activated Carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-11-22

    Nov 22, 2012 ... pyrolyzed in a stainless steel vertical tubular reactor placed in a tube furnace under ... the gas flow was switched to CO2 and activation was continued for 2 h. ... where Co and Ce (mg L–1) are the initial and equilibrium liquid- .... increase in contact time did not enhance the MG dye adsorption process.

  8. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Balawi, Ibrahim A.; Meir, Hadir M.; Yousef, Mohammad K.; Nayel, Hala A.; Al-Mobarak, Mohammad F.

    2001-01-01

    The current work was conducted to study the disease status and treatment results of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioactive iodine therapy. Retrospective review of 78 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy in the Nuclear Medicine Unit, King Abdulaziz Hospital and Oncology Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, treatment protocol and results were performed. Seventy seven percent were female and the female to male ratio was 3.5:1. The age of patients ranged between 13-63 years with a median age of 36 years. Cervical lymph node involvement was detected in 22 patients (25%). Papillary carcinoma was encountered in 78 patients (90%) and follicular carcinoma in 9 patients (10%). Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics showed no statistically significant difference between patients in the different age groups except for extrathyroid extension and lymph node involvement. Patients older than 45 years had a statistically significant lower incidence of nodal involvement and higher incidence of extra thyroid extension (P<0.02). In the current study we used a high dose method (Radioiodine-131 dose 75-100mCi) for thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy (total or near total) in 67 patients. An Iodine 131 dose of 150 mCi was used in 12 patients with radioiodine-avid cervical lymph nodes and in 3 patients with gross residual tumor. In 4 patients with distant metastases an Iodine 131 dose of 200 mCi was used. For the whole study group the 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival was 96% and 88%. The current study, as with many other retrospective studies, concluded that despite the fact that differentiated thyroid carcinoma is among the most curable cancers, some patients are still at high risk for recurrent disease and associated mortality. (author)

  9. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  10. Guidelines for radioiodinated MIBG scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pierre; Colarinha, Paula; Fettich, Jure; Fischer, Sibylle; Frökier, Jörgen; Giammarile, Francesco; Gordon, Isky; Hahn, Klaus; Kabasakal, Levent; Mann, Mike; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Piepsz, Amy; Porn, Ute; Sixt, Rune; van Velzen, Jeannette

    2003-05-01

    These guidelines on the use of radioiodinated (99m)Tc-MIBG scintigraphy in children, which summarise the views of the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, provide a framework which may prove helpful to nuclear medicine teams in daily practice. They have been influenced by the conclusions of the "Consensus Guidelines for MIBG Scintigraphy" (Paris, November 6, 1997) of the European Neuroblastoma Group and by those of the Oncological Committee of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine. The guidelines should be taken in the context of "good practice" and any local/national rules which apply to nuclear medicine examinations.

  11. Application of activated carbons from coal and coconut shell for removing free residual chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Ueda, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuko; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of free residual chlorine by activated carbon (AC). ACs were prepared from coal (AC1) and coconut shell (AC2). The specific surface area of AC1 was larger than that of AC2. The removal of free residual chlorine increased with elapsed time and amount of adsorbent. The removal mechanism of free residual chlorine was the dechlorination reaction between hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite ion and AC. Moreover, AC1 was useful in the removal of free residual chlorine in tap water. The optimum condition for the removal of free residual chlorine using a column is space velocity 306 1/h; liner velocity 6.1 m/h.

  12. Removal of steroid estrogens from wastewater using granular activated carbon: comparison between virgin and reactivated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Victoria Francesca; Pang, Dawn Sok Cheng; Tsafou, Foteini; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2009-04-01

    This research was set up in response to new European legislation to identify cost-effective treatment for removal of steroid estrogens from effluent. This study aimed to compare estrogen removal of two types of granular activated carbon: virgin (F400) and reactivated (C401) carbon. Rapid, small-scale column tests were conducted with a total bed volume of 24.9 cm3 over three columns, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results demonstrated that C401 performed more efficiently with greater than or equal to 81% estrogen removal in wastewater compared to F400 which produced greater than or equal to 65% estrogen removal. Estrogen removal can be affected by competitive adsorption from natural organic matter present in wastewater. In addition, the physical properties of each carbon had the potential to influence adsorption differently, thus resulting in the observed varied adsorption capability of the two carbons.

  13. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, H.; Yuasa, Y.; Tani, A.; Ohki, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI 3 , were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  14. Transfer of radioiodine from the environment to animals and plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao

    1979-01-01

    The chemical form of radioiodine and the physicochemical behavior of each individual form of radioiodine in the marine environment is still not so well known, owing partly to the lack of the appropriate analytical method. To study on these problems, the authors have first developed the radiochemical method of analysis for the individual forms of radioiodine. The method is based on the solubility of I 2 and CH 3 I in carbon tetrachloride or toluene and on the difference of isotopic exchange behavior between I - and IO 3- . By shaking the sample sea water with carbon tetrachloride, I* 2 and CH 3 I* can be extracted, if present. Among these, only I* 2 can be back-extracted with sodium sulfite solution. I* - and I*O 3- can be determined by using the following isotopic exchange system: I* - (aq.) + I 2 (org.) reversible I - (aq.) + I* 2 (org.). When the pH of the aqueous layer is adjusted to 4, only I* - exchanges with I 2 , while I*O 3- does not. Therefore, the activity of the organic layer at the exchange equilibrium corresponds to that of I* - . At pH 1, I*O 3- reacts with I - carrier to be converted to form, and the activity of the organic layer corresponds to the total activity of I* - + I*O 3- . For organic solvent, the equi-volume mixture of carbon tetrachloride and toluene is found to be the most convenient among those tested. (author)

  15. Development of radioiodinated ligands for exploration of brain monoamine oxidase by tomo-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases, MAO, are important in the regulation of monoaminergic neuro-transmissions. The fluctuations in MAO activities has been observed in some psychiatric and neuro-degenerative diseases. Thus, quantification of cerebral MAO activity would be useful for diagnosis and the therapeutic follow-up of these disorders. With the object of doing an in vivo scintigraphic exploration of cerebral MAO by SPECT, we have undertaken to synthesize some radioiodinated MAO inhibitors. In the first part of this work, we have discussed the general properties of the monoamine oxidases and their inhibitors. In the second part we have described the scintigraphic methods. the ligands to be used for MAO exploration, and the radioiodination methods. At last in the third part, the development of three radioiodinated ligands has been presented: - [ 125 I]3-iodopargyline. In vivo results showed that, this radioligand blocked the cerebral MAO-B with moderate selectivity. However, complementary in vivo studies would be needed to define precisely its activity.- [ 125 I]Ro 16-6491. The cerebral fixation of this radioligand was in accordance with the MAO-B sites in the rat brains, but its fixation was too low for scintigraphic exploration in vivo with iodine-123. - [ 125 I]Ro 11-9900. In vivo studies of rat brains showed that the MAO-A sites were bound preferentially by this radioligand. The cerebral biodistribution of this ligand labelled with iodine-123 is considered for use in a model animal nearest to human pathology. (author)

  16. Radioiodine and radiotherapy in the management of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine is an important adjuvant treatment in the management of resectable papillary and follicular thyroid cancers in all patients except those with the best prognostic features. External radiation is also an important adjuvant therapy in these patients, especially those with tumors that extend beyond the thyroid gland and invade the trachea, esophagus, nerves, and blood vessels; it is especially important in treating patients whose tumors do not concentrate radioiodine. Radioiodine may be curative in patients with microscopic distant metastases demonstrated by radioiodine scanning. Even unresectable primary papillary and follicular cancers may be eradicated by combined therapy with radioiodine and radiotherapy. Radioiodine plays no significant role in the treatment of medullary or anaplastic thyroid cancers, but external radiation may eradicate microscopic thyroid bed or nodal disease when persistent disease is indicated by elevated calcitonin levels in medullary thyroid cancer patients. Anaplastic thyroid cancers are usually unresectable and are not eradicated by conventional radiotherapy or by any of the novel radiation techniques, with or without chemotherapy. In all types of thyroid cancer, external radiotherapy may produce beneficial palliative results in patients with distant metastases, but the use of radioiodine should always be explored in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. 30 references

  17. Removal of micro pollutants using activated biochars and powdered activated carbon in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Jung, C.; Han, J.; Son, A.; Yoon, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that emerging micropollutants containing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); bisphenol A, 17 α-ethinylestradiol, 17 β-estradiol and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs); sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, atenolol, benzophenone, benzotriazole, caffeine, gemfibrozil, primidone, triclocarban in water have been linked to ecological impacts, even at trace concentrations (sub ug/L). Adsorption with adsorbent such as activated carbon having a high-binding affinity has been widely used to eliminate various contaminants in the aqueous phase. Recently, an efficient treatment strategy for EDCs and PPCPs has been considered by using cost effective adsorption particularly with biochar in aqueous environmentIn this study, the objective of this study is to determine the removal of 13 target EDCs/PPCPs having different physicochemical properties by a biochar at various water quality conditions (pH (3.5, 7, and 10.5), background ions (NaCl, CaCl2, Na₂SO₄), ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM)). The activated biochar produced in a laboratory was also characterized by using conventional analytical methods as well as advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, which answer how these properties determine the competitive adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of EDCs and PPCPs.The primary findings suggest that micropollutants can be removed more effectively by the biochar than the commercially available powdered activated carbon. At pH values below the pKa of each compound, the adsorption affinity toward adsorbents increased significantly with the pH, whereas the adsorption affinity decreased significantly at the pH above the pKa values. Na+ did not significantly impact adsorption, while increasing the concentration of Ca2+lead to increase in the adsorption of these micropollutants. NOM adsorption with humic acids on these adsorbents disturbed adsorption capacity of the target compounds as

  18. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by dried activated sludge biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Zhang Hua; He Pinjing; Yao Qian; Shao Liming

    2010-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using activated sludge biomass. The effects of acid pretreatment of the biomass, initial pH, biomass and Cr(VI) concentrations on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Proton consumption during the removal process and the reducing capacity of sludge biomass were studied. The results show that acid pretreatment could significantly improve Cr(VI) removal efficiency and increase Cr(VI) reducing capacity by 20.4%. Cr(VI) removal was remarkably pH-dependent; lower pH (pH = 1, 2) facilitated Cr(VI) reduction while higher pH (pH = 3, 4) favored sorption of the converted Cr(III). Lower Cr(VI) concentration as well as higher biomass concentration could accelerate Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) reduction was not the only reason for proton consumption in the removal process. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model could successfully simulate Cr(VI) removal except under higher pH conditions (pH = 3, 4).

  19. The impact of loading approach and biological activity on NOM removal by ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joerg; Wray, Heather E; Schulz, Martin; Vortisch, Roman; Barbeau, Benoit; Bérubé, Pierre R

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the impact of different loading approaches and microbial activity on the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) removal efficiency and capacity of ion exchange resins. Gaining further knowledge on the impact of loading approaches is of relevance because laboratory-scale multiple loading tests (MLTs) have been introduced as a simpler and faster alternative to column tests for predicting the performance of IEX, but only anecdotal evidence exists to support their ability to forecast contaminant removal and runtime until breakthrough of IEX systems. The overall trends observed for the removal and the time to breakthrough of organic material estimated using MLTs differed from those estimated using column tests. The results nonetheless suggest that MLTs could best be used as an effective tool to screen different ion exchange resins in terms of their ability to remove various contaminants of interest from different raw waters. The microbial activity was also observed to impact the removal and time to breakthrough. In the absence of regeneration, a microbial community rapidly established itself in ion exchange columns and contributed to the removal of organic material. Biological ion exchange (BIEX) removed more organic material and enabled operation beyond the point when the resin capacity would have otherwise been exhausted using conventional (i.e. in the absence of a microbial community) ion exchange. Furthermore, significantly greater removal of organic matter could be achieved with BIEX than biological activated carbon (BAC) (i.e. 56 ± 7% vs. 15 ± 5%, respectively) when operated at similar loading rates. The results suggest that for some raw waters, BIEX could replace BAC as the technology of choice for the removal of organic material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of metals from landfill leachate by sorption to activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Hanna; Persson, Kenneth M; Andersson, Anna; van Praagh, Martijn

    2011-05-30

    Sorption filters based on granular activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines were tested for their efficiency of removing metals from landfill leachate. Removal of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were studied in a laboratory scale setup. Activated carbon removed more than 90% of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni. Ca, Pb, Sr and Zn were removed but less efficiently. Bone meal removed over 80% of Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn and Sr and 20-80% of Al, Ca, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn. Iron fines removed most metals (As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn) to some extent but less efficiently. All materials released unwanted substances (metals, TOC or nutrients), highlighting the need to study the uptake and release of a large number of compounds, not only the target metals. To remove a wide range of metals using these materials two or more filter materials may need to be combined. Sorption mechanisms for all materials include ion exchange, sorption and precipitation. For iron fines oxidation of Fe(0) seems to be important for metal immobilisation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Granular activated carbon for removal of organic matter and turbidity from secondary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, J W; Germain, E; Judd, S J

    2013-01-01

    A range of commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) media have been assessed as pretreatment technologies for a downstream microfiltration (MF) process. Media were assessed on the basis of reduction in both organic matter and turbidity, since these are known to cause fouling in MF membranes. Isotherm adsorption analysis through jar testing with supplementary column trials revealed a wide variation between the different adsorbent materials with regard to organics removal and adsorption kinetics. Comparison with previous work using powdered activated carbon (PAC) revealed that for organic removal above 60% the use of GAC media incurs a significantly lower carbon usage rate than PAC. All GACs tested achieved a minimum of 80% turbidity removal. This combination of turbidity and organic removal suggests that GAC would be expected to provide a significant reduction in fouling of a downstream MF process with improved product water quality.

  2. Behaviour of radioiodine in gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.J.

    1968-01-01

    Because of the different chemical forms in which radioiodine occurs in the gaseous state, it is important when designing efficient filters to know the chemical forms which may be present in the effluent gases when various operations are being carried out and to know the effect of different gaseous environments on the filtration efficiency. To obtain this information it is necessary to have available reliable means of characterizing different chemical forms and to sample gaseous effluents when these operations are being carried out. This paper describes the use for identifying molecular iodine of metallic screens in a multi-component sampling pack in different gaseous environments. Using multi-component sampling packs, the fractionation of iodine nuclides between different chemical forms was measured in the effluent gases escaping from an in-pile test loop in which the fuel was deliberately ruptured by restricting the flow of coolant. Sequential samples were taken for six hours after the rupture and it was possible to follow during this period the individual behaviours of 13 '1I, 133 I and 135 I. Simultaneous samples were also obtained of the noble gases in the effluent gas stream and of the iodine nuclides in the loop coolant. Similar experiments have been carried out with a view to characterizing the different chemical behaviour of radioiodine as it is released from a variety of operations in the nuclear industry including the cutting of fuel sections in metallurgical examination caves and an incinerator. (author)

  3. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G.

    1999-01-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes 131 I and 125 I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for 131 I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported [it

  4. Continuous analysis of radioiodine isotopes in the primary coolant of NPP Paks, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, E.; Soos, J.; Vincze, A.; Zsille, O.; Gujgiczer, A.; Solymosi, J.; Pinter, T.

    1998-01-01

    The radioiodine analyser has been installed at the Paks-3 reactor unit. The analyser is based on an efficient and simple method of radioiodine separation: the iodine compound is converted to elementary iodine quantitatively by oxidation with potassium iodate in acid medium. Owing to its volatility, iodine is evaporated quantitatively from the primary coolant (desorption) using air flow. The air is bubbled through a solution of a reducer, and iodine is absorbed in a form which is ready for measurement. A simple NaI(Tl) detector is used for the measurement of gamma spectra. The system is controlled and data are processed by a computer. The analyser displays activity concentration data of the five iodine isotopes periodically every 15 minutes. (M.D.)

  5. Labelling of some organic compounds with radioiodine and technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumy, A A M

    1994-07-01

    Amino acids have received significant attention in the evaluation of serotonergic and dopaminergic functions in the central nervous system. the wide distribution of {gamma}-cameras and SPECT create an increasing need for appropriated labelled radiopharmaceuticals . {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I are the most important radionuclides for this purpose. In order to avoid pharmacological and toxicological effects, the radiolabelled compounds must be often produced with high specific activity. In the first part of this thesis, the work is therefore focused on labelling methods with no carrier added radioiodine. The radioiodinated analogues of two amino acids were chosen as model compounds of research. L-m-tyrosine is potentially useful for the evaluation of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease, while L -{alpha} -methyl tyrosine is a well known indicator of amino acid transport useful for tumor studies.

  6. Potential of radioiodinated anti cancer compounds of natural origin for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, U.; Bapat, K.; Samuel, G.; Venkatesh, M.; Sarma, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    Plumbagin and Quercetin are naturally occurring compounds which exhibit anti-cancerous activity. To evaluate the effect of radioiodination on cytotoxicity, both Plumbagin and Quercetin were radioiodinated with 125 I. 125 I-Plumbagin and 125 I-Quercetin could be prepared in moderate yields and good radiochemical purity and were characterized using reverse phase HPLC. In Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma, 125 I-Plumbagin showed a tumor uptake of ∼2.5%ID/g at 3 h p.i. and ∼0.5%ID/g at 24 h p.i on i.v. injection. When injected intratumorally, greater tumor uptake and retention was observed (∼20%ID/g at 3 h p.i. and ∼14%ID/g at 24 h p.i. respectively). (author)

  7. Impact of high-risk conjunctions on Active Debris Removal target selection

    OpenAIRE

    Lidtke, Aleksander A.; Lewis, Hugh G.; Armellin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    All rights reserved.Space debris simulations show that if current space launches continue unchanged, spacecraft operations might become difficult in the congested space environment. It has been suggested that Active Debris Removal (ADR) might be necessary in order to prevent such a situation. Selection of objects to be targeted by ADR is considered important because removal of non-relevant objects will unnecessarily increase the cost of ADR. One of the factors to be used in this ADR target se...

  8. Removing radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations by the STEAG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.

    1978-01-01

    The mobile STEAG System for conditioning radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations represents a particularly safe and economic method of removing them in present day conditions. Cementation by the FAFNIR System is used for the greater part of the waste, the liquid concentrate (evaporator concentrate and filter slurry). For the special case of the medium active resin balls from the primary circuits, embedding in plastic by the FAMA process has proved to be the only available successful process so far. The highly active solid waste from the reactor core is decomposed by the MOSAIK System, is packed in transportable and storable containers and is removed from the fuel element storage pond. The systems are so safe that faults or interruptions of power station operation due to faults in removing radio-active wastes can be excluded. (orig.) [de

  9. Immunogenic hyperthyroidism following radioiodine ablation of focal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddenberg, B.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1993-01-01

    Immunogenic hyperthyroidism rarely develops after radioiodine elimination of focal autonomous thyroid tissue. We observed this phenomenon in 8 patients between 1989 and 1992. The occurrence of immunogenic hyperthyroidism shortly after elimination of autonomous nodules has not been studied nor is it properly understood. Most studies known today describe the development of autonomous nodules in the course of immunogenic hyperthyroidism or ignore the chronologic order of occurrence. The possibility that immunogenic hyperthyroidism may occur after radioiodine therapy of autonomous nodules, makes a consequent follow-up within the first year following radioiodine therapy mandatory. (orig.) [de

  10. Extrathyroidal Radioiodine Accumulation in a Fibroadenoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Hun Soo; Park, Soon-Ah

    2017-02-01

    A 45-year-old woman with a differentiated thyroid carcinoma received adjuvant radioiodine therapy following total thyroidectomy and left modified radical neck dissection. A posttherapy planar radioiodine scan showed multifocal uptake in the thyroid bed and left chest. SPECT/CT revealed a fibroadenoma in the left breast. Six months later, an I scan showed no iodine avidity in the breast fibroadenoma, whereas ultrasonography showed no significant change in the size of the fibroadenoma. Altered radioiodine uptake of a breast fibroadenoma can be observed on follow-up scans after cytotoxic radioiodide treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Clinical research of juvenile hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ling; Zhang Chunying; Chen Yue

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects and side effects in the radioiodine management of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Methods: 80 patients with poor effects using anti-thyroid drug were assigned to receive 131 I therapy. The follows of therapy outcome were assessed 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. One follows up per 1-3 years. Results: Among 80 patients followed by 6 months, clinical response was excellent in 65 patients (81%), good in 15 (19%). There were 12 patients with hypothyroidism followed 4 years, and with no other side effects. Conclusion: The good therapeutic effect was obtained in radioiodine treatment for juvenile hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine was effective to juvenile hyperthyroidism

  12. Labelling of proteins with radioiodine and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franek, M.; Hampl, J.; Rodak, L.; Hruska, K.; Prochazka, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Various techniques of labelling proteins and peptides with radioactive iodine are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the mechanism of iodination of tyrosine used as a model substance for radioiodination of proteins. Particular consideration is given to recent techniques attaining high specific radioactivity without side effects on the protein molecule and to factors affecting the rate of iodination and its character (buffers, polarity of the reaction environment, molecule type, etc.). The suitability is shown of radioiodinated proteins in the studies of protein metabolism and in the radioimmunoanalytical determination of substances of both the protein and non-protein nature. The possibility of further application of radioiodinated protein is discussed. (author)

  13. Removal of calcium and magnesium ions from shale gas flowback water by chemically activated zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haiqing; Liu, Teng; He, Qiping; Li, Duo; Crittenden, John; Liu, Baicang

    2017-07-01

    Shale gas has become a new sweet spot of global oil and gas exploration, and the large amount of flowback water produced during shale gas extraction is attracting increased attention. Internal recycling of flowback water for future hydraulic fracturing is currently the most effective, and it is necessary to decrease the content of divalent cations for eliminating scaling and maintaining effectiveness of friction reducer. Zeolite has been widely used as a sorbent to remove cations from wastewater. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite type, zeolite form, activation chemical, activation condition, and sorption condition on removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from shale gas flowback water. Results showed that low removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ was found for raw zeolite 4A and zeolite 13X, and the efficiency of the mixture of both zeolites was slightly higher. Compared with the raw zeolites, the zeolites after activation using NaOH and NaCl greatly improved the sorption performance, and there was no significant difference between dynamic activation and static activation. Dynamic sorption outperformed static sorption, the difference exceeding 40% and 7-70% for removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively. Moreover, powdered zeolites outperformed granulated zeolites in divalent cation removal.

  14. Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Using Modified Immobilized Activated Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeza Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified immobilized activated alumina (MIAA prepared by sol-gel method. The modification was done by adding a specific amount of alum during the sol formation step. The fluoride removal efficiency of MIAA was 1.35 times higher as compared to normal immobilized activated alumina. A batch adsorption study was performed as a function of adsorbent dose, contact time, stirring rate, and initial fluoride concentration. More than 90% removal of fluoride was achieved within 60 minutes of contact time. The adsorption potential of MIAA was compared with activated charcoal which showed that the removal efficiency was about 10% more than the activated charcoal. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fitted well for the fluoride adsorption on MIAA with the regression coefficient R2 of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. MIAA can both be regenerated thermally and chemically. Adsorption experiments using MIAA were employed on real drinking water samples from a fluoride affected area. The study showed that modified immobilized activated alumina is an effective adsorbent for fluoride removal.

  15. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestankova, Hana; Schirmer, Kristin; Escher, Beate I.; Gunten, Urs von

    2012-01-01

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu ® ) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 10 5 and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 10 9 M −1 s −1 for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. - Highlights: ► Oseltamivir acid (OA) is oxidized by ozone and hydroxyl radical. ► Kinetics: We determined rate constants for the reaction with these oxidants. ► The specific activity of OA as neuraminidase inhibitor disappeared during oxidation. ► Ozonation and advanced oxidation can effectively remove OA from wastewaters. - Ozone and hydroxyl radical treatment processes can degrade aqueous oseltamivir acid and remove its antiviral activity.

  16. Evaluation of protein acylation agents for the radioiodination of peptides: Application to labelling octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of two acylation agents originally developed for protein labelling - N-succinimidyl 3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 5-[ 131 I]iodopyridine-3- carboxylate - for the radioiodination of peptides. Because of the widespread interest in imaging and treating malignancies that overexpress somatostatin receptors, octreotide was selected as the model peptide. Using these reagents, octreotide was coupled to 3-iodobenzoyl and 3-iodonicotinoyl templates, yielding [N-(3-iodobenzoyl)- D-Phe 1 ]octreotide (IBO) and [N-(3-iodonicotinoyl)-D-Phe 1 ]octreotide (INO), respectively. The IC 50 values for the binding of IBO and INO to somatostatin receptor expressing CA20948 rat pancreatic tumour membranes were 0.90 nM and 0.13 nM, respectively, compared with 0.35 nM for octreotide itself. Yields for the preparation of [ 131 I]IBO and [ 131 I]INO from N-succinimidyl 3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 5-[ 131 I]iodopyridine-3- carboxylate, were 35-50%. In vitro assays with AR42J rat pancreatic tumour cells demonstrated considerably higher receptor-specific retention of cell-internalized radioiodine activity for [ 131 I]INO compared with [ 125 I]IBO. A tissue distribution study with both conjugates revealed low levels of activity in the thyroid, consistent with a low degree of deiodination of these radioiodinated peptide conjugates. (author)

  17. Calculation Of Aerosol Transport Efficiency For The Airborne Radioiodine Monitoring System - ''RIS125''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, L.; Mazor, Y.; Dolev, E.; German, U.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is a typical fission product in nuclear power reactors. Of the many iodine isotopes that can be generated in nuclear reactors only four are considered as radiobiological significant. These are: 125 1 (T 1/2 =60 days), '1 31 I (T 1/2 =8d), 133 I (T 1/2 =21h) and I35 I (T 1/2 7h). The chemical forms that have been identified in heavy water reactors are I 2 (elemental), organic iodides (CH 3 I), Inorganic iodides (HOI, HI) and LiI. Radioiodine is, generally, released as a gas but can be adsorbed on air particulates to form radioiodine contained aerosols. Therefore. its monitoring has to include both gas and aerosol sampling. A new monitoring system, RIS (Radioactive iodine Sampler), has been developed at the NRCN to monitor radioactive iodine (gas and aerosol) on-line in workplaces. This system samples radioiodine at a 60 L/min rate through a transport line connected to a filter holder. The filter consists of a cartridge containing activated charcoal with TEDA for iodine gas adsorption with a membrane for aerosols' retention in from of it. The radioiodine filter cartridge (F and J product code: TE2C) has a diameter of 2 1/4 inch and height of 1 inch . The gas adsorbent is coconut shell carbon type activated charcoal with 5% (by weight) TEDA impregnation and has 30x50 mesh size. This paper presents the aerosols' sampling characteristics of the RIS system including their transport in the sampling line and filter holder. The adsorption of iodine gas on the transport system components is negligible

  18. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of halide impregnation on elemental mercury removal of activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Yoon Ji; Park, Soo Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were impregnated with potassium halides (KX) to enhance the removal efficiency of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). In this work, the impregnation effect of potassium bromide (KBr) and potassium iodine (KI) were investigated. The surface properties of KX-ACs were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The pore structures and total pore volumes of the KX-ACs were analyzed using the N{sub 2} /77 K adsorption isotherms. The Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of KBr-ACs and KI-ACs was studied under simulated flue gas conditions. The effects of KI and KBr loading, adsorption temperature, and flue gas components on Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency were also investigated. The results showed that the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of the ACs was significantly enhanced by KI or KBr impregnation, and KI-ACs showed higher Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency than KBr-ACs under the same conditions. An increase in KI or KBr loading and higher adsorption temperatures improved the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, indicating that chemisorption occurred due to the reaction between X− and Hg{sup 0}. The lower extent of Hg{sup 0} removal exhibited by the KBr-ACs than by the KI-ACs was due to the difficulty of Br{sub 2} formation on the surfaces.

