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Sample records for radiographie und abdomensonographie

  1. The role of whole body spiral CT in the primary work-up of polytrauma patients - comparison with conventional radiography and abdominal sonography; Die Rolle der Ganzkoerper-Spiral-CT bei der Primaerdiagnostik polytraumatisierter Patienten - Vergleich mit konventioneller Radiographie und Abdomensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T.; Schlippenbach, J. von; Wolf, K.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Charite - Campus Benjamin Franklin (Germany); Stahel, P.F.; Ertel, W. [Klinik fuer Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Charite - Campus Benjamin Franklin (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of routine 'whole body spiral CT' in the primary work-up of polytrauma patients for injuries of the thorax, abdomen and spine, and to compare the results with those of conventional radiography of the chest and spine and abdominal ultrasound. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive polytrauma patients underwent contrast-enhanced single slice spiral CT (5 mm collimation) from the vertex to the floor of the pelvis as part of the primary work-up after emergency room admission. Overlapping high resolution sections and sagittal reformations of the spine were obtained. Reports of additional chest radiographs (n=43), abdominal ultrasound examinations (n=47) and spine radiographs (n=36) performed in the emergency room were available for retrospective comparison. The 'final diagnoses', which served as the standard of reference, were taken from the patients' records using all information that became available until discharge or death, such as findings from further imaging, surgery and autopsy. Results: CT showed 109 (97%) of 112 thoracic and abdominal soft-tissue injuries. Relevant injuries missed were an early splenic laceration and an early pelvic hematoma, both of which became clinically apparent several hours later. There were 4 false positive CT findings. Conventional chest radiography demonstrated only 20% of thoracic and sonography 22% of abdominal injuries. Chest radiography and sonography produced 2 false-positive findings each. CT showed 66 (87%) of 76 vertebral fractures including all 19 unstable ones. CT missed 5 anterior vertebral body and 5 spinous/transverse process fractures. Conventional radiography found 71% of vertebral fractures including only 50% of the unstable one. (orig.)

  2. Radiography in construction and combination of other NDT methods; Radiografie im Bauwesen und Kombination anderer ZfP-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenstab, Andreas [Ingenieurbuero Dr. Hasenstab GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Redmer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung- und pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Radiography is in material examination one of the important research methods. So in the steel and plant construction a variety of studies are carried out. In construction, the dominance is the investigations with radar, ultrasonic echo and so in this contribution especially applications with radiographic methods are discribed. Furthermore the combination with different NDT methods should be presented. In all examples there was a combination of radiography and other non-destructive testing methods. In the first example, there is a combination of radiography with ultrasound echo and drilling resistance to an old oak beam from the St. Mary´s church in Lutherstadt Wittenberg (Germany). Measurements by reinforcement locating and radiography of steel plates in the vault of castle Lustheim near Munich and studies using radar and radiography at a temple in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin round off the examples. [German] Die Radiografie stellt in der Materialuntersuchung eine der bedeutendsten Untersuchungsmethoden dar. So werden im Stahl- und Anlagenbau eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. Im Bauwesen liegt die Dominanz der Untersuchungen bei den Verfahren Radar, Ultraschallecho und so sollen im folgenden Beitrag vor allem Anwendungsbeispiele mit radiographischen Methoden beschrieben werden. Weiter soll die Kombination unterschiedlicher ZfP-Verfahren dargestellt werden. Bei allen Beispielen kam es zu einer Kombination von Radiografie mit anderen zerstoerungsfreien Pruefverfahren. Im ersten Beispiel kommt es zu einer Kombination von Radiografie mit Ultraschallecho und Bohrwiderstand an einem alten Eichenbalken aus der Marienkirche aus Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Messungen mittels Bewehrungsortung und Radiografie an Stahllaschen im Gewoelbe des Schlosses Lustheim bei Muenchen und Untersuchungen mittels Radar und Radiografie an einem Tempel im Pergamonmuseum in Berlin runden die Beispiele ab.

  3. Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  4. Measurement of hydrogen distributions in iron and steel by means of neutron radiography and tomography; Messung von Wasserstoffverteilungen in Eisen und Stahl mittels Neutronenradiographie und -tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesche, Axel; Kannengiesser, Thomas [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Berlin (Germany); Schillinger, Burkhard [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the optimization of the radiography measuring stations at research reactors and in particular the development of the neutron detectors has enabled the measurement of hydrogen distributions with ever higher spatial resolution at the same time more sensitive detection limit. Compared to iron, hydrogen has a high interaction cross-section for neutrons, and thus allows simple radiographic methods of the two and three dimensional visualization of hydrogen distribution in the structure. This allowed us for the first time the measurement of hydrogen diffusion flows in centimeter-thick steel samples with a temporal resolution of 20 s and the quantitative measurement of hydrogen accumulation of crack edges in hydrogen embrittled iron samples. It was also the first gaseous hydrogen detected in the cavities of the cracks and the pressure can be determined. This new quality of information on the microstructure scale granted unprecedented insights for the investigation of damage mechanisms e.g. in the hydrogen embrittlement. By providing local in-situ information that is not accessible by conventional methods such as carrier gas hot extraction, as well as analyzes can be performed in three dimensions with a spatial resolution of 20-30 μm. This article provides examples that use the spatial and temporal resolution of the neutron radiography and tomography to visualize hydrogen distributions in and around cracks and to quantify. The measurements were conducted at the research reactors BER II of HZB in Berlin and FRM II of teh neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Garching. (This article contains PowerPoint slides). [German] In den letzten Jahren hat die Optimierung der Radiographie-Messplaetze an Forschungsreaktoren und hier insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Neutronendetektoren die Messung von Wasserstoffverteilungen mit immer hoeherer Ortsaufloesung bei gleichzeitig empfindlicherer Nachweisgrenze ermoeglicht. Wasserstoff besitzt im Vergleich zu Eisen

  5. The new radiation protection law 2018 and its significance for radiography; Das neue Strahlenschutzrecht 2018 und seine Bedeutung fuer die Radiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaps, Charlotte; Soelter, Barbara; Steege, Andreas [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    The European Directive 2013/59 / Euratom (Euratom Directive) requires the Federal Government, pursuant to Article 106 of this Directive, to transpose the content of the directive into national law by 6 February 2018. The aim of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Construction and Reactor Safety (BMUB) is, in addition to the implementation of the directive, to simultaneously make use of the possibility to modernize, improve and make more effective the radiation protection law. Directive 2013/59 / EURATOM will be incorporated into German law by the new Radiological Protection Act (StrlSchG) and other regulations on the level of an ordinance. The Radiological Protection Act, the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance will be replaced by the StrlSchG. It is interesting to see the year 2017 under the point of view that the regulations at the level of regulation need to be elaborated. In particular, since the separation in radiation protection and X-ray regulation is not continued. Users could also experience this time pressure in 2018 when, in addition to the Radiation Protection Act, a large number of ordinances become legally binding. [German] Durch die europaeische Richtlinie 2013/59/EURATOM (Euratom-Richtlinie) ist die Bundesregierung gemaess Artikel 106 dieser Richtlinie verpflichtet, die inhaltlichen Vorgaben bis 6. Februar 2018 in nationales Recht umzusetzen. Das Ziel des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit (BMUB) ist es, neben der Umsetzung der Richtlinie, gleichzeitig die Moeglichkeit zu nutzen, das Strahlenschutzrecht zu modernisieren, praxistauglich zu verbessern und vollzugsfreundlicher zu gestalten. Die Richtlinie 2013/59/EURATOM wird durch das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz (StrlSchG) und weiteren Regelungen auf Verordnungsebene in das deutsche Recht eingehen. Das Strahlenschutzvorsorgegesetz, die Strahlenschutzverordnung und die Roentgenverordnung werden vom StrlSchG abgeloest werden

  6. Diagnostic imaging in polytrauma: comparison of radiation exposure from whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT; Radiologische Bildgebung beim Polytrauma: Dosisvergleich von Ganzkoerper-MSCT und konventionellem Roentgen mit organspezifischer CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, U.; Lorenzen, M.; Weber, C.; Adam, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Philips Medizin Systeme GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiation dose of whole-body multislice CT (MSCT) and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT in polytrauma. Materials and Methods: The whole-body MSCT encompassing brain, neck and midface, chest, abdomen and pelvis was performed on a Somatom Volume Zoom (Siemens). Conventional radiography consisted of chest and cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine in two views as well as pelvis. Polymat, Siemens. Three combinations of organ specific CT were chosen: CT examination of (1) head and cervical spine, (2) head, cervical spine and chest, (3) head, cervical spine and abdomen. The effective doses of whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT were calculated. Results: Effective doses were 20 mSv for whole-body MSCT, 2 mSv for conventional x-ray, and 5 mSv for combination (1), 8 mSv for combination (2) and (3) 16 mSv for combination (3) of the organ-specific CT. The ratio of radiation dose between whole-body MSCT and radiography was 10: 1. This ratio was reduced to 3: 1, 2: 1 and 1: 1 when a combination of radiography and CT was performed. Conclusions: Whole-body MSCT in polytrauma compared to conventional radiography with organ-specific CT induces a threefold increased dose in unfavorable situations and no increased dose in favorable situations. Nevertheless, routine use of whole-body MSCT should be critically evaluated and should be adapted to the clinical benefit. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Dosisvergleich von Ganzkoerper-MSCT und konventioneller Basisdiagnostik mit organspezifischen Ct-Untersuchungen beim Polytrauma. Material und Methoden: Die Ganzkoerper-MSCT-Untersuchung von Schaedel, Mittelgesicht, HWS sowie Thorax, Abdomen und Becken erfolgte an einem Somatom-Volume-Zoom (Siemens). Die konventionelle Bildgebung, bestehend aus Thorax, Becken, HWS, BWS und LWs, wurde an einem Siemens-Polymat durchgefuehrt. Fuer die organspezifischen CT-Untersuchungen wurden 3 Kombinationen ausgewaehlt: (1) CCT + HWS, (2) CCT + HWS

  7. Evaluation of injuries of the upper cervical spine in a postmortem study with digital radiography, CT and MRI; Evaluation experimentell erzeugter Verletzungen der oberen Halswirbelsaeule mit digitaler Roentgentechnik, Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Herold, T.; Fischer, U.; Grabbe, E. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Fadjasch, G.; Saternus, K.S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Rechtsmedizin; Koebke, J. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Anatomisches Inst.

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: To compare digital X-ray, CT, and MRI in the evaluation of ligamentous and osseous lesions in upper cervical spine specimens after artificial craniocervical injury with the findings of macroscopic preparation. Materials and Methods: A rotation trauma of defined severity was applied to 19 human corpses. After dissection of the neck specimens, digital X-ray (DIMA Soft P41, Feinfocus), conventional and helical CT (CTi, High Speed, GE, collimation 1 mm; pitch 1.0), and MRI were performed from the skull base to C3. The findings were correlated with the macroscopic results of preparation. MR (Magnetom Vision, Siemens) imaging was obtained with a 1.5 T system using 2D- and 3D-sequences. Results: Preparation revealed 6 fractures of the vertebral bodies, 5 fractures of the dens axis, 1 fracture of the arcus anterior of the atlas, 4 osseous flakes at the occipital condylus, and 6 lesions of the alar ligaments. Digital radiography showed all fractures and 4 osseous flakes at the occipital condylus. With conventional and helical CT, all fractures and all ruptured alar ligaments could be detected. 2D MRI depicted 9 of the fractures and 3D MRI showed fractures. With 2D MRI, 2 of the 4 osseous flakes at the condylus could be detected and with 3D MRI one occipital condylus fracture could be depicted. Ligamentous injuries were visualized by 2D MRI in 2 of 6 cases and by 3 D MRI inone case. Conclusions: In post-mortem studies, CT was superior to MRI in the visualization of osseous and ligamentous injuries after trauma of the upper cervical spine. However, these results are not transferable to patients with rotation injury in general. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Vergleich verschiedener Techniken (digitale Roentgentechnik, Computertomographie, Magnetresonanztomographie) in der Detektion von ligamentaeren und ossaeren Laesionen der oberen Halswirbelsaeule nach definiertem Trauma sowie Korrelation mit den experimentellen Praeparateergebnissen. Material und Methoden: 19 menschliche

  8. Diagnostic imaging of Klippel-Feil syndrome: conventional radiography, CT and MR imaging. Case report; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Klippel-Feil-Syndroms: Konventionelle Roentgenaufnahmen, CT und MRT. Fallbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochens, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schubeus, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Steinkamp, H.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Menzhausen, L. [Abt. fuer Psychiatrie, Urban Krankenhaus, Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In two patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome, type II radiographic findings of the malformation are shown in the cervical spine and the craniocervical junction. Conventional X-rays of the cervical spine in the AP and lateral view and conventional tomography as well as CT of the cervical spine were obtained in both patients. One of the two patients additionally underwent MR imaging. Findings of the different imaging modalities are compared with each other. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von zwei Patienten mit Klippel-Feil-Syndrom Typ II werden typische radiologische Befunde des Missbildungssyndroms im Bereich der Halswirbelsaeule und des kraniozervikalen Ueberganges dargestellt. Neben den konventionellen HWS-Roentgenaufnahmen und den konventionellen Schichtaufnahmen, wurden bei beiden Patienten ein CT der HWS und bei einem Patienten zusaetzlich ein MRT durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse und Befunde der verschiedenen Untersuchungsverfahren werden einander gegenuebergestellt. (orig.)

  9. Computer radiography - indirect digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the new European standards for industrial radiography with the use of storage phosphor imaging plates will result in the arousing of interest among numerous laboratories in non-destructive testing with application of the new method of testing to replace conventional radiography used so far, i.e. film radiography. Computer radiography is quite commonly used for medical radiography, where the fundamental problem consists in reduction of the radiation dose during the examination of a patient. However, it must be kept in mind that industrial applications have a little bit different requirements when compared with medical radiography. The article describes only new method for radiographic testing. (author)

  10. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrdlicka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a radiographic method using a neutron beam of a defined geometry. The neutron source usually consists of a research reactor, a specialized neutron radiography reactor or the 252 Cf radioisotope source. There are two types of the neutron radiography display system, viz., a system producing neutron radiography images by a photographic process or a system allowing a visual display, eg., using a television monitor. The method can be used wherever X-ray radiography is used except applications in the radiography of humans. The neutron radiography unit at UJV uses the WWR-S reactor as the neutron source and both types of the above mentioned display system. (J.P.)

  11. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  12. Micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography with absorption and phase contrast for materials characterization; Mikro-Radiografie und Mikro-Computertomografie mit Absorptions- und Phasenkontrast fuer die Materialcharakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Johann [FH Oberoesterreich, Wels (Austria)

    2017-08-01

    The contribution describes modern techniques in micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography for materials characterization using absorption and phase contrast. Using micro- and nano-focus tubes and adequate high.-resolution detectors it is possible to reach resolutions significantly below 1 micron. The CT technology allows in-situ deformation testing to study the damaging mechanism of materials. The application of the Talbot-Lau interferometer with CT a differential phase contrast tomography is available. Dark-field tomography is used to study individual carbon fiber bundles in carbon fiber reinforced laminates.

  13. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds; Untersuchungen zur Strahlenexposition des radiologisch taetigen Personals bei der Radiographie von Heimtieren, Reptilien sowie Zier- und Wildvoegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Yvonne

    2015-05-27

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  14. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  15. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  16. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayon, G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutronography or neutron radiography, a non-destructive test method which is similar in its principle to conventional X-ray photography, presently occupies a marginal position among non-destructive test methods (NDT) (no source of suitable performance or cost). Neutron radiography associated with the ORPHEE reactor permits industrial testing; it can very quickly meet a cost requirement comparable to that of conventional test methods. In 1988, 2500 parts were tested on this unit [fr

  17. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  18. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Methodological study of aging effects on fuel cells using X-ray synchrotron radiography and tomography; Methodische Untersuchung von Alterungseffekten an Brennstoffzellen mittels Synchrotronradiografie und -tomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlt, Tobias

    2012-04-05

    In the present work, new and advanced methods for the investigation of methanol and hydrogen powered fuel cells were analyzed. Synchrotron radiography and tomography were applied to investigate materials and transport processes in operating fuel cells ''in-situ'' and non-destructively. The corrosion of ruthenium is a key issue during aging of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Therefore the influence of different aging processes on the distribution of ruthenium is of great interesting. An imaging method based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was applied to investigate the changes in the distribution of fuel cell catalysts three-dimensionally. Using monoenergetic synchrotron radiation it was shown that the distribution of ruthenium (Ru) in the anode catalyst changes after application of an accelerated aging procedure. A strong influence on the flowfield and the gas diffusion layer structures on the Ru distribution were found in the gas diffusion electrode at the anode side. Additionally some ruthenium moves through the membrane from the anode to the cathode. The redistribution caused by the accelerated aging procedure strongly differs from that obtained after aging under realistic stack operation (here over 1700 h) of a fuel cell in a pallet transporter. For the tomographic investigations samples were taken out from a stack operation in aged membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and were analyzed ex-situ. It was shown that the Ru redistribution can be attributed to mass transport processes (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Other high energy resolved measurements showed that the strength of the oxidation of ruthenium and platinum depends on the spatial distribution of the ruthenium. Last mentioned - also for the platinum catalyst - could be given quantitatively by means of this newly developed method. In the second part of this work high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEFC) were investigated. No liquid

  20. Dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhdar, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiography must comply with the same regulations with which conventional radiography complies. Radiation doses to individual patients are low but, because of the large number of patients X-rayed, the collective dose to the population is not negligible. Care in siting and regular maintenance of the equipment will reduce doses to both staff and patients. To produce X-ray films with a good image quality using a low radiation dose requires attention to film processing; this is often a neglected area. (Author)

  1. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, A.; Magal, O.

    1992-02-01

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  2. Radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaiotov, L N

    1951-10-23

    A new method of hollow articles radiography is presented enabling to eliminate shortcomings coupled with medical personnel irradiation when the ampoule incorporating radioactive substance is removed from the protective container and adjusted in the article. The method presented permits to transport the ampoule from the protective container immediately into the inner cavity of the article.

  3. Skull Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    What you need to know about… Skull Radiography X-ray images of the skull are taken when it is necessary to see the cranium, facial bones or jaw bones. ... Among other things, x-ray exams of the skull can show fractures. Patient Preparation Before the examination, ...

  4. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaa eldin, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The digital processing of the neutron radiography images gives the possibility for data quantification. In this case an exact relation between the measured neutron attenuation and the real macroscopic attenuation coefficient for every point of the sample is required. The assumption that the attenuation of the neutron beam through the sample is exponential is valid only in an ideal case where a monochromatic beam, non scattering sample and non background contribution are assumed. In the real case these conditions are not fulfilled and in dependence on the sample material we have more or less deviation from the exponential attenuation law. Because of the high scattering cross-sections of hydrogen (σs=80.26 barn) for thermal neutrons, the problem with the scattered neutrons at quantitative radiography investigations of hydrogenous materials (as PE, Oil, H 2 O, etc) is not trivial. For these strong scattering materials the neutron beam attenuation is no longer exponential and a dependence of the macroscopic attenuation coefficient on the material thickness and on the distance between the sample and the detector appears. When quantitative radiography (2 D) or tomography investigations (3 D) are performed, some image correction procedures for a description of the scattering effect are required. This thesis presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method uses the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the neutron radiography process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determine the scattered neutrons distribution that causes the image blur and then subtract it from the initial image to improve its quality.

  5. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  6. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  7. Ambulating radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Strong gamme or X-ray sources are utilized for non-destructive testing of i.e. bridges. The activities involve certain risks of accident that might lead to serious injuries caused by radiation. The National Institute of Radiation Protection has during the laste decade greatly yhe inspection rate in this area. It has today made controls of most enterprieses running ambulating radiography. (O.S.)

  8. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupchek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is an image acquisition process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR employs a photostimulable phosphor-based imaging plate, replacing the standard x-ray film and intensifying screen combination. Conventional radiographic exposure equipment is used with no modification required to the existing system. CR can transform an analog x-ray department into a digital one and eliminates the need for chemicals, water, darkrooms and film processor headaches. (author)

  9. Magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genant, H.K.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    The relative clinical value of magnification compared with conventional radiography for skeletal applications is presented qualitatively. The presentation is based on the authors' experience with over 25,000 cases in which magnification has been used. For most areas in which magnification (optical or geometric) proves useful, subtle abnormalities of clinical importance are present at bone surfaces or at host-lesion interfaces. This is particularly true for arthritis and metabolic and infectious disorders of bone. In additional instances, serial assessment of the progression of disease or its response to therapy is enhanced by magnification. When gross abnormalities are present, as in most instances of trauma and bone dysplasia, the findings are obvious on conventional radiography, and magnification is not necessary. Thus, the magnification techniques appear to provide important diagnostic information, depending upon the anatomic part that is studied and the clinical question that is posed. It is also apparent that the demonstration of subtle skeletal abnormalities to clinical colleagues for educational purposes is greatly enhanced by magnification radiography

  10. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  11. Radiography shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1985-11-27

    Apparatus for the inspection of a pipe weld by radiography comprises a radiation source contained in a housing having a first collimator for defining the exit beam and a second collimator mountable on the pipe in the region of the weld to define with the first collimator a predetermined volume enclosing the radiation beam passing through the second collimator when the housing is in a predetermined position relative to the second collimator. The arrangement is such that if the housing is slightly displaced from the predetermined position the radiation beam still falls within the predetermined volume.