  20. Comparative study of different types of granular activated carbon in removing medium level radon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.; Maghrawy, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven its effectiveness in removing radon from water supplies. Laboratory and pilot plant studies were carried out using three different types of activated carbons (F-300, F-400, and HD-4000) to remove radon from water supply. From the experimental kinetic study, the data indicated that at least 6 h are needed to attain equilibrium between radon activity adsorbed onto carbon and its concentration in the aqueous phase. Also, it showed that HD-4000 has higher capacity for removing radon than the other two investigated carbons F-300 and F-400. The adsorption isotherms were satisfactorily explained by Freundlich equation. In the pilot plant study, the performance of the three activated carbons in removing radon at medium concentration (∼111 Bq dm -3 ) was evaluated over 60 days of continuous water flow. Four empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) corresponding to four bed depths were continuously monitored and the corresponding steady state adsorption-decay constant values were calculated and the efficiency of each carbon was used to provide a facet for comparison. The γ-radiation exposure rate distribution throughout each GAC bed was measured and compared. This study, despite paucity of literature in this field, is useful for designing a GAC adsorption system for the removal of medium level radon concentration from water supplies. (author)

  1. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Z. Ceylan; Can, B.Z.; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid

  2. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Z. Ceylan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: zcelik@atauni.edu.tr; Can, B.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-03-21

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid.

  3. The Use of Activated Alumina and Magnetic Field for the Removal Heavy Metals from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szatyłowicz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the granular activated alumina (AA sorption properties, during the process of removing copper, lead and cadmium from water, and to monitor the impact of magnetic field (MF on the effectiveness of removing copper, lead and cadmium from water. Activated alumina adsorption is known to be an effective and inexpensive technology for the removal of selenium and arsenic from water and was suggested by EPA as a BAT for point-of-use applications. The removal of copper, lead and cadmium from water using AA and impact of magnetic field was less reported. Pilot tests showed that the use of AA sorption materials with MF impact could possibly decrease the copper, lead and cadmium content in the model water. The MF had also a positive effect on the efficiency of removal copper, lead and cadmium on AA. Increasing the efficiency of heavy metals removal in the samples had been exposed magnetic field varied from 1.9% to 8.2% compared to the control samples.

  4. Retrofitting of activated charcoal filters in the iodine removal system of Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, M.K.; Thomas, Shibu; Ullas, O.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Singh, Kapil Deo S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emergency exhaust system for removal of iodine in the 40 MWt Cirus reactor consisted of a caustic scrubber followed by a bank of silver-coated copper mesh filters. The latter filter elements are no longer commercially available, and moreover, there is need to upgrade the system to meet the current safety norms. An iodine removal system based on activated charcoal adsorbers has been selected for this purpose. The design of the system ensures high iodine removal efficiency and thermal safety of the filters for a postulated accident condition beyond design basis accident. The new iodine removal system has been retrofitted during the current refurbishing programme of Cirus and it has been commissioned and tested satisfactorily

  5. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  6. Evaluation of quaternary ammonium halides for removal of methyl iodide from flowing air streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Mohacsi, T.G.; Kovach, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The quaternary ammonium halides of several tertiary amines were used as impregnants on activated carbon and were tested for methyl iodide penetration in accordance with test Method A, ASTM D3803, 1979, ''Standard Test Methods for Radio-iodine Testing of Nuclear Grade Gas Phase Adsorbents''. The results suggest that the primary removal mechanism for methyl iodide-131 is isotopic exchange with the quaternary ammonium halide. For example, a 5 wt% impregnation of each of the tetramethyl, tetraethyl, tetrapropyl and tetrabutyl ammonium iodides on activated carbon yielded percent penetrations of 0.47, 0.53, 0.78, and 0.08 respectively when tested according to Method A of ASTM D3803. A sample impregnated with 5% tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide gave a methyl iodide penetration of 64.87%, thus supporting the isotopic exchange mechanism for removal. It has been a generally held belief that the success of tertiary amines as impregnants for radioiodine removal is a result of their ability to complex with the methyl iodide. The results of the work indicates that the superiority of the tertiary amines similar to triethylene diamine and quinuclidine, when compared to their straight chain analogs, is a result of their ease in reacting with methyl iodide-127 to form the quaternary ammonium iodide followed by isotopic exchange

  7. Obtention of a prosthetic group for labelling of radioiodinated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da S.; Colturato, Maria Tereza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies and peptides labeled with radionuclides has been extensively used in radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunodetection. The principal problem with the use of radioiodinated proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. The use of prosthetic groups for indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine has showed to be useful on labeling proteins with greater in vivo stability. A procedure is described for the preparation of an radioiodinated prosthetic group (N-succinimidyl 4-radioiodine-benzoate-SIB), using procedure described by Stocklin et al, with the iodination of p-bromo-benzoic acid and subsequent reaction with TSTU. Preliminary labeling results showed that the prosthetic group can be obtained in a good yield. The coupling of the SIB to the protein will be studied using human IgG as protein model. (author)

  8. Radioiodination of melagenine-II with I-125 (preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso, R.; Ruiz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Radioiodination of Melagenine-II with I-125 farmacokinetic studies was made, using Chloramine-T method. Radiochemical purity and stability of the labelled product were determined by radiochromatography. The labelled Melagenine-II showed two radioactive fractions

  9. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-08-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration.

  10. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration

  11. Is it worth to calculate the dose of radioiodine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikalauskas, V.; Kuprionis, G.; Vajauskas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Administration of empirical doses of radioiodine (RAI) has been preferred to calculated doses in many hospitals, because the need to measure the size and the iodine uptake in the thyroid involves considerable inconvenience to the patient and additional costs. The preparation of RAI of varying activities also means extra work. Today there is no general consensus on whether radioiodine should be given as a fixed dose or should be calculated. There is also no consensus regarding the question of which radiation burden should be administered to a given volume of thyroid if the activity is calculated. However, while it is possible to deliver a relatively precise dose of radiation to the thyroid gland, maybe it is worth doing this?The aim of this study was to investigate the results of different uptake and volume dependent target doses on clinical outcome of patients with hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, multi-nodular toxic goiter or toxic adenoma after radioiodine therapy. We reviewed the records of 428 patients (389 women and 39 men, mean age 56.8±12.9 years) who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease and multinodular toxic goiter (n=312) or toxic adenoma (n=116) during the period of 2000-2004 in Kaunas Medical University Hospital. Most patients were given antithyroid drug therapy in order to achieve euthyroidism before treatment with RAI. Radioiodine uptake test with repeated measurements at 2, 6, 24, 48 and/or 72 and/or 96 hr to define the effective half-life was performed. In addition, all the patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy to define the volume of the thyroid. The 131I activities were calculated according to the formula of Marinelli. In addition to the normal calculation individual target doses were adjusted to the thyroid volumes of each patient before therapy. For statistical evaluation, the patients were divided into four groups: group I included those with a thyroid volume 51 ml. Statistical analysis was

  12. Reducing the transfer of radioiodine to milk in cows by adding stable iodine to the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, P.; Voigt, G.

    1999-05-01

    The publication reports the activities for the study and explains the measured results achieved. The usefulness of stable iodine administration to cows for reducing radioiodine transfer to the milk is explained. It was found that enhanced stable radioiodine doses have an effect on the iodine metabolism of dairy cows that has to be taken into account. Initially, a literature study was carried out, which then served as a basis for defining subsequent study objectives and experiments. The evaluation of the results yields information about the effects of stable iodine on the radioiodine transfer, as well as the metabolic pathways of iodine in dairy cows. In order to achieve a clear transfer reducing effect (by a factor of 2), doses of 1g/d have to be fed to a cow. This dose will lead to a stable iodine concentration in the milk of about 10 mg/kg. The WHO recommends a daily maximum dose of 0.5 mg of stable iodine in order to safely prevent adverse health effects in man. Ingestion of more than 2 mg/d may induce in man thyroid disorders and other metabolic disorders. In some countries, the reference level for dairy milk accepted is 0.5 mg of iodine/kg of milk. (orig./CB) [de

  13. A dose-effect correlation for radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, Glenn D; Chittenden, Sarah J; Buckley, Susan; Hindorf, Cecilia [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Haq, Masud; Newbold, Kate; Harmer, Clive L [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Thyroid Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the range of absorbed doses delivered to thyroid remnants, blood, and red marrow from fixed administrations of radioiodine and to ascertain whether the success of ablation is more dependent on these absorbed doses than on the administered activity. Twenty-three patients received 3,000 MBq radioiodine following near-total thyroidectomy. The maximum absorbed dose to remnants was calculated from subsequent single photon emission tomography scans. Absorbed doses delivered to blood and red marrow were calculated from blood samples and from whole-body retention measurements. The protein bound iodine (PBI) was also calculated. Maximum absorbed doses to thyroid remnants ranged from 7 to 570 Gy. Eighteen of the 23 patients had a successful ablation. A significant difference was seen between the absorbed doses delivered to thyroid remnants, blood, and red marrow for those patients that had a successful ablation compared to those with a failed ablation (p = 0.030, p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The difference between the PBI values acquired at day 1 and day 6 were also indicative of response (p = 0.074). A successful ablation is strongly dependent on the absorbed dose to the thyroid remnant. Dosimetry-based personalized treatment can prevent both sub-optimal administrations, which entails further radioiodine therapy, and excessive administration of radioactivity, which increases the potential for radiation toxicity. (orig.)

  14. Three cases of respiratory failure after I-131 radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Masayuki; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    We report three cases of respiratory failure after I-131 radioiodine therapy. All cases involved relapsed cervical lesions, and two showed edema of the larynx. Emergency tracheostomy was performed to treat the respiratory failure in one case while the others were treated conservatively. All patients showed improvements without after-effects. Patients who undergo I-131 radioiodine therapy, especially those with cervical lesions, should be carefully monitored for this rare complication after treatment. (author)

  15. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation.

  16. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation

  17. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  18. Probing the Hypothesis of SAR Continuity Restoration by the Removal of Activity Cliffs Generators in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Medina-Franco, José L; Perera-Sardiña, Yunier; Borges, Fernanda; Tejera, Eduardo; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Contreras-Posada, Zuleidys; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report the first attempt to study the effect of activity cliffs over the generalization ability of machine learning (ML) based QSAR classifiers, using as study case a previously reported diverse and noisy dataset focused on drug induced liver injury (DILI) and more than 40 ML classification algorithms. Here, the hypothesis of structure-activity relationship (SAR) continuity restoration by activity cliffs removal is tested as a potential solution to overcome such limitation. Previously, a parallelism was established between activity cliffs generators (ACGs) and instances that should be misclassified (ISMs), a related concept from the field of machine learning. Based on this concept we comparatively studied the classification performance of multiple machine learning classifiers as well as the consensus classifier derived from predictive classifiers obtained from training sets including or excluding ACGs. The influence of the removal of ACGs from the training set over the virtual screening performance was also studied for the respective consensus classifiers algorithms. In general terms, the removal of the ACGs from the training process slightly decreased the overall accuracy of the ML classifiers and multi-classifiers, improving their sensitivity (the weakest feature of ML classifiers trained with ACGs) but decreasing their specificity. Although these results do not support a positive effect of the removal of ACGs over the classification performance of ML classifiers, the "balancing effect" of ACG removal demonstrated to positively influence the virtual screening performance of multi-classifiers based on valid base ML classifiers. Specially, the early recognition ability was significantly favored after ACGs removal. The results presented and discussed in this work represent the first step towards the application of a remedial solution to the activity cliffs problem in QSAR studies.

  19. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the 131 I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others

  20. Radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Although the use of 131 I has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial. This is because, thyroid cancers (TC) are generally slow growing tumors, with low mortality and normal spans of survival. To record recurrence and mortality, long-term follow-up studies over a period of two to three decades are needed to establish definite conclusions on the acceptable modes of treatment. The most reliable conclusions regarding 131 I treatment are obtained from studies reported on a large series of patients followed over a period of 3 decades or more from a single institute with a more or less unchanged protocol of management

  1. Scintigraphy with radioiodinated free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis several clinical and animal experimental studies of free fatty acids labeled with radioiodine are discussed. These radiolabeled fatty acids are used for cardiac imaging. Besides, the elimination rate of the radioactivity from the myocardium, as observed during a scintigraphic study, is correlated with fatty acid metabolism. Uptake and distribution of I-heptadecanoic acid (I-HDA) and I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-PPA) are compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl-201) in the normal and ischemic canine myocardium. For determination of the elimination rate (expressed in terms of halftime values) of the radioactivity from the myocardium, regions of interest have to be drawn over a scintigram. A method is described resulting in more reliable demarcation of normal and abnormal regions within the scintigram. (Auth.)

  2. Radioiodine in kelp from Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia were studied. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. The principal source of the 131 I was characterized; a general temporal correlation was found between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments enabled to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and the results are consistent with laboratory measurements, elsewhere. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  4. Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123 I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123 I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17- 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho- 123 I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

  5. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ''history'' of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  6. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I A [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ``history`` of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  7. Unburnt carbon from coal fly ashes as a precursor of activated carbon for nitric oxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Begoña; Izquierdo, M Teresa; Mayoral, M Carmen; Bona, M Teresa; Andres, Jose M

    2007-05-08

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the characteristics of an activated carbon obtained from unburnt carbon in coal fly ashes to be used in the removal of NO. Carbon-rich fraction was obtained by mechanical sieving of fly ashes. The mineral matter was removed by conventional HCl and HF demineralization procedure. Activation was carried out with steam at 900 degrees C in order to develop porosity onto the sample. Characterization of samples was performed by several techniques with a main objective: to follow the mineral matter content, composition and distribution on the samples in order to better understand how to remove it from unburnt carbon in fly ashes. To study the use of this unburnt carbon as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbons for gas cleaning, the NO removal by ammonia using activated carbon as a catalyst at low temperature was performed. Results show a good performance of activated carbon in this reaction that is in relationship with BET surface area.

  8. Radioiodine 131I metabolism in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Toru

    1976-01-01

    Metabolic fate of orally administered 131 I in human was studied. Chronological observations of whole body radioactivity distribution and thyroid 131 I uptake curve revealed that 131 I metabolism was greatly affected by the amount of dietary iodine intake. Under the high iodine intake exceeding 1 mg per day, uptake curve showed biphasic descending type, that is, rapid accumulation during 3 to 6 hours and rapid fall up to 48 hours and gradual decrease afterwards. While, ascending type, monophasic and maximal at 24 hours, was found universary under low iodine intake less than 500 μg per day. Thyroid function should not be affected by the amount of iodine intake, and we analysed 131 I metabolism using a new four compartments which included intrathyroidal inorganic iodine pool. The results, especially hormone production rate, were found quite useful even under high iodine intake. Thyroidal organic iodine contents were calculated as approximately 2.5 mg and this value was much less than previously reported values from other countries. Administered radioiodine were mixed up with stable body iodine and reached equilibration by around 10 days. From seroimmunological, histological (microscopic and electron microscopic) studies, and irradiation studies to the cultured human thyroid cells, we concluded that this unexpected phenomenon was derived from chromosomal damage which induced gradual decrease in cell population because of inability to reproduce. Carcinogenic and genetic effects were not serious, and only three leukemic patients were reported in this country and 484 normal babies were born from 7,500 treated parents. Thus, therapeutic dose of 131 I was proved rather safe, and even when exposed to radioiodine, administration of perchlorate or thiocyanate, excessive iodine and TSH seemed effective to avoid radiation injuries. (auth.)

  9. Microbial metabolism and activity in terms of nitrate removal in bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Baocheng; Feng, Huajun; Ding, Yangcheng; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Meizhen; Li, Na; Shen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Haiyang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of current on biofilm formation in BES was investigated. • Biofilm formation activity supplying with organic differed with inorganic. • Discussed the influence of signaling molecule and EPS on biofilm formation. -- Abstract: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a promising technology for generating energy while treating wastewater. By utilizing the electron transfer between the anode and cathode, nitrate can be effectively removed from the BES. Our previous studies show that the carbon source and C/N ratio influences nitrate removal performance. The study presented here investigates how biofilm formation, nitrate removal and signaling molecule release are related in the BESs fed with glucose, starch and HCO 3 − . The results indicate that increasing the current can benefit signaling molecule (DSF) release and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion, which improves biofilm formation. However, when the current exceeds the optimum value, the influence becomes adverse. Nitrate removal was also improved with increased current, though different carbon sources showed different trends. The highest nitrate removal efficiency of 1.23 ± 0.27, 1.38 ± 0.09, 1.80 ± 0.02 mmol L −1 d −1 for the BESs fed with glucose, starch and HCO 3 − were achieved, respectively. This paper studied the bacterial habits in a BES to better acquire and regulate the reaction process, with the aim of achieving good pollutant removal performance

  10. Removal of chromium(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, N F; Barsoum, B N; Eid, A E; Khalil, M S

    2006-08-21

    Chromium is commonly found in huge quantities in tannery wastewaters. For this reason, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of tannery wastewaters is crucial for environmental protection and economic reasons. Removal and recovery of chromium were carried out by using low-cost potential adsorbents. For this purpose three types of activated carbon; C1, the waste generated from sugar industry as waste products and the others (C2, C3) are commercial granular activated carbon, were used. The adsorption process and extent of adsorption are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental condition. The effect of pH, particle size and different adsorbent on the adsorption isotherm of Cr(III) was studied in batch system. The sorption data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model. The efficiencies of activated carbon for the removal of Cr(III) were found to be 98.86, 98.6 and 93 % for C1, C2 and C3, respectively. The order of selectivity is C1>C2>C3 for removal of Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. Carbon "C1" of the highest surface area (520.66 m(2)/g) and calcium content (333.3 mg/l) has the highest adsorptive capacity for removal of Cr(III). The results revealed that the trivalent chromium is significantly adsorbed on activated carbon collected from sugar industry as waste products and the method could be used economically as an efficient technique for removal of Cr(III) and purification of tannery wastewaters.

  11. Radioiodinated iodobenzoyl conjugates of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment. In vivo comparisons with chloramine-T-labeled Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbur, D.S.; Hadley, S.W.; Grant, L.M.; Hylarides, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the biodistributions of radioiodinated p- and m-iodobenzoyl conjugates of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment, NR-LU-10 Fab, and the same antibody Fab fragment radioiodinated by the chloramine-T (ChT) method has been carried out in mice. Coinjected, dual-isotope studies in athymic mice with tumor xenografts have demonstrated that there are only minor differences in the in vivo distributions of the iodobenzoyl-labeled Fabs, except in the excretory organs, kidneys, and intestines, where major differences were observed. Similarly, coinjection of either the p-iodobenzoyl or m-iodobenzoyl conjugate of NR-LU-10 Fab with the Fab radioiodinated with ChT/radioiodide into BALB/c mice provided additional data that indicated that the two iodobenzoyl conjugates distributed similar in a number of selected tissues. The tissue-distribution differences of the regioisomeric iodobenzoyl conjugates in relation to the ChT-radioiodinated Fab were large for the stomach and neck, consistent with previous studies. The most notable difference between the two iodobenzoyl conjugates was the kidney activity, where the m-iodobenzoyl conjugate was similar to the directly labeled Fab, but the p-iodobenzoyl-conjugated Fab was higher by nearly a factor of 2

  12. Active slag filters-simple and sustainable phosphorus removal from wastewater using steel industry byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2010-01-01

    Active filtration, where effluent is passed through a reactive substrate such as steel slag, offers a simple and cost-effective option for removing phosphorus (P) from effluent. This work summarises a series of studies that focused on the world's only full-scale active slag filter operated through to exhaustion. The filter achieved 75% P-removal during its first 5 years, reaching a retention capacity of 1.23 g P/kg slag but then its performance sharply declined. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and chemical extractions revealed that P sequestration was primarily achieved via adsorption onto iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides on the slag's surface. It was concluded that batch equilibrium tests, whose use has been repeatedly proposed in the literature, cannot be used as an accurate predictor of filter adsorption capacity because Fe oxyhydroxides form via chemical weathering in the field, and laboratory tests don't account for this. Research into how chemical conditions affect slag's P retention capacity demonstrated that near-neutral pH and high redox are optimal for Fe oxyhydroxide stability and overall filter performance. However, as Fe oxyhydroxide sites fill up, removal capacity becomes exhausted. Attempts to regenerate P removal efficiency using physical techniques proved ineffective contrary to dogma in the literature. Based on the newly-developed understanding of the mechanisms of P removal, chemical regeneration techniques were investigated and were shown to strip large quantities of P from filter adsorption sites leading to a regenerated P removal efficiency. This raises the prospect of developing a breakthrough technology that can repeatedly remove and recover P from effluent.

  13. Factor Affecting Textile Dye Removal Using Adsorbent From Activated Carbon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Razi Mohd Adib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial company such as textile, leather, cosmetics, paper and plastic generated wastewater containing large amount of dye colour. The removal of dye materials are importance as the presence of this kind of pollutant influence the quality of water and makes it aesthetically unpleasant. As their chemical structures are complicated, it is difficult to treat dyes with municipal waste treatment operations. Even a small quantity of dye does cause high visibility and undesirability. There have been various treatment technique reviewed for the removal of dye in wastewater. However, these treatment process has made it to another expensive treatment method. This review focus on the application of adsorbent in dye removal from textile wastewater as the most economical and effective method, adsorption has become the most preferred method to remove dye. The review provides literature information about different basis materials used to produce activated carbon like agricultural waste and industrial waste as well as the operational parameters factors in term of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH solution and initial dye concentration that will affect the process in removing textile dye. This review approach the low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for replacing conventional activated carbon.

  14. Phenols removal using ozonation-adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) in rotating packed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamah, E. F.; Leonita, S.; Bismo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic wastewater containing phenols was treated using combination method of ozonation-adsorption with GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) in a packed bed rotating reactor. Ozone reacts quickly with phenol and activated carbon increases the oxidation process by producing hydroxyl radicals. Performance parameters evaluated are phenol removal percentage, the quantity of hydroxyl radical formed, changes in pH and ozone utilization, dissolved ozone concentration and ozone concentration in off gas. The performance of the combination method was compared with single ozonation and single adsorption. The influence of GAC dose and initial pH of phenols were evaluated in ozonation-adsorption method. The results show that ozonation-adsorption method generates more OH radicals than a single ozonation. Quantity of OH radical formation increases with increasing pH and quantity of the GAC. The combination method prove better performance in removing phenols. At the same operation condition, ozonation-adsorption method is capable of removing of 78.62% phenols as compared with single ozonation (53.15%) and single adsorption (36.67%). The increasing percentage of phenol removal in ozonation-adsorption method is proportional to the addition of GAC dose, solution pH, and packed bed rotator speed. Maximum percentage of phenol removal is obtained under alkaline conditions (pH 10) and 125 g of GAC

  15. Removing Dissolved Silica from Waste Water with Catechol and Active Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanoscale Sciences Dept.; Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Energy Program; Krumhansl, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geosciences Dept.; Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Physical Chemical and Nano Sciences Center

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity is going to be a global great challenge in the near future because of the increasing population. Our water resources are limited and, hence, water treatment and recycling methods are the only alternatives for fresh water procurement in the upcoming decades. Water treatment and recycling methods serve to remove harmful or problematic constituents from ground, surface and waste waters prior to its consumption, industrial supply, or other uses. Scale formation in industrial and domestic installations is still an important problem during water treatment. In water treatment, silica scaling is a real and constant concern for plant operations. The focus of this study is on the viability of using a combination of catechol and active carbon to remove dissolved silica from concentrated cooling tower water (CCTW). Various analytical methods, such as ICP-MS and UV-vis, were used to understand the structure-property relationship between the material and the silica removal results. UV-Vis indicates that catechol can react with silica ions and form a silica-catecholate complex. The speciation calculation of catechol and silica shows that catechol and silica bind in the pH range of 8 – 10; there is no evidence of linkage between them in neutral and acidic pHs. The silica removal results indicate that using ~4g/L of catechol and 10g/L active carbon removes up to 50% of the dissolved silica from the CCTW.

  16. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies. ... the maximum adsorption capacity of SA-S-C calculated by the Langmuir isotherm is 149.93 mg/g at 30°C. Acid regeneration was tried for several cycles with a ...

  17. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated eac...

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ION EXCHANGE AND ACTIVATED ALUMINA PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance study of two ion exchange (IE) and two activated alumina (AA) treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water. Performance information was collected on these systems that are located in the northeast for one full year. The stud...

  19. Fly ash: An alternative to powdered activated carbon for the removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and raw coal fly ash (RFA) in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solution in batch processes. Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 120 min ...

  20. Removing grain boundaries from three-dimensional colloidal crystals using active dopants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, B.; Dijkstra, M.; Filion, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Using computer simulations we explore how grain boundaries can be removed from three-dimensional colloidal crystals by doping with a small fraction of active colloids. We show that for sufficient selfpropulsion, the system is driven into a crystal-fluid coexistence. In this phase separated regime,

  1. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which d...

  2. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  4. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  5. Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, A.; Travaini, L.L.; Tadayyon, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Fugazzola, L.; Beck-Peccoz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131 I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131 I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131 I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131 I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131 I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131 I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131 I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

  6. Characterization of coal gasification slag-based activated carbon and its potential application in lead removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiting; Chai, Xiaoli

    2018-02-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were prepared from a coal gasification slag (CGS) precursor, by KOH activation to remove Pb 2+ from aqueous solution. The effects of pretreatment methods and activation parameters on the properties of the activated carbon were investigated, such as KOH/CGS mass ratio, activation temperature and activation time. The results showed that the maximum Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and total pore volume with the value of 2481 m 2  g -1 and of 1.711 cc g -1 were obtained at a KOH/CGS ratio of 3.0 by physical mixing, an activation temperature of 750°C and an activation time of 80 min. SEM, FTIR and EA analyses indicated that pronounced pores existed on the exterior surface of the activated samples, and the contents of H and O decreased due to the loss of surface chemical groups during activation. Experimental data for the Pb 2+ adsorption were fitted well by Freundlich equation and a pseudo-second-order model with a maximum experimental adsorption capacity of 141 mg/g. All of the results indicated that CGS could be a promising material to prepare porous activated carbon for Pb 2+ removal from wastewater.

  7. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mokhlesur M.; Adil, Mohd; Yusof, Alias M.; Kamaruzzaman, Yunus B.; Ansary, Rezaul H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II), lead(II) and chromium(VI). Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II) and lead(II) were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II) and lead(II). The removal of chromium(VI) was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cr(VI) by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:28788640

  8. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  9. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product/waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Reddy, D H K Kumar; Venkateswarlu, Padala; Seshaiah, K

    2009-01-01

    Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Ceiba pentandra hulls, Phaseolus aureus hulls and Cicer arietinum waste was investigated. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose for the removal of mercury was studied using a batch process. The experiments demonstrated that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order-kinetic models and the equilibrium adsorption data fit the Freundlich isotherm model well. The prepared adsorbents ACCPH, ACPAH and ACCAW had removal capacities of 25.88 mg/g, 23.66 mg/g and 22.88 mg/g, respectively, at an initial Hg(II) concentration of 40 mg/L. The order of Hg(II) removal capacities of these three adsorbents was ACCPH>ACPAH>ACCAW. The adsorption behavior of the activated carbon is explained on the basis of its chemical nature. The feasibility of regeneration of spent activated carbon adsorbents for recovery of Hg(II) and reuse of the adsorbent was determined using HCl solution.

  10. Evaluation of optimal silver amount for the removal of methyl iodide on silver-impregnated adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G.I.; Cho, I.H.; Kim, J.H.; Oh, W.Z.