  12. Radiography shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for the inspection of a pipe weld by radiography comprises a radiation source contained in a housing having a first collimator for defining the exit beam and a second collimator mountable on the pipe in the region of the weld to define with the first collimator a predetermined volume enclosing the radiation beam passing through the second collimator when the housing is in a predetermined position relative to the second collimator. The arrangement is such that if the housing is slightly displaced from the predetermined position the radiation beam still falls within the predetermined volume. (author)

  13. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  14. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elander, S.; Hellesnes, J.; Reitan, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of radiography is developing rapidly, both regarding imaging technology and data hardware, and software technology. More and more advanced systems are marketed by the radiological companies. The wide product range makes it difficult to get an overview over principles and components. By closer inspection, however, the number of basic components and technologies is limited. Moreover, the components seem rather well known from other technologies, due to the long times of development in radiology. This report gives a survey of some new principles and components in the video chain. As components may deteriorate or age fast by irradiation, the radiation levels in the chain are evaluated. 13 refs

  15. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashin, D.; Sternglass, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides radiography apparatus wherein the use of a flat, generally rectangular beam or a fan-shaped beam of radiation in combination with a collimator, scintillator and device for optically coupling a self-scanning array of photodiodes to the scintillator means will permit production of images or image data with high contrast sensitivity and detail. It is contemplated that the self-scanning array of photodiodes may contain from about 60 to 2048, and preferably about 256 to 2048, individual photodiode elements per inch of object width, thereby permitting maximum data collection to produce a complete image or complete collection of image data

  16. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  17. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  18. Filmless Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technology initially prototyped under a Small Business Innovation Research contract between Quantex Corporation and Langley Research Center was licensed to Liberty Technology and incorporated into RADView, a new filmless radiography technology. The NASA-sponsored work involved the investigation of Electron Trapping, which led to a solid-state film that uses a special class of photoluminescent materials to capture radiographic images. RadView is a total imaging solution for the conversion of radiographic film records to digital format and digital acquisitions of radiographs. With the RADView technology, there is a reduction of exposure times and errors; film waste is eliminated; and the efficiency of data management and precise image analysis is boosted. The solid-state film can be exposed, read, erased, and re- exposed indefinitely until mechanical replacement is required. Digital images can be stored to optical media for up to 100 years and beyond without information loss.

  19. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  20. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  1. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  2. Determination Of Simulated Pellet To Pellet Gap Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnowo, A.

    1996-01-01

    The defect on the irradiated fuel element could be detected using neutron radiography. The defect could occurred in pellet to pellet gap, cladding, or even cladding to pellet gap. An investigations has been performed to detect pellet to pellet gap defect that might occur in an irradiated fuel element. An Al foil of 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; und 0,4 mm was inserted between pellets to simulate various pellet to pellet gap. The neutron radiography used had power of 700 kW. The result showed that this simulation represented well enough problems that irradiated fuel element may experience

  3. Sport und soziale Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Günes

    2012-01-01

    Sport und soziale Integration : Chancen, Probleme und Perspektiven für Städte und Kommunen ; Tagungsband der gleichnamigen Tagung am 28. und 29. Juni 2011 in Augsburg / Helmut Altenberger ... (Hrsg.). - Hamburg : Feldhaus, Ed. Czwalina, 2012. - 104 S. - (Sportwissenschaft und Sportpraxis ; 161)

  4. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  5. JRR-3 neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1992-01-01

    JRR-3 neutron radiography facility consists of thermal neutron radiography facility (TNRF) and cold neutron radiography facility (CNRF). TNRF is installed in JRR-3 reactor building. CNRF is installed in the experimental beam hall adjacent to the reactor building. (author)

  6. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  7. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  8. Specific radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  9. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari [Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 (Finland)], E-mail: sanna-mari.ahonen@oulu.fi

    2008-11-15

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline.

  10. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline

  11. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...

  12. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  13. Recent developments in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Advances in radiography are reviewed and eighty-one references are cited to provide additional information. The review includes information on x-ray sources in terms of output, portability and imaging geometry and detectors in terms of films and screens, electrostatic methods, real-time techniques and solid state devices. Inspection methods utilizing radiations other than x-rays, neutrons and charged particles, expand the inspection problems suitable for radiography. Techniques such as tomography, digital radiography and image enhancement are described. Tomography, in particular, provides excellent capability to characterize materials and discontinuities

  14. Transitioning to digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F., E-mail: Francisco.Miranda@pwc.ca [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)

  15. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  16. Neutron radiography in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Ilic, R.

    1977-01-01

    The review surveys microneutronographic and neutron-induced autoradiographic techniques and their applications in metallurgy. A brief survey of applications of neutron radiography as a method of non-destructive testing to some macroscopic problems in metallurgy is included. (author)

  17. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  18. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  19. Radiography at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    What is industrial radiography? It is a non-destructive method with a wide variety of applications, such as inspecting the quality of a weld. It uses high-energy radioactive sources or an X-ray generator.   Is this inspection technique used at CERN? Yes, it is widely used at CERN by the EN-MME Group, which outsources the work to one or more companies, depending on the workload. Is it possible to carry out radiography anywhere at CERN? Yes, it is possible to carry out radiography in any building/accelerator/experiment area at CERN (including in areas which are not normally subject to radiological hazards). When is radiography carried out? It normally takes place outside of working hours (7 p.m. to 6 a.m.). How will I know if radiography is taking place in my building? If this activity is planned in a CERN building, notices will be affixed to all of its main entrance doors at least 24 hours in advance. What are the risks? There is a risk of exposure to very high levels of radiation, dep...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  1. Digital radiography in NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, E.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of film radiography could be replaced by today's technologies in the field of digital radiography. Only few of these applications have indeed replaced film. The choice to go digital depends on cost, quality requirement, workflow and throughput. Digital images offer a lot of advantages in terms of image manipulation and workflow. But despite the many advantages, a lot of considerations are needed before someone can decide to convert his organization from conventional to digital radiography. This paper gives an overview of all different modalities that can be used in digital radiography with today's technologies, together with the experiences of the pioneers of digital radiography. Film Scanning, Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography by using of different kinds of flat panel detectors all have their specific application fields and customers. What is the status of the technology today, which advantages brings digital radiography, and which are the limitations radiographers have to consider when replacing film by digital systems. (author)

  2. Are radiography lecturers, leaders?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    This review article aims to explore the concept of radiography lecturers acting as leaders to their student followers. Through a brief review of the literature, a definition of leadership is suggested and some leadership theories explored. The path-goal theory, leader–member exchange theory and the contemporary theory of transformational leadership are examined more closely. Links between lecturer-leader behaviour and student motivation and learning are tentatively suggested with transformational leadership appearing to offer the optimal leadership style for lecturers to adopt. The paucity of literature relating directly to radiography is acknowledged and areas for further research are suggested. The article concludes with some of the author's practical ideas for incorporating transformational leadership styles and behaviours into radiography education today

  3. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waswa, L.; Mutwasi, O.; Kioko, J.

    2006-05-01

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  4. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  5. Computed radiography in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computed radiography has also been called storage phosphor technology, digital luminescence radiography and scintillation phosphor technology, since it relies on phosphor imaging plate as an alternative to screen-film. One of the major advantages in the use of computed radiography (CR) is the consistent image quality independence of the radiographer and exposure used. And secondly a marked reduction in the need for repeat films was achieved and thus a decrease in dose to the patient. In some cases, dose was able to be reduced further due to the fact that the plates respond to lower doses and still provide adequate image quality. Digitalising the Cr image allows it to be transmitted to an imaging console. The images can then be stored on optical disc. 7 refs

  6. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  7. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  8. Practical radiography. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the basics of electricity, the fundamentals of radiography are dealt with in more detail - the discovery of X-rays, their nature and properties, the production of the X-ray image and ways of improving the image. A chapter is devoted to the important subject of radiation protection. Explanations are given of the use of the Siemens exposure tables, which make it simpler to modify exposures from the values given in the tables. There is also a section on some of the standard radiographic positioning for patients. The most common medical terms used in radiography and fluoroscopy are listed and an Appendix gives details of the major items of Siemens X-ray equipment. There is a list of literature recommended for further study. Theoretical explanations have been kept to a minimum so that information that is important to radiography can be emphasized. (orig./MG)

  9. Radiography of pressure ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, P.S.; Ekberg, O.; Lasson, A.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with longstanding and/or deep pressure ulcers radiology is usually consulted. Survey radiography and sinography in 14 patients with pressure ulcers (6 over the tuber ischii and 8 over the femoral trochanter) were evaluated. Osteomyelitic involvement of adjacent bone was revealed in 9 patients on survey radiography. However, it was usually impossible to assess whether or not bony involvement represents healed or active osteomyelitis. Sinography did not contribute to the assessment of whether or not adjacent cortical bone was involved. However, when a fistulation to an adjacent joint was revealed this contributed substantially to the preoperative planning of resection. We therefore recommend that survey radiography and sinography should be included in the evaluation of these patients but that the results from such examinations are critically evaluated. Joint involvement should be taken seriously as progression of septic arthritis usually occurs rapidly. (orig.)

  10. Compton radiography, 4. Magnification compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Shishido, F; Fukuda, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1978-03-01

    Compton radiography permits an acquisition of direct magnification Compton radiograms by use of a pinhole collimator, rendering it feasible to overcome the resolution of the scinticamera being employed. An improvement of resolution was attained from 7 mm to 1 mm separation. Usefulness of its clinical application can be seen in orientation of puncture and biopsy in deep structures and detection of various foreign bodies penetrated by blasts and so on under the ''magnification Compton fluoroscopy'' which can be developed on this principle in the near future.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Digitalisierung und Selbstbestimmung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezemek, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag skizziert das Zusammenspiel von Digitalisierung und individueller Selbstbestimmung, stellt die Frage, welche Herausforderungen dieses Zusammenspiel birgt und diskutiert, wie ihnen begegnet werden kann.

  17. Emotion, Motivation und Volition

    OpenAIRE

    Ulich, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Emotion, Motivation und Volition / D. Ulich ; V. Brandstätter ; P. M. Gollwitzer. - In: Psychologie / hrsg. von Dietrich Dörner ... - 2., überarb. und erw. Aufl. - Stuttgart u.a. : Kohlhammer, 1996. - S. 115-135

  18. Comparative study between computed radiography and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Sapizah Rahim; Shaharudin Sayuti; Arshad Yassin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    In Industrial Radiography, there are many criteria that need to be considered based on established standards to accept or reject the radiographic film. For conventional radiography, we need to consider the optical density by using the densitometer when viewing the film on the viewer. But in the computed radiography (CR) we need to evaluate and performed the analysis from the quality of the digital image through grey value. There are many factors that affected the digital image quality. One of the factors which are affected to the digital image quality in the image processing is grey value that related to the contrast resolution. In this work, we performed grey value study measurement on digital radiography systems and compared it with exposed films in conventional radiography. The test sample is a steel step wedge. We found out the contrast resolution is higher in Computed Radiography compared with Conventional Radiography. (author)

  19. Informationskompetenz und Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Informationskompetenz ist heute als Begriff , Konzept und praktisches Tätigkeitsfeld von Bibliotheken weltweit etabliert. Entstehung, Verbreitung und Entwicklung von „Informationskompetenz“ im deutschsprachigen Raum stehen in engem Zusammenhang mit dem in den USA und international seit den 1980er Jahren diskutierten und praktisch umgesetzten Konzept der „Information Literacy“. Auch wenn die beiden Begriffe in der Regel gleichbedeutend verwendet werden, zeigt ein Vergleich der vorwiegend aus e...

  20. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  1. Ultrasonography X gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The accumulated experience in the last ten years of substitution to essays by gamma radiography to essay by ultrasonography, starting of the systematic comparison and tabulation of the results obtained by both essays applied in welding joints, in field, in steel pipelines of the SABESP. (V.R.B.)

  2. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  3. Compton radiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Mishina, Hitoshi.

    1977-01-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode. (auth.)

  4. Neutron radiography in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography studies being carried out in reactor centres in Brazil are discussed. These research projects are under way using the 5 MW swimming pool reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo and the Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) in Rio de Janeiro. (Auth.)

  5. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  6. Basic principles of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestbier, P.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray radiography and gamma radiography are used in industrial radiography. X-rays and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate materials and be absorbed by different densities. This characteristic makes them useful tools in industrial and medical radiography. The sources used for the generation of x-rays, gamma rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Films are one of the recording methods of x-radiography. The article also deals with advantages and disadvantages of radiography. Factors governing radiation exposure includes: the type of radiation source, material to be radiographed, distance, film, and the method for development. International specifications are also responsible for strict control over the standard of workmanship in industrial radiography

  7. Artifacts in digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shin Gu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments.

  8. Artifacts in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Jung Min; Jeong, Hoi Woun

    2015-01-01

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments

  9. Romanistik und gender studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schlünder

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Die beiden Bände bieten ein breites Spektrum von Beiträgen zur französischen, italienischen und spanischen Literaturwissenschaft. Gedankliche Grundlage der im einzelnen unterschiedlichen Ansätze und Zielsetzungen ist ein im Anschluß an Judith Butler gender-reflektierendes, diskursives Konzept von Geschlecht, dessen wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Herleitung und Perspektiven Renate Kroll einleitend darlegt. Die einzelnen Artikel beschäftigen sich zum einen mit literarischen Strategien, die Schriftstellerinnen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart erprobt haben, und hinterfragen dabei die Rolle weiblicher Autoren in Literaturgeschichte und Literaturgeschichtsschreibung. Zum anderen widmen sie sich den literarischen Inszenierungs- und Repräsentationsformen von Weiblichkeit und stellen darüber einen Bezug zur Lebenswelt der behandelten Autorinnen her.

  10. Radiography – How do students understand the concept of radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, S.M.; Lundén, M.; Andersson, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiography as a concept has mainly been associated with the functional role of the radiographer. The concept has been studied from a theoretical point of view. However, there is a lack of a theoretical foundation and research on the actual substance of the term radiography used in education. It is therefore important to undertake an investigation in order to determine how students after three years education understand the subject of radiography. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse how students in the Swedish radiographers' degree program understand the concept of radiography. Method: A concept analysis was made according to the hybrid model, which combines theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases. A summative content analysis was used to identify the number and content of statements. The empirical data were collected from questionnaires answered by radiography students at four universities in Sweden. Findings: All radiography students' exemplified radiography with statements related to the practical level although some of them also identified radiography at an abstract level, as a subject within a discipline. The attribute ‘An interdisciplinary area of knowledge’ emerged, which is an attribute on the abstract level. The practical level was described by four attributes: Mastering Medical Imaging’, ‘To accomplish images for diagnosis and interventions’, ‘Creating a caring environment’ and ‘Enabling fruitful encounters’. Conclusion: The hybrid model used was a versatile model of concept development. The results of this study have increased the understanding of what characterizes the concept of radiography in a Swedish context. - Highlights: • This concept analysis of radiography was undertaken according to a hybrid model. • In radiography humanistic aspects are emphasized, a shift from the technological perspective. • The attributes demonstrate the essence and interdisciplinary nature of radiography. • This

  11. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  12. Projection radiography and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Our program on heavy-ion radiography began soon after heavy ions were accelerated to high energies. Heavy ions are capable of very high electron density discrimination combined with good radial image resolution and low dose. Since heavy-ion beams produce many secondries, plastic nuclear detectors have an advantage for recording heavy-ion images. Projection imaging is now a practical technique that can resolve density differences between normal tissue and tumor tissue in some cases in which X rays could not make a distinction. Initial attempts at heavy-ion tomography also indicate potential for high resolution in this field. The physical basis for heavy-ion radiography and tomographic reconstruction studies are discussed in detail

  13. Dose in conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna D, E.; Padilla R, Z. P.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    It has been pointed out that medical exposures are the most significant sources of exposure to ionizing radiation for the general population. Inside the medical exposures the most important is the X-ray use for diagnosis, which is by far the largest contribution to the average dose received by the population. From all studies performed in radiology the chest radiography is the most abundant. In an X-ray machine, voltage and current are combined to obtain a good image and a reduce dose, however due to the workload in a radiology service individual dose is not monitored. In order to evaluate the dose due to chest radiography in this work a plate phantom was built according to the ISO recommendations using methylmethacrylate walls and water. The phantom was used in the Imaging department of the Zacatecas General Hospital as a radiology patient asking for a chest study; using thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD 100 the kerma at the surface entrance was determined. (Author)

  14. Apparatus for proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors. 10 claims, 7 drawing figures

  15. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  16. Patient care in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography

  17. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik

    ,3 mAs and SID SID of 180 centimetres using a phantom and lithium fluoride thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD). Dose to risk organs mamma, thyroid and colon are measured at different collimations with one-centimetre steps. TLD results are used to estimate dose reduction for different collimations...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  18. Digital radiography in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  19. Panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Kircher, D.R.; Hart, F.W.; Ciavattoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for improving the handling rate of patients in panoramic dental radiography when tube head-camera assembly of a low silhouette panoramic dental X-ray machine is rotated for a scan in one direction only. This is effected by fast return of the tube head-camera assembly with its simultaneous elevation, thus facilitating the radiographed patient's exit from the machine and the entrance of another patient. Fast speed is about twice the scanning speed. (author)

  20. Compton radiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1977-01-01

    Tomographic images of an object are obtainable by irradiating it with a collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and recording the resultant Compton rays scattered upward at right angles. This is the scattered-ray principle of the formation of a radiation image that differs from the traditional ''silhouette principle'' of radiography, and that bears prospects of stereopsis as well as cross-section tomography. (Evans, J.)

  1. An overview of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aweligiba, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    The medical application of radiography has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine for fast diagnosis and therapy. Digital radiography is a relatively new technology that promises greater accuracy, lesser dose and better manipulation of patient radiology images in hospitals. In this study, a general discussion on digital radiography has been presented. The presentation focuses on the optimisation of doses to patients in the medical application of digital radiography, quality control and quality assurance. A brief presentation on performance indicators in digital radiography has also been presented. The advantages of digital radiography over the conventional film/screen system have been elaborated and its limitations are also outlined. (author)

  2. Introduction to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the first topic in this book, more on introduction to nondestructive testing, also a little bit on another technique such as magnetic testing, liquid penetrated, ultrasonic testing and others. This book mentions more on radiographic testing and for that, more details on this topic such as history, definition and devices that use in this technique. This radiography testing firstly started with the discovering of x-ray by Wilhelm Roentgen (1895). So, on 1913, David Coolidge successfully invented and developed x-ray tube that could made x-ray more intensified and produced highly penetration forces. Radiography in Malaysia firstly started two years after the discovery made by Wilhelm Roentgen when one hospital here used the x-ray machine for medical purposes. Besides using x-ray, radiography also used gamma rays, and for these purpose, they used Co-60 and Ir-192. Now, more company based on NDT established to provide a service on inspection pipe and others. For filled these requirement, radiographer must take an exam to make them expert and trained well to work in this field. There is no advantage using this technique or other technique. So that's why this book was published to make people understand what is radiographic testing truly.

  3. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  4. First experience with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    The digital radiogram is explained, its advantages being the various possibilities of image processing, loss-free transmission, recording and storage capabilities, and in special cases, prompt availability of processed images. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the high-resolution method of digital, luminescent radiography, which replaced the conventional film-foil radiography, are explained as the first developments for the introduction of digital radiography, which today already is an applicable technique. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Neutron radiography of Apollo ordnance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golliher, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography played an important role in the successful Apollo missions. Neutron radiography was used, for the first time, on a production basis to examine the internal details of ordnance devices employed in the Apollo Program. Ordnance devices ranged from charges which separated the massive booster stages to those which triggered the release of re-entry parachutes. Discussed are the early developments in neutron radiography and the conversion of this infant nondestructive technology into production capabilities. (Auth.)

  6. Double beam neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-09-01

    The DR1 reactor at Risoe is used as a neutron source for neutron radiography. In the double-beam neutron radiography facility a neutron flux of an intensity of 1.4 and 1.8 x 10 6 n. cm -2 . s -1 reaches the object to be radiographed. The transport and exposure container used for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel rods is described, and the exposure technique and procedure are reviewed. The mode by which single neutron radiographs are assembled and assessed is described. This report will be published in the ''Neutron Radiography Newsletter''. (author)

  7. Quality assurance in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.; Lehmann, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    At present, there is no standard way of evaluating performance characteristics of digital radiography systems. Continuous measurements of performance parameters are necessary in order to obtain images of high quality. Parameters of quality assurance in digital radiography, which can be evaluated with simple, quick methods, are spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, dynamic range and exposure dose. Spatial resolution was determined by a lead bar pattern, whereas the other parameters were measured by commercially available phantoms. Performance measurements of 10 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) units and one digital radiography system for unsubtracted digital radiography were assessed. From these results, recommendations for performance parameter levels will be discussed. (author)

  8. Gamma radiography and its technological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1962-01-01

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  9. Fotografie und atomare Katastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Bürkner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Die Dissertation setzt sich mit den fotografischen Repräsentationen der Atombombenabwürfe auf Hiroshima und Nagasaki sowie der Havarie des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl auseinander. Dabei werden künstlerische, dokumentarische und touristische Bilder analysiert, die sich der jeweiligen Strahlenkatastrophe oftmals erst Jahre nach dem Ereignis annehmen und ikonografische oder medial-materielle Bezüge zu ihr aufweisen. Es zeigen sich zentrale Strategien, atomare Katastrophen, seien sie militäri...

  10. Versicherung und volkswirtschaftlicher Kreislauf

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Heinz

    1982-01-01

    Versicherung und volkswirtschaftlicher Kreislauf : zur Behandlung d. Privatversicherung in d. volkswirtschaftl. Gesamtrechnung. - In: Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft. 71. 1982. S. 189-210

  11. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  12. Student Incivility in Radiography Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin R

    2017-07-01

    To examine student incivility in radiography classrooms by exploring the prevalence of uncivil behaviors along with the classroom management strategies educators use to manage and prevent classroom disruptions. A survey was designed to collect data on the severity and frequency of uncivil student behaviors, classroom management strategies used to address minor and major behavioral issues, and techniques to prevent student incivility. The participants were educators in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. Findings indicated that severe uncivil student behaviors in radiography classrooms do not occur as often as behaviors classified as less severe. Radiography educators in this study used a variety of strategies and techniques to manage and prevent student incivility; however, radiography educators who received formal training in classroom management reported fewer incidents of student incivility than those who had not received formal training. The participants in this study took a proactive approach to addressing severe behavioral issues in the classroom. Many radiography educators transition from the clinical environment to the classroom setting with little to no formal training in classroom management. Radiography educators are encouraged to attend formal training sessions to learn how to manage the higher education classroom effectively. Student incivility is present in radiography classrooms. This study provides a foundation for future research on incivility. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  13. Functioning of industrial radiography services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Costa, H.M. da; Bianchini, F.G.; Arrieta, L.A.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this norm is establish the necessary requirements for the functioning of industrial radiography services, as well as the procedures for acquisition and transfer of radioactive sources and/or X-ray equipments used in industrial radiography [pt

  14. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-08-20

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with

  15. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni 3 Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T C on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with different ordering temperatures. This

  16. Digital radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Hachiya, Junichi; Korenaga, Tateo; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Yasuo; Furuya, Yoshiro

    1984-01-01

    Initial clinical experience in digital chest radiography utilizing photostimulable phosphor and scanning laser stimulated luminescence was reported. Image quality of conventional film/screen radiography and digital radiography was compared in 30 normal cases. Reflecting wide dynamic range of the system, improved image quality was confirmed in all 30 cases, particularly in visibility of various mediastinal structures and pulmonary vessels. High sensor sensitivity of the system enabled digital radiography to reduce radiation dose requirement significantly. Diagnostically acceptable chest images were obtained with approximately 1/5 of routine dose for conventional radiography without significant image quality degradation. Some artifact created by digital processing were mostly overcome by a routine use of simultaneous display of two different types of image processing and therefore was not an actual drawback from diagnostic standpoint. Further technical advancement of the system to be seen for digital storage, retrieval and tranceference of images. (author)

  17. Milch, Milchprodukte, Analoge und Speiseeis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Ursula

    Die Produktpalette Milch und Erzeugnisse aus Milch beinhaltet Konsummilch, die aus Milch oder Bestandteilen der Milch hergestellten Milcherzeugnisse wie Sauermilch-, Joghurt-, Kefir-, Buttermilch-, Sahne-, Kondensmilch-, Trockenmilch- und Molkenerzeugnisse, Milchmisch- und Molkenmischprodukte (Produkte mit beigegebenen Lebensmitteln), Milchzucker, Milcheiweißerzeugnisse, Milchfette und Käse.

  18. Übergewicht und Adipositas in Kindheit und Jugend

    OpenAIRE

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Einführend wird auf wesentliche Entwicklungsaspekte der interessierenden Lebensphasen Kindheit und Jugend eingegangen. Im Anschluss daran werden verschiedene Aspekte von Übergewicht und Adipositas in Kindheit und Jugend thematisiert. Neben der Definition und Diagnostik, wird auf Möglichkeiten der Klassifikation sowie die Epidemiologie eingegangen. Dargestellt werden darüber hinaus körperliche und psychische Folgestörungen, welche mit Adipositas assoziiert sein können. Basierend auf der...

  19. Thermodynamik grundlagen und technische anwendungen

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Für die aktualisierte 14. Auflage des bewährten Lehrbuchs der Technischen Thermodynamik wurde das Kapitel über Wärmekraftanlagen gründlich bearbeitet und durch einen Abschnitt zur Energiewandlung ergänzt: Die Energiebedarfsstruktur von Deutschland wird erläutert, und die möglichen Energiewandlungspfade werden diskutiert. Schwerpunkt des Buches ist die ausführliche und auch dem Anfänger verständliche Darstellung der Grundlagen der Thermodynamik mit der sorgfältigen Einführung der thermodynamischen Begriffe und den fundamentalen Bilanzgleichungen für Energie, Entropie und Exergie. Die thermodynamischen Eigenschaften reiner Fluide und fluider Gemische werden eingehend erläutert. Darauf aufbauend wird die Thermodynamik der Gemische und der chemischen Reaktionen entwickelt. Auch die thermodynamischen Aspekte wichtiger energie- und verfahrenstechnischer Anwendungen werden praxisnah behandelt: - Strömungs- und Arbeitsprozesse, - thermische Stofftrennverfahren, - Verbrennungsprozesse und Verbrennungsk...

  20. Steuern und Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.

  1. Osteoporose und Laktoseintoleranz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermayer-Pietsch B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laktosemalabsorption oder Laktoseintoleranz ist eine symptomatische Unverträglichkeit von Milchzucker (Laktose, zumeist aufgrund einer autosomal rezessiv erblichen, irreversiblen Abnahme des Enzyms Laktase im Jugendalter, die bei etwa der Hälfte der Weltbevölkerung auftritt. Die Betroffenen meiden oft instinktiv Milch und Milchprodukte wegen der damit verbundenen Malabsorptions-Symptome. Damit scheiden diese Nahrungsmittel aber auch als Kalziumlieferanten aus und es kann zu einer Mangelversorgung des Knochens mit Kalzium und damit zu Osteoporose kommen. Da in Österreich etwa 20–25 % der Bevölkerung betroffen sind, ist diese Stoffwechselveränderung nicht zu vernachlässigen. Diagnostische und begleitende ernährungsmedizinische Maßnahmen und gegebenenfalls eine osteotrope Therapie sollten zum Erhalt der Knochenmasse eingesetzt werden.

  2. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  3. Digital radiography: study of an alternative technique to conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Thomas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital radiography, already in use in many industrial applications, appears as a potential alternative technique to conventional radiography in the nuclear field (and more especially to the inspection of welded joints). The advantages of digital radiography are a reduced explosion risk (due to the use of lower energy and activity sources), a lower installation time, a reduced exclusion zone, and the absence of effluents. However, to the contrary of the US case, this technique may not be used in France as it is not referenced in the regulating codes (RCCM, etc.). Areva has launched a R and D study in order to characterize the equivalencies between digital and conventional radiography. First results of this study are given

  4. Radiography geometry principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    If one object placed in the field under the sun, we can see the shadow of that object in two dimensional where that object was placed. Nevertheless, the sun cannot penetrate deeply so that it will produce the shadow with same object. This principal also same as radiography, however, with ionizing radiation, it can penetrate through the object so that the image that produced not only the shadow of the object but also what are inside the object. So this can give advantages for the radiographer to make inspection what are inside this object. The images that produce depend with the shape, density, thickness and distance between the object, film and source. The reader also will introduce with some term such as Distance source to film, distance source to object, and distance object to film also some basic on DIN standard and API 1104 Standard.

  5. Improvements relating to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, R.H.; Vandenabeele, H.

    1977-01-01

    An improved combination of photosensitive materials suitable for use in radiography is described, with particular reference to a combination for an X-ray intensifying screen of the fluorescent type and a silver halide recorder. The intensifying material comprises a phosphor consisting wholly or mainly of a rare earth metal activated lanthanum oxyhalide, having more than half its spectral energy emission > 410 nm wavelength, more than half its visible light spectral energy emission in the range 400 to 500 nm, and its maximum energy emission peak in the range 400 to 450 nm. The phosphor should have a coverage of at least 200 to 800 g of the oxyhalide per sq. m. The screen material also contains a dye or pigment that absorbs light within the emission spectrum of the phosphor. The photosensitive recording material incorporates at least one silver halide emulsion layer. The combination should give a screen intensification factor of at least 20 to 40 kV. (U.K.)

  6. Teilchendetektoren Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    CERN Document Server

    Kolanoski, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    In diesem Buch werden die experimentellen Grundlagen von Teilchendetektoren und ihre Anwendung in Experimenten beschrieben. Die Entwicklung von Detektoren ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Teilchen-, Astroteilchen- und Kernphysik und gehört daher zum Handwerk des Experimentalphysikers in diesen Gebieten. Dieses umfassende Werk beinhaltet den kompletten Stoff für entsprechende Master-Module in der experimentellen Teilchenphysik, geht aber im Inhalt auch darüber hinaus. Zielgruppe sind Studierende, die sich in die Materie vertiefen möchten, aber auch Lehrende und Wissenschaftler, die das Buch zum Einstieg in das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten an Detektorentwicklungen verwenden können. Zielrichtung des Buches ist, die physikalischen Grundlagen für die Detektoren und ihrer verschiedenen Ausführungen so klar wie möglich und so tiefgehend wie nötig darzustellen. Die Breite des für die Detektorentwicklung nötigen Wissens umfasst viele Bereiche der Physik und Technik, von den Wechselwirkun...

  7. Mediendidaktik und Wissensmanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Reinmann-Rothmeier

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediendidaktik und Wissensmanagement – das ist auf den ersten Blick ein ungleiches Paar: Die Mediendidaktik ist eine Teildisziplin der (Medien- Pädagogik, während Wissensmanagement ein genuin wirtschaftliches Thema mit betriebswirtschaftlichen Akzenten ist. Annäherungen zwischen der Mediendidaktik und Wissensmanagement gibt es zum einen durch den sog. E-Learning-Trend seitens der Wirtschaft, der mediendidaktisches Wissen und Können auf den Plan ruft, zum anderen durch wachsendes Interesse am Thema Wissensmanagement seitens der Pädagogik. Der Beitrag beschreibt sowohl für das E-Learning als auch für das Wissensmanagement aus pädagogisch-psychologischer Sicht jeweils ein Orientierungsmodell; beide Modelle machen die Berührungspunkte zwischen Mediendidaktik und Wissensmanagement deutlich. Neben einem Überblick über wirtschaftliche Argumente für eine Verschmelzung von E-Learning und Wissensmanagement werden aufbauend auf den beiden Orientierungsmodellen theoretische und praktische Verbindungslinien zwischen E-Learning und Wissensmanagement sowie die Rolle der Mediendidaktik in dem daraus entstehenden Wechselverhältnis herausgearbeitet.

  8. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron......In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  12. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  13. Radiation Effects in Paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwasi, O.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging has evolved from single technique to a field which we have a choice from many modalities. Some without radiation. Radiation producing modalities include plain films (low dose), Fluoroscopy (mid range dose), Computed tomography (high dose). Radiography dose can significantly be influenced in plain radiography by varying speed of screens, cassette construction and type of radiography. E.g. digital or computed. In computed or digital radiography we are no longer able to tell h igh dose b y the quality of images. The final image is by great extend a product of post processing algorithms. It's for this reasons that the basic understanding of the sensitivity and specifying of various types of examinations and of specifically radiation effects is mandatory for a paediatric imager

  14. Lessing und der Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Zahim Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    „Lessing und der Islam“ beschäftigt sich unparteiisch mit Lessings Auseinandersetzung mit dem Islam. Die Arbeit setzt sich das Ziel, den Leser und den Literaturkennern sowie der deutschen Bibliothek der Germanistik etwas von Lessings Auseinandersetzung mit dem Islam in die Hand zu geben, die bis heute als großes Modell für die interkulturelle und interreligiöse Menschheitstoleranzdebatte im Gedächtnis der deutschen Literatur vorhanden ist. Im ersten Teil widmet sich die vorliegende Arbeit de...

  15. Trauma und Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Szyszkowitz, T. (Tessa)

    2007-01-01

    1. Einleitung Ausgehend von der Fragestellung, warum gerade bei Tschetschenen und Palästinensern der Selbstmordterrorismus in den letzten Jahren so populär geworden ist, analysiert die Autorin die Geschichte dieser beiden Völker. Einer der Gründe ist bisher wenig beachtet worden. Der Einfluss eines kollektiven Traumas, das als solches nicht anerkannt, behandelt und auch nicht einer politischen Lösung zugeführt wurde. 2. Geschichte der Palästinenser und Tschetschenen Im Zuge der Err...

  16. Integration, Informationslogistik und Architektur

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Integration, Informationslogistik und Architektur : DW2006 ; 21./22.09.2006 in Friedrichshafen, Germany / Klaus Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2006. - 490 S. - (GI-Edition / Proceedings ; 90)

  17. Supraleitung Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Seit nunmehr drei Jahrzehnten ist der "Buckel" das Referenzwerk in deutscher Sprache zum Thema Supraleitung. Immer wieder aktualisiert, hat das Lehrbuch Generationen von Studenten begleitet. In der 6., vollständig überarbeiteten Auflage wird das bewährte didaktische Konzept beibehalten, inhaltlich wurde der Band dem aktuellen Stand von Forschung und Technik angepasst. Das Autorenteam um Prof. Kleiner verzichtet auf komplizierte mathematische Herleitungen. Es baut ganz auf das bewährte Step-by-Step-Prinzip: Der Schwierigkeitsgrad wird von Kapitel zu Kapitel gesteigert. So können auch Einsteiger ohne einschlägige Vorkenntnisse dem Stoff bequem folgen. Dank seiner klaren Sprache und zahlreicher Abbildungen eignet sich der Band hervorragend als einführendes Lehrbuch - und zwar nicht nur für Physik-Studenten, sondern auch für Studierende angrenzender Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften. Grundlegende Eigenschaften, supraleitende Elemente, Cooper-Paarung, Thermodynamik, kritische Ströme, Josephsonkontakte...

  18. Ausbildung und Erwartungshaltung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoke, Holger

    1997-09-01

    werden Geologiestudenten zeitgemäß ausgebildet? Wird in der Angewandten Geologie das gelehrt, was in Wirtschaftsunternehmen an Wissen von einem Geologen erwartet wird? Erfolgt die spezielle Ausbildung zum Hydrogeologen fundiert und umfassend? Eine Antwort auf diese Fragen kann sicherlich nicht allumfassend gegeben werden, da sie von der jeweiligen Sichtweise abhängig ist. Ein Geologieprofessor wird die Ausbildung seiner Studenten im Großen und Ganzen als zeitgemäß einstufen, eventuell hier und da Verbesserungen für möglich halten. Auffällig ist die hohe Anzahl der in den letzten Jahren bereits geänderten oder zur Änderung anstehenden Studienordnungen. Es zeigt, daß die Straffung des Studiums sowie eine zumindest teilweise neue Wichtung der Schwerpunkte notwendig war bzw. ist, wobei im allgemeinen eine höhere Stundenzahl in den Grundlagenfächern Mathematik, Physik und Chemie angesetzt wird. Betrachtet man die Gesamtstundenzahlen der alten und der reformierten Studienordnungen, kann jedoch von einer Kürzung der Pflichtstunden in den meisten Fällen nicht die Rede sein. Eine grundlegende Reform des Geologiestudiums ist zur Zeit nicht zu erkennen, eher eine Verschulung des Studienganges. Die Entwicklung scheint zur Zeit weg von der freien Kurswahl und hin zu Modulangeboten mit vorgegebenen Kursen und Reihenfolgen zu gehen. Für die Hydrogeologie-Professoren ist es sicherlich nicht einfach zu entscheiden und in ihrem Kollegenkreis durchzusetzen, was aus dem generellen geowissenschaftlichen Kursangebot für einen Hydrogeologen notwendig oder aber entbehrlich ist. Genügen die Grundlagen der Paläontologie und der Mineralogie? Kann man ganz darauf verzichten? Was erwarten Behörden und Wirtschaftsunternehmen an allgemeinen und Spezialkenntnissen? Geologische Landesämter z. B. wollen, pauschal betrachtet, Geologen alten Stils. Ist ausdrücklich ein Angewandter Geologe oder speziell ein Hydrogeologe erwünscht, soll dieser die Spezialkenntnisse zus

  19. Nationale und transnationale Vernetzung polnischer Städte und Regionen: Auf dem Weg zu einer nachhaltigen Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsch, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    "Die Studie 'Nationale und transnationale Vernetzung polnischer Städte und Regionen - Bedeutung für eine nachhaltige Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung' liefert einen Überblick über die Einbindung polnischer Kommunen und Wojewodschaften in allgemeine und politikfeldspezifische Netzwerke auf nationaler und transnationaler Ebene. Besondere Berücksichtigung findet hierbei die Vernetzung in Fragen von Nachhaltigkeit und des Umweltschutzes. Einführend zeigt die Studie den Prozess zunehmender Dezentral...

  20. Digital luminescent radiography: A substitute for conventional chest radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Krug, B.; Lorenz, R.; Steinbrich, W.

    1990-01-01

    The image quality of digital luminescent radiography (DLR) is sufficient for routine biplane chest radiography and for follow-up studies of heart size, pulmonary congestion, coin lesions, infiltrations, atelectasis, pleural effusions, and mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement. Chest radiography in the intensive care unit may in most cases be performed using the DLR technique. there is no need for repeat shots because of incorrect exposure, and the position of catheters, tubes, pacemakers, drains and artificial heart valves, the mediastinum, and the retrocardiac areas of the left lung are more confidently assessed on the edge-enhanced DLR films than on conventional films. Nevertheless, DLR is somewhat inferior to conventional film-screen radiography of the chest as it can demonstrate or rule out subtle pulmonary interstitial disease less confidently. There is no reduction of radiation exposure of the chest in DLR compared with modern film-screen systems. As a consequence, DLR is presently not in a position to replace traditional film-screen radiography of the chest completely. (orig.) [de

  1. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  2. Zwischen Freakout und Normcore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Großegger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts war Rebellion jugendkulturell ein großes Thema. Heute hat die Jugend das so genannte Establishment aus den Augen verloren; die breite Mehrheit gibt sich postheroisch, setzt auf individualitätsbezogene Werte und träumt, eingeschlossen in ihre bunten Lifestyleblasen, von einem perfekten Leben. Bezugnehmend auf aktuelle Befunde der Jugend- und Generationenforschung gibt Beate Großegger in ihrem Beitrag einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Werte- und Lifestyletrends im frühen 21. Jahrhundert und zeigt dabei, wie sehr die heutige Jugend Kind ihrer Zeit und Produkt gesellschaftlicher Rahmenbedingungen ist. Until the late 20th century rebellion was an important aspect of various youth subcultures. But today’s youth has a different mindset. The majority acts post-heroically, i.e. they rather focus on their individual, their private lifestyle than opposing against the establishment. Wrapped in their lifestyle filterbubbles, they dream of a perfect life. Based on recent youth und generation studies Beate Großegger gives an overview of the most important youth cultural trends in the fields of values and lifestyles and introduces today’s youth as a child of our times.

  3. Neue Laser und Strahlquellen - alte und neue Risiken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Uwe; Schwandt, Antje; Seeber, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    Die Entwicklungen im Bereich dermatologischer Laser, hochenergetischer Blitzlampen, LED und neuer Energie- und Strahlquellen der letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass mit neuen Wellenlängen, Konzepten und Kombinationen zusätzliche, zum Teil über den ästhetischen Bereich hinaus gehende therapeutische ...

  4. Führung und Machiavellismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.; Felfe, J.

    2015-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag wird der Zusammenhang zwischen Führung und Machiavellismus aus zwei verschiedenen Perspektiven betrachtet. Zum einen werden neuere Forschungsergebnisse referiert, wie machiavellistische Mitarbeiter auf verschiedene Führungsstile ihres Vorgestzten reagieren und so mit Hinblick auf

  5. Netzformen und VDE-Bestimmungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Herbert

    Der Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) hat eine Reihe von Vorschriften ausgearbeitet, die dem Schutz von Leben und Sachen beim Umgang mit elektrischer Energie dienen. Besonders wichtig sind die in den VDE-Bestimmungen 0100 und 0411 festgelegten Vorschriften.