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of methyl iodide generated from the simulated off-gas stream on various adsorbents such as silver-impregnated zeolite (AgX), zeocarbon and activated carbon were investigated. An extensive evaluation was made on the optimal silver impregnation amount for the removal of methyl iodide at temperatures up to 300 deg. C. The degree of adsorption efficiency of methyl iodide on silver-impregnated adsorbent is strongly dependent on impregnation amount and process temperature. A quantitative comparison of adsorption efficiencies on three adsorbents in a fixed bed was investigated. The influence of temperature, methyl iodide concentration and silver impregnation amount on the adsorption efficiency is closely related to the pore characteristics of adsorbents. It shows that the effective impregnation ratio was about 10wt%, based on the degree of silver utilization for the removal of methyl iodide. The practical applicability of silver-impregnated zeolite for the removal of radioiodine generated from the DUPIC process was consequently proposed. (author)

  11. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fluidized bed reactor, filled with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on GAC, has been used for BPA removal. • BPA removal resulted from a biological activated carbon (BAC) process. • Equations describing the results have been indicated. • BPA removal was analyzed as a function of time and biofilm reuse. - Abstract: Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems

  12. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mita, Luigi [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Grumiro, Laura [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto [Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via della Salute 2, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano Gustavo, E-mail: mita@igb.cnr.it [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Diano, Nadia [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples Italy (Italy)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • A fluidized bed reactor, filled with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on GAC, has been used for BPA removal. • BPA removal resulted from a biological activated carbon (BAC) process. • Equations describing the results have been indicated. • BPA removal was analyzed as a function of time and biofilm reuse. - Abstract: Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems.

  13. Removal of cationic surfactant (CTAB from aqueous solution on to activated carbon obtained from corncob.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yakout

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct and indirect releases of large quantities of surfactants to the environment may result in serious health and environmental problems. Therefore, surfactants should be removed from water before water is released to the environment or delivered for public use. Using powdered activated carbon (PAC as adsorbent may be an effective technique to remove surfactants. In this study, the removal of surfactants by PAC was investigated and the influencesof the operating parameters on the effectiveness on adsorption rate were studied. Cationic surfactant, Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB was selected for the experiments. A series of batch experiments were performed to determine the sorption isotherms of surfactants to PAC. The results showed that carbon structure affect mainly on the surfactant adsorption. Surfactant equilibrium data fitted very well to the binary langmuir model. The pseudo first-,second- order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were applied. Both, the external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion mechanisms involve in CTAB sorption.

  14. Utilization of granular activated carbon adsorber for nitrates removal from groundwater of the Cluj region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moşneag, Silvia C; Popescu, Violeta; Dinescu, Adrian; Borodi, George

    2013-01-01

    The level of nitrates from groundwater from Cluj County and other areas from Romania have increased values, exceeding or getting close to the allowed limit values, putting in danger human and animal heath. In this study we used granular activated carbon adsorbent (GAC) for nitrate (NO(-)3) removal for the production of drinking water from groundwater of the Cluj county. The influences of the contact time, nitrate initial concentration, and adsorbent concentration have been studied. We determined the equilibrium adsorption capacity of GAC, used for NO(-)3 removal and we applied the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for process characterization. We also determined: pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness. The GAC adsorbents have excellent capacities of removing nitrate from groundwater from Cluj County areas.

  15. Application of Activated Carbon for Removal of Arsenic Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon (AC was used for removal of As(III and As(V ions from aqueous solutions. Sorption experiments were conducted using both batch and column systems. The effect of some important parameters on sorption of these by AC was studied. It was found that among the different factors affecting sorption capacity and efficiency in removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions, the effect of pH and the oxidation state were the most prominent. The optimum pH values for removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions using AC was found 12 and 3 respectively. Impregnation of AC with sulphur contain organic dyes, it is possible to improve As(III uptake considerably.

  16. Long-term impairment of the lacrimal glands after radioiodine therapy: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, Georg; Fueger, Barbara J.; Pirich, Christian; Dudczak, Robert; Hanselmayer, Georg; Nepp, Johannes; Hofmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Impairment of the lacrimal glands after external radiation has been well documented, but there are only a few reports on the effects of radioiodine therapy on the lacrimal glands. Long-term effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy on tear secretion have not previously been studied. We investigated 175 eyes of 88 patients with a history of radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma (68 females, 20 males; mean age 55±16 years, range 17-81 years) and compared them with a sex- and age-matched control group (n=39). All patients had been given at least 2.96 GBq iodine-131 (maximal administered activity 22.3 GBq 131 I). An ophthalmological investigation was performed 64±71 months (range 3-317 months) after initial radioiodine therapy by a single ophthalmologist. Lacrimal gland function was evaluated with three different function tests. External eye morphology was considered, and detailed ophthalmological history-taking was performed. Patients with factors known to affect lacrimal gland function (contact lenses, autoimmune disorders, history of additional radiation exposure) were excluded from the study. A total of 81 patients (92%) had at least one abnormal function test indicating impaired lacrimal gland function. Schirmer's tear test was decreased (<10 mm/5 min) in 47 of the 88 patients and definitely abnormal (<5 mm/5 min) in 35 patients. A tear film break-up time of <10 s was found in 78 patients, and 62 patients had a definitely abnormal break-up time of <5 s. The lacrimal lipid layer was impaired in 43 patients. The function tests were all significantly altered in the study group as compared with the controls (P<0.005, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Both subjective symptoms of dry eye (P<0.01) and changes in the external eye morphology (P<0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the study group. Our findings suggest that in the majority of patients, lacrimal gland function may be permanently impaired after high-dose radioiodine therapy. All three layers of the

  17. Removing Copper from Contaminated Water Using Activated Carbon Sorbent by Continuous Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Salmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A major concern of human being is accumulation and toxicity of heavy metals in their body. Copper is a heavy metal ion that in concentration of 2 mg/l can cause numerous complications. Different treatment methods have been proposed for removing metals from contaminated water by researchers. Among these methods, sorption seems a better method with high removal efficiency. In this study, conditions for removal of copper ions by activated carbon sorbent were studied with continuous flow. Materials & Methods: This was a laboratory – experimental study. A 20mg/l solution of copper ions was prepared and passed through a 5 × 10 cm column with average output rate of 1.85 ml/min. Output of column was sampled every 30 minutes and the remaining amount of copper ion in each sample was measured by flame atomic absorption. Results: The empty bed volume (EBV was equal to 138 ml. The highest removal efficiency was 99.7 percent at 127 minutes. From equilibrium time, the removal efficiency was constant with time. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon was 0.25mg.g-1. The isotherm study indicated that the sorption data can be obeyed by both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms (R2>0.95 but Langmuir model had higher agreement with this experimental data (R2= 0.988. Conclusion: The binding of ions to the sorbent in the adsorption process is extremely important. For this column 62.5 minutes after filling was appropriate, so the highest removal efficiency was obtained. Equilibrium time was dependent on the speed of influent through the column in the continuous flow. For selected column, the rate of 1.85 ml/min is a good performance.

  18. Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Ahmed El; Abdelwahab, Ola; El-Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2009-01-15

    The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as approximately 2.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 30min after the beginning for every experiment. The adsorption of direct blue-86 followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit well Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations better than Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The maximum removal of direct blue-86 was obtained at pH 2 as 92% for adsorbent dose of 6gL(-1) and 100mgL(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 33.78mgg(-1). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of DB-86 was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2>0.99) with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from orange peel can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of DB-86.

  19. Ceria modified activated carbon: an efficient arsenic removal adsorbent for drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Radha; Somasundar, Yogesh; Iyer, Venkatesh Shankar; Baruwati, Babita

    2017-06-01

    Ceria (CeO2) coated powdered activated carbon was synthesized by a single step chemical process and demonstrated to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from water without any pre-oxidation process. The formation of CeO2 on the surface of powdered activated carbon was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The percentage of Ce in the adsorbent was confirmed to be 3.5 % by ICP-OES. The maximum removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 10.3 and 12.2 mg/g, respectively. These values are comparable to most of the commercially available adsorbents. 80 % of the removal process was completed within 15 min of contact time in a batch process. More than 95 % removal of both As(III) and As(V) was achieved within an hour. The efficiency of removal was not affected by change in pH (5-9), salinity, hardness, organic (1-4 ppm of humic acid) and inorganic anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate and fluoride) excluding phosphate. Presence of 100 ppm phosphate reduced the removal significantly from 90 to 18 %. The equilibrium adsorption pattern of both As(III) and As(V) fitted well with the Freundlich model with R 2 values 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The material shows reusability greater than three times in a batch process (arsenic concentration reduced below 10 ppb from 330 ppb) and a life of at least 100 L in a column study with 80 g material when tested under natural hard water (TDS 1000 ppm, pH 7.8, hardness 600 ppm as CaCO3) spiked with 330 ppb of arsenic.

  20. Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, K; Maloney, S W; McElhaney, J; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

    1983-01-01

    The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in laboratory experiments. After ozonation, the average TOC entering the contactors was 1,488 micrograms/liter, and the average effluent TOC was 497 micrograms/liter. Microbiological TOC removal was found to average 240 micrograms/liter on GAC contactors, which was not significantly different from microbiological TOC (220 micrograms/liter) removal across a parallel sand contactor where no adsorption took place. Thus, GAC did not appear to enhance biological TOC removal. Bacterial growth and maintenance was responsible for approximately 24% of the TOC removal on GAC under the conditions of this study. PMID:6639023

  1. Assessment of bacterial growth and total organic carbon removal on granular activated carbon contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, K; Maloney, S W; McElhaney, J; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

    1983-09-01

    The overall growth rate of bacteria on granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors at the Philadelphia Torresdale Water Treatment Pilot Plant facility was found to decrease until steady state was reached. The growth rate was found to fluctuate between 6.94 X 10(-3) and 8.68 X 10(-4) doublings per h. The microbiological removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated by considering the GAC contactors as semiclosed continuous culture systems and using growth yield factors determined in laboratory experiments. After ozonation, the average TOC entering the contactors was 1,488 micrograms/liter, and the average effluent TOC was 497 micrograms/liter. Microbiological TOC removal was found to average 240 micrograms/liter on GAC contactors, which was not significantly different from microbiological TOC (220 micrograms/liter) removal across a parallel sand contactor where no adsorption took place. Thus, GAC did not appear to enhance biological TOC removal. Bacterial growth and maintenance was responsible for approximately 24% of the TOC removal on GAC under the conditions of this study.

  2. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Removal of p-Nitrophenol Using Persulfate Activated by Biochars Prepared from Different Biomass Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chenfei; LI Yumeng; FENG Haiyao; JIA Shumin; XUE Ruijie; LI Gang; WANG Guoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Three biochars from wheat straw(WSC),chicken manure(CMC) and rice husk(RHC) were prepared as persulfate(PS) activators for p-nitropheol(PNP) removal.RHC exhibitted the best adsorption performance,followed by WSC and CMC,which was consistant with the surface area value.PS addition further promoted the PNP removal,indicating that a synergistic effect existed in the biochar/PS combined system.The composition and textual properties of biochar had a significant effect on the reactivity of activator and the function groups containing oxgygen or nitrogen might play important roles in the reaction.WSC could perform efficiently over a pH range from 4.4 to 10.4.The decrease in activation performance in cycle experiments was possiblely related to the loss of oxgygen-containing groups.

  4. Role of ozone and granular activated carbon in the removal of mutagenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbigot, M M; Hascoet, M C; Levi, Y; Erb, F; Pommery, N

    1986-01-01

    The identification of certain organic compounds in drinking water has led water treatment specialists to be increasingly concerned about the eventual risks of such pollutants to the health of consumers. Our experiments focused on the role of ozone and granular activated carbon in removing mutagenic compounds and precursors that become toxic after chlorination. We found that if a sufficient dose of ozone is applied, its use does not lead to the creation of mutagenic compounds in drinking water and can even eliminate the initial mutagenicity of the water. The formation of new mutagenic compounds seems to be induced by ozonation that is too weak, although these mutagens can be removed by GAC filtration. Ozone used with activated carbon can be one of the best means for eliminating the compounds contributing to the mutagenicity of water. A combined treatment of ozone and activated carbon also decreases the chlorine consumption of the treated water and consequently reduces the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. PMID:3816720

  5. The imunocytochemical advances in prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyins'ka, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    The topical issues is the problem of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant metastasis. We offered the methods of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with the help of immunocytochemical detection of the cytokeratin 17 and thyroid peroxidase. With the purpose of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistibility the cytokeratin 17 is taped in punctates of primary papillary carcinomas. This approach allows predict response of metastases on radioiodine therapy to choose proper therapeutic approach

  6. Removal of phosphate from water by activated carbon fiber loaded with lanthanum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Wan Lihua; Chang Ning; Liu Jianyong; Duan Chao; Zhou Qi; Li Xiangling; Wang Xinze

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate removal from wastewater is very important for the prevention of eutrophication. Adsorption of phosphate from water was investigated using activated carbon fiber loaded with lanthanum oxide (ACF-La) as a novel adsorbent. The effects of variables (La/ACF mass ratio, impregnation time, activation time, and activation temperature) have been studied by the single-factor method. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to assess the individual and collective effects of the main independent parameters on the phosphate removal. The optimal conditions within the range studied for preparing ACF-La were found as follows: La/ACF mass ratio of 11.78%, activation time of 2.5 h and activation temperature at 650 ° C , respectively. The phosphate removal using the ACF-La prepared under the optimal conditions was up to 97.6% even when the phosphate concentration in water was 30 mg P/L, indicating that ACF-La may be an effective adsorbent. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and change of pH values associated with the adsorption process revealed that the probable mechanism of phosphate ions onto ACF-La was not only ion exchange and coulomb interaction, but also a result of Lewis acid-base interaction due to La-O coordination bonding.

  7. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin St., Sheffield, S1 3JD, England (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design.

  8. The effect of mixed oxidants and powdered activated carbon on the removal of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uriarte, Jon I; Iriarte-Velasco, Unai; Chimeno-Alanís, Noemí; González-Velasco, Juan R

    2010-09-15

    Present paper studies the influence of electrochemically generated mixed oxidants on the physicochemical properties of natural organic matter, and especially from the disinfection by-products formation point of view. The study was carried out in a full scale water treatment plant. Results indicate that mixed oxidants favor humic to non-humic conversion of natural organic matter. Primary treatment preferentially removes the more hydrophobic fraction. This converted the non-humic fraction in an important source of disinfection by-products with a 20% contribution to the final trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP(F)) of the finished water. Enhanced coagulation at 40 mg l(-1) of polyaluminium chloride with a moderate mixing intensity (80 rpm) and pH of 6.0 units doubled the removal efficiency of THMFP(F) achieved at full scale plant. However, gel permeation chromatography data revealed that low molecular weight fractions were still hardly removed. Addition of small amounts of powdered activated carbon, 50 mg l(-1), allowed reduction of coagulant dose by 50% whereas removal of THMFP(F) was maintained or even increased. In systems where mixed oxidants are used addition of powdered activated carbon allows complementary benefits by a further reduction in the THMFP(F) compared to the conventional only coagulation-flocculation-settling process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of microwave-assisted rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasri, Azduwin; Ahmad, Mohd Azmier

    2017-10-01

    Optimum preparation conditions of rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon (RSAC) for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was studied. RSAC was produced by applying physiochemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide as a chemical agent which accompanied by carbon dioxide gasification under microwave heating. The effects of microwave power, irradiation time and impregnation ratio on two types of responses namely MB removal and RSAC yield using the center composite design (CCD) were also included in this study. The preparation variables correlation for responses was developed by two quadratic models. Optimum preparation conditions of RSAC were obtained at microwave power, irradiation time and IR of 354 W, 4.5 minutes and 0.98, respectively, which resulted MB removal and yield of 83.79% and 28%, respectively. The average pore diameter, surface area and total pore volume of optimized RSAC were 4.12 nm, 796.33 m2/g and 0.4219 cm3/g, respectively. This sample was found to has well-developed pores on its surface and can be a promising adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  10. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design

  11. Thermal activation and characterization of chocolate clay for using as adsorbent in nickel removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, W.C.T.; Brito, A.L.F.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Ferreira, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Clays present interesting properties as adsorbing material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents. This property is clearly modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of chocolate clay before and after thermal activation (from 300 to 500 deg C) is realized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The main differences between the activated and natural clays are structural modifications of the clay, as shown by XRD and DTA/TG, but also a modification of its cation exchange capacity as shown by the methylene blue method. (author)

  12. The optimal time of discontinuing methimazole before radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, Z.; Zakavi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a common disease and one of the best methods for its treatment is radioiodine therapy with Treatment with antithyroid drugs brings patients to euthyroidism before radioiodine therapy. Antithyroid drugs should be discontinued before radioiodine therapy to increase thyroid uptake. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal time of methimazole discontinuation. One hundred eighty four patients, who were referred for radioiodine therapy were classified in 3 groups according to the duration of methimazole discontinuation before thyroid uptake (RAIU) measurement. Group 1,2 and 3 were patients who discontinued methimazole (48-72 h rs), (72-120 h rs) and more than 120 h rs before RAIU measurement, respectively. Mean thyroid uptake in group 1, 2 and 3 was (64±151.1%), (60.1±14.1%) and (59.3±12.8), respectively. No significant difference was noted in thyroid uptake between these groups (F= 1.83, P<0.16). This study shows that 48-72 h rs of methimazole discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is enough and longer term abstention is not associated with higher uptake

  13. Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter - radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schicha, H.; Dietlein, M.

    2002-01-01

    At the 15th conference on the human thyroid in Heidelberg in 2001 the following aspects of the radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders were presented: General strategies for therapy of benign thyroid diseases, criterions for conservative or definitive treatment of hyperthyroidism as first line therapy and finally preparation, procedural details, results, side effects, costs and follow-up care of radioiodine therapy as well as legal guidelines for hospitalization in Germany. The diagnosis Graves' hyperthyroidism needs the decision, if rather a conservative treatment or if primary radioiodine therapy is the best therapeutic approach. In the USA 70-90% of these patients are treated with radioiodine as first line therapy, whereas in Germany the conservative therapy for 1-1.5 years is recommended for 90%. This review describes subgroups of patients with Graves' disease showing a higher probability to relapse after conservative treatment. Comparing benefits, adverse effects, costs, and conveniences of both treatment strategies the authors conclude that radioiodine therapy should be preferred as first line therapy in 60-70% of the patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  14. Improved radioiodination of biomolecules using exhaustive Chloramine-T oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana M.; Balter, Henia S.; Oliver, Patricia; Welling, Mick M.; Pauwels, Ernest K.J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve standardization in analytical reagents we investigated Chloramine-T radioiodination ( 125 I) of several biomolecules based on the use of a single amount of the oxidizing agent Chloramine-T as the limiting reagent being exhausted during the course of the reaction. Whenever the labeling yield resulted in less than one atom 125 I/molecule, a second amount of the oxidizing agent was added. Thereafter, the integrity of the various biomolecules was assessed using radioimmunoassays, radioreceptor binding assays, or radioimmunometric assays. Purification yields were done by gel permeation (56%±19%, n=230) or by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (59%±19%, n=230). Specific activity (117±61 MBq/nmol) and the degree of iodine incorporation (1.4±0.8 atoms of 125 I/molecule) were achieved after 300 sec of incubation. A second addition of Chloramine-T resulted in an increased labeling yield of all biomolecules tested by a mean factor of 1.8±0.9. After the second addition of Chloramine-T, we observed for some biomolecules a significant (p<0.001) decreased effect in biological performance. In conclusion, the use of Chloramine-T as a limiting reagent resulted in molecules with appropriate immunological and biological performance. In general, tracers were minimally damaged and assessment of the shelf life as well as storing conditions showed the usefulness of the standardization of biomolecule labeling

  15. Novel radioiodinated sibutramine and fluoxetine as models for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motaleb, M.A.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Rashed, H.M.; Abd El-Bary, A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain imaging is a process which allows scientists and physicians to view and monitor the areas of the brain which allow diagnosis and following up different abnormalities in the brain. The aim of this study was to develop potential radiopharmaceuticals for the non-invasive brain imaging. Sibutramine and fluoxetine (two drugs that have the ability to cross blood-brain barrier) were successfully labeled with 125 I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at ambient temperature. The reaction parameters studied were substrate concentration, oxidizing agent concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, reaction temperature, reaction time and in vitro stability of the iodocompounds. The iodocompounds gave maximum labeling yield of 92 ± 2.77 and 93 ± 2.1%, respectively, and maintained stability throughout working period (24 h). Biodistribution studies showed that maximum in vivo uptake of the iodocompounds in the brain was 5.7 ± 0.19 and 6.14 ± 0.26% injected activity/g tissue organ, respectively, at 15 and 5 min post-injection, whereas the clearance from the mice appeared to proceed via the hepatobiliary pathway. Brain uptake of 125 I-sibutramine and 125 I-fluoxetine is higher than that of 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO (currently used radiopharmaceuticals for brain imaging) and so radioiodinated sibutramine and fluoxetine could be used instead of 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO for brain SPECT. (author)

  16. Development of a radioiodinated ligand for characterising α1-adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Jarrott, B.

    1982-01-01

    Two α-adrenoceptor antagonists, phentolamine and 2-(β-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylaminomethyl)-tetralone (BE 2254) which are phenolic derivatives were radioiodinated after chloramine-T oxidation of Na 125 I and the labelled material isolated by chromatography. 125 I-Phentolamine does not bind selectively to α-adrenoceptors in guinea pig brain whereas the 125 I-BE 2254 derivative binds rapidly, reversibly and with high affinity to these receptors with a K/sub d/ of 230 pM. At low concentrations of 125 I-BE 2254 ( 1 subclass of adrenoceptors. Binding measurements to kidney and smooth muscle membrane preparations indicate that 125 I-BE 2254 may also be a useful tool in the study of α-adrenoceptors in peripheral tissues. The high specific activity of 125 I-BE 2254 permits the use of minimal quantities of membrane material for receptor assay and ligand displacement measurements, e.g. 250 μg per assay tube, and this provides a significant advantage over the use of existing radioligands such as 3 H-prazosin which requires approx. 40 times as much tissue

  17. Computational study of ibuprofen removal from water by adsorption in realistic activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamon, Daniel; Carro, Leticia; Guri, Sonia; Vega, Lourdes F

    2017-07-15

    Molecular simulations using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method have been performed in order to obtain physical insights on how the interaction between ibuprofen (IBP) and activated carbons (ACs) in aqueous mixtures affects IBP removal from water by ACs. A nanoporous carbon model based on units of polyaromatic molecules with different number of rings, defects and polar-oxygenated sites is described. Individual effects of factors such as porous features and chemical heterogeneities in the adsorbents are investigated and quantified. Results are in good agreement with experimental adsorption data, highlightening the ability of GCMC simulation to describe the macroscopic adsorption performance in drug removal applications, while also providing additional insights into the IBP/water adsorption mechanism. The simulation results allow finding the optimal type of activated carbon material for separating this pollutant in water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of nitrate from water by adsorption onto zinc chloride treated activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Ji, M.; Choi, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption study with untreated and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) treated coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) for nitrate removal from water has been carried out. Untreated coconut GAC was treated with ZnCl2 and carbonized. The optimal conditions were selected by studying the influence of process...... variables such as chemical ratio and activation temperature. Experimental results reveal that chemical weight ratio of 200% and temperature of 500 degrees C was found to be optimum for the maximum removal of nitrate from water. Both untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were characterized by scanning...... capacity of untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were found 1.7 and 10.2 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of nitrate on ZnCl2 treated coconut GAC was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration of nitrate anion, temperature, and pH by batch mode adsorption experiments. The kinetic...

  19. Chemical activation of tea waste and use for the removal of chromium (Vi) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Bhatti, I.; Ansari, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Tea waste is the residue left after the preparation of tea. At present the tea waste is regarded as a waste product having no use. In this study, tea waste is converted into an adsorbent. Tea waste is chemically activated with phosphoric acid at low temperature 450 degree C. This activated carbon is then utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. The various sorption parameters i.e pH, sorbent dose sorbate concentration, shaking time and shaking speed are first optimized. 75% of chromium from aqueous solution is effectively removed at pH 2. The best optimum conditions were obtained when 1 gm of sorbent was agitated at 100 rpm with 60 mg/l of sorbate for 50 minutes. Better results were obtained when low concentrations of sorbates were used. Hence tea waste could also be successfully used for the sorption of Chromium (VI), from industrial waste water. (author)

  20. Long-lived radioiodine in Japanese environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.; Watanabe, M.; Kurihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of long-lived radioiodine, 129 I (half-life 1.57 x 10 7 y) in the Japanese environment has been studied by measuring thyroids of humans and animals. The collected samples thyroids of (1) humans in Ibaraki Prefecture, in Kanto district, the central part of Japan, (2) cattle in Aomori Prefecture, north part of Japan, and (3) wild deer in Chiba Prefecture, in Kanto district. The measured mean isotopic ratio 129 I/ 127 I for thyroids of cattle in Aomori Prefecture is 3.5 ± 1.8 x 10 -9 . A higher value of 14 ± 5 x 10 -9 has been obtained for thyroids of wild deer in Kanto district. On the other hand, the measured ratio for human thyroids in Kanto district is 1 ± 0.2 x 10 -9 . This value is significantly lower than that of cattle thyroids in Aomori and also those reported for human thyroids in Europe and USA. The higher mean ratio for cattle thyroid in Kanto district is possibly explained by the influence of nuclear reprocessing plant. Lower mean ratio for human thyroid might be due to higher dietary intake of algae. (author)

  1. labelling of some pharmaceutical compounds with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    electrophilic radioiodination of three of medically important compounds namely, pindolol (Pin) , benzamide (s(-)BZM) and lysuride (LIS) was carried out by using several oxidizing agents such as chloramine- T, iodogen, iodine monochloride at room temperature and hydrogen peroxide at 100 0 C. the factors affecting the percent radiochemical yield such as substrate concentration, Ph, oxidizing agent concentration , reaction time and the concentration of K1 carrier were studied. the conditions, which gave high radiochemical yield, were summarized in one reaction to give the optimum radiochemical yield . optimization of the radiochemical yield resulted in 90% for radioiodobenzamide ( * IBZM) when the reaction was carried out in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph-3) or in ammonium acetate buffer (ph=4) for 5 minutes reaction time . A radiochemical yield of 50% of * IPIN was obtained when the reaction was carried out in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph=7) for 30 min. a radiochemical yield of 70% of * ILIS was obtained when the reaction was affected in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph=7) within 30 min reaction time

  2. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Song, E-mail: niusong84@163.com; Yan, Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayan@nwpu.edu.cn

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • A novel silicone-based polymer with active methylene was explored. • Surface tension of liquid paints could be lowered using the polymer. • The polymer was easy to migrate toward the air-coating interface. • Free HCHO could effectively be removed using the polymer. • A lights on HCHO reduction without complicated preparation procedure was shielded. - Abstract: Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4 wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals.