  6. Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenau, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen. - In: Tıpta işbirliği ve hukuksal sorunlar = Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen / ed.: Hakan Hakeri ... - Samsun : Adalet, 2010. - S. 7-18

  7. Risiko Video- und Computerspiele? Eine Studie über Video- und Computerspielnutzung und Aggression bei 12- und 16- jährigen Jugendlichen

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, Eva-Maria; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Video -und Computerspielen ist heutzutage eine beliebte Freizeitaktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, besonders von Jungen. Trotz der großen Vielfalt der angebotenen Video- und Computerspiele für Kinder und Jugendliche, konzentriert sich die Forschung vorwiegend auf negative Einflüsse von gewalthaltigen Video- und Computerspielen. Da nicht alle Kinder und Jugendliche ausschließlich gewalthaltige Video- und Computerspiele spielen, betrachten wir diesen Fokus in der Wissenschaft als zu eng ge...

  8. Portable digital electronic radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Radiography is a standard nondestructive technique in the industrial testing of materials and components. It is routinely used during the construction, maintenance and repair of nuclear plants. Traditionally, radiography is performed using photographic film (film radiography, FR). Recent developments in solid-state area imaging radiation detectors, miniature electronics and computer software/hardware techniques have brought electronic alternatives to FR. In recent years various electronic radiography (ER) techniques have served as alternatives to FR, these proved beneficial in some applications. While originally developed to provide real time imaging, ER may offer other advantages over FR, depending on the application. Work was undertaken at CRL to review progress in ER techniques and evaluate the possibility of constructing a portable DER (digital electronic radiography) system, for the inspection of power plant components. A suitable DER technique has been developed and a proof of principle portable system constructed. As this paper demonstrates, a properly designed ER system can be small and compact, while providing radiographic examination with acceptable image quality and the benefits of ER imaging. The CRL DER system can operate with radioactive sources typical of FR. While it does not replace FR, our DER system is expected to be beneficial in specific applications for Candu maintenance, reducing cost, labour and time. Practical, cost saving applications of this system are expected to include valve monitoring and foreign object location during maintenance at Candu reactors

  9. Computed radiography in NDT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Computed Radiography, or digital radiography by use of reusable Storage Phosphor screens, offers a convenient and reliable way to replace film. In addition to the reduced cost on consumables, the return on investment of CR systems is strongly determined by savings in exposure time, processing times and archival times. But also intangible costs like plant shutdown, environment safety and longer usability of isotopes are increasingly important when considering replacing film by Storage Phosphor systems. But mote than in traditional radiography, the use of digital images is a trade-off between the speed and the required quality. Better image quality is obtained by longer exposure times, slower phosphor screens and higher scan resolutions. Therefore, different kinds of storage phosphor screens are needed in order to cover every application. Most operations have the data, associated with the tests to be performed, centrally stored in a database. Using a digital radiography system gives not only the advantages of the manipulation of digital images, but also the digital data that is associated with it. Smart methods to associate cassettes and Storage screens with exposed images enhance the workflow of the NDT processes, and avoid human error. Automated measurements tools increase the throughput in different kinds of operations. This paper gives an overview of the way certain operations have decided to replace film by Computed Radiography, and what the major benefits for them have been.

  10. Digital Radiography in Kenya today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenta, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Its nearly one year and a half since digital imaging/radiography was introduced in Kenya mainly in Nairobi. the technology is becoming an increasingly effective and acceptable modality of producing radiographs from the traditional conventional radiography in use to date. the digital radiography offers numerous advantages that have been noted for the short period over the conventional way. For instance radiographs are produced in real time (less than 3 minutes), by so doing the technology has eliminated the wait for the processing period. the radiation exposure to the patient under the radiological examination is reduced as much as 90% from the traditional conventional film taking. The cost, labour and record-keeping necessary to maintain a chemical processor and darkroom operations are as well eliminated. The cost of purchasing and disposing of film wastes/darkroom processing chemicals, which are environmentally hazardous, also become unnecessary.digital radiography technology makes the digital images comparable to other images on the screen at that instant making both the patient and the clinician easily access images when needed. digital receptors have also replaced the cassette containing intensifying screens and film that is used in conventional radiography

  11. Computed radiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Muramatsu, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of using computed radiographic mammography in mass surveys of the breast, we have retrospectively examined 71 breast cancer lesions in 71 patients using computed radiographic and conventional non-screen mammographies and have carried out comparative studies on tumor detection rate and calcification. A 95.8% detection rate was obtained for the tumor image (n 71) using computed radiography (CR) and one of 93.0% using non-screen techniques. Three lesions remained undetected by either study. A 100% detection rate was obtained for calcification associated with cancer (n 33) from each method. No significant differences in either detection rate or calcification were seen between the two images. On the other hand, the ability to recognize tumor images (n 66) was as follows; CR superior to non-screen radiography in 53 lesions (80.3%), equal in eight lesions (12.1%) and inferior in five lesions (7.6%). For the calcification images (n 18), CR was superior to non-screen radiography in all 18 lesions. Obviously, CR gives better results than non-screen radiography. Furthermore, an adequate image can be obtained using CR even although the X-ray dosage is only a twentieth of that required for non-screen radiography. It can therefore be applied not only to mass surveys for breast cancer but also to routine clinical diagnoses. (author)

  12. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  13. Pediatric radiation dose management in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Direct digital radiography (DR) systems based on flat-panel detectors offer improved dose management in pediatric radiography. Integration of X-ray generation and detection in one computer-controlled system provides better control and monitoring

  14. Ellbogen- und Handgelenksendoprothetik beim Rheumatiker - Richtlinien und Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochole M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Endoprothetik an Ellbogen und Handgelenk ist seit etwa drei Jahrzehnten etabliert. An beiden Gelenken haben sich einzelne Implantate oder Designs durchgesetzt. Operationstechniken und Nachuntersuchungsergebnisse sind publiziert. Wenig ist jedoch zum Thema Nachbehandlung und Nachsorge veröffentlicht. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich detailliert mit der ärztlichen und therapeutischen Betreuung nach Implantation einer Ellbogen- oder Handgelenksendoprothese beim Patienten mit rheumatischer Arthritis unter Aufgliederung in Krankenhausaufenthalt, ambulanter Nachsorge sowie stationärer Rehabilitation. Dabei werden Zeitrahmen, Therapieziele und Behandlungen gesondert angeführt.

  15. Altautoverwertung zwischen Staat und Markt: Bedingungen und Potentiale zur Modernisierung von Lagerhaltung und Marketing gebrauchter Autoteile

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Das Arbeitspapier diskutiert vor dem Hintergrund veränderter gesetzlicher Rahmen-und Wettbewerbsbedingungen in der Autoverwertung Ziele und Maßnahmen zurStärkung kleiner und mittelständischer Verwertungsbetriebe. Der Bereich GebrauchteAutoteile wird im Rahmen eines regionalen Fallbeispiels einer tiefergehenden Analyseunterzogen. Hieraus werden Vorschläge zur regionalen Netzwerkbildung innerhalb derBranche und neue Dienstleistungsperspektiven abgeleitet. Ein wesentliches Koope-rationsfeld ist ...

  16. Image Acquisition and Quality in Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Medical imaging has undergone dramatic changes and technological breakthroughs since the introduction of digital radiography. This article presents information on the development of digital radiography and types of digital radiography systems. Aspects of image quality and radiation exposure control are highlighted as well. In addition, the article includes related workplace changes and medicolegal considerations in the digital radiography environment. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  17. Neutron radiography for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray inspection in that both depend upon use of radiation that penetrates some materials and is absorbed by others to provide a contrast image of conditions not readily available for visual inspection. X-rays are absorbed by dense materials, such as metals, whereas neutrons readily penetrate metals, but are absorbed by materials containing hydrogen. The neutron radiography has been successfully applied to a number of inspection situations. These include the inspection of explosives, advanced composites, adhesively bonded structures and a number of aircraft engine components. With the availability of Californium-252, it has become feasible to construct mobile neutron radiography systems suitable for field use. Such systems have been used for in-situ inspection of flight line aircraft, particularly to locate and measure hidden corrosion

  18. Neutron radiography of fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.N. Jr.; Powers, H.G.; Burgess, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron radiography performed with a reactor source has been shown to be a superior radiographic method for the examination of unirradiated mixed oxide fuel pins at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. Approximately 1,700 fuel pins were contained in a sample that demonstrated the capability of the method for detecting laminations, structural flaws, fissile density variation, hydrogenous inclusions and voids in assembled fuel pins. The nature, extent, and importance of the detected conditions are substantiated by gamma autoradiography and by destructive analysis employing alpha autoradiography, electron microprobe and visual inspection. Also, a series of radiographs illustrate the response of neutron radiography as compared to low voltage and high voltage x-ray and gamma source Iridium 192 radiography. (U.S.)

  19. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev

    2008-01-01

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  20. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  1. A range of equipment for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, G.P.M.; Clement, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the history of dental radiography is followed by a description of the latest Philips equipment, ranging from compact units for intra-oral radiography to advanced systems for panoramic techniques and skull radiography. The advantages of automatic exposure control and automatic film processing are also discussed. In conclusion, some probable future trends are forecast. (Auth.)

  2. Development of tungsten collimators for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkey, P.A.; Verma, P.B.; Jayakumar, T.K.; Mammachan, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Collimators are essential components of industrial radiography set up as it provides radiation safety to persons involved in the radiography work. A collimator with optimum design features also helps in reducing the scattered radiation which in turn results in radiographs having better sensitivity. This papers describes the salient design features of the tungsten collimators developed by the BRIT, for industrial radiography. (author)

  3. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  4. New medical application: nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear scattering of 1 GeV protons is used to obtain three dimensional radiographies with a volume resolution of about 1 mm 3 . The information is different from the one given by X-ray radiographies and in particular one may get radiographies of the hydrogen included in objects. Results on a vertebral column and a 'sella turcica' are presented [fr

  5. TREAT neutron-radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The TREAT reactor was built as a transient irradiation test reactor. By taking advantage of built-in system features, it was possible to add a neutron-radiography facility. This facility has been used over the years to radiograph a wide variety and large number of preirradiated fuel pins in many different configurations. Eight different specimen handling casks weighing up to 54.4 t (60 T) can be accommodated. Thermal, epithermal, and track-etch radiographs have been taken. Neutron-radiography service can be provided for specimens from other reactor facilities, and the capacity for storing preirradiated specimens also exists

  6. Radiation protection in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozani, F.; Parnianpour, H.

    1976-08-01

    In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

  7. Use of radiography in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetin, M.; Ekinci, Sh.; Aksu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Radiography is a versatile technique with many applications to archaeological and art historical artefacts. It can be used to assess the condition of objects before conservation treatment, to gain insight into materials used and methods of construction and to reveal the secrets of the embalmers art, hidden within mummified remains. X-ray radiography is an invaluable investigative technique that is non-destructive, quick and cost effective. The study described below covers the investigations of the archaeological artefacts in order to determine their corrosion conditions and production histories which are important for restoration, conservation, replica, dating and inventory works

  8. Educational aspects of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.

    1979-01-01

    The state of art of training and education in non-destructive testing in India, with special reference to industrial radiography is reviewed. Basic requirement of industry and potential of radioisotopes in industrial inspection are also described. Need for an organised training programme in industrial isotope radiography to exploit potentials for benefit of industry concurrent with the safety is stressed. A comprehensive training programme tailored to meet the needs of Indian industry is outlined. Benefits obtained from the course to the industry since the beginning of the training programme are briefly reviewed. (auth.)

  9. Radiography of the equine thorax and its differential diagnosis relevance; Die differenzialdiagnostische Bedeutung der röntgenologischen Thoraxuntersuchung beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H. J. [Klinik fuer Pferde, Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Offeney, F.

    1990-07-01

    Commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the cause of dyspnoe or loss of performance in the horse. Tracheobronchoscopy, cytology of tracheobronchial aspirates, interpleural pressure measurement, and arterial blood gas analysis improved diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders. Yet some intrathoraeie diseases, especially chronic pneumonia, are differential diagnosis problems. Radiography of the thorax improves the diagnosis of pneumonia and some other intrathoraeie diseases. The technique of the radiography of the thorax is described and radiographic findings in 166 horses suffering from respiratory diseases are evaluated. Theses horses showed pathologic radiographic findings caused by COPD (n =61), pneumonia (67), pleuritis (12), exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (8), aspiration pneumonia (7), hydrothorax (6), pneumothorax (2), lung abseess (1); mediastinal tumor (1), and diaphragmatie hernia (1) [German] Die chronisch obstruktive Bronchitis (COB) ist die häufigste Ursache von Atembeschwerden oder Leistungsmangel beim Pferd. Tracheobronchoskopie, Tracheobronchialsekretzytologie, interpleurale Druckmessung und arterielle Blutgasanalyse verbesserten die Diagnostik respiratorischer Erkrankungen. Dennoch bestehen Probleme hinsichtlich der Differentialdiagnose zur COB, und zwar insbesondere bei chronischen Pneumonien. Die röntgenologische Thoraxuntersuchung verbessert die Diagnose von Pneumonien und einigen anderen intrathorakalen Erkrankungen. Die Technik der röntgenologischen Thoraxuntersuchung wird beschrieben, und die Befunde von 166 Pferden mit Erkrankungen der Atemorgane werden ausgewertet. Diese Pferde zeigten pathologische Röntgenbefunde als Folge einer COB (n =61), einer Pneumonie (67), einer Pleuritis (12), eines belastungsinduzierten Lungenblutens (8), einer Aspirationspneumonie (7), eines Hydrothorax (6), eines Pneumothorax (2), eines Lungenabszesses (1), eines mediastinalen Tumors (1) und einer Zwerchfellhernie (1)

  10. Rosetta und Yella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Urban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’apparition de l’homo oeconomicus marque la fin des grands récits et par là de l’ensemble social que ceux-ci avaient légitimé. En même temps cependant il entre dans les récits littéraires – et filmiques, par exemple dans Rosetta (1999 des frères Dardenne et Yella (2007 de Christian Petzold. L’article se propose de montrer comment ces derniers réussissent à mettre en scène les apories existentielles d’un sujet produit par le dispositif économique en appliquant des procédés narratifs permettant de problématiser la narration elle-même.Mit dem Auftauchen des homo oeconomicus scheint das Ende der großen Erzählungen und des von diesen legitimierten sozialen Zusammenhangs besiegelt. Genau in diesem Moment indes beginnen sich die kleinen, die literarischen und filmischen Erzählformen für den ökonomischen Menschen zu interessieren. In dem Artikel geht es darum zu zeigen, wie die Brüder Dardenne und Christian Petzold die Aporien eines vom ökonomischen Dispositiv produzierten Subjekts in ihren Filmen Rosetta (1999 und Yella (2007 erzählerisch umsetzen und dabei genau diese erzählerische Umsetzbarkeit in Frage stellen.

  11. Supraleitung Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Grundlegende Konzepte und Eigenschaften von Supraleitern, die Herstellung und Entwicklung von neuen supraleitenden Materialien sowie moderne Anwendungsbereiche sind die Schwerpunktthemen des Buches. Das größte Potential zur Nutzung der Supraleitung liegt in der Energietechnik. Fast unbemerkt trägt die Einführung von Kabeln, Magneten, Transformatoren oder Lagern aus supraleitenden Materialien bei zur Effizienzsteigerung bei der Stromübertragung oder in Motoren. Durch seiner klare Sprache und zahlreiche erläuternde Abbildungen eignet sich der Band hervorragend als einführendes Lehrbuch. Der Schwierigkeitsgrad wird von Kapitel zu Kapitel gesteigert. So können auch Einsteiger ohne einschlägige Vorkenntnisse dem Stoff folgen. Dank der über 350 Literaturhinweise bekommt der Leser außerdem einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Publikationen zum Thema. Ein unverzichtbares Lehrbuch also für Physik-Studenten und Studierende der Ingenieurwissenschaften. Fachleuten in Forschung und Praxis leistet das Buch au...

  12. Der Nahostkonflikt und die Medien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Richter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diese Einführung in eine Themenausgabe zu den vielfältigen Rollen der Medien im Nahostkonflikt skizziert die Probleme, die sich für Medien und Journalisten als Akteure im Konflikt, Adressaten der Konfliktparteien und Anlass für Konflikt durch ihre Berichterstattung ergeben. Das Konfliktgebiet Israel und Palästina ist sowohl für Forschung über Auslandsbericht-erstattung, über transnationale Agenda Building- und Public Diplomacy-Prozesse als auch über mediensystemische Entwicklungen in Besatzer- und Besatzungsgebieten interessant. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über das Feld und führt dabei in die in der Themenausgabe präsentierten empirischen Studien zum Nahostkonflikt und den Medien ein.

  13. Radiological safety aspects of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekom, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Industrial radiography and especially gamma-radiography, has established itself as a very powerful tool in non-destructive testing. Unfortunately there is an amount of risk attached to the use of industrial radiography. The primary causes of radiography accidents include: working conditions, equipment failure and lack of supervisory control. To alleviate the radiological risks involved with gamma-radiography, the Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) has imposed various conditions for the possession, use, and conveyance of radioactive material. This includes personnel training and equipment specifications

  14. Die biene und ihre produkte in der kunst und im alltagsleben (Fruhchristliche und byzantinische Zeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liveri Angeliki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die vorliegende Arbeit ist in zwei Teile geteilt: den kunst- und kulturhistorischen Teil. Im ersten Teil werden Darstellungen uber Bienen Bienenzucht, Honig und Wachs seit der fruhchristlichen bis zur spatbyzantinischen Zeit vorgefuhrt. Daher ist es als Beitrag in der "Ikonographie" der Biene wahrend dieser Zeit zu verstehen. Im kulturhistorischen Teil werden Informationen uber die Bienenzucht, den Handel mit Honig und Wachs sowie ihre vielfaltige Anwendung von der byzantinischen Gesellschaft an Hand der primaren Quellen, des Standes der Forschung und der archaologischen Funden erwahnt. Damit ist erwunscht ein moglichst gutes Bild der byzantinischen Bienenzucht wieder zu geben und die Nutzung der Bienenprodukte in Byzanz anschaulich zu machen.

  15. Digitalisierung und Selbstbestimmung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberger, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurztext: Der Beitrag beleuchtet das Verhältnis von Digitalisierung und Recht. Am Beispiel der Blockchain-Technologie wird aufgezeigt, wie neue Formen und Räume der Selbstbestimmung geschaffen werden können. In distribuierten Systemen ist die Tendenz erkennbar, dass sich die rechtliche hin zu einer technologischen Steuerung verlagert. Wenn Funktionen, die für gewöhnlich der demokratisch legitimierte Gesetzgeber wahrnimmt, auf andere Systeme übergehen, führt dies zu Herausforderungen für rechtsstaatliche Demokratien. Fundamentale Fragen von Kontrolle und Machtbeschränkung iZm Digitalisierung stehen im Fokus. Der Beitrag plädiert schließlich für „legal foresight“-Forschung im Bereich neuer Technologien.

  16. Radiation protection in technical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, H.

    1980-01-01

    In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP) [de

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  18. Image quality in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution deals with the potentials of digital radiography and critically evaluates the advantages of drawbacks of the image intensifier-tv-digital system; digitalisation of the X-ray film and scanning of luminescent storage foils. The evaluation is done in comparison with the image quality of the traditional, large-size X-ray picture. (orig.) [de

  19. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  20. Industrial Radiography: Principle and Practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The successful and effectiveness of radiography method as a tool to increase quality level and safety of the engineering system and processing plants depend with the level of radiographer knowledge as service provider and also as supervisor. This book was published as effort several local experts to give their knowledge, theory and practical related to radiography technique to the involved public directly or indirectly. This book started with basic physic knowledge that becomes a root to radiography technology. Then, followed by discussion on tools and device that used in radiography work including x-ray machine, gamma projector, film, dark room, and others. Each aspect of radiograph quality also mentioned here to guide the reader on how to produce good radiograph that filled the specification wanted. The good radiograph does not mean anything if it failed to be interpreted correctly. Because of that, this book also explain how to choose good radiograph that qualified to be interpreted and after that how interpretation and evaluation process of object quality inspected was implemented based on image digestion that showed in radiograph. Several code and standard that usually applied in this country also will be referred as well for this work.