  3. Removal of radon from water using granular activated carbon adsorption. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A concise summary is presented of the current knowledge on radon removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment. The technical information is based upon laboratory and field research and it is presented in a question-and-answer format. Other pertinent topics discussed and explained include: (1) type of GAC to use, (2) required capacity of GAC unit, (3) shielding considerations for GAC units, (4) effective life of a bed, (5) backwash requirements for GAC units, and (6) cost of GAC treatment

  4. Energy recovery during advanced wastewater treatment: simultaneous estrogenic activity removal and hydrogen production through solar photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous estrogenic activity removal and hydrogen production from secondary effluent were successfully achieved using TiO(2) microspheres modified with both platinum nanoparticles and phosphates (P-TiO(2)/Pt) for the first time. The coexistence of platinum and phosphate on the surface of TiO(2) microspheres was confirmed by transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. P-TiO(2)/Pt microspheres showed a significantly higher photocatalytic activity than TiO(2) microspheres and TiO(2) powders (P25) for the removal of estrogenic activity from secondary effluent with the removal ratio of 100%, 58.2% and 48.5% in 200 min, respectively. Moreover, the marked production of hydrogen (photonic efficiency: 3.23 × 10(-3)) was accompanied by the removal of estrogenic activity only with P-TiO(2)/Pt as photocatalysts. The hydrogen production rate was increasing with decreased DO concentration in secondary effluent. Results of reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluation during P-TiO(2)/Pt photocatalytic process showed that O(2)(-)and OH were dominant ROS in aerobic phase, while OH was the most abundant ROS in anoxic phase. Changes of effluent organic matter (EfOM) during photocatalysis revealed that aromatic, hydrophobic, and high molecular weight fractions of EfOM were preferentially transformed into non-humic, hydrophilic, and low MW fractions (e.g. aldehydes and carboxylic acids), which were continuously utilized as electron donors in hydrogen production process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanraes, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.vanraes@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic [Separation Science Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim [Research Group Molecular Odor Chemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Technology Campus, Gebroeders De Smetstraat 1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann [Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  6. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann; Leys, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  7. Experience and outcome of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, S.H.; Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine is being increasingly used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The primary reasons for choosing radioiodine therapy are its effectiveness, ease of administration, relatively low cost and paucity of side effects. Here we presented our experiences and outcome of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism in a divisional referral centre.We retrospectively analyzed 203 patients receiving radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Khulna during the period from July 1994 to June 2004. All the patients had clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as elevated triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). T 3 , T 4 and TSH were done in all cases. Radionuclide scan and ultrasound of thyroid gland, radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done in selected cases. We assessed all patients prior to radioiodine therapy. Elderly patients and all those with cardiac complications and severe hyperthyroidism were pretreated with a short course of antithyroid drug in full dosages until they were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Ninety five patients were on antithyroid medication (Neomercazole) prior to radioiodine therapy. Antithyroid medication were stopped 3 days before radioiodine therapy and restarted 3 days later and continued for 1 to 2 months depending on patient's symptoms. The rest of the patients received either no treatment or beta-blocker prior to radioiodine therapy. Menstrual history was taken in female patients and pregnancy was excluded by ultrasonography in doubtful cases before administering radioiodine. The likely consequences of the treatment were fully explained to the patients and attendants, the usual precautions for radiation protection of the public and the necessity of the follow-up were discussed and verbal consent was taken before administering radioiodine

  8. SHREDI, Neutron Flux and Neutron Activation in 2-D Shields by Removal Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SHREDI is a removal - diffusion neutron shielding code. The program computes neutron fluxes and activations in bidimensional sections (x,y or r,z) of the shield. It is also possible to consider shielding points with the same y or z coordinate (mono-dimensional problems). 2 - Method of solution: The integrals which define the removal fluxes are computed in some shield points by means of a particular algorithm based on the Simpson's and trapezoidal rules. For the diffusion calculation the finite difference method is used. The removal sources are interpolated in all diffusion points by Chebyshev polynomials. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima: number of removal energy groups NGR = 40; number of diffusion energy groups NGD = 40; number of the reactor core and shield materials NCMP = 50; number of core mesh points in r (or x) direction for integral calculation = 75; number of core mesh points in z (or y) direction for integral calculation = 75; number of core mesh points in theta (or z) direction for integral calculation = 75; number of shield mesh points for the neutron flux calculation in r (or x) direction NPX = 200; number of shield mesh points for the neutron flux calculation in z (or y) direction NPY = 200; n.b. (NPX * NPY) le 12000

  9. Removal of 226Ra, Fe3+ and Mn2+ from ground water using modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A locally available biomass material, rice husk, was carbonized and activated in a steam/nitrogen flow by the use of a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor. The virgin carbon prepared from rice husk was further treated chemically using an alkali (e.g.10% NaOH and 10% KOH) in order to change the surface basicity of the carbon or oxidized with 30%H 2 O 2 and 10% HNO 3 in order to introduce different oxygen surface complexes. The modified carbons were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis and investigated for removing unacceptably high concentrations of 326 Ra from ground water. The results showed that the best removal was obtained by the virgin carbon. The effect of process variables such as: contact time, Ph, carbon mass, sorbent surface modification and cation interference (e.g.iron and manganese) on the removal efficiency by the virgin carbon was studied. The data was fitted to Freundlich adsorption equation. Recommended procedures were adapted for complete removal of 226 Ra, Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ from ground water. Treated water quality remained good and no significant external radiation dose was caused to the residents

  10. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Ramana, D K; Seshaiah, K; Wang, M C; Chien, S W Chang

    2009-07-30

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g(-1) for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g(-1) for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g(-1) for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  11. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M. Madhava; Ramana, D.K.; Seshaiah, K.; Wang, M.C.; Chien, S.W. Chang

    2009-01-01

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g -1 for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g -1 for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g -1 for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g -1 for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  12. Phosphoric acid activation of sugarcane bagasse for removal of o-toluidine and benzidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Amirza, A. R. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the effort to find alternatives for low cost adsorbent, activated carbon using sugarcane bagasse (SBAC) has been introduced in this study that has undergo chemical treatment using phosphoric acid to determine the effectiveness of adsorption process in removing o-toluidine and benzidine. Throughout this study, 92.9% of o-toluidine has been successfully removed by SBAC at optimum value of 1.1 g of dosage with contact time of 10 minutes and concentration of 10 mg/L. While benzidine was remove by 83.1% at optimum dosage of 1.1 g with 60 minutes of contact time and at 20 mg/L concentrations. Testing of SEM proves that SBAC has high porosity and comparable to CAC. In FTIR results, shows that CAC has high number of double bond while SBAC shows no double bond at all. Presence of double bond in CAC lead to increase in percentage of removal of adsorbate. After considering other factor such as cost, energy and environmental friendly, it shows that SBAC was considerable to replaced CAC.

  13. Controlling the Growth of Future LEO Debris Populations with Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.; Hill, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Active debris removal (ADR) was suggested as a potential means to remediate the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment as early as the 1980s. The reasons ADR has not become practical are due to its technical difficulties and the high cost associated with the approach. However, as the LEO debris populations continue to increase, ADR may be the only option to preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations. An initial study was completed in 2007 to demonstrate that a simple ADR target selection criterion could be developed to reduce the future debris population growth. The present paper summarizes a comprehensive study based on more realistic simulation scenarios, including fragments generated from the 2007 Fengyun-1C event, mitigation measures, and other target selection options. The simulations were based on the NASA long-term orbital debris projection model, LEGEND. A scenario, where at the end of mission lifetimes, spacecraft and upper stages were moved to 25-year decay orbits, was adopted as the baseline environment for comparison. Different annual removal rates and different ADR target selection criteria were tested, and the resulting 200-year future environment projections were compared with the baseline scenario. Results of this parametric study indicate that (1) an effective removal strategy can be developed based on the mass and collision probability of each object as the selection criterion, and (2) the LEO environment can be stabilized in the next 200 years with an ADR removal rate of five objects per year.

  14. Adsorption and bioadsorption of granular activated carbon (GAC) for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Kim, S H; Guo, W S; Hagare, P

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the performances of GAC adsorption and GAC bioadsorption in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal were investigated with synthetic biologically treated sewage effluent (BTSE), synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE), real BTSE and real PTSE. The main aims of this study are to verify and compare the efficiency of DOC removal by GAC (adsorption) and acclimatized GAC (bioadsorption). The results indicated that the performance of bioadsorption was significantly better than that of adsorption in all cases, showing the practical use of biological granular activated carbon (BGAC) in filtration process. The most significance was observed at a real PTSE with a GAC dose of 5g/L, having 54% and 96% of DOC removal by adsorption and bioadsorption, respectively. In addition, it was found that GAC adsorption equilibrium was successfully predicted by a hybrid Langmuir-Freundlich model whilst integrated linear driving force approximation (LDFA)+hybrid isotherm model could describe well the adsorption kinetics. Both adsorption isotherm and kinetic coefficients determined by these models will be useful to model the adsorption/bioadsorption process in DOC removal of BGAC filtration system.

  15. Application of contact stabilization activated sludge for enhancing biological phosphorus removal (EBPR in domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using contact stabilization activated sludge as an application of enhancing biological phosphorous removal (EBPR by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickening tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in Quhafa waste water treatment plant (WWTP that included contact, final sedimentation, stabilization and thickening tanks, respectively with two returns sludge in this system one of them to contact tank and another to stabilization tank. Then observation of the uptake and release of total phosphorus by achievement through two batch test using sludge samples from thickener and final sedimentations. Results showed the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and TP for this pilot plant with the range of 94%, 85.44% and 80.54%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason of high ability of phosphorus removal for this pilot plant related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulating. Finally the mechanism of this pilot plant depends on the removal of the phosphorus from the domestic waste water as a concentrated TP solution from the supernatant above the thickening zone not through waste sludge like traditional systems.

  16. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R D -value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY + ) and benzethonium (BE + ) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R D -values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA + ), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA + ) and tetramethylammonium (TMA + ) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.)

  17. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R{sub D}-value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY{sup +}) and benzethonium (BE{sup +}) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R{sub D}-values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA{sup +}), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA{sup +}) and tetramethylammonium (TMA{sup +}) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.).

  18. Influence of radioiodine therapy on urinary iodine excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, B.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 214 patients with benign thyroid diseases the time-course of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was investigated in order to identify changes after radioiodine therapy (RITh). Method: UIE was measured photometrically (cerium-arsenite method) and related to urinary creatinine on the first and last day of the radioiodine test and the three days, seven days, four weeks, and six months after 131 I administration. Results: As compared with the level found immediately before radioiodine therapy, median UIE had almost doubled four weeks after therapy and was still significantly elevated six months after therapy. This increase correlated significantly with the target volume as measured by scintigraphy and sonography. Conclusions: The persistent elevation of UIE for months after RITh is a measure of treatment-induced damage to thyrocytes. Therefore, in view of the unfavourable kinetics of iodine that follow it, RITh should if possible be given via a single-dose regime. (orig.) [de

  19. Sources of radioiodine at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Barefoot, E.D.; Hemphill, R.T.; Voilleque, P.G.; Emel, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    The report determines specific components and operations at operating pressurized water reactors that have a potential for being significant emission sources of radioactive iodine. The relative magnitudes of these specific sources in terms of the chemical forms of the radioiodine and the resultant annual averages from major components are established. The data are generalized for broad industry use for predictive purposes. The conclusions of this study indicate that the majority of radioiodine emanating from the primary side of pressurized water reactors comes from a few major areas; in some cases these sources are locally treatable; the interaction of radioiodine with plant interior surfaces is an important phenomenon mediating the source and affecting its release to the atmosphere; the chemical form varies depending on the circumstances of the release

  20. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  1. Impact of solid retention time and nitrification capacity on the ability of activated sludge to remove pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Removal of five acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and clofibric acid) by activated sludge from five municipal activated sludge treatment processes, with various sludge ages and nitrification capacities, was assessed through batch experiments. The increase...... in aerobic sludge age from 1-3 to 7 days seemed to be critical for the removal of naproxen and ketoprofen, with markedly higher rates of removal at sludge ages of 7 days or more. No removal was shown for diclofenac and clofibric acid, while high rates were observed for ibuprofen in all investigated sludges...

  2. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia

    2015-06-30

    Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. REMOVAL OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID FROM THE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING NATURAL AND ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜLENSOY

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available In these studies, a typical lignite coal found near Istanbul (Yeniköy and its activated products were used to adsorb TCA from aqueous solutions. Particle sizes of coal samples and the concentrations of TCA solutions were chosen as parameters against the fixed amount of adsorbent. The maximum efficiency has been obtained for the coal having (-120 + 150 mesh size fraction activated by heating. As a result, it was shown that these kinds of lignite coals could be used as a good adsorbent. In addition, it was also proved that both the removal and recovery of TCA from some waste waters would easily be possible.

  4. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid 131 I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 μg inactive potassium-iodide ( 127 I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after 131 I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective 131 I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, 131 I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective 131 I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 ± 0.93 days) was significantly (p 131 I half-life M2 (4.65 ± 0.79 days). Effective 131 I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive 127 I (r = -0.79): Administration of 127 I was beneficial in patients with an effective 131 I half-life M1 of 131 I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific 131 I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific 131 I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for 131 I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for 131 I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A. Conclusion: The administration of 600 μg inactive iodide for three days during radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and an unexpectedly short half-life of <3 or 4 days was a safe

  5. Absorption of radioiodine in silver nitrate molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Molinari, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Obtainment method and control techniques of materials for the retention of radioiodine in gaseous effluents of nuclear installations. The experimental section is referred to the following processes: preparation of absorbents using, as basis, a molecular sieve and zeolite; impregnation with AgNO 3 ; efficiency determination; efficiency study as a function of the specific charge and bed length; optimization of Ag-consumption; resistance to the gas flux, bed temperature, specific surface, and nitrogen oxides effects. With the described impregnation method, materials, whose properties made them suitable for use in filters for the radioiodine retention and comparable to the imported manufactured materials, may be obtained. (R.J.S.) [es

  6. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  7. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Biko, J.; Geworski, L.; Olthoff, M.; Demidchik, E.P.; Streffer, C.; Paretzke, H.; Voigt, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Bauer, W.; Heinemann, G.; Pfob, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  8. Comparison between two forms of granular activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceuticals from different waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lisandra; Baêta, Bruno E L; Lima, Diego R S; Afonso, Robson J C F; de Aquino, Sérgio F; Libânio, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two forms of basic granular activated carbon (GAC), mineral (pH = 10.5) and vegetal (pH = 9), for the removal of three pharmaceuticals, as sulphamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF) and 17β-estradiol (E2), from two different matrices: fortified distilled (2.4-3.0 mg L(-1) and pH from 5.5 to 6.5) and natural (∼1.0 mg L(-1) and pH from 7.1 to 7.2) water in a bench scale. The Rapid Small-Scale Column Test used to assess the ability of mineral and vegetal GAC on removal of such pharmaceuticals led to removal capacities varying from 14.9 to 23.5 mg g(-1) for E2, from 23.7 to 24.2 mg g(-1) for DCF and from 20.5 to 20.6 mg g(-1) for SMX. Removal efficiencies of 71%, 88% and 74% for DCF, SMX and E2, respectively, were obtained at breakthrough point when using mineral GAC, whereas for the vegetal GAC the figures were 76%, 77% and 65%, respectively. The carbon usage rate at the breakthrough point varied from 11.9 to 14.5 L g(-1) for mineral GAC and from 8.8 to 14.8 L g(-1) for vegetal GAC. Mineral CAG also exhibited the best performance when treating fortified natural water, since nearly complete removal was observed for all contaminants in the column operated for 22 h at a carbon usage rate of 2.9 L g(-1).

  9. Tetracycline removal from water by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbons and sludge-derived adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Utrilla, José; Gómez-Pacheco, Carla V; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; López-Peñalver, Jesús J; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2013-12-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of activated carbons with different chemical and textural natures in the adsorption of three tetracyclines (TCs) (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline). We also assessed the influence of the solution pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of these compounds and studied their removal by the combined use of microorganisms and activated carbon (bioadsorption). Sludge-derived materials were also used to remove TC from water. The capacity of these materials to adsorb TC was very high and was much greater than that of commercial activated carbon. This elevated adsorption capacity (512.1-672.0 mg/g) is explained by the high tendency of TC to form complex ions with some of the metal ions present in these materials. The medium pH and presence of electrolytes considerably affected TCs adsorption on commercial activated carbon. These results indicate that electrostatic adsorbent-adsorbate interactions play an important role in TC adsorption processes when conducted at pH values that produce TC deprotonation. The presence of bacteria during the TCs adsorption process decreases their adsorption/bioadsorption on the commercial activated carbon, weakening interactions between the adsorbate and the microfilm formed on the carbon surface. The adsorptive capacity was considerably lower in dynamic versus static regime, attributable to problems of TC diffusion into carbon pores and the shorter contact time between adsorbate and adsorbent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Bhat, A H; Naeem, Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate (AC-alginate) beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and surface characteristics of AC-alginate beads were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (S BET ), while thermal properties were tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 230mg/g was achieved for 100mg/L of MB solution at pH 9.5 and temperature 25°C. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of Graphene Oxide with Hydrochloric Acid for Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Alighardashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term drinking of nitrate-contaminated water poses a serious risk to human health. The present study explores the possibility of enhancing the adsorption capacity of graphene oxide via activation with hydrochloric acid for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor in which such major factors as pH, reaction time, and concentrations of both graphene oxide (GO and activated graphene oxide (AGO were used as variables. Nitrate removal efficiency was investigated using the One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-16 software. The chemical composition and solid structure of the synthesized AGO were analyzed using FE-SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS. The micropore volumes of the samples were determined using the BET and BJH. The predominant composition (52% of the synthesized AGO was C and its mean pore diameter was 26.896 nm. The maximum adsorption capacity of AGO was estimated at 3333.33 mg/g. Based on the results, the AGO nano-structure may be recomended as a new means for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  12. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jinfeng [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • HClO{sub 4} treated AC was developed for effective Hg{sup 0} removal from simulated flue gas. • The exceptional effect of SO{sub 2} on Hg{sup 0} removal by AC{sub 4.5} was discussed. • Possible reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal over AC{sub 4.5} was put forward. - Abstract: This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}) or HClO{sub 4} of varied concentrations, on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO{sub 4} of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg{sup 0} removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg{sup 0}. And SO{sub 2} displayed varied impact in capturing Hg{sup 0} due to the integrated reactions between SO{sub 2} and modified AC. The addition of O{sub 2} could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg{sup 0} removal capacity had a slight declination when H{sub 2}O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg{sup 0} mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg{sup 0} could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (C−O) or chlorine-containing groups (C−Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) and mercuric oxide (HgO)

  13. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: radiologic impact of out-patient treatment with 100 to 150 mCi Iodine-131 activities; Radioiodoterapia do carcinoma diferenciado da tireoide: impacto radiologico da liberacao hospitalar de pacientes com atividades entre 100 e 150 mCi de iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Willegaignon, Jose; Ono, Carla Rachel; Watanabe, Tomoco; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Marechal, Maria Helena da Hora [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate exposure and dosimetry to family members and environment due to outpatient radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Twenty patients were treated with 100-150 mCi of iodine-131 on an out-patient basis. Family members dosimetry (n = 27) and potential doses inside the house were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters. Surface contamination and radioactive wastes were also monitored. Results: Less than 1.0 mSv doses were found in 26 co-habitants and 2.8 mSv in a single case (inferior to the acceptable value of 5.0 mSv/procedure). Potential doses in the houses were inferior to 0.25 mSv, excluding the patients bedroom (mean value = 0.69 mSv). Surface contamination (mean = 4.2 Bq.cm{sup -2}) were below clearance levels. Radioactive wastes generated had a volume of 2.5 liters and a total activity estimated in 90 {mu}Ci, with a calculated exposure close to the background radiation levels. Conclusions: No radiological impact was detected after iodine therapy with 100-150 mCi on an out-patient basis followed by experienced professionals. (author)

  14. Removal of Chlorinated Chemicals in H2 Feedstock Using Modified Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapaporn Luekittisup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (GAC was impregnated by sodium and used as adsorbent to remove chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC gases contaminated in H2 feedstock. The adsorption was carried out in a continuous packed-bed column under the weight hourly space velocity range of 0.8–1.0 hr−1. The adsorption capacity was evaluated via the breakthrough curves. This modified GAC potentially adsorbed HCl and VCM of 0.0681 gHCl/gadsorbent and 0.0026 gVCM/gadsorbent, respectively. It showed higher adsorption capacity than SiO2 and Al2O3 balls for both organic and inorganic CHCs removal. In addition, the kinetic adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons on modified GAC fit well with Yoon-Nelson model.

  15. Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, P K

    2004-09-10

    Mahogany sawdust was used to develop an effective carbon adsorbent. This adsorbent was employed for the removal of direct dyes from spent textile dyeing wastewater. The experimental data were analysed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with good correlation. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the sawdust carbon was determined with the Langmuir equation as well as the pseudo-second-order rate equation and found to be >300 mg dye per gram of the adsorbent. The most ideal pH for adsorption of direct dyes onto sawdust carbon was found to be 3 and below. The results indicate that the Mahogany sawdust carbon could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  16. Pore diffusion limits removal of monochloramine in treatment of swimming pool water using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, Bertram; Götze, Christoph; Worch, Eckhard; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    Overall apparent reaction rates for the removal of monochloramine (MCA) in granular activated carbon (GAC) beds were determined using a fixed-bed reactor system and under conditions typical for swimming pool water treatment. Reaction rates dropped and quasi-stationary conditions were reached quickly. Diffusional mass transport in the pores was shown to be limiting the overall reaction rate. This was reflected consistently in the Thiele modulus, in the effect of temperature, pore size distribution and of grain size on the reaction rates. Pores <2.5 times the diameter of the monochloramine molecule were shown to be barely accessible for the monochloramine conversion reaction. GACs with a significant proportion of large mesopores were found to have the highest overall reactivity for monochloramine removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Kunwar P.; Singh, Vinod K.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 deg. C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 deg. C: ATFAC-10.97 mg/g, ACF-36.05 mg/g; 40 deg. C: ATFAC-16.10 mg/g, ACF-40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater

  19. Environmental radioiodine in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1990-01-01

    Animal thyroids are excellent indicators of environmental contamination from radioiodine, a fact largely unappreciated before 1954. From continuous monitoring of excised thyroids in Nal well-detectors, we know that high-altitude releases of mixed fission products caused increases of 10 3 to 10 5 times the minimal detectable level of 131 I (3.7 mBq/g) in sheep thyroids from the United States, Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Within 6 weeks after high-altitude releases, sheep thyroids from different continents of the same hemisphere contained comparable concentrations of 131 I: more than 10 4 times greater concentrations than cow's milk and 5 x 10 3 times greater concentrations than human thyroids from similar areas. In contrast, during the low-altitude Chernobyl release, average 131 I concentrations in animal thyroids, at distances greater than 1,200 km from Chernobyl, were distributed as the inverse square of the distance from the source. 129 I concentrations measured since 1984 with a germanium well-detector in thyroids of sheep slaughtered in Birmingham, England, ranged from 3 to 50 mBq/g organ weight. Similar quantities of 125 I were present intermittently in thyroids of sheep slaughtered in Birmingham since 1986. The source of the 125 I, which is not a fission product, is not clear. For comparison, deer thyroids from the Savannah River Reservation, USA, contained 10 to 7 x 10 5 mBq 129 I/g. Although this isotope is not a biological hazard, it is a long-lived tracer of fission products

  20. Radioiodine Remnant Ablation: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) is considered a safe and effective method for eliminating residual thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic disease if at all present in thyroid bed following thyroidectomy. The rationale of RRA is that in the absence of thyroid tissue, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement can be used as an excellent tumor marker. Other considerations are like the presence of significant remnant thyroid tissue makes detection and treatment of nodal or distant metastases difficult. Rarely, microscopic disease in the thyroid bed if not ablated, in the future, could be a source of anaplastic transformation. On the other hand, microscopic tumor emboli in distant sites could be the cause of distant metastasis too. The ablation of remnant tissue would in all probability eliminate these theoretical risks. It may be noted that all these are unproven contentious issues except postablation serum Tg estimation that could be a good tumor marker for detecting early biochemical recurrence in long-term follow-up strategy. Radioactive iodine is administered as a form of “adjuvant therapy” for remnant ablation. There have been several reports with regard to the administered dose for remnant ablation. The first report of a prospective randomized clinical trial was published from India by a prospective randomized study conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in the year 1996. The study reported that increasing the empirical 131 I initial dose to more than 50 mCi results in plateauing of the dose-response curve and thus, conventional high-dose remnant ablation needs critical evaluation. Recently, two important studies were published: One from French group and the other from UK on a similar line. Interestingly, all three studies conducted in three different geographical regions of the world showed exactly similar conclusion. The new era of low-dose remnant ablation has taken a firm scientific footing across the continents

  1. Study of removal of Direct Yellow 12 by cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Batuol [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri, E-mail: syamak.nasiri@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pebdani, Arezou Amiri [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali; Mihandoost, Asma [Department of Chemistry, University of Ilam, P.O. Box: 65315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    In this research, cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon (CdO-NW-AC) has been synthesized by a simple procedure and characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and UV–vis spectrometry. This new adsorbent has been efficiently utilized for the removal of the Direct Yellow 12 (DY-12) from wastewater. To obtain maximum DY-12 removal efficiency, the influences of variables such as pH, DY-12 concentration, amount of CdO-NW-AC, contact time, and temperature have been examined and optimized in a batch method. Following the variable optimization, the experimental equilibrium data (at different concentration of DY-12) was fitted to conventional isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The applicability of each method is based on the R{sup 2} and error analysis for each model. It was found that the experimental equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The dependency of removal process to time and the experimental data follow second order kinetic model with involvement of intraparticle diffusion model. The negative value of Gibbs's free energy and positive value of adsorption enthalpy show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption process. - Graphical abstract: Typical FE-SEM image of the CdO nanowires. Highlights: ► Cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon was utilized as an adsorbent. ► It was used for the removal of Direct Yellow 12 from aqueous solutions. ► The adsorption of Direct Yellow 12 on this adsorbent is endothermic in nature. ► The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  2. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  3. Conversion of agricultural residues into activated carbons for water purification: Application to arsenate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Gerente, Claire; Andres, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of two agricultural wastes, sugar beet pulp and peanut hulls, into sustainable activated carbons is presented and their potential application for the treatment of arsenate solution is investigated. A direct and physical activation is selected as well as a simple chemical treatment of the adsorbents. The material properties, such as BET surface areas, porous volumes, elemental analysis, ash contents and pH(PZC), of these alternative carbonaceous porous materials are determined and compared with a commercial granular activated carbon. An adsorption study based on experimental kinetic and equilibrium data is conducted in a batch reactor and completed by the use of different models (intraparticle diffusion, pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Freundlich) and by isotherms carried out in natural waters. It is thus demonstrated that sugar beet pulp and peanut hulls are good precursors to obtain activated carbons for arsenate removal.