  1. Safety procedures for radiography works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Work preparation: before exposure, during exposure, after work completion. Radiographic work at the open site: types of open sites, establishment of radiographic boundary, storage of radiographic equipment at sites. Safety procedures for radiography works; radiographic works in exposure room

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  4. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  5. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. Practical radiation protection for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.K.; Proudfoot, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive Testing Applications and Radiological Engineering at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory have developed radiation protection procedures, radiation work procedures, and safe practice procedures to assure safe operation for all radiographic work. The following topics are discussed: training in radiation safety; radiation exposure due to operations at Hanford; safeguards employed in laboratory radiography; field radiographic operations; and problems

  7. "Deutsche Kultur" und Werbung

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Die Arbeit präsentiert die Geschichte der modernen Wirtschaftswerbung in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts und zeigt, dass Werbung trotz kultureller Barrieren die Alltagswelten der Deutschen kolonialisierte und Einfluss auf die „deutsche Kultur“ nahm. Die Arbeit zeigt, dass das Konstrukt der „deutschen Kultur“ nicht ausschließlich durch die bürgerliche Hochkultur definiert wurde, sondern zunehmend auch durch Einflüsse der Konsumkultur bestimmt war. Die Bilderwelten der Werbung prägten na...

  8. Work-Life-Balance und Frauenbiographien

    OpenAIRE

    Macha, Hildegard

    2006-01-01

    Work-Life-Balance und Frauenbiographien. - In: Bildungs- und Karrierewege von Frauen / Anne Schlüter (Hrsg.). - Opladen : Budrich, 2006. - S. 17-32. - (Reihe: Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung in der Erziehungswissenschaft ; 2)

  9. Nutzerorientiertes Management von materiellen und immateriellen Informationsobjekten

    OpenAIRE

    Hübsch, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Schaffung einer stabilen, erweiterbaren und skalierbaren Infrastruktur für die Bereitstellung von Diensten im Umfeld von Bibliotheken und ähnlichen wissensanbietenden Einrichtungen unter Verwendung von XML-RPC und Python.

  10. Das IHS und die Rolle der Forschungsinstitute

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Das Institut für Höhere Studien und wissenschaftliche Forschung (IHS) ist ein unabhängiges Forschungsinstitut und leistet Forschung und Ausbildung auf Spitzenniveau für Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Im Wettbewerb zwischen Universitäten und angewandten Forschungsinstituten ist das IHS einzigartig, weil es unter einem Dach Grundlagenforschung und forschungsnahe Lehre mit angewandter Forschung für die wissenschaftliche Politikberatung verbindet. Mit den drei Disziplinen Ökonomie, Soziolo...

  11. Expert`s dictionary of technical terminology in non-destructive materials testing. 1359 terms and definitions from A - Z used in non-destructive materials and workpiece testing - for vocational training, students and professionals; Expert-Praxislexikon Zerstoerungsfreie Materialpruefung. 1359 Begriffe von A bis Z zur zerstoerungsfreien Material- und Werkstueckuntersuchung - fuer Lehre, Studium und Beruf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeb, S

    1998-12-31

    The monolingual, German dictionary is a compilation enhanced by figures and tables, of technical terms and definitions used in non-destructive materials testing and application of the following eight major testing methods: - Radiography using X-rays - radiography using isotope beams - crack examination with the magnetic particle method - magnetic stray field testing with scanning probe - penetration tests with light and uv radiation - ultrasonic tests including evaluation of results - eddy current testing, manual and automated - sound emission methods. (orig./MM) 179 figs., 8 tabs. [Deutsch] Die wichtigsten Begriffe aus dem Gebiet der folgenden acht Untersuchungsverfahren sind in diesem Woerterbuch zusammengestellt und erlaeutert: - Durchstrahlungsverfahren mit Roentgenstrahlen - Durchstrahlungsverfahren mit Isotopenstrahlen - Risspruefung nach dem Magnetpulververfahren - magnetische Streuflusspruefung mit Sondenabtastung - Eindringverfahren bei sichtbarem Licht und bei UV-Licht - Ultraschallverfahren mit Bewertung der Ergebnisse - Wirbelstromverfahren manuell und automatisch - Schallemissionsverfahren. (orig./MM)

  12. Diagrammatik und Wissensorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Freyberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available EinleitungDie Formen des „Sichtbarmachens“ in der Wissenschaft reichen von „Abbildungen“ über „Modelle“ bis hin zu „Simulationen“. Sie können u.a. gezeichnet, fotografiert, geometrisch konstruiert oder durch Sensorik vermittelt, digital prozessiert werden. Ihre Funktionen erstrecken sich von der Orientierung bis hin zur (hypothetischen Voraussage und somit auch vom Überblick bis zur Evidenzsuggestion. Generell handelt es sich um vereinfachte (und vereinfachende Darstellungen von (teilweise sehr komplexen Sachverhalten, zu deren Verständnis sie beitragen sollen; daher können sie bei Lernprozessen, d.h. in der Vermittlung und auch bei der Organisation von Wissen eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Diese kommt ihnen nun nicht nur zu, weil sie – wie in den mittelalterlichen Mnemotechniken – als Gedächtnisstützen für bekannte Sachverhalte dienen. Sondern resultiert auch aus ihrem Potenzial für die Entdeckung von neuen Zusammenhängen. Der folgende Artikel diskutiert die Darstellungsform des Diagramms. Es wird hier mit dem Gedanken gespielt, dass die in der universalen Zeichentheorie von C.S. Peirce entwickelte Diagrammatik wichtige Impulse für eine Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs von Wissen und Bildlichkeit geben kann.

  13. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  14. Substanzbegriff und systematik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütjeharms, W.J.

    1934-01-01

    Bei der Einteilung der Organismen, welche in dieser Arbeit mir von botanischem Gesichtspunkt betrachtet wird, ist die Frage nach „wesentlichen” Merkmalen oder Einteilungsgründen von grosser Wichtigkeit. Es ist die Frage nach der Substanz (Essenz) und den akzidentellen Merkmalen. Der Substanzbegriff

  15. Stenting und technische Stentumgebung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstetter, Marc; Pfeifer, Stefan; Schratzenstaller, Thomas; Wintermantel, Erich

    In hoch entwickelten Industrieländern stehen laut Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen und speziell die Koronare Herzkrankheit (KHK) an erster Stelle der Todesursachen. In Deutschland betrug die Zahl der erfassten, an KHK erkrankten Personen ohne Berücksichtigung der Dunkelziffer allein im Jahre 2001 über 473.000. Die KHK war im Jahre 2003 mit 92.673 erfassten Todesfällen immer noch die häufigste Todesursache, obgleich in Deutschland die Häufigkeit der Koronarinterventionen zur Behandlung der KHK zwischen 1984 und 2003 um fast das 80fache von 2.809 auf 221.867 Eingriffe pro Jahr gestiegen ist [1]. Neben der hohen Zahl an Todesfällen haben die betroffenen Personen durch chronische Schmerzen und eingeschränkte körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit zusätzlich eine starke Beeinträchtigung der Lebensqualität [2].In Folge dessen wird die erkrankte Person häufig zum Pflegefall was neben den gesundheitlichen Aspekten auch eine sozioökonomische Komponente in Form der fehlenden Arbeitskraft und den auftretenden Pflegekosten nach sich zieht. Die Kosten für die Behandlung der KHK in Deutschland beliefen sich im Jahre 2002 laut Statistischem Bundesamt auf rund 6,9 Mrd. €. Verglichen mit ähnlichen Zahlen der USA dürfte sich der entstandene Schaden für die deutsche Volkswirtschaft im zwei- bis dreistelligen Milliardenbereich bewegen [3].

  16. Herausforderungen kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel

    Vielfältige externe Herausforderungen, hervorgerufen durch die Dynamik, mit der sich die wirtschaftliche, technologische, soziokulturelle sowie politische Umwelt wandelt, muss jedes Unternehmen im Laufe der Zeit bestehen (Zäpfel 2000). Diese Herausforderungen werden heute insbesondere durch eine Globalisierung der Wettbewerbssowie Nachfragestrukturen verstärkt. Immer schnellere Prozessund Produktinnovationen, kürzere Produktlebenszyklen und Entwicklungszeiten, eine rasant steigende Variantenvielfalt, Nachfrageschwankungen sowie rasante Entwicklungen der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien sind einige der sich schnell verändernden Rahmenbedingungen. Zudem müssen sich Unternehmen an neue Gesetze und rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen anpassen. Im Bereich der Roh- und Einsatzstoffe sind Veränderungen insbesondere durch sich verknappende Rohstoffe und Primärenergieträger und in Folge dessen durch drastische Preissteigerungen für Materialien, Hilfsstoffe, Werkzeuge etc. geprägt.

  17. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockings, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The first applications of the imaging capability of X-rays were non-medical. Roentgen produced images of his shotgun, a compass and a set of weights in a closed box to show his colleagues. Prior to 1912, X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine and dentistry because the X-ray tubes failed under the higher voltages required for industrial purposes. However, that changed in 1913 when high vacuum X-ray tubes designed by Coolidge became available. In 1922, industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200,000-volt X-ray tube that allowed radiographs of thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In 1931 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted approval of fusion welded pressure vessels by x-ray, which promoted an acceptance and use of the method. That application continues. Radium became the initial gamma ray source for industrial radiography. The material allowed radiography of castings up to 30cm thick. During World War II, industrial radiography grew significantly as part of the US Navy's shipbuilding-program, and in 1946 gamma ray sources such as cobalt 60 and iridium 192 became available. These new sources gained rapid popularity because they emitted more intense radiation than radium and were less expensive. Present state: the majority of industrial radiography techniques have changed little since their inception. An image is captured, processed and analysed for evidence of fault or defect. Today however, the images are of higher quality and greater sensitivity, through the use of better quality films, smaller radiation sources and automated processing. Developments in electronics and computers now allow technicians to create a digital image, enhance it, transmit it or store it indefinitely. The most noticeable change in industrial radiography equipment from the technician's view would be the reduction in weight of the equipment for a given kV output. Never the less it remains

  18. Dose optimisation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2005-01-01

    After the installation of computed radiography (CR) systems in three hospitals in Luxembourg a patient dose survey was carried out for three radiographic examinations, thorax, pelvis and lumbar spine. It was found that the patient doses had changed in comparison with the patient doses measured for conventional radiography in the same three hospitals. A close collaboration between the manufacturers of the X-ray installations, the CR imaging systems and the medical physicists led to the discovery that the speed class with which each radiographic examination was to be performed, had been ignored, during installation of the digital imaging systems. A number of procedures were carried out in order to calibrate and program the X-ray installations in conjunction with the CR systems. Following this optimisation procedure, a new patient dose survey was carried out for the three radiographic examinations. It was found that patient doses for the three hospitals were reduced. (authors)

  19. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  20. Industrial radiography X and Gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres M, Nelson; Torres B, Miguel; Montanez, Juan.

    1986-04-01

    This publication gives a practical orientation on industrial radiography. The first chapters deal with basic facts that are useful for professional work in this field. It comprises topics such as generation of X-rays, equipment being used, radiographic films, sensibility, and the penetrameters used. This publication also describes the most used radiographic techniques and the processing of the radiographic film. It contains practical recommendations on how to obtain a good radiographic inspection. It states the reasons for defects in the radiographies. Two annexes are attached which include tables for the selection of penetrameters according to the ASME and DIN codes as well as the time needed for development and fixing according to the temperature

  1. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs; Mountainbiking. Luftige Hoehen und traumatische Tiefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Mountainbiking erfreut sich seit mehr als 2 Jahrzehnten sowohl im Breiten- als auch Wettkampfsport einer ungebrochenen Popularitaet. Die assoziierten Risiken werden allerdings nicht mit derselben Aufmerksamkeit beobachtet wie etwa jene des Skisports. Die Verletzungen beim Mountainbiking sind spezifisch und nicht mit den Verletzungen vergleichbar, die bei anderen Radsportarten entstehen. Dies ist z. T. durch die Besonderheiten des Terrains und z. T. durch eine im Vergleich zum Rennradfahren hoehere Risikobereitschaft zu erklaeren. Die Radiologie hat ihren Stellenwert besonders in der Akutdiagnostik. Hier beschaeftigt sie sich v. a. mit muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen und setzt in erster Linie auf die digitale Projektionsradiographie und die MRT. Zur Evaluierung schwerer Verletzungen des Kopfs, der Wirbelsaeule, des Thorax und des Abdomens wird die CT bevorzugt, insbesondere in dezidierten Traumazentren. Damit kann die Radiologie ihren Teil

  2. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Supine Position : Comparison by Using Conventional Semiquantitative Radiography and Visual Radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Ilone C.; van der Laan, Johan G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Nieboer, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Kreeftenberg, Herman G.; Jager, Pieter L.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) performed with the patient in the supine position and conventional semiquantitative radiography of the spine by using conventional visual radiography of the spine as the reference standard. Materials and

  3. Imaging techniques and investigation protocols in pediatric emergency imaging; Aufnahmetechnik und Untersuchungsprotokolle beim paediatrischen Notfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, M.; Hoermann, M.; Puig, S.; Prokop, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    Paediatric emergencies demand a quick and efficient radiological investigation with special attention to specific adjustments related to patient age and radiation protection. Imaging modalities are improving rapidly and enable to diagnose childhood diseases and injuries more quickly, accurately and safely. This article provides an overview of imaging techniques adjusted to the age of the child and an overview of imaging strategies of common paediatric emergencies. Optimising the imaging parameters (digital radiography, different screen-film systems, exposure specifications) allows for substantial reduction of radiation dose. Spiral- and multislice-CT reduce scan time and enable a considerable reduction of radiation exposure if scanning parameters (pitch setting, tube current) are properly adjusted. MRI is still mainly used for neurological or spinal emergencies despite the advent of fast imaging sequences. The radiologist's task is to select an appropriate imaging strategy according to expected differential diagnosis and to adjust the imaging techniques to the individual patient. (orig.) [German] Das akut erkrankte Kind erfordert eine rasche radiologische Abklaerung mit besonderer Beruecksichtung der geaenderten Untersuchungsparameter bei gleichzeitig hohem Anspruch an den Strahlenschutz. Hochaufloesende Schallkoepfe, Multislice-CT und schnelle MR-Sequenzen erlauben eine bessere Anpassung der Untersuchungsmethoden an die Beduerfnisse in der Kinderradiologie. Ziel dieses Artikels ist eine Uebersicht ueber die verschiedenen radiologischen Untersuchungstechniken sowie deren Anpassung an kindliche Anforderungen und die Angabe von Untersuchungsalgorithmen der haeufigsten paediatrischen Notfaelle. In der Projektionsradiographie erlaubt die Optimierung der Aufnahmetechnik (digitale Radiographie, unterschiedliche Klassen von Film-Folien-Systemen, Belichtungsparameter) eine deutliche Reduktion der Strahlendosis bei diagnostisch ausreichender Qualitaet. Spiral- oder

  4. Industrial radiography with phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental system that comprises a film of low silver content and a pair of high resolution phosphor intensifying screens and a commercial industrial X-ray film of similar speed are compared for image quality. It is concluded that the use of phosphor screens offers an increase in image quality when the information is limited by the graininess or quantum mottle of a radiograph which is frequently the case in practical radiography. (author)

  5. Radiological security for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya G, Manuel.

    1985-04-01

    This report comprises the basic notions of nucleonics, simple calculations for point sources, X-rays, calculations for coatings, standards for radiation protection and industrial radiography instruments. The preceding sums up with the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This is a guide for people who wish to pass examinations, to get the license for radiological safety, for operators on gamma-graphic sources, which work in the country. It is a requirement for work with this kind of radioactive sources

  6. Digital radiography using scintillating screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the technical features of a digital radiographic system based on the principle of scanning laser stimulated luminescence. Such aspects as the physics of the stimulable phosphor detector are dealt with, and image acquisition, processing, and hard-copy output. Automatic analysis of pixel histograms is described, in a qualitative way, together with contrast modifications and spatial filtering. Physical image characteristics are reported. The overall performance of digital radiography is examined, together with the current requirements and its eventual developments

  7. Exposure reduction in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapa, S.F.; Platin, E.

    1990-01-01

    Increased receptor speed in panoramic radiography is useful in reducing patient exposure if it doesn't substantially decrease the diagnostic quality of the resultant image. In a laboratory investigation four rare earth screen/film combinations were evaluated ranging in relative speed from 400 to 1200. The results indicated that an exposure reduction of approximately 15 percent can be achieved by substituting a 1200 speed system for a 400 speed system without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of the image

  8. Radiation safety for site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guidance is an update of the 1975 Code of Practice for Site Radiography and is for the use of employers and their radiographers who carry out site work. The subject is discussed under the following headings: Administrative organization, Personnel requirements, Equipment (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment, security, pipeline crawler equipment and safety equipment) Work methods and monitoring, Carriage of sources, Contingency plans, Legal considerations. (U.K.)

  9. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  10. New prospect in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluzeau, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a very useful non-destructive testing (NDT) method which frequently complements classical X-ray inspection. Numerous inspections in some fields are currently performed at reactor-based neutron radiography facilities but many other interesting applications in different fields are at present not considered because the objects to be tested cannot be moved to a reactor. It is the goal of the DIANE project, to allow the utilization of this NDT method in industrial facilities by developing a safe and convenient neutron radiography equipment using an ''on-off'' neutron source. As a result of the efforts of the four European partners, a first laboratory demonstration model is currently in operation in Germany and a fully mobile second one is expected by the end of 1992. Good radiographs are obtained with exposure times in the range of a few seconds to ten minutes using an electronic imaging system. The fast neutron generator uses a sealed neutron tube delivering 5.10 11 neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 in 4 π steradian; with a collimator ratio of about 12, the fluence rate onto the object is then close to 1,5.10 5 thermal neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . (author)

  11. Medical radiography with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duehmke, E.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron radiography is important in medicine for two reasons. On the one hand, macroradiographical findings are different from X-ray findings, i.e. new information may be gained on the morphology of humans and animals. On the other hand, there is a direct practical application in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours if one considers the assessment of the growth of malignant processes. Fast neutrons are required for neutron radiographies of biological objects with a diameter of more than 2 cm. In addition sensitive, two-dimensional detectors must be used which are selective for fast neutrons. The book describes the optimisation and sensitisation of a detector using the example of cellulose nitrate foil for fast reactor neutrons. Images of human spinal chords with tumours proved by pathological and anatomical examinations give a better picture of the dimensions of the tumour than comparative X-ray pictures. For examinations of living patients, neutron radiography should be applied only in those tumour-bearing parts of the bodies in which radiation treatment is required for therapeutical purposes anyway. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Portable radiography using linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    There are numerous instances where the availability of a portable high-energy radiography machine that could be transported to the inspection site with relative ease would save time, money, and make radiography of permanent installations, such as bridges, possible. One such machine, the Minac built by Schoenberg Radiation Inc., is commercially available. It operates at 9.3 GHz, has an electron energy on target of 3.5 MeV, and an output dose rate of 100 R/min. A second portable accelerator, recently completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, operates at 2.998 GHz, has electron energies on target of 6, 8, and 10 MeV, and an output dose rate of 800 R/min at 8 MeV. This paper discusses the need for and applications of portable accelerators for radiography. Physical characteristics and beam parameters of both machines are examined in detail. Problems of operating at higher frequencies to further minimize size and weight are discussed

  13. Neutron radiography at the Risoe National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.; Gade-Nielsen, P.; Knudsen, P.; Olsen, J.

    1981-11-01

    In this report six papers are collected which will be presented at the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography in San Diego, U.S.A., 7 - 10 December 1981. They are preceded by a short description of the activities of Risoe National Laboratory in the field of post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuel. One of the nondestructive methods used for this examination is neutron radiography. In the six conference papers different aspects of neutron radiography performed at Risoe are presented. (author)

  14. Industrial radiography techniques and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of industrial radiography are discussed. These include: radiation sources, geometrical unsharpness of image, radiation attenuation in the specimen, radiation effect of film, types of film, intensifying screens, exposure time calculations, source to film distance and sensivitity. Radiography techniques for examination of welded joints on flat plate and pipes or cylindrical objects, and castings are indicated. Applications of radiography in various industries are mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  15. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma.

  16. Sorption und Verbreitung per- und polyfluorierter Chemikalien (PFAS) in Wasser und Boden

    OpenAIRE

    Gellrich, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    PFAS (= Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances) sind persistente organische Spurenstoffe, die weltweit in verschiedenen Umweltkompartimenten nachgewiesen werden konnten. Im Rahmen dieser Dissertation sollte die Frage geklärt werden, wie die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften der PFAS - besonders ihre Sorption am Boden - ihr Verhalten und ihre Verbreitung in der Umwelt beeinflussen. Dazu wurde zunächst eine Messmethode entwickelt, optimiert und validiert, mit der 17 per- und polyf...