  4. A survey of owners' perceptions and experiences of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Lara A; Murray, Jane K; Bovens, Catherine Pv; Hibbert, Angie

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism is well established; however, limited information is known about owners' perceptions or experiences of radioiodine. This study aimed to examine factors that influence owner treatment choices and their opinions following radioiodine. Surveys were sent to owners of cats referred for radioiodine treatment between 2002 and 2011 (radioiodine group; 264 cats) and owners of non-radioiodine-treated hyperthyroid cats seen at first-opinion practices (control group; 199 cats). The response rate was 67.0% (310 returned: 175 radioiodine, 135 control). Of 135 controls, 72 (53.3%) were unaware of radioiodine as a treatment option. Owners of cats ⩾15 years old and uninsured cats were less likely to pursue radioiodine. Cost of treatment, travel distance, potential human or animal health risks and waiting periods for radioiodine had a low impact on owners' treatment choice. Owners reported a moderate level of concern about treatment hospitalisation length, which included (158 respondents) the possibility of the cat being unhappy 130 (82.3%), owner missing the cat 102 (64.6%), inappetence 50 (31.6%), other pets missing the cat 32 (20.3%), development of co-morbid disease 28 (17.7%) and side effects 25 (15.8%). Owners assessed their cat's quality of life on a scale of 1 (very poor) to 10 (excellent), as 4 (4) (median [interquartile range]) pre-radioiodine (134 respondents) and 9 (2) post-radioiodine (131 respondents). Of 132 respondents, 121 (91.7%) were happy with their decision to choose radioiodine. The results of this questionnaire may assist veterinarians in addressing common owner concerns when discussing radioiodine as a treatment option for hyperthyroidism. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  5. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  6. Development of activated carbon derived from banana peel for CO{sub 2} removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhan, Azry; Thangamuthu, Subhashini; Ramdan, Amira Nurain [Chemical Engineering Department Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak (Malaysia); Taha, Mohd Faisal [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    This research work highlights on the constraints involved in the preparation of the banana peel bio-sorbent, such as impregnation ratio, activation temperature and period of activation for reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Micromeritics ASAP 2020 and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) were used in identifying the best sample preparation method with the largest surface area which directly contributes to the effectiveness of adsorbent in removing CO{sub 2}. Sample A10 was identified to yield activated carbon with the largest surface area (260.3841 m{sup 2}/g), total pore volume (0.01638 cm{sup 3}/g) and pore diameter (0.2508 nm). Through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis, the existence of sub-micropores was proven when a combination of Type-I and Type-II isotherms were exhibited by the activated carbon produced. The results from the final adsorption test found that the material synthesized from the above mentioned parameter is capable of removing up to 1.65% wt of CO{sub 2} through adsorption at 25°C, suggesting that it can be effectively used as an adsorption material.

  7. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  8. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jon McIlroy

    Full Text Available An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized.

  9. Radioiodine: a boon and a bane emergency preparedness during accidental release of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahuja, D.N.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine, can be a double edged sword and can be dangerous and lethal. It will turn out to be a bane rather than a boon, exposing millions of individuals in and far away from the side of accident across geographical borders depending upon the weather conditions. Iodine is an indispensable element because of its being a constituent of the thyroid hormones, biosynthesized and released from the thyroid gland for the growth and over all metabolic functions. This gland weighing 20-30 g in a normal human adult, is comparatively very vascular organ with 5 lit. of blood flowing through it every hour. It contains 90% of the body iodine amounting to 5000-7000 μg, in the form of iodo aminoacids

  10. ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng [Environmental Science Research Center, College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361110 (China); Zheng, Yanmei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Qingbiao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Environmental Science Research Center, College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361110 (China); Wang, Yuanpeng, E-mail: wypp@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • The ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar from the biogas residue of pig manure showed an excellent ability to remove As(III). • ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar had a large BET surface area and well-distributed pore structure. • Zinc played a dominant role in the removal of As(III) by forming Zn-O-As(III). - Abstract: Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm{sup 2}/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL{sup −1} solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R{sup 2} > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R{sup 2} > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  11. Removal of heavy metals using a microbial active, continuously operated sand filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, C.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metals play an important role within the spectrum of the various pollutants, emitted into the environment via human activities. In contrast to most organic pollutants, heavy metal can not be degraded. Many soils, lakes and rivers show a high contamination with heavy metals due to the enrichment of these pollutants. In addition to existing chemical-physical and biological technologies for the treatment of heavy metal containing waste waters a demand for new, efficient and low-cost cleaning technologies exists, particularly for high volumes of weakly contaminated waters. Such a technology was developed within the framework of a scientific project of the European Union. The approach makes use of a continuously operated, moving-bed Astrasand filter, which has been operated as a continuous biofilm reactor. By inoculation of the reactor with bacteria providing different, defined mechanisms of metal immobilization, and by continuous supply of suitable nutrients, a metal-immobilizing biofilm is built up and regenerated continuously. Metal-enriched biomass is removed continuously from the system, and the contained metals can be recycled by pyrometallurgical treatment of the biomass. The subjects of the present work were the optimization of the nutrient supply for the process of metal removal, the investigation of the toxicity of different waste waters, the optimization of inoculation and biofilm formation, set-up and operation of a lab scale sand filter and the operation of a pilot scale sand filter treating rinsing water of a chemical nickel plating plant. First, basic parameters like toxicity of heavy metal-containing waste waters and the influence of the nutrition of bacteria on biosorption and total metal removal were examined, using freely suspended bacteria in batch culture. Concerning toxicity great differences could be found within the spectrum of heavy metal-containing waste waters tested. Some waters completely inhibited growth, while others did not

  12. Distribution and pharmacokinetic analysis of angiostatin radioiodine labeled with high stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Hee; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Koh, Bong-Ho; Bae, Joon-Sang; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Radiotracers of anticancer agents provide important information on its in vivo handling. Angiostatin (AST) is a promising anticancer drug with potent antiangiogenic effects, but reported AST radiotracers suffer from poor in vivo stability. In this study, we synthesized an AST probe radioiodinated via the Bolton-Hunter reagent ( 125 I-BH-AST) and investigated its stability and biokinetics in mice. Methods: 125 I-BH-AST and conventional direct radioiodinated 125 I-AST were evaluated for human endothelial cell binding characteristics. In vivo stability of the radiotracers was compared by biodistribution studies in normal ICR mice. Angiostatin pharmacokinetics was analyzed by serial blood sampling after intravenous injection of 125 I-BH-AST with varying AST concentrations in mice. Results: Both 125 I-AST and 125 I-BH-AST retained selective endothelial binding as demonstrated by dose-dependent inhibition by nonradiolabeled AST. 125 I-BH-AST was substantially more stable in mice than 125 I-AST, with 28- and 7-fold lower 24-h thyroid and blood activities, respectively (15.5±1.5 vs. 430.9±32.2 and 0.1±0.0 vs. 0.8±0.0 %ID/g; both P 125 I-BH-AST, we found that 24-h AST accumulation was highest in the kidneys, followed by the liver and lungs. Kinetic analysis of 125 I-BH-AST revealed AST to have linear pharmacokinetics with a T 1/2 of 5.8±2.6 h, volume of distribution (V d ) of 6.8±1.3 ml and clearance of 0.8±0.1 ml/h. Conclusion: Radioiodine-labeled AST prepared by the BH method provides a radioprobe with superior stability and improved in vivo biokinetics that is useful for distribution and pharmacokinetic studies

  13. Radioiodine-labeled disulfide: a novel radiotracer for evaluation of tumor uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, E. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Byun, S. S.; Baek, J. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, S. E.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Diallyl disulfide found in garlic has been known to inhibit the growth of various cancer cells. In this study, iodine-substituted disulfides were synthesized and their growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells (SUN C5 and MCF-7) were investigated. Dibenzyl disulfide was labeled with {sup 123}I/{sup 125}I for evaluation of tumor uptake. Halogen-substituted disulfides were synthesized using 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) and one equivalent each of the corresponding thiols. Growth inhibition studies were performed on cancer cells that were grown at 37 .deg. C for 48 hr prior to exposure to the disulfides. Radioiodine-labeled disulfide was prepared by halogen exchange reaction on the 4-bromodibenzyl disulfide in the presence of Na{sup 123}I/{sup 125}I and CuCl at 150 .deg. C for 60 min, followed by HPLC purification. Uptake of the radioactivity to SUN C5 cells was measured as a function of time, and inhibition studies were performed in the presence of either S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) or diallyl disulfide. Disulfides were synthesized in the high yields (90%). Tumor growth inhibition studies by the 3 iododisulfides showed the inhibition (>95%) comparable to diallyl disulfide (100%). Cu(I)-assisted radioiodination gave 4-{sup 123}I/{sup 125}I-iododibenzyl disulfide in overall 30-40% radiochemical yield and with high specific activity. Cell uptake studies of the radiolabeled disulfide showed a time-dependent increase of the uptake (4-fold increase from 15 min to 2 hr). Both MMTS, a glutathione depleting agent, and diallyl disulfide reduced the uptake of the radioactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition studies suggest that uptake of disulfide to the tumor cells could be mediated by thiol-disulfide exchange. This study demonstrates that radioiodine-labeled dibenzyl disulfide may be useful for evaluation of tumor uptake.

  14. In-vivo isotope diagnosis and radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spesshardt, K. (Sankt-Vincentius-Krankenhaeuser, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Abt. mit Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin)

    1980-10-15

    In-vivo diagnoses of thyroid diseases can be carried out using /sup 123/I, /sup 131/I, and /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate. For the thyroid scintiscan, /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate or /sup 123/I are used. Some functional parameters can be determined using /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate, but iodine is more accurate, so that thyroid clearance examinations with /sup 123/I are rapidly gaining importance. However, the iodine turnover in the thyroid can only be determined by a several-days' test using /sup 131/I. The available techniques of diagnosis are employed in several steps. Most thyroid diseases can already be diagnosed on the basis of the hormone parameters and a thyroid scan; otherwise, a TRH test and suppression and functional studies will be necessary. Treatment of enthyroid struma is limited to inoperable cases with functional blockage or compression of the trachea. In the treatment of diffuse hyperthyroidism, doses should be exact enough to counteract the hyperthyroid metabolism without inducing hypothyroidism. With exact doses, a second radioiodine therapy will only be necessary in about 40% of all cases. High doses should not be applied in the treatment of hyperthyroidism unless it is a case of excessive clinical hyperthyroid somatics as the risk of hypothyroidism is high. The diagnostic problem of autonomous adenoma is the highly varying hormone activity. The intention of radioiodine therapy here is a functional elimination of the autonomous adenoma. Radioiodine resection is indicated in cases where there are several small autonomous adenomas or where the operability of the patient is limited.

  15. In-vivo isotope diagnosis and radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spesshardt, K.

    1980-01-01

    In-vivo diagnoses of thyroid diseases can be carried out using 123 I, 131 I, and 99 sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate. For the thyroid scintiscan, 99 sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate or 123 I are used. Some functional parameters can be determined using 99 sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate, but iodine is more accurate, so that thyroid clearance examinations with 123 I are rapidly gaining importance. However, the iodine turnover in the thyroid can only be determined by a several-days' test using 131 I. The available techniques of diagnosis are employed in several steps. Most thyroid diseases can already be diagnosed on the basis of the hormone parameters and a thyroid scan; otherwise, a TRH test and suppression and functional studies will be necessary. Treatment of enthyroid struma is limited to inoperable cases with functional blockage or compression of the trachea. In the treatment of diffuse hyperthyroidism, doses should be exact enough to counteract the hyperthyroid metabolism without inducing hypothyroidism. With exact doses, a second radioiodine therapy will only be necessary in about 40% of all cases. High doses should not be applied in the treatment of hyperthyroidism unless it is a case of excessive clinical hyperthyroid somatics as the risk of hypothyroidism is high. The diagnostic problem of autonomous adenoma is the highly varying hormone activity. The intention of radioiodine therapy here is a functional elimination of the autonomous adenoma. Radioiodine resection is indicated in cases where there are several small autonomous adenomas or where the operability of the patient is limited. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Carbon-enriched coal fly ash as a precursor of activated carbons for SO2 removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M T; Rubio, B

    2008-06-30

    Carbon-enriched coal fly ash was evaluated in this work as a low-cost adsorbent for SO2 removal from stack gases. The unburned carbon in coal fly ash was concentrated by mechanical sieving and vegetal oil agglomeration. The carbon concentrates were activated with steam at 900 degrees C in order to develop porosity onto the samples. The performance of these samples in the SO2 abatement was tested in the following conditions: 100 degrees C, 1000 ppmv SO2, 5% O2, 6% water vapor. A good SO2 removal capacity was shown by some of the studied samples that can be related to their textural properties. Cycles of SO2 adsorption/regeneration were carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of thermal regeneration and re-use of these carbons. Regeneration of the exhausted carbons was carried out at 400 degrees C of temperature and a flow of 25 ml/min of Ar. After each cycle, the SO2 removal capacity of the sample decreases.

  17. Optimization of Fe2+ Removal from Coal Mine Wastewater using Activated Biochar of Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; LaminKa-Ot, Augustine; Joshi, S R; Mandal, Tamal; Halder, Gopinath

    2017-09-01

      The present study investigates the sorptive removal of Fe2+ from simulated coal mine waste water using steam activated biochar (SABC) developed from the roots of Colocasia esculenta. The process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) under the influence of pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage and contact time at a constant shaking speed of 180 rpm with an initial concentration of 3 mg/L. The uptake performance of the biosorbent was assessed following a 24 full factorial experimental matrix developed by central composite design approach. Adsorbent was characterised by SEM, EDAX, XRD and B.E.T surface area analyzer. Maximum removal of 72.96% of Fe2+ was observed at pH 7.75, temperature 37.5 °C, adsorbent dosage 1.5 g/L for a time period of 180 mins. The study suggested that SABC prepared from roots of Colocasia esculenta could be used as an efficient and cost effective sorbent for removal of Fe2+ from coal mine wastewater.

  18. Removal and recovery of gas-phase element mercury by metal oxide-loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Zhijian; Shen Zhemin; Zhao Qingjie; Wang Wenhua; Zhang Yejian

    2008-01-01

    The reusability of Co 3 O 4 (AC-Co), MnO 2 (AC-Mn) and CuCoO 4 (AC-CC) loaded activated carbon (AC) and their element mercury removal efficiency had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor under simulated flue gas conditions. Tests showed that spent AC-Co could be regenerated through heating at 673 K under N 2 atmosphere and the enrichment regenerated Hg 0 could be collected to eliminate the secondary pollution. Regenerated AC-Mn and AC-CC's Hg 0 removal efficiency decreased greatly due to AC's decomposition and MnO 2 's crystal structure variation. Compared with AC and metal oxides, metal oxide-loaded AC had higher Hg 0 capture ability and capacity due to AC huge surface areas and lots of function groups. TGA analysis results showed that AC-Co and AC-Mn's HgO adsorptive capacity at 523 K reached 19.8 mg g -1 and 5.21 mg g -1 , respectively. High loading values and adsorption temperatures were beneficial to AC-Co's Hg 0 removal efficiency. However, CuCoO 4 and MnO 2 's AC decomposition ability had negative effect on AC-CC and AC-Mn's performance, respectively, especially at high adsorption temperatures and loading values. SO 2 tests showed that AC-CC had higher anti SO 2 -poisoning ability than AC-Co and AC-Mn

  19. Guidelines for the use of radioiodine in the management of hyperthyroidism: a summary. Prepared by the Radioiodine Audit Subcommittee of the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Diabetes and Endocrinology, and the Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, J H

    1995-01-01

    Radioiodine (131I) therapy is indicated in patients with nearly all causes of hyperthyroidism. It may safely be given to patients of all age groups but is less often given to children under 10 years old. It is completely contraindicated in pregnancy and while breast feeding, but there is no increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or solid tumours. Administration of radioiodine must conform to regulations and definitions laid down by ARSAC And POPUMET. Medical staff authorising therapy must hold an ARSAC licence. The recommended strategy is to give an activity sufficient to render the patient rapidly euthyroid and maintain that state or achieve no more than a low rate of hypothyroidism in subsequent years. A range of activity (300-800 MBq) is suggested depending on the clinical state. Antithyroid drugs may be given before or after (or both) radioiodine if necessary. Full written information should be given to the patient and written consent obtained. A structured follow-up should be used ensuring regular measurement of TSH or FT4. Close cooperation with the patient's general practitioner is recommended throughout the assessment, treatment and follow-up. Shared care with a computer based follow-up system is recommended.

  20. Evaluation of the removal of antiestrogens and antiandrogens via ozone and granular activated carbon using bioassay and fluorescent spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Wu, Yuchao; Liu, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Antiestrogens and antiandrogens are relatively rarely studied endocrine disrupting chemicals which can be found in un/treated wastewaters. Antiestrogens and antiandrogens in the wastewater treatment effluents could contribute to sexual disruption of organisms. In this study, to assess the removal of non-specific antiestrogens and antiandrogens by advanced treatment processes, ozonation and adsorption to granular activated carbon (GAC), the biological activities and excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy of wastewater were evaluated. As the applied ozone dose increased to 12 mg/L, the antiestrogenic activity dramatically decreased to 3.2 μg 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalent (4HEQ)/L, with a removal efficiency of 84.8%, while the antiandrogenic activity was 23.1 μg flutamide equivalent (FEQ)/L, with a removal efficiency of 75.5%. The removal of antiestrogenic/antiandrogenic activity has high correlation with the removal of fulvic acid-like materials and humic acid-like organics, suggesting that they can be used as surrogates for antiestrogenic/antiandrogenic activity during ozonation. The adsorption kinetics of antiestrogenic activity and antiandrogenic activity were well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics models. The estimated equilibrium concentration of antiestrogenic activity is 7.9 μg 4HEQ/L with an effective removal efficiency of 70.5%, while the equilibrium concentration of antiandrogenic activity is 33.7 μg FEQ/L with a removal efficiency of 67.0%. Biological activity evaluation of wastewater effluents is an attractive way to assess the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by different treatment processes. Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as a surrogate measure of bioassays during ozonation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A mathematical model of optimized radioiodine-131 therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Suhail AR; Loutfi, Issa; Al-Shoumer, Kamal AS

    2001-01-01

    The current status of radioiodine-131 (RaI) dosimetry for Graves' hyperthyroidism is not clear. Recurrent hyperthyroidism and iatrogenic hypothyroidism are two problems which interact such that trying to solve one leads to exacerbation of the other. Optimized RaI therapy has therefore begun to be defined just in terms of early hypothyroidism (ablative therapy) as physicians have given up on reducing hypothyroidism. Optimized therapy is evaluated both in terms of the greatest separation of cure rate from hypothyroidism rate (non-ablative therapy) or in terms of early hypothyroidism (ablative therapy) by mathematical modeling of outcome after radioiodine and critically discussing the three common methods of RaI dosing for Graves' disease. Cure follows a logarithmic relationship to activity administered or absorbed dose, while hypothyroidism follows a linear relationship. The effect of including or omitting factors in the calculation of the administered I–131 activity such as the measured thyroid uptake and effective half-life of RaI or giving extra compensation for gland size is discussed. Very little benefit can be gained by employing complicated methods of RaI dose selection for non-ablative therapy since the standard activity model shows the best potential for cure and prolonged euthyroidism. For ablative therapy, a standard MBq/g dosing provides the best outcome in terms of cure and early hypothyroidism

  2. Reuse and activation of petroleum coke to remove metals in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation I am reused the coke generated in the refinancing of the petroleum. It was proposed to activate al coke with characteristics of a carbon activated commercial and subsequently to use it to remove silver and present mercury in water. The carbon activated produced and the carbon activated commercial, LQ1000, they were characterized with the norms ASTM, indicate of iodine, area superficial al blue of methylene and indicate of blue of methylene and the results were compared. Likewise in the process of adsorption, the process of adsorption itself model with the equations of Freundlich and Langmuir. The activation of the coke I am planned through a design of experiments four factorial. The 16 coals produced were submitted al process of adsorption silver and mercury by duplicate. The study I report al coke activated as better adsorbent than the LQ1000 and with a smaller cost of fabrication but with a smaller one area superficial that the commercial one. The results obtained permit to produce carbon activated from the coke but economic to compete with the commercial coals activate

  3. Chronic myeloid leukaemia following radioiodine therapy for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundi, R S; Scott, J S; Halnan, K E [Institute of Radiotherapeutics, Glasgow (UK)

    1977-01-01

    The majority of cases reported in the literature of leukemia following treatment of thyroid disease (thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma) are of acute variety. A description is given of the development of chronic myeloid leukemia in a case of carcinoma of the thyroid treated with radioiodine and megavoltage X-ray therapy. The case history contains details of radioiodine and X-ray doses administered over the years 1961 to 1972 to a male patient, on whom a right hemithyroidectomy was carried out in 1960. The results of blood counts are also recorded for the period up to 1973. The patient died, at 57, in 1974. A total of 860 mCi of /sup 131/I was administered and the first abnormal blood count was noted two months after the last therapeutic dose. Estimates have been made of blood and thyroid doses from /sup 131/I. There has been only one other report in the literature of the development of chronic myeloid leukemia following radioiodine therapy for carcinoma of the thyroid, and although the leukemogenic hazard of /sup 131/I cannot be ruled out for this patient, it is possible that the development of leukemia was coincidental rather than due to the radioiodine therapy.

  4. The secondary hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy and the replacement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ying; Xu Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    The secondary hypothyroidism is the most important intercurrent disease after radioiodine therapy. The early hypothyroidism and the late hypothyroidism are incompletely different in pathogenesis. It needs researching further. there has not yet been an affirmable answer to choose the distillates from animal hypothyroid extract or complex preparation of levo-thyroxine in replacement treatment. (authors)

  5. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  6. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Xie, Jiawei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Suyun

    2016-02-18

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Both antithyroid medications and radioiodine are commonly used treatments but their frequency of use varies between regions and countries. Despite the commonness of the diagnosis, any possible differences between the two treatments with respect to long-term outcomes remain unknown. To assess the effects of radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease. We performed a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE and the trials registers ICTRP Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. The date of the last search was September 2015 for all databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease with at least two years follow-up. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. One author carried out screening for inclusion, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment and a second author checked this. We presented data not suitable for meta-analysis as descriptive data. We analysed the overall quality of evidence utilising the GRADE instrument. We included two RCTs involving 425 adult participants with Graves' disease in this review. Altogether 204 participants were randomised to radioiodine therapy and 221 to methimazole therapy. A single dose of radioiodine was administered. The duration of methimazole medication was 18 months. The period of follow-up was at least two years, depending on the outcome measured. For most outcome measures risk of bias was low; for the outcomes health-related quality of life as well as development and worsening of Graves' ophthalmopathy risks of performance bias and detection bias were high in at least one of the two RCTs.Health-related quality of life appeared to be similar in the radioiodine and methimazole treatment groups, however no quantitative data were reported (425 participants; 2 trials; low quality evidence

  7. Radioiodine therapy and subsequent pregnancy; Gravidez apos radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Carmen Dolores G.; Miranda, Angelica E.; Corres, Nilson Duarte; Sieiro Neto, Lino; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine; Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: loloi@zaz.com.br

    2007-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate abortion and fetal congenital anomaly rates in women previously submitted to radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Study design: A case-control study of 108 pregnant women, 48 cases whose pregnancies were evaluated after they had undergone radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the control group consisted of 60 healthy pregnant women. Results: Of a total of 66 pregnancies, 14 conceived within the first year, 51 one or more years after the last administration of {sup 131}I, the medical record of one patient was not available. The interval between the last radioiodine therapy administration and conception ranged from 1 month to 10 years. There were a total of 4 miscarriages, 2 of them for unknown reasons. There was one case of congenital anomaly and two preterms birth. Nine women presented the following pregnancy events: placental insufficiency, hypertensive crisis, placental detachment, risk of miscarriage, preterm labour and four miscarriages. No statistical difference was observed between the studied and control groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine was followed by no significant increase in untoward effects in neither the pregnancy nor the offspring. (author)

  8. Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy in a West African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onimode, Yetunde A; Ankrah, Alfred; Adedapo, Kayode S

    Hyperthyroidism continues to be a pressing public health concern in West Africa. Its prevalence in Africa has been quoted as 1.2%-9.9%, with Graves' disease as its most common cause. Radioiodine-131 (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism recently commenced in two government hospitals in Ghana and Nigeria.

  9. Results of radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronath, A.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work is the quantification of therapy results of a radioiodine therapy with Iodine 131 on 367 patients with the following benign thyroid diseases: euthyroidal struma, hyperthyroidism, hyperthyroidal struma and autonomous adenoma. 1. Euthyroidal struma - subjective improvement and objective diminution of the struma by 63%, subjective or objective improvement by 21% of the patients. Including the probable successful therapies the success rate was all together 90.1%. 2. Hyperthyroidism - after one-time/more-time (18.6%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 71.5/85.7% including latent (8.6/10.0%) and manifest (7.1/8.5%) hypothroidism. 3. Hyperthyroidal struma - after one-time/more-time (16.9%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 74.7/90.1% including latent (-/5.7%) and manifest (1.4/2.8%) hypothyroidism. 4. Autonomous adenoma - after one-time/two-time (5.2%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 80.5/84.6% including 15.5% latent hypothyroidism. The results will be discussed in comparison to published data and to operation and thyrostatic treatment. (TRV) [de

  10. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Dressler, J.; Gruenwald, F.; Leisner, B.; Moser, E.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, P.; Schober, O.

    2004-01-01

    The version 3 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases presents first of all a revision of the version 2. The chapter indication for radioiodine therapy, surgical treatment or antithyroid drugs bases on an interdisciplinary consensus. The manifold criteria for decision making consider the entity of thyroid disease (autonomy, Graves' disease, goitre, goitre recurrence), the thyroid volume, suspicion of malignancy, cystic nodules, risk of surgery and co-morbidity, history of subtotal thyroidectomy, persistent or recurrent thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease including known risk factors for relapse, compression of the trachea caused by goitre, requirement of direct therapeutic effect as well as the patient's preference. Because often some of these criteria are relevant, the guideline offers the necessary flexibility for individual decisions. Further topics are patients' preparation, counseling, dosage concepts, procedural details, results, side effects and follow-up care. The prophylactic use of glucocorticoids during radioiodine therapy in patients without preexisting ophthalmopathy as well as dosage and duration of glucocorticoid medication in patients with preexisting ophthalmopathy need to be clarified in further studies. The pragmatic recommendations for the combined use of radioiodine and glucocorticoids remained unchanged in the 3 rd version. (orig.) [de

  11. Disparity of radioiodine and radiothallium concentrations in chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, K.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Friedman, M.; Rao, U.

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) presented with thyroid nodules, showed disparate uptakes of radioiodine and radiothallium. All patients were clinically euthyroid and had positive antithyroid antibody titers. On cytological and/or pathological examinations, they were consistent with chronic thyroiditis.

  12. Radioiodine (I-131) therapy and the influence of antithyroid medication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine therapy began to play a major role in the management of hyperthyroidism as early as 1941. It later evolved to become what it is today, the treatment of choice for majority of patients who are suffering from Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter. It is generally considered safe, inexpensive, effective, and devoid of major side effects. Despite the extensive experience with radioactive therapy, the adjunctive role of antithyroid medication remains controversial. Some authors claim that it has a positive influence on the outcome of radioiodine therapy while others insist otherwise. The reasons behind the adjunctive use of antithyroid medication include a more rapid attainment of euthyroid state and a decrease in the rise of developing thyroid crisis. However, a higher treatment failure rate is observed compared to radioiodine alone. This is due to the reputed radioprotective effect of the antithyroid medication. As a result, higher doses of I-131 are needed in order to obtain the desired effect but, unfortunately, that would also increase the radiation exposure to the rest of the body. The majority of clinicians would require discontinuation of the medication a few days before therapy to overcome these undesirable effects but the question is, is this safe? The issue of when antithyroid medication is warranted is a big question to the clinician. For optimal use of radioiodine therapy, appropriate selection criteria and good clinical judgment concerning pretreatment with antithyroid medication are required. Otherwise, we may put some patients into unnecessary increased risk and added cost. (author)

  13. Synthesis, chemical and biological quality control of radioiodinated peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Khalaj, A.; Beiki, D.; Motameidi, F.; Maloobi, M.; Karimian-dehghan, M.; Keshavarrzi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Iodinated compounds with I-131, 125 and 123 have been widely used for biochemical function studies. In conjunction with SPECT, [I-123] labelled proteins have various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. Preparation of some radioiodinated peptides with tyrosine and/or lysine groups on their main chain molecules can be carried out with both direct and indirect methods, but lack of these groups in molecule cause the molecule dose not lend itself for direct radioiodination. In this study, human IgG and Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, have been chosen as a model compounds for direct and indirect radioiodination respectively. Here, we will describe the labelling procedure of [I-125] IgG using chloramine-T as a suitable oxidant agent and [I-125 and I-131] FMLF by indirect method using ATE/SIB as a prosthetic group in multi-step reactions. The obtained results for chemical quality control of intermediate radioiodinated SIB by HPLC and two labelled IgG and FMLF will be also discussed. Biological results, biodistribution studies and SPECT scans on mice per-injected labelled FMLF show a low uptake of thyroid but a high at urine and bladder, perhaps because of low molecular weight of FMLF. In this case, it seems to be better to separate the reaction mixture of labelled FMLF by BPLC than Sephadex-G50 gel filtration. (Author)

  14. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  15. REMOVAL OF Cr(VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED COAL FROM LIGNITE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated coal produced from Ağaçlı Lignite coal was used to remove Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Cr(VI was studied as a function of initial concentration, time, pH, adsorbent concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were found to fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lagergren equation was used to calculate the adsorption rate. The amount of Cr(VI adsorbed was increased with decreasing pH and decreased with increasing temperature.