  17. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Yojiro

    1995-01-01

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  18. A Neutron Radiography System for Field Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    provoked a major renewal of interest in neutron radiography because it promises to bring neutron radiography to the workplace , a convenience provided...II I~F I C II i IiH i ii MTL TR 89-52 I-AD A NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEM N FOR FIELD USE e~m JOHN J. ANTAL and ALFRED S. MAROTTA, and LOUIS J. FARESE...COVERED A NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEM FOR FIELD USE Final Report 6. PERFORMING OR1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) John J

  19. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Kessler, T.; Lange, T.; Overbeck, J.; Fiebich, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients' follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ''inter-observer analysis'' was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  20. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Peter; Millord, Erik Yardin

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  1. Neutron radiography at the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markgraf, J.F.W.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains the five papers on neutron radiography activities at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) presented at the Third World Conference on Neutron Radiography which was held in May 1989 in Osaka, Japan. In addition, a survey on neutron radiography in Europe for industry and research as presented at the SITEF NDT symposium 1989 on European Advances in Non-Destructive Testing, held in Toulouse/France in October 1989 is included. The papers compiled here are concerned with: the neutron radiography services available in Petten; the experience with and applications of neutron radiography at Petten; image evaluation and analysis techniques at Petten; the practical utilization of nitrocellulose film in neutron radiography in Europe; an introduction into the basic principles of neutron radiography; an overview of the neutron radiography facilities in Europe for industry and research; and a survey of typical applications of neutron radiography in industry, research and sciences. It is the intention of this compilation to provide a comprehensive overview of the present Petten activities and European facilities in this young and promising field of non-destructive testing of materials and components from the nuclear and the non-nuclear industries and research organizations, and from the sciences

  2. Plazentaanatomie und -physiologie mit uteroplazentarem Kreislauf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, N.; Schreiber, J. U.; Kranke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Die Plazenta besteht neben der Nabelschnur aus parenchymatösem Gewebe, der sog. Eihaut (Amnion) und der Zottenhaut (Chorion). Sie fungiert als Schnittstelle zwischen Mutter und Fetus und ermöglicht den physiologischen Transfer von Gasen, Nährstoffen und Metaboliten. Die Funktion der Plazenta ist als

  3. MDCT classification of osseous ankle and foot injuries; MDCT-Klassifikation knoecherner Verletzungen des oberen Sprunggelenks und des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opherk, J.P.; Rosenthal, H.; Galanski, M. [Medizinische Hochschule, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Conventional radiography plays an essential role in the primary evaluation of acute ankle and foot trauma. In the case of complex injuries, however, subsequent computed tomography (CT) is nowadays recommended. In this connection, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with the conventional single-slice spiral CT. Multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional reconstruction of the acquired data sets are also helpful tools for critical assessment of therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the potential of the MDCT technique for accurate fracture classification, precise illustration of displaced components, and postoperative control of arrangement of typical lesions. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle Radiographie spielt bei der initialen Diagnostik akuter Verletzungen des oberen Sprunggelenks und des Fusses eine essenzielle Rolle. Im Falle komplexer Frakturen ist jedoch eine weiterfuehrende computertomographische Diagnostik empfehlenswert. Dabei ist die Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT) der konventionellen Einzeilencomputertomographie hinsichtlich Zeit-, Orts- und Kontrastaufloesung deutlich ueberlegen. Die multiplanare Reformation und dreidimensionale Rekonstruktion des akquirierten Datensatzes sind zudem bei der Beurteilung therapeutischer Interventionen aussagekraeftige Werkzeuge. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die exakte Frakturklassifikation, die praezise Abbildung dislozierter Komponenten und die postoperative Stellungskontrolle typischer Verletzungen mit dieser Technik. (orig.)

  4. Hegel und Gorgias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    Hegel und Gorgias /Jørgen Huggler (University of Aarhus, Denmark) (huggler(at)dpu.dk) Hegels Verständnis des Sophist Gorgias von Leontinoi in den Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie gründet auf seine eigene Interpretation der Eleaten, insbesondere Zenon. Aufgrund eigener philosophischer...... „Gründen“, einen echten Beitrag zu dieser Entwicklung des griechischen Denkens geliefert. Vor allen scheint Gorgias die dialektischen Bemühungen der Eleaten fortgesetzt zu haben. Hegels Auslegung des Gorgias kann den lauwarmen Empfang der Sophisten in den deutschen Beiträgen zur Geschichte der Philosophie...... des späten 18. Jahrhunderts (Meiners, Tiedemann, Stäudlin, Buhle und Tennemann) gegenübergestellt werden. In der Tat ist Hegels philosophisches Verständnis ausreichend, um positive Kommentare zu allen Teilen der Diskussion in Gorgias Argument „Über das Nicht-Seiende, oder Über der Natur“ zu geben...

  5. Gamma radiography and its technological application; Gammagraphie et techniques annexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  6. Rudolf Streinz. Meinungs- und Informationsfreiheit zwischen Ost und West / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Streinz, Rudolf. Meinungs- und Informationsfreiheit zwischen Ost und West : Möglichkeiten und Grenzen intersystemarer völkerrechtlicher Garantien in einem systemkonstituierenden Bereich. Ebelsbach : Rolf Gremer, 1981

  7. Zur historischen Aufarbeitung und medialen Vermittlung der Shoah in Italien und Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kuon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Müller, Patrick Ostermann und Karl-Siegbert Rehberg, Hrsg., Die Shoah in Geschichte und Erinnerung: Perspektiven medialer Vermittlung in Italien und Deutschland (Bielefeld: transcript, 2015.

  8. Ethik und Sicherheitstechnik. Eine Handreichung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammicht-Quinn, Regina; Nagenborg, Michael Herbert; Rampp, Benjamin; Wolkenstein, Andreas F.X.; Ammicht-Quinn, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Mit dem Programm „Forschung für die zivile Sicherheit“ fördert die Bundesregierung im Rahmen der „Hightech-Strategie für Deutschland“ erstmals unmittelbar die Entwicklung von Techniken, die der Schaffung und Bewahrung von ziviler Sicherheit dienen. Bei der Erforschung und Entwicklung von

  9. Bildanalyse in Medizin und Biologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athelogou, Maria; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Schmidt, Günther; Schäpe, Arno; Baatz, Martin; Binnig, Gerd

    Heutzutage sind bildgebende Verfahren aus medizinischen Untersuchungen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Diverse Methoden - basierend auf dem Einsatz von Ultraschallwellen, Röntgenstrahlung, Magnetfeldern oder Lichtstrahlen - werden dabei spezifisch eingesetzt und liefern umfangreiches Datenmaterial über den Körper und sein Inneres. Anhand von Mikroskopieaufnahmen aus Biopsien können darüber hinaus Daten über die morphologische Eigenschaften von Körpergeweben gewonnen werden. Aus der Analyse all dieser unterschiedlichen Arten von Informationen und unter Konsultation weiterer klinischer Untersuchungen aus diversen medizinischen Disziplinen kann unter Berücksichtigung von Anamnesedaten ein "Gesamtbild“ des Gesundheitszustands eines Patienten erstellt werden. Durch die Flut der erzeugten Bilddaten kommt der Bildverarbeitung im Allgemeinen und der Bildanalyse im Besonderen eine immer wichtigere Rolle zu. Gerade im Bereich der Diagnoseunterstützung, der Therapieplanung und der bildgeführten Chirurgie bilden sie Schlüsseltechnologien, die den Forschritt nicht nur auf diesen Gebieten maßgeblich vorantreiben.

  10. [Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Letgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. 2. und 3. Teil] / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Letgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Hrsg. von Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholz, Anton Schindling. 2. und 3. Teil.

  11. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition); Surete radiologique en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in Horizontal-Ellipsis shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  12. Application of computed radiography to ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shigeki; Mochizuki, Fukuji; Fujita, Naotaka; Itoh, Shoichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toyohara, Tokiaki; Matsumoto, Kyoichi

    1984-01-01

    Computed radiography technic was applied to ERCP. Fuji Computed Radiography System was used. The pancreatogram obtained by this method was compared with that of conventional screen-film radiograph. The much finer changes of the pancreatogram can be delineated by the new method. The diagnostic ability of ERCP is thus enhanced by the introduction of FCR. (author)

  13. Radiography of steel castings by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The salient features of isotope radiography techniques in the inspections of alloy castings are described. Some of the typical radiographic tests conducted in the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Bhopal and the problems encountered are described in detail. Specific examples are cited to enlighten the benefits of isotope radiography in heavy industries. (author)

  14. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because

  15. Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography | Koen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography. L Koen, C Herbst, W Rae. Abstract. Background. Studies indicate that computed radiography (CR) can lead to increased radiation dose to patients. It is therefore important to relate the exposure indicators provided by CR manufacturers to the radiation dose ...

  16. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoxall, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  17. Application of neutron radiography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Wada, N.; Sekita, J.; Sanno-cho, Ota-ku, Tokyo, Japan)

    1983-01-01

    The history and the present state of neutron radiography in Japan are reviewed. Three types of neutron sources, namely nuclear reactors, accelerators and radioisotopes are now used. The interests on the application on neutron radiography become greater and greater in the industries, such as atomic energy, aeronautics and space etc. (Auth.)

  18. Radiography of the chest and upper airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharko, G.A.; Wilmot, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques of radiography of the chest in all pediatric-age groups differ only slightly from those used in adult radiography. The technologist's principal challenge, however, relates to optimum handling of the patient with respect to positioning and radiation protection. The hints provided in this chapter should permit the conscientious radiographer to obtain high quality radiographs on all pediatric patients

  19. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  20. Patient risk from interproximal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Pujol, A. Jr.; Chen, T.S.; Malcolm, A.W.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Computer simulation methods for determining patient dose from dental radiography have demonstrated that patient risk from a two-film interproximal examination ranges from 1.1 X 10(-8) to 3.4 X 10(-7) using 90-kVp beams, depending on film speed, projection technique, and age and sex of the patient. Further, changing from a short-cone round-beam to a long-cone technique with rectangular collimation reduces risk by a factor of 2.9, independent of other factors

  1. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S.; Widhalm, P.; Donner, R.; Birngruber, E.; Thodberg, H.H.; Kainberger, F.; Langs, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  2. Patient dosimetry during chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Markovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Reasons for the variation in patient doses from chest radiography procedure were investigated by assessing entrance skin doses from kerma-area product measurements. Data were collected from seven x-ray tubes in five hospitals involving 259 adult patients. The third quartile value was 0.81 mGy compared to general reference level of 0.30 mGy. The applied tube potential was main contributor to patient dose variation. If department use at least 90 k Vp, the mean entrance surface dose would be reduced ut to factor six. Modification of departmental procedure is correct approach for dose reduction in diagnostic radiology. (author) [sr

  3. Quality assurance in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Non-destructive testing in the form of radiography is an inherent part of the manufacturing process. In the development stage - it helps locating physical discontinuities of the component and provides a feedback to specify suitable process, and balanced acceptance criteria, keeping in view the cost of manufacture and demands of specification and performance. In the manufacturing stage - it locates the discontinuities occurring at various stages of manufacture, ensuring timely intervention to prevent the production of scrap and/or rework and loss of energy. In the operation stage, it helps in-service and on-line monitoring of components and plants to avert and ensure planned minimum shutdowns

  4. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie (μCi) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory's routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance

  5. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Michael; Uffmann, Martin; Weber, Michael; Balassy, Csilla; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Prokop, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. (orig.)

  6. Optimizing digital radiography of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric projection imaging differs from imaging of the adult patient. Children are smaller, more radiosensitive, and less compliant than their adult counterparts. Their characteristics affect the way projection imaging is practiced and how dose is optimized. Computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) have been embraced by pediatric practitioners in order to reduce dose and improve image quality. Unfortunately, dose optimization with CR and DR has been hampered by a lack of definition of appropriate exposure levels, a lack of standardization in exposure factor feedback, and a lack of understanding of the fundamentals of CR and DR technology. The potential for over-exposure exists with both CR and DR. Both the Society for Pediatric Radiology and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine recognize the promise and shortcomings of CR and DR technology and have taken steps to join with manufacturers in improving the practice of CR and DR imaging. Although the risks inherent in pediatric projection imaging with CR and DR are low, efforts to reduce dose are worthwhile, so long as diagnostic quality is maintained. Long-standing recommendations for limiting radiation dose in pediatric projection imaging are still applicable to CR and DR.

  7. Survey of neutron radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imel, G.R.; McClellan, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    A directory of neutron radiography facilities around the world was informally compiled about ten years ago under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Subcommittee E7.05 (Radiology, Neutron). The work lay dormant for a number of years, but was revived in earnest in the fall of 1995. At that time, letters were mailed to all the facilities with available addresses in the original directory, requesting updated information. Additionally, information was gathered at the Second Topical meeting on neutron Radiography Facility System Design and Beam Characterization (November, 1995, Shonan Village, Japan). A second mailing was sent for final confirmation and updates in January, 1996. About 75% of the information in the directory has now been confirmed by the facility management. This paper presents a summary of the information contained in the facility directory. An electronic version of the directory in Wordperfect 6.1, uuencode, or rtf format is available by sending e-mail to the authors at imel at sign anl.gov or imel at sign baobab.cad.cea.fr. A WWW site for the directory is presently under construction

  8. Image characterization of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeias, Janaina P.; Saddock, Aline; Oliveira, Davi F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    The digital radiographic image became a reality as of the 80's decade. Since then, several works have been developed with the aim of reducing the exposure time to ionizing radiation obtaining in this way an excellent image quality with a minimum exposure. In the Computerized Radiography, the conventional film is substituted for Image Plate (IP) which consists of a radiosensitive layer of phosphor crystals on a polyester backing plate. The unique design makes it reusable and easy to handle. When exposed, the IP accumulates and stores the irradiated radioactive energy. In order to qualify a computerized radiography system it is necessary to evaluate the Image Plate. In this work it was performed a series of experimental procedures with the aim of evaluating the responses characteristics for different plates. For this purpose it was used a computerized radiographic system CR Tower Scanner - GE, with three different types of IPs, all of them manufactured by GE, whose nomenclatures are IPC, IPX and IPS. It was used the Rhythm Acquire and Review programs for image acquisition and treatment, respectively. (author)

  9. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, N.; Spencer, C.P.; Hager, D.A.; Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  10. Radiation protection in equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    During radiography of the carpus of horses calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation exposure to the hand of an assistant positioning the x-ray film. Three portable x-ray machines and a mobile machine were used during the recordings. The effects of x-ray machine, radiographic technique, and lead rubber gloves upon radiation exposure to the hand were investigated. The size of the primary beam of the x-ray machine was found to be the major factor in determining the dose of radiation received by the hand. The highest radiation exposures were recorded when using two portable machines which were fitted with beam limiting devices that permitted only one primary beam size. The lowest exposures were measured when radiographs were taken with the mobile machine that was fitted with a light beam diaphragm. The control of primary beam size with a light beam diaphragm was found to be the most effective method of reducing radiation dosage to the hand. It is strongly recommended that for equine radiography a light beam diaphragm be fitted to and used on all x-ray machines, and a cassette holder be used to keep the hands out of the primary beam. (author)

  11. Personnel exposures in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)

  12. Synthese und Charakterisierung wasserfreier Seltenerdmetall-Nitrate, -Acetate und -Oxyacetate

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichs, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Durch thermische Entwässerung der Seltenerdmetall(SE)-Nitrat-Hydrate und der SE-Acetat-Hydrate im Argon-Strom/Vakuum konnten wasserfreie SE-Nitrate und SE-Nitrat-Monohydrate bzw. wasserfreie SE-Acetate erhalten werden. Es gelang zudem, SE-Oxyacetate durch thermische Zersetzung der SE-Acetate darzustellen. Des Weiteren wurde beim Erhitzen von Praseodym-Carbonat-Hydrat ein Pr-Carbonat-Hydroxid erhalten. Die Verbindungen wurden mittels Röntgenpulverdiffraktometrie und an ausgewählten Beispielen ...

  13. Editorial: Informationstechnische Bildung und Medienerziehung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Hauf-Tulodziecki

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Die schulische Medienerziehung bzw. die Medienbildung hat ihre derzeit hohe öffentliche Aufmerksamkeit nicht zuletzt der Tatsache zu verdanken, dass gerade die so genannten «Neuen Medien» - heute oft mit den Schlagworten «Multimedia» oder «Internet» abgekürzt - wichtige Erziehungs- und Bildungsmassnahmen erforderlich machen. In der öffentlichen Diskussion gehören inhaltliche Kurzschlüsse zur Tagesordnung: Wenn von «Medienkompetenz» die Rede ist, verbirgt sich dahinter häufig nur ein «Internetführerschein». Diese Beobachtung ärgert nicht nur Medienpädagogen, sondern auch Vertreter einer Informationstechnischen Bildung (1, da berechtigte pädagogische Ansprüche beider Gruppen wenig Beachtung finden. Mittlerweile gibt es eine Reihe von Empfehlungen von BLK und KMK zu diesem Thema, in denen zudem deutlich auf die wechselseitigen Bezüge hingewiesen werden. Die wachsende Bedeutung des Mediums Computer und die weiter zunehmende Digitalisierung traditioneller Medien erfordert sowohl für die Medienerziehung als auch für die Informatische Bildung eine Weiterentwicklung ihrer Ziele und Inhalte. Die Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. hat 1999 in ihrer Empfehlung «Informatische Bildung und Medienerziehung» aus ihrer Perspektive dargestellt, welche Aufgaben auf die Medienerziehung zukommen, wenn auch die Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien bzw. die computerbasierten Medien in einer angemessenen Form thematisiert werden sollen. Erste praktische Ansätze, Inhalte aus beiden Bereichen bewusst zusammenzuführen, auch unter einer gemeinsamen Fach- oder Kursbezeichnung, sind häufig additiv und orientieren sich – trotz vorhandener Überschneidungen – an den etablierten medienpädagogischen oder an den informatischen Unterrichtsprinzipien. In dem vorliegenden Themenheft wird aus einer übergeordneten, medienpädagogischen Perspektive die Frage gestellt, wie eine konsistente Weiterentwicklung der Medienerziehung unter angemessener

  14. Filmless radiography - present possibilities and direction of future developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wocial, A.; Wojciechowski, Z.A.; Rozenblicki, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents introduction for new filmless radiography like CR Computed Radiography and DR Digital Radiography direct and non direct. The main factors are considered, which determine classification to different type of radiography. For each technique authors describe advantages and disadvantages supporting by practice examples. Paper contains a lot of practical information about a most of existing radiographic equipment at the NDT market. (author)

  15. GROSSSPRENGUN UND MIKROSEISMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HARDTWIG

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Uéber die bei Sprengungen entstelienden Periodenspektren ist noch
    wenig bekannt, trotzdem in jedem Jahre Tausende von Sprengungen
    registriert werden. Die wenigen Arbeiten, die zu diesem Gegenstand erscliienen
    sind, stellen nur erste Versuche dar, den Aufbau der Spektren
    zu erklaren. Wàhrend etwa George Morris (* vorwiegend die bei
    Sprengungen si eh abspielenden Detonationsvorgànge zum Ausgangspunkt
    der Untersuchung macht, ist es bei IT. Menzel (2 die Interferenz von
    Primàrwelle und reflektierter Welle, deren Einfluss auf die Gestalt
    des Spektrums untersucht wird.

  16. Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hounsfield, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiographic apparatus is described in which a thin planar slice of the body is examined by a swath of penetrating radiation such as X-rays. Collimators are provided for collimating the radiation after it has passed through the body into a set of beams which are directed into respective detectors. The swath of radiation, the collimeters and the detectors are orbited in the plane of the slice so that the beams pass through the body from many different angular directions. Means are provided for additionally displacing at least the collimators relative to the source so that the relative position of the beams and gaps between the beams are changed during the orbital movement

  17. Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical arrangement for use in computerized tomographic apparatus so as to permit the examination of volumetric body slices and body slices tilted with respect to the examination axis is described. The radiation source is mounted on an inner tilt frame which can rotate, by way of a lockable bearing, in an outer tilt frame which can be tilted relative to a sub frame which can be locked or free relative to the main frame of the apparatus. The outer tilt frame can also rotate, relative to the main frame, in a lockable bearing

  18. Digital radiography is promising in industrial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital radiography has recently entered the industrial world as a tool for non-destructive testing. There are 3 types of digital radiography: computed radiography (CR), direct radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT). In computed radiography, traditional silver-halide films are replaced by photostimulable phosphor imaging plates that are activated through laser scanning and digitized. Direct radiography uses a flat panel detector (FPD) composed of X-ray detectors that performs an immediate digital conversion of the image that can be read by a computer. DR is a perfect tool for industrial testing but the fragility of the FPD panels reduces its uses. Computed tomography is based on the principle of DR to get data corresponding to successive cross-section images of the object. These data are processed by a software to get a 3-dimensional image of the object. CT was first developed for medical use but requires some improvement to become more accurate, faster, particularly for big objects. In recent years DR has enjoyed the highest growth rate in digital radiography. (A.C.)

  19. Proton radiography using highpower femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Il

    2010-08-01

    A femtosecond laser emits pulses whose width is between few and few hundreds femtoseconds (10 -15 s). The production mechanism of the high energy protons generated by the femtosecond laser is not clear so far, but the technologies have been improving. The applications using the generated protons are the proton therapy, proton radiography, nuclear physics, security inspection, and so on. Especially in the radiography, the laser-generated protons are very useful to obtain high quality images of thin objects, because protons are able to penetrate an object following an almost straight path and give a depth distribution information of various elements in a subject. Since the laser-driven protons require lower cost and smaller facility than accelerator-based protons, the radiography using laser-driven protons have been of interest. In this research, we have performed the radiography experiments by using protons generated by the 100 TW titanium sapphire femtosecond laser facility of Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) of Gwangju Institute of Science Technology (GIST). A CR-39 Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) has been used as radiography screen. The radiography digital images have been obtained by using an optical microscope and a CCD camera. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) has been derived from analyzing the obtained images, and the spatial resolution of the images have been evaluated. And, we have performed the radiography experiments of monoenergetic proton from the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). We have obtained and compared the radiography images from other proton production methods which are the laser and the accelerator, respectively. And also, we have found out the optimized chemical etching condition, in order to improve the spatial resolution of the radiography images. Finally, the evaluated maximum spatial resolution of the images are 2.09 μm

  20. Conventional X-ray examination and computed tomography in inflammatory rheumatic diseases; Roentgendiagnostik und Computertomographie bei entzuendlich-rheumatischen Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G. [Rheumazentrum Bad Kreuznach (Germany). Zentrales Roentgeninstitut

    1996-08-01

    Plain-film radiography is an important and basic element in the assessment of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Its various uses include assessment of inflammatory osseous destruction and the activity of inflammatory changes. Furthermore, the inflammatory collateral phenomena can indicate an acute clinical phase, and the articular soft tissue swelling and tenosynovitis are shown directly and indirectly very clearly. On the other hand, high-resolution computed tomography is very capable of showing cortical structures of bone complementary to MR. In some special clinical questions and anatomical regions, especially the axial skeleton, it delivers information of high specifity, partly for definitive diagnosis and partly for planning surgical procedures. The assessment of changes in the sacroiliac joints, sternoclavicular joints and craniocervical junction are domains of computed tomography. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das konventionelle Roentgenbild muss auch heute noch bei klinischer Frage nach entzuendlich-rheumatischer Erkrankung als Basisuntersuchung angesehen werden. Sein Informationspotential umfasst nicht nur knoecherne entzuendliche Destruktionen, sondern es laesst auch deren derzeitige Aktivitaet beurteilen. Weiterhin vermag das Roentgenbild ueber die Kollateralphaenomene auf eine klinische Schubsituation hinzuweisen und die entzuendliche Volumenvermehrung der Gelenke und Sehnenscheiden direkt und indirekt darzustellen. Darueber hinaus bietet die hochaufloesende Computertomographie, insbesondere durch die detaillierte Darstellung kortikaler knoecherner Strukturen - komplementaer zur MR -, bei einigen speziellen Fragestellungen, insbesondere am Stammskelett und an einzelnen grossen Gelenken, hochspezifische Informationen, teils zur definitiven Diagnosestellung, teils auch fuer die Operationsplanung. Dies gilt u.a. fuer die Kreuzdarmbeingelenke, die Sternoklavikulargelenke und die obere HWS. (orig.)

  1. Enterprise Portals und Enterprise Application Integration - Begriffsbestimmung und Integrationskonzeptionen

    OpenAIRE

    Schelp, Joachim; Winter, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Unter den Stichworten »Enterprise Portals« und »Enterprise Application Integration« werden neue Herausforderungen an die Applikationsarchitektur der Unternehmungen gestellt. Bei beiden spielt die Integration vorhandener und das Einfügen neuer Applikationen eine große Rolle. Beiden Themen ist gemein, dass sie die Diskussion bestimmter technischer Konzepte aus den vergangenen Jahren fortsetzen: Portale stellen das moderne Frontend dar, über das die verschiedenen E-Business-Konzepte umgesetzt we...

  2. Application of proton radiography to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Martin, R.L.; Moffett, D.R.; Colton, E.

    1977-12-01

    The use of charged particles for radiographic applications has been considered for some time, but progress has been impeded by the cost and availability of suitable accelerators. However, recent developments in technology could overcome these problems. A review is presented of the physical principles leading to an improvement in mass resolution per unit of absorbed dose for charged particle radiography relative to x-ray radiography. The quantitative comparisons between x-ray and proton radiographs presented here confirm this advantage. The implications of proton radiography on cancer detection, as well as future plans for developing a proton tomographic system, are discussed

  3. Security of radioactive sources in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Andrew; Murray, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the need and new requirements to ensure the security of radioactive sources used in the practice of industrial radiography. We describe the discussions and issues arising during the september 2010 regional workshop held in Sydney on the application of security measures to industrial radiography practices. The workshop provided the perspectives of both radiation regulators and industry practitioners, including those from the Philippines. We describe the outputs of the workshop, and how they were developed, and make suggestions for further consideration and applications of security measures in the practice of industrial radiography. (author)

  4. Direct magnification radiography of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presacco, D.; Pellegrini, A.; Di Maggio, C.

    1987-01-01

    The value of direct magnification radiography of the hand and the wrist has been studied in 128 patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Only in a small group (3.17%) magnification determined a higher percentage of correct diagnosis; in the 17.06% of cases direct magnification radiography provided useful increase in information but did not change the diagnisis correctly reached by conventional techniques. In most cases (79.76%) magnification provided only a better image quality but no more information helpful for the diagnosis, because of the high level achieved by convetional techniques. Therefore direct magnification radiography must be used only in selected cases and not as routine radiographyc technique

  5. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  6. Corrosion Surveillance In Pipe By Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Man; Dao Duy Dung; Dang Thu Hong; Le Duc Thinh; Ha Hong Thu; Nguyen Trong Nghia

    2014-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a technique of digital industrial radiology which is developed to replace conventional radiography. With a CR system, the detection of the outer and inner wall surface of the pipe is done usually by edge detection and filter algorithms of the profile line at the position under investigation. Applying in industries, radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure. This paper summarizes collected knowledge and experimental results to establish a procedure for radiography applications in monitoring corrosion in small bore pipes. (author)

  7. Charter of good practices in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document describes good practices in the field of industrial radiography. After having presented the main prevention and radiation protection principles, the actors inside and outside of the company, and actors intervening during an operation subcontracting in industrial radiography, this report analyzes the activity: prerequisites for work preparation, prevention coordination, work preparation, transportation, work achievement, return on experience. It addresses personnel training and information, and the dosimetric and medical monitoring of technicians in industrial radiography. Some aspects are addressed in appendix: principles (justification, optimization, and limitation), regulations, intervention form, exposure form, and so on

  8. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma. (orig.)

  9. Workshop on industrial isotope radiography: Programme and lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The booklet contains the texts of lectures delivered in the Workshop on Industrial Radiography held at Bombay during 24-25 July 1979. The lectures cover some topics of relevance to industrial radiography. The topics are radiation protection and legislative aspects in industrial radiography; problems in field radiography in fertilizer industry, petrochemical industry and heavy engineering industry; occupational exposures in industrial radiography; and a review of the progress and recent trends in industrial radiographic techniques and equipment. (M.G.B.)

  10. Synchrotron radiography and tomography of a PEM fuel cell; Synchrotron-Radiographie und -Tomographie einer PEM-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markoetter, Henning; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe Bildgebende Verfahren; Arlt, Tobias [TU Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Banhart, John [TU Berlin, Institut fuer angewandte Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany); TU Berlin, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Berlin (Germany); Riesemeier, Heinrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Arbeitsgruppe Synchrotronstrahlanalytik (Germany); Krueger, Philipp [CONSULECTRA Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Haussmann, Jan; Klages, Merle [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Scholta, Joachim [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgruppe Brennstoffzellen-Stacks

    2013-06-01

    The three dimensional water distribution and transport pathways in gas diffusion layers (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuell cell (PEM FC) are analysed at various operating conditions. The method of quasi in-situ X-ray tomography is used for a three dimensional visualization of the water distribution and the GDL structure. Based on the results of dynamic radiographic measurements water transport pathways are located and subsequently investigated in detail by means of tomography. The combination of 2D and 3D techniques allows for an identification of 3D transport pathways through the GDl.

  11. New standards for digital radiography and qualification of detectors; Neue Standards zur Digitalen Radiographie und Qualifizierung von Detektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, Uwe; Zscherpel, Uwe [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    The contribution describes the most important standards for radiographic examinations that are revised in different committees. Information is given on new requirements esp. on revised parameters that have to be considered in practical testing procedures and classification. Actually for the revision of ISO 17636-1/2 in 2018 user questions are collected concerning weld seam testing. The DIN 25435 standards for weld seam testing in nuclear technology have been translated into English. Revisions of ASTM standards have to be considered in the actual EN and ISO standards. Since several years the International Institute of Welding (IIW) is also revising the international standards.

  12. Cyberbullying und Empathie : affektive, kognitive und medienbasierte Empathie im Kontext von Cyberbullying im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Jan; Müller, Christin R.; Ittel, Angela

    2014-01-01

    "Bei medial vermittelter Kommunikation sinkt sowohl die Hemmschwelle für aggressive Verhaltensweisen wie Cyberbullying als auch die Wahrscheinlichkeit empathischer Reaktionen. Im Fokus der vorliegenden Studie mit 979 Schülerinnen und Schülern der 4.-8. Klassen (M=12.01, SD=1.68 Jahre, 55% weiblich) stand die Frage, ob Cyberbullies geringere Ausprägungen für affektive, kognitive und medienbasierte Empathie aufweisen als Unbeteiligte. Empathie wurde im Selbst- und Peerbericht erhoben. Hypothese...

  13. Proton Radiography at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos National Lab uses high energy protons to acquire multiple frame flash radiographic sequences at megahertz speeds: that is, it can make movies of the inside of explosions as they happen. The facility is primarily used to study the damage to and failure of metals subjected to the shock forces of high explosives as well as to study the detonation of the explosives themselves. Applications include improving our understanding of the underlying physical processes that drive the performance of the nuclear weapons in the United States stockpile and developing novel armor technologies in collaboration with the Army Research Lab. The principle and techniques of pRad will be described, and examples of some recent results will be shown.

  14. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  15. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Shuichi; Asada, Yorihisa; Yano, Munehiko; Nakanii, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. This article presents a new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and is equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports. The article describes a series of experiments, we conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained from 9 Be(p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. The article also describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Further, some of practical neutron radiograph examinations of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror and an attempt realizing real time imaging technique, are introduced in the article. (author)

  16. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  17. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  18. Multidimensional analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavayssiere, B.; Georgel, B.

    1992-01-01

    EDF uses non-destructive testing by X or gamma-ray radiography for routine nozzle inspection in nuclear power plants. The images obtained are examined by radiographic specialists in order to detect, identify and quantify any defects, but the quality of the radiograms and the small size of the defects make their work extremely difficult. It is for these reasons that EDF developed ENTRAIGUES, a digital package for the processing and aid in interpretation of images generated by radiographical inspections, aimed at: -digitizing the radiographic films to be appraised, - facilitating analysis of the digitized radiograms. Defect orientation is estimated by 3D reconstruction of the component being inspected, based on a limited number of its projections. (authors). 11 figs., 6 refs

  19. Jung und Alt im Dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Baetge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rezension zu: Kupser, Thomas, und Ida Pöttinger, Hrsg. 2011. Mediale Brücken: Generationen im Dialog durch aktive Medienarbeit. Gesellschaft - Altern - Medien 3. München: kopaed.

  20. Frauen in Philosophie und Wissenschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Harzer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Der von Brigitte Doetsch herausgegebene Band präsentiert die aktuelle Feministische Philosophie und sammelt Beiträge, die Einblick geben in den gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand, wie ihn „Philosophinnen im dritten Jahrtausend“ erreicht haben. Insgesamt neun, zum Teil interdisziplinär ausgerichtete Arbeiten werden vorgestellt. Das Themenspektrum ist weit: Geschichte der Philosophie; Politische Philosophie und Naturphilosophie; Epistemologie; Biopolitik und Bioethik als Bereiche praktischer Philosophie; Forschung über Geschlechterverhältnisse. Alle Beiträge gehen zurück auf eine Vortragsreihe des Braunschweiger Zentrums für Gender Studies (www.genderzentrum.de. Leser/-innen erhalten einen guten Überblick über die aktuelle Frauenforschung aus der Sicht theoretischer und praktischer Philosophie.

  1. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  2. Editorial: Computerspiele und Videogames in formellen und informellen Bildungskontexten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fromme

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer- und Videospiele sind heute ein selbstverständlicher Bestandteil der Lebenswelt vieler Kinder und Jugendlicher, aber auch von (jüngeren Erwachsenen, die mit diesen neuen Medien aufgewachsen sind. Lange Zeit haben elektronische Bildschirmspiele allenfalls sporadische Beachtung gefunden. Weder in der Medienforschung oder Medienpädagogik noch in der breiteren Öffentlichkeit waren sie ein Gegenstand von breiterem Interesse.* In den letzten knapp zehn Jahren sind Video- und Computerspiele allerdings zunehmend in den Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit gerückt. Dabei sind in der massenmedial vermittelten Öffentlichkeit vor allem Amokläufe in Schulen in einen direkten Zusammenhang mit den Vorlieben (der Täter für bestimmte Computerspiele gebracht worden. Die auch von prominenten Politikern aufgegriffene These lautete, dass gewalthaltige Spiele wie der First Person Shooter «Counterstrike» ein virtuelles Trainingsprogramm für das Töten und daher als wesentliche Ursache solcher Schulmassaker anzusehen seien. Auf der Basis dieser kausalen Wirkungsannahmen bzw. der unterstellten negativen Lern- und Trainingseffekte werden seither immer wieder Forderungen nach einem Verbot solcher «Killerspiele» oder gar nach der Verbannung aller Bildschirmmedien aus den Kinderzimmern abgeleitet. Neben solcher skandalisierter Thematisierung ist aber zunehmend auch eine nüchterne wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung zu konstatieren. So haben sich seit Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends die «digital game studies» als interdisziplinäres Forschungsfeld etabliert. Im Jahr 2000 wurde innerhalb der Gesellschaft für Medienwissenschaft z.B. die AG Games gebildet, die sich zu einem wichtigen deutschsprachigen Forum für die wissenschaftliche Beschäftigung mit Computerspielen entwickelt hat, und im Jahr 2002 entstand die internationale Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA, die im September 2009 ihre vierte grosse Konferenz nach 2003, 2005 und 2007 durchgeführt hat

  3. Problems associated with digital luminescence radiography in the neonate and young infant. Problems with digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R J; Pease, J N

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of the Siemens Digiscan has been undertaken to determine whether digital luminescence radiography (DLR) could replace conventional radiography in the examination of the neonate and young infant. Whilst the overall image quality of the digital radiograph was consistently higher than for conventional radiography the difference was less marked than we had expected. Furthermore, the potential for reduction in radiation dose by reducing the repeat rate due to incorrect exposure was limited. The potential advantages of DLR have been critically examined in relationship to neonatal radiography and a number of problems encountered during the evaluation have been highlighted.

  4. neutron radiography. Report prepared from contributions by members of the MOD Working Party on Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmshaw, R.

    1977-03-01

    Radiography with thermal or cold neutrons has some special advantages over X-rays and gamma rays, and some facilities for neutron radiography exist in the Ministry of Defence. This report gives a brief and simple description of the technique, its advantages and disadvantages, and is illustrated with a number of Ordnance applications taken from MOD work, to show examples where neutron radiographs provided extra important information not available from X- or gamma radiography. The facilities available in the UK for neutron radiography are listed. (author)

  5. Professionalisierung und Doping im Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Wüterich, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Der Beitrag untersucht Zusammenhänge zwischen der zunehmenden Professionalisierung des Sports und dem Anstieg von Dopingvergehen. Er zeigt, dass im historischen Vergleich beide Phänomene nicht neu sind, dass sich die Probleme aufgrund der steigenden Bedeutung des Leistungssports aber zugespitzt haben. Ausgehend von einer juristischen und sozioökonomischen Analyse der Anreize zu Doping werden Lösungsvorschläge entwickelt. The author analyzes the interdependencies between a growing commercia...

  6. Pepsi und Coca ewige Rivallen

    OpenAIRE

    POLJAKOW ANDREJ; POLJAKOW WLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Fast jeder kennt Pepsi und Coca. Man kann sie treffen praktisch in jedem Geschaeft. Dennoch nicht alle wissen, dass diese Firmen Erzrivallen sind und das ihre Rivallitaet sich seit Ewigkeit dauert. In meinem Artikel, welches ich in der Zusammenarbeit mit meinem Vater schrieb versuchte ich den Weg beider Firmen von der Gruendung bis heutigen Tagen zu beschreiben. Auf diesem Weg trafen sich technologische Aenderungen, Gerichtsverhandlungen, sowie geschickte Tricks. Wichtige Rolle spielt auch Ma...

  7. Tax Shield, Insolvenz und Zinsschranke

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sven; Lahmann, Alexander; Schwetzler, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert den Wertbeitrag fremdfinanzierungsbedingter Steuervorteile (Tax Shield) unter realistischen Bedingungen (keine Negativsteuer; mögliche Insolvenz) für unterschiedliche Finanzierungspolitiken. Zusätzlich wird der Effekt der sogenannten Zinsschranke auf den Wert des Tax Shield ermittelt. Die Bewertung des Tax Shield mit und ohne Zinsschranke findet im einperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Optionspreismodellen und im mehrperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Monte Carlo Simul...

  8. Electronic imaging applied to neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, D.A.; Bracher, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially - available image intensifier was used with a scan conversion memory and a mobile 252 Cf based neutron radiography system to obtain neutron radiographs on a television monitor in 0.5 minutes to 10.0 minutes

  9. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borozdin, K.N.; Asaki, T.J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N.W.; Hogan, G.E.; Morris, C.L.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L.J.; Sottile, M.J.; Vixie, K.R.; Wohlberg, B.E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  10. Transmission and archiving of digitalised radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zscherpel, U.; Rose, P.; Kaestner, R.; Mayer, R.; Heinrich, W.; Petesch, M.

    1995-01-01

    The 'TRENDT' research project is concerned with the transmission and archiving of digitalised radiography and with the application of wide band transmission networks in nondestructive material testing. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Examination of welds by digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Industrial radiography is the oldest and most reliable non-destructive test method in the examination and two dimensional evaluation of weld defects. Digital radiographic methods provide more sensitive, faster and more reliable evaluation of defect images. One of the most important factors influencing the contrast and consequently the image quality is the noise on the film caused by scattered radiation. The digital image processing technique can eliminate the noise and improve the image quality. Digital radiography also enables three dimensional evaluation of weld defects. This work describes the use of digital radiography in the evaluation of defects in welds of different configurations by using a laser film digitizing system and an appropriate software programme. Advantages and limitations of the digital technique and conventional film radiography were discussed. (author)

  12. Neutron radiography at the SCK/CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourwe, H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography has become in recent years a very important method of nondestructive testing in industry and research. The earliest practical application of neutron radiography has probably been the inspection of highly radioactive material: originally irradiated reactor fuels. Applications then progressed to other nuclear and industrial inspection problems. Neutron radiography and the conventional X-ray or gamma techniques are complementary. Some of the most important application fields of neutron radiography are: the detection of light elements (H, Li, B,...) with a very high scattering of absorption cross section for thermal neutrons; the nondestructive control of fuel before and after irradiation; controls where a distinction has to be made between isotopes of the same element ( 235 U and 238 U, 10 B and 11 B,...) and between components of a similar atomic number (Fe and Zn); the control of materials with a high density; the study of corrosion in closed structures; the control of the homogeneity of foreign materials in alloys,.... (author)

  13. Examination of welds by digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Industrial radiography is the oldest and most reliable non-destructive test method in the examination and two dimensional evaluation of weld defects. Digital radiographic methods provide more sensitive, faster and more reliable evaluation of defect images. One of the most important factors influencing the contrast and consequently the image quality is the noise on the film caused by scattered radiation. The digital image processing technique can eliminate the noise and improve the image quality. Digital radiography also enables three dimensional evaluation of weld defects. This work describes the use of digital radiography in the evaluation of defects in welds of different configurations by using a laser film digitizing system and an appropriate software programme. Advantages and limitations of the digital technique and conventional film radiography were discussed

  14. Neue Shandite und Parkerite. Darstellung und röntgenographische Charakterisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Anusca, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, neue Verbindungen mit Shandit- und Parkeritstruktur zu darstellen und mittels röntgenographischen Methoden (Pulverdiffraktometrie und Einkristallanalyse), das thermische Verhalten durch DTA / DSC - Messungen und Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen (REM, EDX) zu charakterisieren. Die vorliegende Arbeit ist wie folgt im zwei Themen gegliedert: Shandite und Parkerite. Der ersten Teil dieser Arbeit befaßt sich mit metallreichen ternären Chalkogeniden M3A2X2, ...