  16. Removal of mercury ion from aqueous solution by activated carbons obtained from biomass and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, E.; Yardim, F. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Ayazaga, 80626 Istanbul (Turkey); Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Razvigorova, M.; Minkova, V. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad.G.Bonchev, str. bl. 9, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-06-20

    The adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution at 293 K by activated carbons obtained from apricot stones, furfural and coals was studied. Adsorption studies were performed under the varying conditions of time of treatment, metal ion concentration and pH. The process of adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. The removal of Hg(II) increased with the increase of pH of the solution from 2 to 5 and remained constant up to pH 10. Desorption studies were preformed.

  17. Identification of active denitrifiers in full-scale nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcllroy, Simon; Starnawska, Anna; Starnawski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is essential to the removal of nitrogen from wastewater during treatment, yet an understanding of the diversity of the active denitrifying bacteria responsible in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is lacking. In this study, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was applied......-labelled complex substrate was used for SIP incubations, under nitrite-reducing conditions, in order to maximize the capture of the potentially metabolically diverse denitrifiers likely present. Members of the Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas, Sulfuritalea, Haliangium and Thermomonas were represented in the 16S rRNA gene...

  18. Removal effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and heavy metals from artificially contaminated soil by iron chelate-activated persulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Dickson Y.S.; Lo, Irene M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from artificially contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate were investigated through batch experiments. Using FeEDTA-activated persulfate, higher naphthalene removal from the soil at 7 h was achieved (89%), compared with FeEDDS-activated persulfate (75%). The removal was mainly via the dissolution of naphthalene partitioned on mineral surfaces, followed by activated persulfate oxidation. Although EDDS is advantageous over EDTA in terms of biodegradability, it is not preferable for iron chelate-activated persulfate oxidation since persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS, resulting in persulfate inadequacy for naphthalene oxidation. Besides, 55 and 40% of naphthalene were removed by FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively. Particularly, 21 and 9% of naphthalene were degraded in the presence of FeEDTA and FeEDDS alone, respectively, which caused by electrons transfer among dissolved organic matter, Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and naphthalene. Over 35, 36 and 45% of Cu, Pb and Zn were removed using FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate. -- Highlights: ► FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation removed PAH and heavy metal from soil. ► More naphthalene was removed by FeEDTA-activated persulfate compared to FeEDDS. ► Persulfate was consumed to oxidize EDDS in FeEDDS-activated persulfate oxidation. ► Metals can be extracted from soil by free EDTA/EDDS dissociated from FeEDTA/FeEDDS. ► Naphthalene oxidation can be induced by e − transfer among Fe 2+ , DOM and naphthalene. -- This study focuses on the potencies and mechanisms of naphthalene and metal removal from contaminated soil by FeEDTA/FeEDDS-activated persulfate

  19. Radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease; Radioiodoterapia em pacientes com doenca de Basedow-Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Margarida Maria Galvao; Blum, Bernardo; Pellegrini, Paulo Martins [Instituto Brasileiro de Medicina Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Corbo, Rossana [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Rebello, Ana Maria de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2000-04-01

    We studied retrospectively 104 patients with Graves' disease who underwent radioiodine therapy between 1983 and 1993. The administered dose varied from 2.0 to 9.0 mCi (74 to 333 MBq). In 1994 and 1998 the patients were asked to answer a questionnaire and were considered to have hypothyroidism when receiving T4 therapy. The importance of radioiodine therapy, its indications and the different methods of calculating the administered activity were studied. The results were compared with the literature. At the end of the evaluation, 62,4% of the patients presented hypothyroidism and 37,6% euthyroidism. There was no significant difference regarding the development of hypothyroidism when sex, number of doses, total activity (mCi), effective radiation ({mu}Ci per gram of tissue) and use of antithyroid drugs were considered. In conclusion, the period of time of post-radioiodine therapy is the most important factor in the analysis of the results, which may interfere with the development of hypothyroidism. (author)

  20. The removal of chloramphenicol from water through adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Joanna; Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    The presented research investigated the removal of chloramphenicol from water solutions on selected activated carbon available in three grades with different porous structure and surface chemical composition. Two models of adsorption kinetics were examined, i.e. the pseudo-first order and the pseudo-second order models. For all examined cases, the results of tests with higher value of coefficient R2 were described by the equation for pseudo-second order kinetics. The adsorption kinetics was also investigated on the activated carbons modified with ozone. The measurements were taken from the solutions with pH values of 2 and 7. Chloramphenicol was the most efficiently adsorbed on the activated carbon F-300 from the solutions with pH=7, and on the activated carbon ROW 08 Supra from the solutions with pH=2. The adsorption of this antibiotic was in the majority of cases higher from the solutions with pH=2 than pH=7. The modification of the activated carbons with ozone enhanced their adsorption capacities for chloramphenicol. The adsorption is influenced by the modification method of activated carbon (i.e. the duration of ozonation of the activated carbon solution and the solution temperature). The results were described with the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations. Both models well described the obtained results (high R2 values).

  1. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  2. Radio-iodine therapy and Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholamrezanezhad, A.; Mirpour, S.; Saghari, M.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Pourmoslemi, A.; Yarmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  3. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, S.R.; Rahman, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

  4. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  5. Radioiodine labeling of resveratrol and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Yu Huixin; Tan Cheng; Lin Xiufeng; Zhang Li; Cao Guoxian; Luo Shineng

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the preparation of radioiodinated resveratrol and its biodistribution in mice, resveratrol was labeled with 131 I using lactoperoxidase methods and purified by ethyl acetate. The radiolabeled compound was characterized by polyamide TLC, in which the substratum of V trichoromethane : V acetone : V ethanol : V Adam's ale =4 : 4 : 0.5 : 0.4 was used as the developing agent. Biodistribution studies were accomplished on KM mice. At different time after radiopharmaceutical i.v. administration (0.185 MBq 131 I- tetrahydropalmatine/mouse), the animals were sacrificed (n=5 animals for each time). Blood and the interested tissues were collected, washed, weighted and counted. The percent injected dose per gram (%ID·g -1 ) was calculated for each sample. The labeling yield of 131 I-resveratrol is 69.3% and its RCPs are 95.9%, 92.0%, 90.4%, and 90.1% after 1, 3, 7 and 15 d, respectively. Biodistribution in mice demonstrates that 131 I-resveratrol is distributed into broad organs and tissues. However, it reveals higher levels in liver, kidney and intestine than in other tissues. In liver and kidney, the %ID· g -1 are 16.35% and 13.05% at 5 min, respectively. 131 I-resveratrol is metabolized mainly through liver and kidney. Simultaneously, its high distribution is also found in intestine. The %ID·g -1 of 131 I-resveratrol is 11.70% at 10 min; the activity in thyroid increases with time. Therefore, the 131 I-resveratrol is worthy of further investigation to trace the compound in vivo and ex vivo. (authors)

  6. Photocatalytic Role of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Synthetic Activated Carbon to Remove Antibiotic from Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Samarghandi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The presence of antibiotics in the environment, especially in aquatic environments is a major concern for health and the environment. The advanced oxidation process due to the ease of use, economical advantages and high performance have attracted a lot of attention. The purpose of this study was Evaluating of the photocatalytic role of zinc oxide on synthetic activated carbon to remove antibiotic from aquatic environment. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in batch reactor that has a 1 L volume. In this study effect of parameters such as initial pH (3-9, initial concentration of cefazolin (20-200 mg/L, modified photocatalyst concentration (20-100 mg/L and reaction time (10-60 min was investigated. In this study a low-pressure mercury lamp with the power of 55 watts in stainless case has been used. The cefazolin concentrations in different steps were measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in Wavelength of 262 nm. Results: The results showed that the highest removal efficiency (96% of cefazolin was at the pH=3, 0.1 mg/L of modified photocatalyst, retention time of 60 min and cefazolin concentrations of 100 mg/L. In the case of changing any of the above mentioned values, process efficiency was decreased. Conclusion: The results showed that the photocatalytic process of zinc oxide nanoparticles on synthetic activated carbon can be used as an advanced oxidation process to effectively remove pollutants like cefazolin and other similar pollutants.

  7. Removal and Recovery of Organic Vapor Emissions by Fixed-Bed Activated Carbon Fiber Adsorber-Cryogenic Condenser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1998-01-01

    ... them. This project evaluated the ability of an activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) adsorption, electrothermal desorption, cryogenic-condensation system to remove 10 cu cm/min containing 1000 ppmv of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK...

  8. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  10. Methanol removal efficiency and bacterial diversity of an activated carbon biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Callie W; Pacheco, Adriana; Lindner, Angela S

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by the need to establish an economical and environmentally friendly methanol control technology for the pulp and paper industry, a bench-scale activated carbon biofiltration system was developed. This system was evaluated for its performance in removing methanol from an artificially contaminated air stream and characterized for its bacterial diversity over time, under varied methanol loading rates, and in different spatial regions of the filter. The biofilter system, composed of a novel packing mixture, provided an excellent support for growth and activity of methanol-degrading bacteria, resulting in approximately 100% methanol removal efficiency for loading rates of 1-17 g/m(3) packing/h, when operated both with and without inoculum containing enriched methanol-degrading bacteria. Although bacterial diversity and abundance varied over the length of the biofilter, the populations present rapidly formed a stable community that was maintained over the entire 138-day operation of the system and through variable operating conditions, as observed by PCR-DGGE methods that targeted all bacteria as well as specific methanol-oxidizing microorganisms. Phylogenetic analysis of bands excised and sequenced from DGGE gels indicated that the biofilter system supported a diverse community of methanol-degrading bacteria, with high similarity to species in the genera Methylophilus (beta-proteobacteria), Hyphomicrobium and Methylocella (both alpha-proteobacteria).

  11. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  12. Preparation of Fly ash Based Adsorbents for Removal Active Red X-3B from Dying Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash with a large number of active sites can occur with the adsorbent chemical and physical adsorption, and therefore have a strong adsorption capacity. The original fly ash and raw fly ash compared to the physical and chemical properties to a significant change. On the fly ash in industrial water treatment application were outlined. The purpose is to focus on the modification methods of fly ash and comparison of raw fly ash and fly ash in the effect of dyeing wastewater. Single factor test method; select the appropriate modifier to study the dosage, pH, stirring time on the modification of adsorption properties of fly ash before and after. The results showed that the modified fly ash was better than the adsorption. Greatly improves on active red X-3B dye wastewater removal capacity, pH = 5, 6, dosage is 5g / L, the mixing time is 30min, COD removal rate reached 73.07%. This modified material can be used as adsorbent for pre-treating dying wastewater.

  13. Design of DC Conduction Pump for PGSFR Active Decay Heat Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dehee; Hong, Jonggan; Lee, Taeho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A DC conduction pump has been designed for the ADHRS of PGSFR. A VBA code developed by ANL was utilized to design and optimize the pump. The pump geometry dependent parameters were optimized to minimize the total current while meeting the design requirements. A double-C type dipole was employed to produce the calculated magnetic strength. Numerical simulations for the magnetic field strength and its distribution around the dipole and for the turbulent flow under magnetic force will be carried out. A Direct Current (DC) conduction Electromagnetic Pump (EMP) has been designed for Active Decay Heat Removal System (ADHRS) of PGSFR. The PGSFR has active as well as passive systems for the DHRS. The passive DHRS (PDHRS) works by natural circulation head and the ADHRS is driven by an EMP for the DHRS sodium loop and a blower for the finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX). An Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) can be also considered for the ADHRS, but DC conduction pump has been chosen. Selection basis of DHRS EMP is addressed and EMP design for single ADHRS loop with 1MWt heat removal capacity is introduced.

  14. Removal of organic fractions from landfill leachate by casuarina equisetifolia activated carbon: Characteristics and adsorption mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrozi, Rasyidah; Zubir, Nor Aida; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusof, Siti Noor Faizah Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-09-01

    In this research, the activated carbon prepared from tropical plant waste based Casuarinas Equisetifolia plant was activated through chemical activation by using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activating agent. The raw sample was carbonized following conventional heating via electric furnace at 600˚C with the increasing temperature 30˚C/minutes in one hour which was selected as the optimum condition. The prepared activated carbons exhibit mesoporous with the pore diameter within 0.2 µm to 20 µm. From the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs, the morphology of the activated carbon indicated that they demonstrated high pore development on it surfaces. The effects of initial pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage onto the adsorption performances were evaluated through batch adsorption study. The COD removal increased when the adsorbent dosage was increased. The adsorption of COD and colour were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model compared to ammonia, which the correlation regressions, R2 were 0.8451, 0.8315 and 0.6608, respectively. The result of the preliminary of the experimental indicated that the Casuarinas Equisetifolia plant is a promising raw material suitable for turning from waste into wealth.

  15. Removal of nitroimidazole antibiotics from aqueous solution by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Utrilla, J; Prados-Joya, G; Sánchez-Polo, M; Ferro-García, M A; Bautista-Toledo, I

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the behaviour of activated carbon with different chemical and textural properties in nitroimidazole adsorption, also assessing the combined use of microorganisms and activated carbon in the removal of these compounds from waters and the influence of the chemical nature of the solution (pH and ionic strength) on the adsorption process. Results indicate that the adsorption of nitroimidazoles is largely determined by activated carbon chemical properties. Application of the Langmuir equation to the adsorption isotherms showed an elevated adsorption capacity (X(m)=1.04-2.04 mmol/g) for all contaminants studied. Solution pH and electrolyte concentration did not have a major effect on the adsorption of these compounds on activated carbon, confirming that the principal interactions involved in the adsorption of these compounds are non-electrostatic. Nitroimidazoles are not degraded by microorganisms used in the biological stage of a wastewater treatment plant. However, the presence of microorganisms during nitroimidazole adsorption increased their adsorption on the activated carbon, although it weakened interactions between the adsorbate and carbon surface. In dynamic regime, the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon was markedly higher in surface water and groundwater than in urban wastewaters.

  16. Direct measurement of tritium production rate in LiPb with removed parasitic activities: Preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuc, Tadeusz, E-mail: kuc@agh.edu.pl; Pohorecki, Władysław; Ostachowicz, Beata

    2014-10-15

    Liquid scintillation (LS) technique applied to direct measurement of tritium activity produced in LiPb eutectic in Frascati HCLL TBM mock-up neutronic experiment has been tested so far in the case of LS measurement after long period since irradiation. LiPb samples irradiated in neutron filed show, except of tritium, meaningful activity of other radioisotopes (parasitic). Parasitic activity, mainly from isotopes of lead ({sup 209}Pb, {sup 204m}Pb, {sup 203}Pb) calculated with the use of FISPACT, exceeds ca 5 times tritium activity 1.4 h after irradiation. We propose to remove disturbing radioisotopes in a chemical way to avoid long “cooling” of the irradiated samples before tritium measurement. Samples (1 g of LiPb) irradiated in reactor fast neutron flux were diluted and metallic cations removed by chemical precipitation. For this purpose we used: potassium iodide (KJ), strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}), APDC (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}NS{sub 2}·NH{sub 4}), NaDDTC (C{sub 5}H{sub 10}NNaS{sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), and PAN (C{sub 15}H{sub 11}N{sub 3}O). Precipitation procedure in each case lasted ca 5–25 min, and the following filtration next 10–20 min. In each filtrate (ca 120 ml) we measured Pb concentration in total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analyzer and parasitic activity (left after 21-day “cooling”) applying HPGe gamma spectrometer. Pb cations precipitated by SrCl{sub 2} and than by PAN lowered activity of Pb isotopes to less than 1% of the initial tritium activity. Another combination of reagents: NaDDTC followed by SrCl{sub 2} in a single and double step filtration reduced Pb concentration 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} times, respectively. Reduction of this order allows tritium radiometric measurement ca 3 h after irradiation with acceptable accuracy. This time can be shortened by applying correction for decay of known parasitic activity. Input of {sup 76}As and other less abundant radioisotopes can be eliminated using high purity LiPb. Tritium activity of

  17. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  18. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  19. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, J.M.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 deg. C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔH o ), standard entropy (ΔS o ) and standard free energy (ΔG o ) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of a radioiodinated thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor as a tumor diagnostic agent for angiogenic enzyme imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizawa, Hiromichi; Zhao, Songji; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Seki, Koh-ichi; Ohkura, Kazue

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is closely associated with angiogenesis, tumor invasiveness and activation of antitumor agents. We evaluated radioiodinated 5-iodo-6-[(2-iminoimidazolidinyl)methyl]uracil ([ 125 I]IIMU) having high TP-inhibitory potency as the new radiotracer for SPECT targeting of TP expression in tumors. Methods: The characteristics of the radioiodinated TP inhibitor IIMU were determined by evaluating the uptake by tumor cells in vitro and by biodistribution studies in vivo. The distribution of the radiotracer and the extent of TP-specific uptake by tumors were evaluated by a counting method in tumor-bearing mice. Results: The in vitro uptake of radiolabeled IIMU by A431 cells along with high TP expressions was attributed to the binding of the radiotracer to its target enzyme, i.e., TP. In vivo distribution of the radiotracer in A431 tumor-bearing mice revealed tumor/blood and tumor/muscle activity uptake ratios of 36 and 106, respectively, at 3 h after the radiotracer injection. On using low TP-expressing tumors and TP blocking studies as controls, minor TP-specific accumulation of the radiotracer was detected in these studies. Conclusion: According to the binding of radioiodinated IIMU to the angiogenic enzyme TP, it can be concluded that radioiodinated IIMU might be suitable as a SPECT tracer for tumor imaging.

  1. Diet low in iodine as well as goitrogens (LILGD) enhanced radioiodine (I-131) uptake in treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaro, Erik; Gebre-Medhin, Mehari; Lindahl, Sten-AAke

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Low iodine diet (LID) is accepted as an adjuvant to post-thyroidectomy radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer since it is held to enhance radioiodine uptake in thyroid remnants and thyroid cancer tissue. However, in the few clinical investigations performed only an indirect and weak evidence of a positive effect of the LID has been demonstrated. Also we had discouraging experience in the application of a strict LID using the same design as in the present study. We therefore decided to investigate the effect of a diet low in iodine as well as in goitrogens (LILGD). Methods: Six patients with differentiated thyroid cancer entered the study and they were their own control. After thyroid hormone withdrawal (TSH > 30 m U/L) and on regular diet a diagnostic whole body scan was performed 24 h after administration of 50 MBq (1,4 mCi) 123 I. The day following diagnostic scan the patients were put on LILGD for 4 days prior and two days after radioiodine therapy. In LILGD beverages, fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids, glucosinolates, cyanides and thiocyanates were avoided and spices and smoking prohibited. Therapeutic radioiodine was administered one week after diagnostic procedures and in the morning after over-night fasting with an activity range of 3,7-5,4 GBq (100 -150 mCi) 131 I. A 24-h therapeutic whole body scan and calculations of percentage uptake U(24) were performed. Diagnostic (basal) D U(24)% and subsequent therapeutic T U(24)% uptake were compared and expressed as therapeutic/diagnostic uptake ratios T/D U(24). Results: A significant increase in therapeutic versus diagnostic uptake T/D U(24) was observed (mean 2,53, median 2,30, range 1,40 - 4,46, p 131 I uptake in radio-ablation of normal and thyroid cancer tissue. (author)

  2. Influence of antithyroid medication on effective half-life and uptake of 131 I following radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: A radioiodine therapy (RIT) in thyrotoxic patients receiving antithyroid drugs (ATD) leads in comparison to nonpretreated patients either to higher therapeutic doses or to higher treatment failure rates. Aim of this study was to optimize the effect of RIT in patients pretreated with ATD. Methods: Therefore, the influence of ATD was assessed in 109 patients with shortened effective half-life of 131 I. RIT was performed under stationary conditions. Radioiodine activity of the thyroid gland was stopped three days after RIT. The patients antithyroid medication was stopped three days after RIT. The progress of the first RIT and of a second radioiodine application, which still was necessary in 29 patients, was compared to 32 patients receiving ATD, continuously. Results: Values of effective half-life for 131 I rose significantly from 3.2±0.2 to 5.7±0.2 days (Graves' disease: 3.4 to 5.7 days; toxic goiters' disease: Multifocal autonomy 3.2 to 6.2 days; unifocal autonomy 2.5 auf 5.0 days) 2-3 days after stopping ATD. There was an increase of the 131 I-uptake of a second RIT decreased significantly in patients receiving ATD, continuously. Conclusion: Effective half-life and uptake of 131 I was affected significantly by ATD. The stop taking of ATD after RIT is useful to improve an apparent insufficient RIT in thyrotoxic patients receiving ATD. (orig.) [de

  3. Removal Of Labeled ALPHA-Fetoprotein (AFP) Using Rice Husk-Based Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-MOUHTY, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass agricultural waste materials, rice husk (RH) or saw dust (SD), were used for the preparation of activated carbons. RH was activated by chemical activation using phosphoric acid or potassium hydroxide. The prepared activated carbons were characterized and used for the adsorption of labeled alpha-fetoprotein ( 125 I-AFP) from the lab waste of iodine labeled alpha-fetoprotein tracer. The effects of various factors, e.g. carbon type, carbon dosage, temperature, particle size of carbon, effect of different waste volumes on the adsorption capacity, were quantitatively determined. Desorption of activated carbon was also investigated. From the experimental results, it was found that SDK had the lowest ability for adsorption of 125I-AFP and the highest uptake was 83% by carbon RHH. The amount of adsorption accomplished per unit weight of a solid adsorbent was greater, the more finely divided and the more porous the solid. 0.5 g for RHH carbon was found to be optimum dose of adsorbent for the removal of 125I-AFP. The optimum volume of waste with 0.5 g dose of RHH was 15 ml. The increased adsorption with temperature may be due to the increase of the intra-particle diffusion rate of sorbate ions into the pores at higher temperature as diffusion is an endothermic process.

  4. Muscle activity and masticatory efficiency with bilateral extension base removable partial dentures with different cusp angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2018-03-01

    Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P<.05). RPDs with NA teeth were associated with higher EMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient removal of tetracycline with KOH-activated graphene from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Sun, Yiran; Yu, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Activated graphene absorbents with high specific surface area (SSA) were prepared by an easy KOH-activated method, and were applied in absorbing antibiotics, such as tetracycline (TC). After activation, many micropores were introduced to graphene oxide sheets, leading to higher SSA and many new oxygen-containing functional groups, which gave KOH-activated graphene excellent adsorption capacity (approx. 532.59 mg g -1 ) of TC. Further study on the adsorption mechanism showed that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted with experiment data. To further understand the adsorption process, the effects of solid-liquid ratio, pH, ionic strength and coexisting ions were also investigated. The results revealed that, compared with pH and ionic strength, solid-liquid ratio and coexisting ions (Cu 2+ , CrO 4 2- ) had more significant influence over the adsorption performance. The findings provide guidance for application of KOH-activated graphene as a promising alternative adsorbent for antibiotics removal from aqueous solutions.

  6. The removal of uranium (VI) from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon developed from grinded used tire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Ahmed; Rebiai, Rachid; Hadoun, Hocine; Khemaissia, Sihem; Belmedani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, activated carbon was prepared from waste tire by KOH chemical activation. The pore properties including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and average pore diameter were characterized. BET surface area of the activated carbon was determined as 558 m(2)/g. The adsorption of uranium ions from the aqueous solution using this activated carbon has been investigated. Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dosage level and equilibrium contact time were studied by a batch method. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 3. The removal efficiency has also been determined for the adsorption system as a function of initial concentration. The experimental results were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. A comparison of best-fitting was performed using the coefficient of correlation and the Langmuir isotherm was found to well represent the measured sorption data. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the saturated monolayer sorption capacity of uranium ions onto waste tire activated carbon was 158.73 mg/g. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant and the Gibbs free energy were determined and results indicated the spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Kinetics data were best described by pseudo-second-order model.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Dried Activated Sludge and Mixed Dried Activated Sudge with Rice Husk silica to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mehdinia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dried activated sludge (DAS and mixed dried activated sludge with rice husk silica (DAS & RHS for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S. Two laboratory-scale filter columns (packed one litter were operated. Both systems were operated under different conditions of two parameters, namely different inlet gas concentrations and different inlet flow rates. The DAS & RHS packed filter showed more than 99.96% removal efficiency (RE with empty bed residence time (EBRT of 45 to 90 s and 300 mg/L inlet concentration of H2S. However, the RE decreased to 96.87% with the EBRT of 30 s. In the same condition, the DAS packed filter showed 99.37% RE. Nonetheless, the RE was shown to have dropped to 82.09% with the EBRT of 30 s. The maximum elimination capacity (EC was obtained in the DAS & RHS packed filter up to 52.32 g/m3h, with the RE of 96.87% and H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. The maximum EC in the DAS packed filter was obtained up to 44.33 g/m3h with the RE of 82.09% and the H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. After 53 days of operating time and 54 g/m3h of loading rates, the maximum pressure drop reached to 3.0 and 8.0 (mm H2O for the DAS & RHS packed and DAS packed filters, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, the DAS & RHS could be considered as a more suitable packing material to remove H2S.

  8. Influence of oral rinsing on the exposure of salivary glands during radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzen, U.; Silvia, P.; Zhao, Y.; Marx, M.; Winkler, C.; Zuhayra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the salivary glands (SG) constitute a risk organ during a radioiodine therapy of thyroid. A possible side effect is xerostomia. This study investigates whether repeated rinsing of the mouth with water during radioiodine therapy significantly extracts I-131 from the circuit between saliva and the gastrointestinal tract, and thus whether radiation exposure of the patient's SG is reduced. Methods: the control group consisted of 45 patients, ages 32 to 81 years, (mean 62 years, 8 male, 37 female), and received radioiodine therapy without rinsing their mouths. An intervention group of 42 patients, ages 36 to 88 years, (mean 61 years, 8 male, 34 female), with a benign or malignant thyroid disease, were asked 15-17 hours after capsule administration to rinse their mouths hourly with water for the next two days. The intervention group (n = 42) was divided into three groups. A low-risk group (n = 22) received between 0.4 and 1.0 GBq I-131 (mean 0.746), a medium risk group (n = 15) between 1.2 and 2.0 GBq (mean 1.783), and the high-risk group (n = 5) between 3.0 and 6.0 GBq (mean 3.600) respectively. To assess the function of the SG, scintigrams were performed prior to and 3 months after the radioiodine therapy. The estimation of the activity in the gastrointestinal tract was performed using whole-body scintigraphy on the day of release. Both, the SG and the whole body (WB) scintigraphies were evaluated using the region-of-interest technique. Furthermore, the activity of the collected saliva was quantified using a calibrated well-type detector. Results: the mean values of the activity extracted into the water-saliva mixture were 0.72% ± 0.3% and 0.14% ± 0.05% of the applied dose on the first and second day after capsule administration respectively. The analysis of the SG scintigrams of the low and medium risk groups showed no significant decrease in salivary gland function. Only in the high-risk group a significant loss of

  9. Removal and recovery of gas-phase element mercury by metal oxide-loaded activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Zhijian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Zhemin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: pnyql520@hotmail.com; Zhao Qingjie [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Science, 508 Qin-Zhou Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang Wenhua; Zhang Yejian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-04-01

    The reusability of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (AC-Co), MnO{sub 2} (AC-Mn) and CuCoO{sub 4} (AC-CC) loaded activated carbon (AC) and their element mercury removal efficiency had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor under simulated flue gas conditions. Tests showed that spent AC-Co could be regenerated through heating at 673 K under N{sub 2} atmosphere and the enrichment regenerated Hg{sup 0} could be collected to eliminate the secondary pollution. Regenerated AC-Mn and AC-CC's Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency decreased greatly due to AC's decomposition and MnO{sub 2}'s crystal structure variation. Compared with AC and metal oxides, metal oxide-loaded AC had higher Hg{sup 0} capture ability and capacity due to AC huge surface areas and lots of function groups. TGA analysis results showed that AC-Co and AC-Mn's HgO adsorptive capacity at 523 K reached 19.8 mg g{sup -1} and 5.21 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. High loading values and adsorption temperatures were beneficial to AC-Co's Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency. However, CuCoO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2}'s AC decomposition ability had negative effect on AC-CC and AC-Mn's performance, respectively, especially at high adsorption temperatures and loading values. SO{sub 2} tests showed that AC-CC had higher anti SO{sub 2}-poisoning ability than AC-Co and AC-Mn.

  10. Reduction and Removal of Chromium VI in Water by Powdered Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cr adsorption on wood-based powdered activated carbon (WPAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The highest Cr(VI adsorption (40.04% was obtained under acidic conditions (pH 3, whereas Cr removal at pH 10 was only 0.34%. The mechanism of Cr(VI removal from aqueous solutions by WPAC was based on the reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III with the concomitant oxidation of C-H and C-OH to C-OH and C=O, respectively, on the surface of WPAC, followed by Cr(III adsorption. Raman spectroscopy revealed a change in the WPAC structure in terms of the D/G band intensity ratio after Cr(VI adsorption. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the oxygen/carbon ratio on the WPAC surface increased from 9.85% to 17.74%. This result was confirmed by XPS measurements, which showed that 78.8% of Cr adsorbed on the WPAC surface was in the trivalent state. The amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface increased due to the oxidation of graphitic carbons to C-OH and C=O groups.

  11. Removal of bromide and bromate from drinking water using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Wu, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ju-Mei; Yang, Xiu-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to remove bromide (Br⁻) and bromate (BrO(3)(-)) from drinking water in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments. The present study aims to minimize BrO(3)(-) formation and eliminate BrO(3)(-) generated during the ozonation of drinking water, particularly in packaged drinking water. Results show that the Br⁻ and BrO(3)(-) levels in GAC-treated water decreased in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments. In the bench-scale experiments, when the empty bed contact time (EBCT) was 5 min, the highest reduction rates of Br(-) in the mineral and ultrapure water were found to be 74.9% and 91.2%, respectively, and those of BrO(3)(-) were 94.4% and 98.8%, respectively. The GAC capacity for Br⁻ and BrO(3)(-) removal increased with the increase in EBCT. Reduction efficiency was better in ultrapure water than in mineral water. In the pilot-scale experiments, the minimum reduction rates of Br⁻ and BrO(3)(-) were 38.5% and 73.2%, respectively.

  12. The heat removal capability of actively cooled plasma-facing components for the ITER divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlian, M.; Richou, M.; Riccardi, B.; Gavila, P.; Loarer, T.; Constans, S.

    2011-12-01

    Non-destructive examination followed by high-heat-flux testing was performed for different small- and medium-scale mock-ups; this included the most recent developments related to actively cooled tungsten (W) or carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components. In particular, the heat-removal capability of these mock-ups manufactured by European companies with all the main features of the ITER divertor design was investigated both after manufacturing and after thermal cycling up to 20 MW m-2. Compliance with ITER requirements was explored in terms of bonding quality, heat flux performances and operational compatibility. The main results show an overall good heat-removal capability after the manufacturing process independent of the armour-to-heat sink bonding technology and promising behaviour with respect to thermal fatigue lifetime under heat flux up to 20 MW m-2 for the CFC-armoured tiles and 15 MW m-2 for the W-armoured tiles, respectively.

  13. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The heat removal capability of actively cooled plasma-facing components for the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M; Richou, M; Loarer, T; Riccardi, B; Gavila, P; Constans, S

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive examination followed by high-heat-flux testing was performed for different small- and medium-scale mock-ups; this included the most recent developments related to actively cooled tungsten (W) or carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components. In particular, the heat-removal capability of these mock-ups manufactured by European companies with all the main features of the ITER divertor design was investigated both after manufacturing and after thermal cycling up to 20 MW m - 2. Compliance with ITER requirements was explored in terms of bonding quality, heat flux performances and operational compatibility. The main results show an overall good heat-removal capability after the manufacturing process independent of the armour-to-heat sink bonding technology and promising behaviour with respect to thermal fatigue lifetime under heat flux up to 20 MW m - 2 for the CFC-armoured tiles and 15 MW m - 2 for the W-armoured tiles, respectively.

  15. Chromium (Ⅵ) removal from aqueous solutions through powdered activated carbon countercurrent two-stage adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang

    2018-01-01

    To exploit the adsorption capacity of commercial powdered activated carbon (PAC) and to improve the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions, the adsorption of Cr(VI) by commercial PAC and the countercurrent two-stage adsorption (CTA) process was investigated. Different adsorption kinetics models and isotherms were compared, and the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the experimental data well. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency was >80% and was improved by 37% through the CTA process compared with the conventional single-stage adsorption process when the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 50 mg/L with a PAC dose of 1.250 g/L and a pH of 3. A calculation method for calculating the effluent Cr(VI) concentration and the PAC dose was developed for the CTA process, and the validity of the method was confirmed by a deviation of <5%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Ali, Imran; Saleh, Tawfik A; Siddiqui, M N; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2013-03-01

    Because of the continuous production of large amount of waste tires, the disposal of waste tires represents a major environmental issue throughout the world. This paper reports the utilization of waste tires (hard-to-dispose waste) as a precursor in the production of activated carbons (pollution-cleaning adsorbent). In the preparation of activated carbon (AC), waste rubber tire (WRT) was thermally treated and activated. The tire-derived activated carbon was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometer, and X-ray diffraction. In the IR spectrum, a number of bands centred at about 3409, 2350, 1710, 1650, and 1300-1000 cm(-1) prove the present of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of AC in addition to C═C double bonds. The developed AC was tested and evaluated as potential adsorbent removal of chromium (III). Experimental parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH were optimized. A rapid uptake of chromium ions was observed and the equilibrium is achieved in 1 h. It was also found that the adsorption process is pH dependent. This work adds to the global discussion of the cost-effective utilization of waste rubber tires for waste water treatment.

  17. Readiness evaluation report -- High-exposure rate hardware removal resumption of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    In August 1996, N Basin Project Management proactively ceased activities in the N Basin after noting several radiological control anomalies occurring during the performance of the high exposure rate hardware removal activity. The HERH is one of several activities that will be accomplished to complete deactivation of N Basin. Three project critiques were performed to identify causes and several corrective actions were identified. To ensure the true causes of the events were identified the N Basin Project Manager requested that a root cause analysis be performed for the events covered by the three critiques. The intent was to identify recurring events and evaluate the effectiveness of corrective action implementation. These three review elements were used by the project to develop a corrective action plan (CAP) which consisted of both project unique and programmatic items. The N Basin Project is using this BHI Readiness Evaluation (RE) process as a mechanism to independently verify that corrective actions identified from the CAP have been completed and that no changes have been made during the stand down that affect the resumption of the HERH activities. A readiness evaluation (RE) plan (Attachment 3) was prepared. The completed Readiness Evaluation Records which documents the results of the team member evaluations are in attachment 1. The independent readiness evaluation team identified 5 deficiencies of which two are post startup and three are pre startup. All deficiencies are in the area of training. These findings are explained in detail in Attachment 2

  18. Inoculum development by using activated sludge to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S through biofiltration*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mora

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Different activated sludges were used for developing an inoculum able to degrade hydrogen sulphide in a pilot scale biofiltration plant using two different support materials: sugarcane bagasse and this bagasse mixed with pumice stone. Adapting and selecting microbial species which degrade hydrogen sulphide (H2S was aided by adding nutrients plus a specific substrate to the activated sludge. Population variation was monitored within the different trophic groups in the biofiter medium during pilot scale plant operation, a general trend towards sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB growth being observed as was a decrease in heterotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts. The activated sludge which showed the highest substrate degradation speed was selected for standardising inoculum preparation; the different nutritional mediums were evaluated during this process. Measuring some variables for controlling the process led to choosing the pH for determining the proper point of inoculum adaptation for this specific substrate. The inoculation procedure and support characteristics in terms of establishing and developing the microbial species increased biofilter removal efficiency by up to 99% from start-up. Key words: biofilter, activated sludge, adapted microorganisms, sulphur-oxidising bacteria, respirometry. Este artículo es el resultado de un proyecto cofinanciado por Colciencias y desarrollado por un grupo de investigadores vinculados al proyecto a través de las entidades Corporación

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris FOR PESTICIDE REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Mateus Santana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the water scarcity problems facing many countries, the need for water reuse can make activated carbon (AC an essential product for modern society. In this context, to contribute with better activated carbons that could be used to serve in water treatment, this article discusses these materials production, using bamboo as raw material, and analyses their application effectiveness. The bamboo was collected, transformed into activated carbon, by simultaneous chemical and physical activations, and named H3PO4/H2OAC. The obtained material was characterized by its yield, apparent density, ash content, thermogravimetric analysis, surface area, methylene blue and iodine indexes, pH and point of zero charge analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Boehm titration method. The AC was used as adsorbent for removing the metribuzin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and furadan pesticides. The H3PO4/H2OAC had a surface area of 1196.30 m².g-1 and the obtained adsorption capacity was elevated for furadan (868.98 mg.g-1, metribuzin (756.47 mg.g-1 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (274.70 mg.g-1.

  20. Removal of lead(II) by adsorption using treated granular activated carbon: batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Jyotsna; Kadirvelu, Krishna; Rajagopal, Chitra; Kumar Garg, Vinod

    2005-10-17

    In the present study, a deeper understanding of adsorption behavior of Pb(II) from aqueous systems onto activated carbon and treated activated carbon has been attempted via static and column mode studies under various conditions. It probes mainly two adsorbents that is, activated carbon (AC) and modified activated carbon (AC-S). Characterization of both the adsorbents was one of the key focal areas of the present study. This has shown a clear change or demarcation in the various physical and chemical properties of the modified adsorbent from its precursor activated carbon. Both the adsorbents are subjected to static mode adsorption studies and then after a comparison based on isotherm analysis; more efficient adsorbent is screened for column mode adsorption studies. The lead removal increased for sample of treated carbon. The extent of Pb(II) removal was found to be higher in the treated activated carbon. The aim of carrying out the continuous-flow studies was to assess the effect of various process variables, viz., of bed height, hydraulic loading rate and initial feed concentration on breakthrough time and adsorption capacity. This has helped in ascertaining the practical applicability of the adsorbent. Breakthrough curves were plotted for the adsorption of lead on the adsorbent using continuous-flow column operation by varying different operating parameters like hydraulic loading rate (3.0-10.5 m3/(hm2)), bed height (0.3-0.5 m) and feed concentrations (2.0-6.0 mg/l). At the end, an attempt has also been made to model the data generated from column studies using the empirical relationship based on Bohart-Adams model. This model has provided an objective framework to the subjective interpretation of the adsorption system and the model constant obtained here can be used to achieve the ultimate objective of our study that is, up scaling and designing of adsorption process at the pilot plant scale level. AC-S column regeneration using 0.5 and 1.0M concentration of

  1. Removal of Phenol and o-Cresol by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Edwin Vasu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial activated carbon was utilized for the adsorptive removal of phenol and o-cresol from dilute aqueous solutions. Batch mode adsorption studies were performed by varying parameters such as concentration of phenol solution, time, pH and temperature. The well known Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations were applied for the equilibrium adsorption data and the various isotherm parameters were evaluated. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacities were found to be 0.7877 and 0.5936 mmole/g, respectively, for phenol and o-cresol. Kinetic studies performed indicate that the sorption processes can be better represented by the pseudo-second order kinetics. The processes were found to be endothermic and the thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. Desorption studies performed indicate that the sorbed phenol molecules can be desorbed with dil. HCl.

  2. Removal of lead (II) from metal plating effluents using sludge based activated carbon as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P; Saseetharan, M K

    2010-01-01

    A novel adsorbent was prepared from waste sludge obtained from a sugar mill for removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out in batch and continuous modes for both sugar mill sludge based carbon and commercial carbon. In batch studies, experiments were conducted at ambient temperature to assess the influence of the parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and equilibrium concentration. Adsorption data for the prepared carbon was found to satisfy both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Column studies were carried out to delineate the effect of varying depth of carbon at constant flow rate. The breakthrough curves were drawn to establish the mechanism. The result shows that the sludge based activated carbon can be used as an alternative for commercial carbon.

  3. Comparison of activated carbon and bottom ash removal of reactive dye from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, A.R.; Gunes, Y.; Karakaya, N.; Gunes, E. [Trakya University, Tekirdag (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2007-03-15

    The adsorption of reactive dye from synthetic aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon (GAC) and coal-based bottom ash (CBBA) were studied under the same experimental conditions. As an alternative to GAC CBBA was used as adsorbent for dye removal from aqueous solution. The amount of Vertigo Navy Marine (VNM) adsorbed onto CBBA was lower compared with GAC at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased from 0.71 to 3.82 mg g{sup -1}, and 0.73 to 6.35 mg g{sup -1} with the initial concentration of dye from 25 to 300 mg l{sup -1} respectively. The initial dye uptake of CBBA was not so rapid as in the case of GAC and the dye uptake was slow and gradually attained equilibrium.

  4. Study on the associated removal of pollutants from coal-firing flue gas using biomass activated carbon pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cuiping; Yuan, Wanli [Qingdao Univ., Shandong (China). Electrical and Mechanical Engineering College; Qi, Haiying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A pilot-scale multi-layer system was developed for the adsorption of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg from flue gas (real flue gases of an heating boiler house) at various operating conditions, including operating temperature and activated carbon materials. Excellent SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg removal efficiency was achieved with the multi-layer design with carbons pellets. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency achieved with the first layer adsorption bed clearly decreased as the operating temperature was increased due to the decrease of physisorption performance. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency measured at the second layer adsorption bed was very higher when the particle carbon impregnated with NH{sub 3}. The higher amounts of Hg absorbed by cotton-seed-skin activated carbon (CSAC) were mainly contributed by chlorinated congeners content. The simultaneously removal of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg was optimization characterized with different carbon layer functions. Overall, The alkali function group and chloride content in CSAC impelled not only the outstanding physisorption but also better chemisorptions. The system for simultaneously removal of multi-pollutant-gas with biomass activated carbon pellets in multi-layer reactor was achieved and the removal results indicated was strongly depended on the activated carbon material and operating temperature.

  5. Primary hyperthyroidism--diagnosis and treatment. Indications and contraindications for radioiodine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Sowinski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Isotope therapy is one of the methods used in primary hyperthyroidism. The therapy is based on short-range beta radiation emitted from radioactive iodine. Radioiodine administration must always be preceded by pharmacological normalization of thyroid function. Otherwise, post-radiation thyrocyte destruction and thyroid hormones release may lead to hyperthyroidism exacerbation. Indications for radioiodine therapy in Graves-Basedow disease include recurrent hyperthyroidism after thyrostatic treatment or thyroidectomy and side-effects observed during thyrostatic treatment. In toxic nodule, isotope therapy is the first choice therapy. Radioiodine is absorbed only in autonomous nodule. Therefore, it destroys only this area and does not damage the remaining thyroid tissue. In toxic goitre, radioiodine is used mostly in recurrent nodules. Absolute contraindications for radioiodine treatment are pregnancy and lactation. Relative contraindications are thyroid nodules suspected of malignancy and age under 15 years. In patients with thyroid nodules suspected of malignancy, radioiodine treatment may be applied as a preparation for surgery, if thyrostatic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated. In children, radioiodine therapy should be considered in recurrent toxic goitre and when thyrostatic drugs are ineffective. In patients with Graves-Basedow disease and thyroid-associated orbitopathy, radioiodine treatment may increase the inflammatory process and exacerbate the ophthalmological symptoms. However, thyroid-associated orbitopathy cannot be considered as a contraindication for isotope therapy. The potential carcinogenic properties of radioiodine, especially associated with tissues with high iodine uptake (thyroid, salivary glands, stomach, intestine, urinary tract, breast), have not been confirmed.

  6. Activated soil filters for removal of biocides from contaminated run-off and waste-waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Banzhaf, Stefan; Burkhardt, Michael

    2011-01-01

    -Octyl-isothiazolinone, Dichloro-n-octylisothiazolinone). However, this removal is a considerable improvement compared to direct discharge into surface waters or infiltration into soil without appropriate removal. In the last experiment the removal efficiencies of the different layers were studied. Though the peat layer...

  7. Silver-based getters for 129I removal from low-activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmussen, R. Matthew; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Wilson, Andrew; Qafoku, Nikolla P.

    2016-01-01

    A prominent radionuclide of concern in nuclear wastes, 129 I, is present in low-activity wastes (LAW) at the Hanford site. Several Ag-containing materials were tested as immobilization agents, or ''getters'', for I (as iodide, I - ) removal from deionized (DI) water and a liquid LAW simulant: Ag impregnated activate carbon (Ag-C), Ag exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z), and argentite. In anoxic batch experiments with DI water, the Ag-C and argentite were most effective, with maximum K d values of 6.2 x 10 5 mL/g for the Ag-C and 3.7 x 10 5 mL/g for the argentite after 15 days. Surface area and Ag content were found to influence the performance of the getters in DI water. In the anoxic batch experiments with LAW simulant, Ag-Z vastly outperformed the other getters with K d values of 2.2 x 10 4 mL/g at 2 h, which held steady until 15 days, compared with 1.8 x 10 3 mL/g reached at 15 days by the argentite. All getters were stable over long periods of time (i.e. 40 days) in DI water, while the Ag-Z and argentite were also stable in the LAW simulant. Ag-Z was found to have consistent I removal upon crushing to a smaller particle size and in the presence of O 2 , making it a strong candidate for the treatment of LAW containing I.

  8. Development of the removal technology for toxic heavy metal ions by surface-modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Song, Kee Chan; Kim, Kwang Wook; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Il Hoon; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption capacities of both radionuclides(uranium, cobalt) and toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) using double surface-modified activated carbon in wide pH ranges are extensively evaluated. Surface-modified activated carbons are classified as AC(as-received carbon), OAC(single surface-modified carbon with nitric acid solution) and OAC-Na(double surface-modified carbon with various alkali solutions). It is established that optimal condition for the second surface modification of OAC is to use the mixed solution of both NaOH and NaCl with total concentration of 0.1 N based on adsorption efficiencies of uranium and cobalt. Variations of adsorption efficiencies in pH ranges of 2∼10 and the adsorption capacities in batch adsorber and fixed bed for removal of both radionuclides and toxic heavy metals using OAC-Na were shown to be superior to that of the AC and OAC even in a low pH range. Capacity factors of OAC-Na for the removal of various metal ions are also excellent to that of AC or OAC. Quantitative analysis of capacity factors for each ions showed that adsorption capacity of OAC-Na increased by 30 times for uranium, 60 times for cobalt, 9 times for lead, 30 times for cadmium, 3 times for chromium compared to that of AC at pH 5, respectively. Adsorption capacity of OAC-Na is comparable to that of XAD-16-TAR used as commercial ion exchange resin

  9. Effects of Radioiodine Therapy on the Natural History of Graves' Ophtalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dreval

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 21 patients with Graves’ disease and Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO received radioiodine treatment (RIT. Before 131-I therapy in all patients GO were non-active and no severe. Six patients not received any treatment before RIT; four patients received orbital radiotherapy and 11 patients received intravenous glucocorticoids. Thyreotoxicosis compensation were achieved by antithyroid medication before RIT. Antithyroid medication was stopped 10 days before RIT. Worsening of GO was seen on 47.7% patients 3 months after RIT, but only 9.5% of patients needed additional treatment GO. GO exacerbation take place in 90% of hypothyroid patients and its compensation reduced the symptoms of activity of GO for 3 months. 42.8% was without any symptoms of activity of GO by 9—12 months after RIT. Treatment of GO before RIT were improved the course of GO after RIT.

  10. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Guan, Ming [Department of General Surgery, Qihe People' s Hospital, Qihe, Shandong 251100 (China); Sun, Yongfeng [Department of General Surgery, Licheng District People' s Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250115 (China); Li, Haipeng [Department of General Surgery, Caoxian People' s Hospital, Caoxian, Shandong 274400 (China); Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Zeng, Qingdong, E-mail: qingdz0201@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  11. Removal of iron and manganese using granular activated carbon and zeolite in artificial barrier of riverbank filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abustan; Harmuni, Halim; Mohd, Remy Rozainy M. A. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Iron and Manganese was examined from riverbank filtration (RBF) and river water in Sungai Kerian, Lubok Buntar, Serdang Kedah. Water from the RBF was influenced by geochemical and hydro chemical processes in the aquifer that made concentrations of iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) high, and exceeded the standard values set by the Malaysia Ministry of Health. Therefore, in order to overcome the problem, the artificial barrier was proposed to improve the performance of the RBF. In this study, the capability and performance of granular activated carbon, zeolite and sand were investigated in this research. The effects of dosage, shaking speed, pH and contact time on removal of iron and manganese were studied to determine the best performance. For the removal of iron using granular activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite, the optimum contact time was at 2 hours with 200rpm shaking speed with 5g and 10g at pH 5 with percentage removal of iron was 87.81% and 83.20% respectively. The removal of manganese and zeolite arose sharply in 75 minutes with 90.21% removal, with 100rpm shaking speed. The GAC gave the best performance with 99.39% removal of manganese. The highest removal of manganese was achieved when the adsorbent dosage increased to 10g with shaking speed of 200rpm.

  12. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  13. Radioiodine therapy within the German DRG-system 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.; Dressler, J.

    2005-01-01

    With introduction of a diagnosis-related groups system (DRG-system) in Germany the previous duration of stay based refunding is also replaced for the radioiodine therapies by a performance oriented reimbursement system. Since the at first optional start of the DRG-system in 2003 the adaptations which take place every year should lead, up to the planned end of the convergence phase in 2009, to a transparent, fair and economical financing system of the stationary hospital service. The physician is responsible for the right and complete coding of the diagnoses and procedures, which serve as essential parameters for the determination of the diagnosis related group (DRG) of a hospital case. In the actual version of the year 2005 the DRG-system still supplies for radioiodine therapy of thyroid carcinoma some unclarity in the coding of the diagnosis, as well as clear inadequacy with the fair mapping of the therapy costs. (orig.)

  14. Thermal activation and characterization of clay aiming their use as sorbent in fixed bed columns to remove cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Silva, M.L.P.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied the removal of cadmium in a synthetic wastewater using clay of Pernambuco - Brazil, in systems of fixed bed column. Clay was thermally activated at 500 °C. The materials were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method). For tests in fixed bed column, we applied a factorial design 2"2 and found that increasing the flow adversely affects the process of removing cadmium concentration while acting positively. The studies showed these materials as promising for the removal of Cd"2"+ ions in synthetic wastewater containing low levels of this metal. (author)

  15. Manganese-Loaded Activated Carbon for the Removal of Organosulfur Compounds from High-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghouti, M.A.; Al-Degs, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    The adsorptive capacity of activated carbon (AC) is significantly enhanced toward weakly interacting organosulfur compounds (OSC) from sulfur-rich diesel fuel. Sulfur compounds are selectively removed from diesel after surface modification by manganese dioxide (MnO2). A selective surface for OSC removal was created by loading MnO2 on the surface; π-complexation between the partially filled d-orbitals of Mn4+ and the S atom is the controlling mechanism for OSC removal. Principal component anal...

  16. Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Sheppard, Jo-Ann I; Chu, F Victor; Kapoor, Anil; Crowther, Mark A; Gangji, Azim

    2015-01-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been advocated to remove heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) IgG antibodies before cardiac/vascular surgery in patients who have serologically-confirmed acute or subacute HIT; for this situation, a negative platelet activation assay (eg, platelet serotonin-release assay [SRA]) has been recommended as the target serological end point to permit safe surgery. We compared reactivities in the SRA and an anti-PF4/heparin IgG-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA), testing serial serum samples in a patient with recent (subacute) HIT who underwent serial TPE precardiac surgery, as well as for 15 other serially-diluted HIT sera. We observed that post-TPE/diluted HIT sera-when first testing SRA-negative-continue to test strongly positive by EIA-IgG. This dissociation between the platelet activation assay and a PF4-dependent immunoassay for HIT antibodies indicates that patients with subacute HIT undergoing repeated TPE before heparin reexposure should be tested by serial platelet activation assays even when their EIAs remain strongly positive. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Removal of Lead (II from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousa Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of biopolymer material Chitosan impregnated granular activated carbon CHGAC as adsorbent in the removal of lead ions pb.2+ from aqueous solution was studied using batch adsorption mode. The prepared CHGAC was characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and atomic-absorption pectrophotometer. The adsorption of lead ions onto Chitosan-impregnated granular activated carbon was examined as a function of adsorbent weight, pH and contact time in Batch system. Langmuir and Freundlich models were employed to analyze the resulting experimental data demonstrated that better fitted by Langmuir isotherm model than Freundlich model, with good correlation coefficient. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the pseudo second order model in conformity to the experimental values. This means that the adsorption performance of lead ions onto CHGAC follows a pseudo second order model, which illustrates that the adsorption of Pb2+ onto CHGAC was controlled by chemisorption. The granular activated carbon GAC impregnated by Chitosan was effectively applied as adsorbent for the elimination of lead ions from aqueous solution.

  18. Management of disused high-activity sealed radioactive sources: Opting for removal from the national territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourão, Rogério Pimenta, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Since 2007 Brazil has been using the removal from its territory as a strategy for the management of sealed sources. Three campaigns have been carried out so far, each aiming at specific source types or categories. In the first of these campaigns in 2007, 126 neutron sources of American origin were repatriated to the USA, followed in 2010 by around 900 low activity sources (Categories 3 to 5, according to the IAEA classification system). Both operations were conducted by teams of the American institute Los Alamos National Laboratory. A third campaign, focused on high activity sources – essentially Cobalt-60 sources for teletherapy – was carried out between 2016 and 2017 and resulted in 81 spent high activity radioactive sources of American- and Canadian-origin been sent to Germany and the USA. This operation was carried out by a team of South Africa using a dedicated Mobile Hot Cell. The benefits to Brazil resulting from these operations are clear: increase in safety and security; availability of new precious storage space; less effort dedicated to the disused sealed sources storage; less space in the future borehole facility; financial gains in the selling or reuse of steel, lead and depleted uranium from the original shields. An overexposure incident occurred during the operation, in which a worker was exposed to a dose above the annual statutory limit. (author)

  19. Single dose planning for radioiodine-131 therapy of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Taki, Junichi; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2004-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied one year after radioiodine-131 therapy to assess the relationship between the effectiveness of the therapy and the radioiodine doses used. Patients were classified into three groups according to thyroid function as hyperthyroidism, euthyroidism and hypothyroidism at one year after I-131 therapy. In these groups we compared the mean values of dose, dose per thyroid weight calculated with I-123 uptake before the therapy (pre D/W), dose per thyroid weight calculated with therapeutic I-131 uptake (post D/W), and absorbed dose. No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of dose or pre D/W. The mean values of post D/W and absorbed dose in the non-hyperthyroid (euthyroid and hypothyroid) group were significantly greater than those in the hyperthyroid group. Post D/W of 6.3 MBq/g was a threshold separating the non-hyperthyroid group from the hyperthyroid group. There was no correlation between pre D/W and post D/W; however, the mean post D/W was significantly greater than the mean pre D/W. All patients with pre D/W above 6.3 MBq/g showed non-hyperthyroidism at one year after the radioiodine treatment. No indicators before the radioiodine therapy had significant relationships with the effectiveness of the therapy at one year after the treatment. However, the single therapy planned for setting the pre D/W above 6.3 MBq/g will certainly make the patients non-hyperthyroid. As this proposal of dose planning is based on a small number of patients, further study is needed. (author)

  20. Does radioiodine cause the ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    This editorial briefly reviews studies which might answer the question as to whether radioiodine treatment causes the ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease. However, the data do not allow any conclusion one way or the other. Other possible causal factors are discussed. Further studies are required to define whether treatment of hyperthyroidism aggravates the ophthalmopathy and whether one thereby is worse than the others and by how much. (UK)

  1. Beyond radioiodine: novel therapies in advanced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is a relatively common endocrine malignancy. Fortunately, many patients do well with standard therapy including surgery and radioiodine. A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram ' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer. The retinoid isotretinoin is the most extensively studied of these agents. It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear. In vitro studies suggest that the retinoid receptors RARβ and RXRγ are required for this effect. Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in loss of iodine concentration in these tumors. Inhibitors of methylation (5-azacytidine, phenylacetate and sodium butyrate) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in cell culture models, but published trials in humans are not yet available. Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function. Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function. Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines. Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidine diones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Our own work has focused on receptor-selective retinoids and thiazolidine diones as potential therapy in patients with advanced thyroid cancer based on nuclear hormone receptor

  2. Airway complication occurring during radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Michigishi, Takatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Airway complications rarely occur in 131 I radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. This study presents two cases in which 131 I therapy caused this acute complication. The patients complained of the symptom 6 h and 33 h after administration of 131 I. A histamine H1 receptor antagonist and hydrocortisone rapidly resolved symptoms in both cases. These two cases remind physicians that 131 I therapy for Graves' disease may cause potentially life-threatening complications. (author)

  3. Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, N.; Nielsen, P.H.; Aspegren, H.

    2003-01-01

    . However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria which showed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less...... of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower...

  4. Optimization of Inpatient Management of Radioiodine Treatment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Jae; Kim, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Jang, Jung Chan; Kim, Chang Ho

    2008-01-01

    We established a model to calculate radioactive waste from sewage disposal tank of hospitals to optimize the number of patients receiving inpatient radioiodine therapy within the safety guideline in our country. According to this model and calculation of radioactivity concentration using the number of patients per week, the treatment dose of radioiodine, the capacity and the number of sewage tanks and the daily amount of water waste per patient, estimated concentration of radioactivity in sewage waste upon disposal from disposal tanks after long term retention were within the safety guideline (30 Bq/L) in all the hospitals examined. In addition to the fact that we could increase the number of patients in two thirds of hospitals, we found that the daily amount of waste water was the most important variable to allow the increase of the number of patients within the safety margin of disposed radioactivity. We propose that saving the water amount be led to increase the number of patients and they allow two patients in an already furnished hospital inpatient room to meet the increasing need of inpatient radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer

  5. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  6. Radioiodine therapy in Graves` disease; Radioiodtherapie der Immunhyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ., Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Analogous to subtotal struma resection, stable long-term results are attained with radioiodine therapy of immunohyperthyreosis only with an ablative therapy concept. Hypothyreosis is thus no longer an undesired or unavoidable side effect of radioiodine therapy, but constitutes part of the treatment principle. In addition to the negligible theoretical low late risk of radiation effect, an increase in immunostimulation is induced in the majority of patients by means of increased antigen presentation. In a minority of patients, this has detrimental effects on the treatment results and leads to a requirement for relatively high focal doses (200-300 Gy) to achieve a generally satisfactory therapeutic result. In individual cases, endocrine orbitopathy may be exacerbated or elicited. It is therefore recommended that radioiodine therapy of immunohyperthyreosis should be undertaken with cortisone protection as a matter of principle. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Analogie zur subtotalen Strumaresektion werden auch mit der Radioiodtherapie der Immunhyperthyreose nur mit einem ablativen Therapiekonzept stabile Langzeitergebnisse erzielt. Die Hypothyreose ist somit nicht laenger unerwuenschte oder unvermeidliche Nebenwirkung der Radioiodtherapie, sondern Bestandteil des Behandlungsprinzips. Neben dem vernachlaessigbar geringen theoretischen Spaetrisiko durch Strahleneinwirkung wird bei einem Grossteil der Patienten durch eine vermehrte Antigenpraesentation eine Zunahme der Immunstimulation induziert, die bei einem kleineren Teil der Patienten das Behandlungsergebnis beeintraechtigt und dazu fuehrt, dass relativ hohe Herddosen (200-300 Gy) fuer ein insgesamt zufriedenstellendes Behandlungsergebnis erforderlich werden. In Einzelfaellen kann hierdurch auch eine endokrine Orbitopathie verschlechtert oder neu ausgeloest werden. Es wird daher empfohlen, die Radioiodtherapie der Immunhyperthyreose grundsaetzlich unter Kortisonschutz vorzunehmen. (orig.)

  7. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  8. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 removal using dextran sulphate columns. Evidence of PAI-1 homeostasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Vincent M G

    2009-08-01

    Patients with high plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen levels are prone to develop thrombosis. Lowering PAI-1 levels may offer a therapeutic option and help to better understand PAI-1 metabolism. We examined the effect on plasma PAI-1 levels of LDL-apheresis using dextran sulphate (DS) columns in 12 patients (9 male, 3 female, 49 +\\/- 10 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and coronary artery disease. One plasma volume equivalent (2.3-4.0 l) was treated during each procedure (at flow rates of 23 +\\/- 2 ml\\/min). Lipids and PAI-1 antigen levels were measured in plasma before and immediately after 19 aphereses (once in 7 patients, twice in 3 patients and three times in 2 patients) and also at 3 and 7 days post apheresis in five of these patients and in the column eluates from 8 of these patients. DS-apheresis reduced plasma cholesterol (50 +\\/- 8%), triglyceride (45 +\\/- 27%), apolipoprotein B (59 +\\/- 10%) and PAI-1 antigen levels from 10.2 +\\/- 5.2 to 6.0 +\\/- 3.1 ng\\/ml (P = 0.005). The PAI-I changes were independent of circadian variation. PAI-I bound to the DS-columns (3.51 +\\/- 1.03 ng\\/ml filtered plasma) and the percent of filtered PAI-1 that was bound correlated inversely (r = -0.81, P < 0.02) with basal PAI-1 levels indicating a high affinity saturable binding process. In four patients, plasma PAI-1 levels post-apheresis were higher than expected based on the amount of PAI-removed by the DS columns. The difference between the expected and actual PAI-1 level post apheresis, reflecting PAI-1 secretion or extracellular redistribution, correlated inversely with basal PAI-1 levels (r = -0.83, P = 0.01). PAI-1 levels returned to baseline pre-apheresis values 7 days post apheresis. PAI-1 antigen may be removed from plasma without adverse effect, resulting temporarily in its extracellular redistribution and restoration to baseline levels over one week. PAI-1 redistribution particularly when baseline pre

  9. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 22.7 ha predominantly residential watershed in central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop a prototype stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO3-/Cl-) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicate that prior to using BAM, NO3- concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO3- input. In contrast, for the prototype basin utilizing BAM, NO3-/Cl- ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO3- losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest NO3- losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO43-) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO43-/Cl- ratios for shallow groundwater indicate predominantly minor increases and

  10. Activation time and material stiffness of sequential removable orthodontic appliances. Part 2: Dental improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Karen Michelle; Bollen, Anne-Marie; Huang, Greg; King, Greg; Hujoel, Philippe; Ma, Tsun

    2003-11-01

    Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this study to explore the treatment effects of material stiffness and frequency of appliance change when using clear, sequential, removable appliances (aligners). Patients were stratified based on pretreatment peer assessment rating (PAR) scores and need for extractions. They were randomized into 4 treatment protocols: 1-week activation with soft material, 1-week activation with hard material, 2-week activation with soft material, and 2-week activation with hard material. Patients continued with their protocols until either the series of aligners was completed, or until it was determined that the aligner was not fitting well (study end point). Weighted PAR score and average incisor irregularity (AII) indexes were used to measure pretreatment and end-point study models, and average improvement was compared among the 4 groups. In addition to the evaluation of the 4 treatment groups, comparisons were made of the individual components of the PAR score to determine which occlusal components experienced the most correction with the aligners. The percentages and absolute extraction space closures were evaluated, and papillary bleeding scores before and during treatment were compared. Although no statistical difference was observed between the 4 treatment groups, a trend was noted with the 2-week frequency having a larger percentage of reduction in weighted PAR and AII scores, and greater extraction space closure. Anterior alignment was the most improved component, and buccal occlusion was the least improved. When analyzed by type of extraction, incisor extraction sites had a significantly greater percentage of closure than either maxillary or mandibular premolar extraction sites. A statistically significant decrease in mean average papillary bleeding score was found during treatment when compared with pretreatment scores, although this difference was not clinically significant.

  11. Removal of Chloramphenicol from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Typha orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, elemental analysis, Boehm’s titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The effects of experimental parameters were investigated to study the adsorption behaviors of CAP on AC, including contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. AC had a micro-mesoporous structure with a relatively large surface area (794.8 m2/g. The respective contents of acidic and basic functional groups on AC were 2.078 and 0.995 mmol/g. The adsorption kinetic that was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model implied a chemical controlling step. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum CAP adsorption capacity was 0.424 mmol/g. The ionic strength and pH had minimal effects on CAP adsorption. The dominant CAP adsorption mechanisms on AC were evaluated and attributed to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA interaction, hydrophobic interaction, in conjunction with hydrogen-bonding interaction. Additionally, AC exhibited an efficient adsorption performance of CAP in a realistic water environment.

  12. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Suqin; Liu, Junxin

    2011-08-30

    In this study, coconut shell based carbons were chemically treated by ammonia, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid to determine suitable modification for improving adsorption ability of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on granular activated carbons (GAC). The saturated adsorption capacities of o-xylene, a hydrophobic volatile organic compound, were measured and adsorption effects of the original and modified activated carbons were compared. Results showed that GAC modified by alkalis had better o-xylene adsorption capacity. Uptake amount was enhanced by 26.5% and reduced by 21.6% after modification by NH(3)H(2)O and H(2)SO(4), respectively. Compared with the original, GAC modified by acid had less adsorption capacity. Both SEM/EDAX and BET were used to identify the structural characteristics of the tested GAC, while IR spectroscopy and Boehm's titration were applied to analysis the surface functional groups. Relationships between physicochemical characteristics of GAC and their adsorption performances demonstrated that o-xylene adsorption capacity was related to surface area, pore volume, and functional groups of the GAC surface. Removing surface oxygen groups, which constitute the source of surface acidity, and reducing hydrophilic carbon surface favors adsorption capacity of hydrophobic VOCs on carbons. The performances of modified GACs were also investigated in the purification of gases containing complex components (o-xylene and steam) in the stream. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochar supported nanoscale zerovalent iron composite used as persulfate activator for removing trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingchun; Han, Lu; Gao, Weiguo; Xue, Song; Chen, Mengfang

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) composite was synthesized and used as an activator for persulfate to enhance the trichloroethylene (TCE) removal in aqueous solutions. The degradation efficiency of TCE (0.15mmolL(-1)) was 99.4% in the presence of nZVI/BC (4.5mmolL(-1), nZVI to BC mass ratio was 1:5) and persulfate (4.5mmolL(-1)) within 5min, which was significantly higher than that (56.6%) in nZVI-persulfate system under the same conditions. Owing to large specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of BC, nZVI/BC enhanced the SO4(-) generation and accelerated TCE degradation. On the basis of the characterization and analysis data, possible activation mechanisms of the Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (Fe(II)/Fe(III)) redox action and the electron-transfer mediator of the BC oxygen functional groups promoting the generation of SO4(-) in nZVI/BC-persulfate system were clarified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimized biological nitrogen removal of high-strength ammonium wastewater by activated sludge modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Elawwad

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater containing high ammonium concentrations is produced from various industrial activities. In this study, the author used a complex activated sludge model, improved by utilizing BioWin© (EnviroSim, Hamilton, Canada simulation software, to gain understanding of the problem of instability in biological nitrogen removal (BNR. Specifically, the study focused on BNR in an industrial wastewater treatment plant that receives high-strength ammonium wastewater. Using the data obtained from a nine-day sampling campaign and routinely measured data, the model was successfully calibrated and validated, with modifications to the sensitive stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. Subsequently, the calibrated model was employed to study various operating conditions in order to optimize the BNR. These operating conditions include alkalinity addition, sludge retention time, and the COD/N ratio. The addition of a stripping step and modifications to the configuration of the aerators are suggested by the author to increase the COD/N ratio and therefore enhance denitrification. It was found that the calibrated model could successfully represent and optimize the treatment of the high-strength ammonium wastewater.

  15. Removal of Heavy Metals by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Cones of Pinus roxburghii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbon derived from cones of Pinus roxburghii (Himalayan Pine) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper, nickel and chromium ions from waste water. Surface analysis was carried out to determine the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the pine cone derived activated carbon. Optimal parameters, effect of adsorbent quantity, pH, equilibrium time, agitation speed and temperature were studied. Equilibrium data were evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm afforded the best fit to the equilibrium data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14.2, 31.4 and 29.6 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cr(VI) respectively. Maximum adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) was observed in the pH range 4.0 to 4.5, whereas the best adsorption of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2.5. It was found that 180 minutes was sufficient to gain adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  16. Cu(I) assisted radioiodination of hippuran with no carrier added [sup 131]I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kolaly, M T; El-Bayoumy, S; Raieh, M; El-Mothy, A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Radioisotope Production and Labelled Compounds

    1993-11-01

    A study on the labeling of hippuran with no-carrier-added [sup 131]I assisted by Cu(I) and excess of ascorbic acids is described. The role of ascorbic acid is to prevent the oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II) which activates the hydrolysis of o-iodohippuric acid to o-iodobenzoic acid. The use of Cu(I) allows an almost quantitative (97-99%) labeling yield to be obtained within 10-15 minutes at 100 deg C. The reaction is assumed to take place via the formation of an organocopper complex favoring the exchange reaction between radioiodine and inactive iodine in the hippuran molecule. The activation energy of the reaction was calculated to be E = 12.2 kcal/mol. (author) 21 refs.; 8 figs.

  17. Cu(I) assisted radioiodination of hippuran with no carrier added 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kolaly, M.T.; El-Bayoumy, S.; Raieh, M.; El-Mothy, A.

    1993-01-01

    A study on the labeling of hippuran with no-carrier-added 131 I assisted by Cu(I) and excess of ascorbic acids is described. The role of ascorbic acid is to prevent the oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II) which activates the hydrolysis of o-iodohippuric acid to o-iodobenzoic acid. The use of Cu(I) allows an almost quantitative (97-99%) labeling yield to be obtained within 10-15 minutes at 100 deg C. The reaction is assumed to take place via the formation of an organocopper complex favoring the exchange reaction between radioiodine and inactive iodine in the hippuran molecule. The activation energy of the reaction was calculated to be E = 12.2 kcal/mol. (author) 21 refs.; 8 figs

  18. Improvement of reproducibility and quality control of human growth hormone radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, P.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Camilo, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The labelling reaction of human growth hormone (hGH) with 125 I and its chromatographic purification have been studied with emphasis on the reproducibility of the yields, quantitaTive recoveries and resulting activities. Through the accurate standardization of a monitoring technique, it is confirmed that there are no significant losses in radioactivity or protein during the labelling or purification process. By strict control of the reaction conditions a fairily good reproducibility is also obtained in the labelling of various hGH extracts with diferent 125 I shipments used after short or long storage. Finally, the specific activity (or absolute mass) of the radioiodinated protein is determined by this Analysis of the Reaction Mixture and compared to the widely used radioimmunological assay (Self-displacement). (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Removal of aluminum, iron and manganese ions from industrial wastes using granular activated carbon and Amberlite IR-120H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Goher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of aluminum, iron and manganese from some pollution sources that drain into Ismailia Canal has been investigated using two different sorbents; granular activated carbon (GAC and Amberlite IR-120H (AIR-120H. Batch equilibrium experiments showed that the two sorbents have maximum removal efficiency for aluminum and iron pH 5 and 10 min contact time in ambient room temperature, while pH 7 and 30 min were the most appropriate for manganese removal. Dosage of 2 g/l for both GAC and AIR-120H was established to give the maximum removal capacity. At optimum conditions, the removal trend was in order of Al+3 > Fe+2 > Mn+2 with 99.2, 99.02 and 79.05 and 99.55, 99.42 and 96.65% of metal removal with GAC and AIR-120H, respectively. For the three metals, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms showed higher R2 values, with a slightly better fitting for the Langmuir model. In addition, separation factors (RL and exponent (n values indicated favorable Langmuir (0 < RL < 1 and Freundlich (1 < n < 10 approach. GAC and AIR-120H can be used as excellent alternative, effective and inexpensive materials to remove high amounts of heavy metals from waste water.

  20. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  1. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  2. Allergen-Removed Rhus verniciflua Extract Induces Ovarian Cancer Cell Death via JNK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se-Hui; Hwang, In-Hu; Son, Eunju; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Jong-Soon; Park, Soo-Jung; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Lee, Zee-Won; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Jang, Ik-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF-[Formula: see text]B)/Rel transcription factors are best known for their central roles in promoting cell survival in cancer. NF-[Formula: see text]B antagonizes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text]-induced apoptosis through a process involving attenuation of the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the role of JNK activation in apoptosis induced by negative regulation of NF-[Formula: see text]B is not completely understood. We found that allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes (aRVS) extract-mediated NF-[Formula: see text]B inhibition induces apoptosis in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells via the serial activation of caspases and SKOV-3 cells are most specifically suppressed by aRVS. Here, we show that in addition to activating caspases, aRVS extract negatively modulates the TNF-[Formula: see text]-mediated I[Formula: see text]B/NF-[Formula: see text]B pathway to promote JNK activation, which results in apoptosis. When the cytokine TNF-[Formula: see text] binds to the TNF receptor, I[Formula: see text]B dissociates from NF-[Formula: see text]B. As a result, the active NF-[Formula: see text]B translocates to the nucleus. aRVS extract (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/ml) clearly prevented NF-[Formula: see text]B from mobilizing to the nucleus, resulting in the upregulation of JNK phosphorylation. This subsequently increased Bax activation, leading to marked aRVS-induced apoptosis, whereas the JNK inhibitor SP600125 in aRVS extract treated SKOV-3 cells strongly inhibited Bax. Bax subfamily proteins induced apoptosis through caspase-3. Thus, these results indicate that aRVS extract contains components that inhibit NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling to upregulate JNK activation in ovarian cancer cells and support the potential of aRVS as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

  3. Achieving mainstream nitrogen removal through simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process in an integrated fixed film activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Chaolei; Wang, Dong; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-07-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is becoming a critical technology for energy neutral in mainstream wastewater treatment. However, the presence of chemical oxygen demanding in influent would result in a poor nitrogen removal efficiency during the deammonification process. In this study, the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process (SNAD) for mainstream nitrogen removal was investigated in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor. SNAD-IFAS process achieved a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 72 ± 2% and an average COD removal efficiency was 88%. The optimum COD/N ratio for mainstream wastewater treatment was 1.2 ± 0.2. Illumina sequencing analysis and activity tests showed that anammox and denitrifying bacteria were the dominant nitrogen removal microorganism in the biofilm and the high COD/N ratios (≥2.0) leaded to the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria (Hydrogenophaga) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) in the suspended sludge. Network analysis confirmed that anammox bacteria (Candidatus Kuenenia) could survive in organic matter environment due to that anammox bacteria displayed significant co-occurrence through positive correlations with some heterotrophic bacteria (Limnobacter) which could protect anammox bacteria from hostile environments. Overall, the results of this study provided more comprehensive information regarding the community composition and assemblies in SNAD-IFAS process for mainstream nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A preliminary study on the uptake of radioiodine by rice plants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho.

    1989-01-01

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway from the environment to man. However, 129 I reaches man through several pathways because of its long half life of 1.6 x 10 7 years. Root uptake of 129 I is one of the most important pathways of this nuclide. In Japan, rice is thought to be the most critical crop on the pathway. In this paper, uptake of radioiodine from irrigation water by rice plant was investigated. Rice plants, Oryza sativa cv. Nihonbare, were grown under flooded condition in Wagner pots containing soil collected in Tokai-mura. Iodine-131 was added as a tracer into the surface water in the pots at three different growing stages, heading, dough-ripe and yellow-ripe stages, respectively, and the plants were cultivated until the harvest time in a plant growth chamber. At the harvest time, concentration of 131 I in each organ of rice plant was measured with a NaI scintillation counter. The profile of 131 I in the soil was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows; (1) Activities of 131 I in leaf blade and sheath of lower part were generally higher than those of upper part. Compared to the 131 I activity of the flag leaf, the ratios of the activity in rachis-branch, hull and brown rice were 1.0-0.5, 0.1 and 1-5 x 10 -3 , respectively. These may suggest that iodine taken up by the roots scarcely re-translocated into rice. (2) Ratio of 131 I in brown rice and hull was about 1 : 4. (3) Activity ratio ('concentration of 131 I in brown rice'/'average concentration of that in the soil' during 6 days uptake experiment.) was 4-5 x 10 -4 . (author)

  5. Removal of Reactive-dyes from Textile Plant Effluents Using Polyvinyl Alcohol-coated Active Carbon obtained from Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Moradi- Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of active carbon derived from waste sesame seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (AC/PVA was investigated for removing red 198 and blue 19 reactive dyes from textile effluents. The batch process was carried out to identify such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial dye concentration involved in the dye removal adsorption capacity of AC/PVA. Also, batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted. Results indicated that the maximum dye removal was obtained in an acidic pH over 90 min of contact time and that adsorption rates followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Blue and red dye concentrations were determined using the spectrophotometric method at 590 and 517 nm, respectively. It may be concluded that AC/PVA is capable of removing blue and red reactive dyes and can be used as an efficient, cheap, and accessible adsorbent for treating textile effluents.

  6. Study the properties of activated carbon and oxyhydroxide aluminum as sorbents for removal humic substances from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyan, L N; Machekhina, K I; Gryaznova, E N

    2016-01-01

    The present work relates to the problem of high-quality drinking water supply using processes of adsorption on activated carbon and aluminum oxyhydroxide for removal humic- type organic substances. Also the paper reports on sorbtion properties of the activeted carbon Norit SA UF and oxyhydroxide aluminum for removal humic substances. It was found out that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon to organic substances is equal to 0.25 mg/mg and aluminum oxyhydroxide is equal to 0.3 mg/mg. It is shown that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon Norit SA UF to iron (III) ions is equal to 0.0045 mg/mg and to silicon ions is equal to 0.024 mg/mg. Consequently, the aluminum oxyhydroxide has better adsorption characteristics in comparison with the activated carbon for removal of humic substances, iron and silicon ions. It is associated with the fact that activated carbon has a large adsorption surface, and this is due to its porous structure, but not all molecules can enter into these pores. Therefore, the fibrous structure of aluminum oxyhydroxide promotes better sorption capacity. The presented results suggest that activated carbon Norit SA UF and aluminum oxyhydroxide can be used as sorbents for removal humic substances or other organic substances from groundwater and natural waters. (paper)

  7. Whether antithyroid drugs influence on the outcome of radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuyevich, Viktar V.; Danilova, Larisa I.; Kaiser, Klaus P.; Ostwald-Lenz, Elisabeth; Wieler, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of research was an estimation of the influence of antithyroid medication on efficiency of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with thyroid functional autonomy (FA). 100 patients with various clinical variants of FA were included in research and received treatment with radioiodine. From them uni-focal autonomy (UFA) was diagnosed in 65 person, multifocal (MFA) in 14 and disseminated (DA) in 21. Among the patients included in research 8 had relapse of hyperthyroidism after initial operative treatment and 1 after RIT. The data in work are submitted as a median (1-st and 3-rd quartiles). The age of surveyed was 65.5 (54; 72.5), from them 63 persons were a female, 37 were a male. From surveyed 2 groups of patients were formed. The first group consisted from 50 person, initially accepting during 4 months (2.5; 6) antithyroid drugs (ATD) which cancellation had been made as a rule 2 day prior to RIT, and the second one included 50 person, not accepting ATD neither up to nor after RIT. 9 elderly and multi morbid patients from the first group continued to accept ATD within several months after RIT. Carbimazole (n=45) or methimazole (n=5) in a dose of 10 mg (5; 10) were used as ATD. Therapeutic activity of 131 I was calculated by means of Marinelli's formula. The target dose for UFA has made 400 Gy, for MFA and DA - 150 Gy. For calculation of thyroid uptake 24-hour radioiodine test was carried 2-3 day prior to RIT. Used activity of I-131 have made from 4.08 up to 58.89 mCi. Duration of inpatient stay has made 3 days (2; 5). In 4 months (4; 5) after RIT the successful result (euthyroidism or hypothyroidism) has been achieved in 48 (96 %) patients accepting ATD, and in 47 (94 %) patients who were not accepting last. Conclusion: The conclusion that antithyroid medication does not influence on the efficiency of RIT of FA was made. It was revealed that frequency of hypothyroidism after RIT in patients of the first group was higher (36 %) than in patients

  8. The influence of radioiodine therapy in 1470 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrazek, S.; Szumowski, P.; Mysliwiec, J.; Mojsak, M.; Kraszynska, A.; Amelian-Filonowicz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy on the achievement of euthyroidism, prevention of adverse effects on the cardiovascular and prevent evolvement to overt hyperthyroidism. Material and methods: we treated 1470 patients sent to our department during the last 7 years, aged 24-76 years; 88% of them were female and 12% male; 490 patients with multi-nodular goitre (MNG), and 980 patients with autonomous nodule (ATN). Some of the patients were treated with antithyroid drugs for 1 to 3 months before 131 I therapy (140 patients). Malignant changes were excluded in all nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. All the patients had serum TSH levels <0.1 mU/l and effective T-half was more than 3 days at the time of treatment. The activity dose was calculated by the use of Marinelli's formula and ranged between 200 and 800 MBq. The absorbed dose (Gy) ranged between 180 and 300, and was proportional to thyroid volume. Follow up control was done every 6 weeks. Results: euthyroidism achieved in 99% of patient with ATN and 94% of MNG; 1% of patients with ATN and 5% of patients with MNG develop hypothyroidism. 1% of patients with MNG were in subclinical hyperthyroidism and received second dose of radioiodine therapy. In all of the patients, the symptoms and signs of subclinical hyperthyroidism disappeared (palpitation, tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, exercise tolerance improved, the blood pressure normalised and the quality of life improved). Conclusions: our result is good and is in the range of the existing literature. The achievement of euthyroidism and the remission of the symptoms and signs of subclinical hyperthyroidism, were due to good diagnosis, well preparation of the patients; accurate measurement of administered activity, effective half-life, and well-organised follow up. We recommend early treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and long period of follow up visits in our department

  9. Design and simulation of an activated sludge unit associated to a continuous reactor to remove heavy metals