  15. Molekulargenetische Studie zur Verbreitung und Interaktion von PCV-2 bei Haus- und Wildschweinen

    OpenAIRE

    Bronnert, Bastian Balthasar Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Wild- und Hausschweingewebeproben aus den Jahren 2005 bis 2008 mittels nested PCR auf das Vorkommen von PCV-2 untersucht und die positiv getesteten Proben mittels Realtime PCR quantifiziert. Zusätzlich wurden die Proben im Institut für Pathologie der Justus-Liebig-Universität histologisch und immunhistologisch untersucht (Dissertation Hohloch). Ziel war es das Vorkommen von PCV-2 und die Häufigkeit von PCV-2 assoziierter Erkankungen bei Haus- und Wilds...

  16. Vom Stabilitäts- und Wachstumsgesetz zum Wohlstands- und Nachhaltigkeitsgesetz

    OpenAIRE

    Koll, Willi

    2016-01-01

    Das Stabilitäts- und Wachstumsgesetz wird bald 50 Jahre alt. Neue Herausforderungen erfordern eine Wirtschaftspolitik, die weit über die Ziele des Gesetzes hinausweist. Sie muss wirtschaftliches Wachstum und Stabilität mit den Zielen fiskalischer, sozialer und ökologischer Nachhaltigkeit auf nationaler und europäischer Ebene verbinden. Der Autor gibt einen Über blick über solche umfassenden Zielsysteme und leitet daraus ab, wie eine derart erweiterte wirtschaftspolitische Agenda in ein Wohlst...

  17. Radiological imaging in early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The role of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging; Radiologische Fruehdiagnostik der rheumatoiden Arthritis. Stellenwert von Ultraschall und Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzgummer, H.; Schueller-Weidekamm, C. [AKH, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    For optimal therapy management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) specific and sensitive diagnostic methods are essential for assessment of disease activity. In addition to projection radiography, imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) are becoming increasingly more important for the early diagnosis of RA. The MRI and US techniques play a key role in the early imaging diagnostics of RA. Measurement of inflammation activity represents the basis of therapeutic decision-making and can be quantitatively and qualitatively determined with MRI and US. Synovitis and bone marrow edema are predictors of erosion. (orig.) [German] Fuer das optimale Therapiemanagement bei Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis (RA) sind spezifische und sensible diagnostische Methoden zur Beurteilung der Krankheitsaktivitaet unerlaesslich. Neben der Projektionsradiographie gewinnen die bildgebenden Methoden zur Fruehdiagnostik der RA, insbesondere die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und der Ultraschall (US), zunehmend an Bedeutung. MRT und US spielen eine Schluesselrolle in der bildgebenden Fruehdiagnostik der RA. Die Messung der Entzuendungsaktivitaet stellt die Basis fuer die Therapieentscheidung dar. Sie kann mit dem US und der MRT quantitativ und semiquantitativ bestimmt werden. Synovialitis und Knochenmarkoedem sind Praediktoren fuer Erosionen. (orig.)

  18. Interconnectedness und digitale Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die multimedialen Informationsdienste im Internet werden immer umfangreicher und umfassender, wobei auch die nur in gedruckter Form vorliegenden Dokumente von den Bibliotheken digitalisiert und ins Netz gestellt werden. Über Online-Dokumentenverwaltungen oder Suchmaschinen können diese Dokumente gefunden und dann in gängigen Formaten wie z.B. PDF bereitgestellt werden. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Funktionsweise der Humboldt Digital Library, die seit mehr als zehn Jahren Dokumente von Alexander von Humboldt in englischer Übersetzung im Web als HDL (Humboldt Digital Library kostenfrei zur Verfügung stellt. Anders als eine digitale Bibliothek werden dabei allerdings nicht nur digitalisierte Dokumente als Scan oder PDF bereitgestellt, sondern der Text als solcher und in vernetzter Form verfügbar gemacht. Das System gleicht damit eher einem Informationssystem als einer digitalen Bibliothek, was sich auch in den verfügbaren Funktionen zur Auffindung von Texten in unterschiedlichen Versionen und Übersetzungen, Vergleichen von Absätzen verschiedener Dokumente oder der Darstellung von Bilden in ihrem Kontext widerspiegelt. Die Entwicklung von dynamischen Hyperlinks auf der Basis der einzelnen Textabsätze der Humboldt‘schen Werke in Form von Media Assets ermöglicht eine Nutzung der Programmierschnittstelle von Google Maps zur geographischen wie auch textinhaltlichen Navigation. Über den Service einer digitalen Bibliothek hinausgehend, bietet die HDL den Prototypen eines mehrdimensionalen Informationssystems, das mit dynamischen Strukturen arbeitet und umfangreiche thematische Auswertungen und Vergleiche ermöglicht. Summary The multimedia information services on Internet are becoming more and more comprehensive, even the printed documents are digitized and republished as digital Web documents by the libraries. Those digital files can be found by search engines or management tools and provided as files in usual formats as

  19. A picture of radiography education across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, J.P.; Rainford, L.; Bezzina, P.; Henner, A.; Kukkes, T.; Pronk-Larive, D.; Vandulek, C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish an understanding of radiography education across Europe by surveying higher education institutions registered as affiliate members of the European Federation of Radiography Societies (EFRS). Method: An online survey was developed to ascertain data on: curricula, duration, credit load, accreditation requirements, staff qualifications, staff and student exchange opportunities, and availability of postgraduate programmes. Responses were identifiable in terms of educational institution and country. All 46 affiliated educational institutions were invited to participate in the survey. Descriptive and thematic analyses are reported. Results: A response rate of 89.1% (n = 41) was achieved from educational institutions representing 21 countries. The majority of institutions (63.4%) offer a combined Medical Imaging, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine programme; dedicated Medical Imaging programmes are offered by 14 institutions (34.2%); dedicated Radiotherapy programme by one institution (2.4%), and a dedicated Nuclear Medicine programme by only three institutions (6.5%). The Bologna (Bachelor) cycle has been adopted by 90.2% of responding institutions. The majority of institutions (53.7%) indicated programmes of 3 years in duration, others stated 3.5–4 years. Only 14.6% of institutions require ‘International Level’ accreditation for the Bachelors radiography programme. Postgraduate programmes were not offered by 26.8% of institutions and a deficit in Doctoral status for radiography educators was identified. Conclusions: The Bologna (Bachelor) cycle for radiography education has been adopted across the majority of institutions, however, full alignment remains a priority. Postgraduate radiography education opportunities across Europe appear to be insufficient and further investigation of radiography accreditation processes is justified to ensure harmonisation of practice. - Highlights: • The majority of institutions are compliant with the

  20. NDE of ceramic insulator blanks by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvanan, S.; Venkatraman, B.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The production of ceramic insulators in electrical industry involves a number of steps, one of which is the green blank. The defects such as voids and crack can be present in the extruded green blank. One of the best non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique radiography. This paper deals with the development of methodology based on theoretical modeling for the examination of ceramics by high sensitivity radiography. (author)

  1. X-ray findings in the skeleton of the hand to prove renal osteopathy. Soft ray immersions radiography versus standard procedures; Roentgendiagnostik der renalen Osteopathie am Handskelett. Weichstrahl-Immersions-Radiographie kontra Standardtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, T. [Radiologische Klinik, Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Staedtisches Klinikum (Germany); Friedberg, R. [Radiologische Klinik, Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Staedtisches Klinikum (Germany); Heinicke, H.J. [1. Medizinische Klinik, Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Staedtisches Klinikum (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    In examinations of the hand skeleton, findings typical of renal osteopathy are much more readily revealed by soft ray immersions radiography than by images obtained using conventional techniques. In combination with microradioscopy the method is highly suitable for the primary diagnosis and follow-up of renal osteopathy. The information provided eliminates the need for examinations of other skeletal sections and thus justifies the slightly increased dose requirements. The fact that unchanged parathormone can be determined simultaneously adds to the sensitivity of this non-invasive technique. Histological assessments of the skeleton can, however, not always be avoided. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung des Handskeletts mit Hilfe der Weichstrahl-Immersions-Radiographie (WIR) ist fuer typische Befunde der renalen Osteopathie wesentlich sensitiver als die Aufnahmen in Standardtechnik. In Kombination mit der Mikroradioskopie ist sie fuer die roentgenologische Basisdiagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle der renalen Osteopathie sehr gut geeignet. Der Informationsgewinn und die Moeglichkeit der Einsparung von Roentgenuntersuchungen anderer Skelettabschnitte rechtfertigt den etwas hoeheren Dosisbedarf der WIR. Die gleichzeitige Bestimmung des intakten Parathormons erhoeht die Sensitivitaet der nichtinvasiven Diagnostik. Dennoch laesst sich auf eine Knochenhistologie nicht in jedem Fall verzichten. (orig.)

  2. Gosvig und das Problem der Geschichte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    Der Essay geht der Frage nach, wieso so viele philosophische Bücher, insbesondere innerhalb der sogenannten 'kontinentalen' Philosophie des 20. Jhs, einen Titel tragen, der durch die Struktur 'x und y' gekennzeichnet ist. Hat Heideggers 'Sein und Zeit' auch hier Schule gemacht? Wenn ja, wie so? U...... These, dass die Iteration des 'und' tatsächlich und in Kontrast zur Genetivkonstruktion der Idealisten ('Phänomenologie des Geistes') die Geschichtlichkeit im Zeitalter postsubjektivistischen Denkens reflektiert....

  3. Diagnostic radiography: A study in distancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.; Decker, Sola

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article aims to explore the ways in which diagnostic radiographers use distancing as a tool for emotional management in radiography practice. Methods: This review utilises data from oral history interviews undertaken as part of a larger study documenting the oral history of the diagnostic radiography profession in the United Kingdom as recounted by 24 participants. Results: The results are presented as illustrative of various aspects of the role of the diagnostic radiographer including the initial choice of diagnostic radiography as a profession, the endemic use of particular terminology, the nature of the encounter in diagnostic radiography (including that of sectional imaging) and whether the role is really patient-centred. Conclusions: The article concludes by suggesting that distancing from the patient is mediated by the need for physical touch in order to position the patient for radiography and also makes the suggestion that those opting for diagnostic radiography as a career may do so because they want a profession which is more distanced from the patient and that, even where this is not the case initially, individuals are socialised into adopting the ‘feeling rules’ of the profession. The article concludes by outlining potential areas for further research.

  4. Specialism in radiography - a contemporary history of diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method: Specialism is relative comparing the unusual to a norm. Origins of radiographers' perceptions of what is a specialism are identified. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 practitioners and 10 leading voices whose combined practice span 1932-2001. Findings: Findings show that the exclusive nature of practice is influential on what is perceived as a specialism. Radiographers held career aspirations that included greater recognition, clinical involvement, autonomy and challenging work. Career aspirations were clinical rather than managerial and extended across modality boundaries. A key barrier to career progression was inequality of opportunity as local medical career requirements were dominant. Characteristics of specialism of diagnostic radiography are identified. Factors influencing the formation of specialism are also identified. Summary: Specialisation was dominant but not necessarily constructive to career progression or additional autonomy. Specialism relates to new areas of practice and is facilitated by service need, clear practice boundaries, visionary management, medical support, role development leading to increased autonomy and additional training and education.

  5. Specialism in radiography - a contemporary history of diagnostic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Christine [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Robert Winston Building, Sheffield, S10 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.m.ferris@shu.ac.uk

    2009-12-15

    Aim and method: Specialism is relative comparing the unusual to a norm. Origins of radiographers' perceptions of what is a specialism are identified. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 practitioners and 10 leading voices whose combined practice span 1932-2001. Findings: Findings show that the exclusive nature of practice is influential on what is perceived as a specialism. Radiographers held career aspirations that included greater recognition, clinical involvement, autonomy and challenging work. Career aspirations were clinical rather than managerial and extended across modality boundaries. A key barrier to career progression was inequality of opportunity as local medical career requirements were dominant. Characteristics of specialism of diagnostic radiography are identified. Factors influencing the formation of specialism are also identified. Summary: Specialisation was dominant but not necessarily constructive to career progression or additional autonomy. Specialism relates to new areas of practice and is facilitated by service need, clear practice boundaries, visionary management, medical support, role development leading to increased autonomy and additional training and education.

  6. Digital radiography versus conventional radiography during excretory urography: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervi, P.M.; Bighi, S.; Merlo, L.; Lupi, L.; Vita, G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a computed radiographic system employed to generate and archive digital images in intravenous urography. For each exposure the system produces two digital images: the first (left image) simulates a conventional screen-film radiograph, the second (right image); enhances some spatial frequencies and emphasizes the margins of the structures. These images can be modified in their chief parameters and then printed by a laser-printer and archived on optical disks. Four experienced radiologists evaluated digital images with regard to some chief diagnostic parameters and, in 50 patients, they compared digital images with conventional screen-film radiographs and submitted the results to statistical analysis. For some of the chosen parameters, particularly for the evaluation of renal margins before and after contrast medium injection, digital images gave statistically better results than conventional films, while, no statistically significant different was observed for the other parameters. From the results of this preliminary study digital radiography was found to be useful in intravenous urography by reducing the patient's exposition dose, by always obtaining images of good quality, and by enhancing some particular features of the standard image; on the other hand there were many unsolved problems regarding the communicating and archiving system (PACS), because of the slowness of the image transfer procedure, difficulties in data transmission and complexity of referential procedures

  7. Mensch und Maschine in Übersetzungsprozessen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gyde

    2014-01-01

    gebrauchstauglich sein. In meinem empirischen Projekt zur Erforschung notwendiger Kompetenzen, zum Übersetzen, Revidieren und zum Pre- und Post-Editing, TraREdit, arbeite ich mit den Sprachen Deutsch, Dänisch und Englisch. Trotz offensichtlicher Mängel von Maschinenübersetzungen muss man erkennen, dass diese besser...

  8. Sprachvermittlung und Spracherwerb in Afrika. Deutsch nach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erlernende Fremdsprache richtig und auf hohem Niveau sprechen zu lernen. Lehrende sollten alles daransetzen zu verhindern, dass die Lernenden in dieser Vereinfachungsphase stehen bleiben und ihre Sprache fossilieren. Die Bewusstmachung der Ähnlichkeiten von Zulu und. Deutsch kann dazu beitragen, indem man ...

  9. Zustand und Perspektiven der Kapitalmarktfinanzierung in Deutschland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Thorsten; Kaserer, Christoph; Rapp, Marc Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Die Autoren haben sich im Rahmen des durch das Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi) in Auftrag gegebenen Forschungsprojekts „Beteiligungs- und Kapitalmarktfinanzierung im deutschen Finanzsystem: Zustand und Entwicklungsperspektiven“ (Dienstleistungsprojekt I C 4 -27/14) mit dem Zus...

  10. Data Science und Analytics in Bibliotheken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Preza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bibliotheken sind in einer priviligierten Situation: Sie verwalten riesige Mengen von Daten und Informationen. Data Science und Analytics-Methoden ermöglichen es Bibliotheken, den Inhalt, den sie verwalten, voll auszunutzen, um den Nutzern bessere Informationen, Suche und Empfehlungen zu bieten.

  11. Digital radiography and caries diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    1998-01-01

    Direct digital acquisition of intra-oral radiographs has been possible only in the last decade. Several studies have shown that, theoretically, there are a number of advantages of direct digital radiography compared with conventional film. Laboratory as well as controlled clinical studies are needed to determine whether new digital imaging systems alter diagnosis, treatment and prognosis compared with conventional methods. Most studies so far have evaluated their diagnostic performance only in laboratory settings. This review concentrates on what evidence we have for the diagnostic efficacy of digital systems for caries detection. Digital systems are compared with film and those studies which have evaluated the effects on diagnostic accuracy of contrast and edge enhancement, image size, variations in radiation dose and image compression are reviewed together with the use of automated image analysis for caries diagnosis. Digital intra-oral radiographic systems seem to be as accurate as the currently available dental films for the detection of caries. Sensitivities are relatively high (0.6-0.8) for detection of occlusal lesions into dentine with false positive fractions of 5-10%. A radiolucency in dentine is recognised as a good predictor for demineralisation. Radiography is of no value for the detection of initial (enamel) occlusal lesions. For detection of approximal dentinal lesions, sensitivities, specificities as well as the predictive values are fair, but are very poor for lesions known to be confined to enamel. Very little documented information exists, however, on the utilization of digital systems in the clinic. It is not known whether dose is actually reduced with the storage phosphor system, or whether collimator size is adjusted to fit sensor size in the CCD-based systems. There is no evidence that the number of retakes have been reduced. It is not known how many images are needed with the various CCD systems when compared with a conventional bitewing

  12. Marktkonstitution und Regulierung der unabhängigen Film- und Fernsehproduktion : Staat, Verbände und Gewerkschaften im deutsch-britischen Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Elbing, Sabine; Voelzkow, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    "In einem internationalen Vergleich von Deutschland und Großbritannien wird untersucht, welche Beiträge die staatliche Politik und die Wirtschafts- und Sozialpartner (Wirtschafts- und Arbeitgeberverbände sowie Gewerkschaften) zur Förderung der unabhängigen Film- und Fernsehproduktion leisten. Es wird gezeigt, dass die britische Medienpolitik die Position der unabhängigen Film- und Fernsehproduktion gegenüber den Fernsehsendern gestärkt hat. In Deutschland hat die Medienpolitik darauf verzicht...

  13. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  14. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  15. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  16. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  17. Interprofessional working in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.; Day, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers interprofessional working within one diagnostic imaging department. The literature is still divided about the long-term impact of interprofessional learning in pre-registration health and social care education, and its impact on the quality of care provided. When reading the literature about interprofessional working the main topics considered by other authors are team working, communication between professionals, stereotyping and tribalism. The results presented are from an ethnographic study in one department with participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The three main aspects discussed in this paper are; tribalism and culture within the diagnostic radiography profession, communication between different professional groups, and a lack of understanding of the roles of other professional groups. It was evident from the results of this study that tribalism and culture, and a lack of understanding were significant barriers to interprofessional working. It was felt by the authors that pre-registration and post-registration interprofessional education could be significant in changing the culture of the NHS in the future as more professionals learn from and about one another

  18. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  19. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  20. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick; Lee, Sang Han

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  1. [Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen : Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 4. Hrsg. von Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholtz und Anton Schindlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasing, Madis, 1984-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen : Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 4. (Katholisches Leben und Kirchenreform im Zeitalter der Glaubensspaltung, 72). Hrsg. von Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholtz und Anton Schindling. Verlag Aschendorff. Münster 2012

  2. GIS und Fernerkundung für Landschaftsmonitoring und Landschaftsplanung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    Der Beitrag beleuchtet die Rolle der Geographischen Informationsverarbeitung hinsichtlich der Aufgaben in der Umweltüberwachung. Dabei wird über etablierte "sektorale" Umweltbeobachtungssysteme (Boden, Wasser, Luft) hinaus zunehmend der Bedarf an einer integrativen Betrachtung der Landschaft deutlich, insbesondere in mittleren bis kleinen Maßstäben. Wie verändern sich ganze Landschaften in Deutschland, in Europa? Welches sind Bereiche kritischer Abnahme landschaftlicher Diversität? Wie können landschaftliche Vielfalt und Eigenart erhalten beziehungsweise deren Erhalt überwacht werden? Diese und weitere Fragen drängen sich vor allem bei der Erstellung langfristiger Szenarien der Veränderung ganzer Landschaften und in der Nachhaltigkeitsdiskussion auf.

  3. Ethik, Recht und Theologie. Reproduktionstechnologien in Polen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lettow

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Die bisherigen Debatten um Stammzellforschung, Klonen und Reproduktionstechnologien wurden in Deutschland weitgehend im nationalstaatlichen Rahmen und mit Blick auf Entwicklungen im angelsächsischen Raum geführt. Dabei sind diese Forschungsrichtungen und Technologien kein genuin „westliches“ Phänomen – immerhin wurde das erste Retortenkind in Polen bereits 1987 geboren. Heidi Hofmann lässt in ihrem Band polnische Philosoph/-innen, Jurist/-innen und Politikerinnen zu Wort kommen und öffnet den Blick dafür, dass die Art und Weise, in der Reproduktionstechnologien gesellschaftlich problematisiert werden, in Polen durch ganz andere politische, kulturelle und historische Konstellationen geprägt ist als in Deutschland.

  4. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  5. E-Government und E-Banking: Aktueller Stand, Evaluation und Erfolgsfaktoren

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    Zu Max Webers Zeiten entsprach die Bürokratie noch ganz dem Vorbild des preussischen Militärs " klare Hierarchien und klare Aufgabenbereiche schlugen sich nieder in Effizienz und Effektivität. Heute ist das Bild getrübt und Worte wie "Erstarrung", "Überreglementierung" und "Verwaltungskultur" machen die Runde. Neben den gestiegenen Erwartungen der Bürger, die sich in Zeiten des E-Banking und E-Commerce nicht mehr in lange Warteschlangen einreihen wollen und auf die rigiden Öffnungszeiten der ...

  6. Algorithm for optimisation of paediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova-Lefterova, D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the current practice and patient doses in paediatric chest radiography in a large university hospital. The X-ray unit is used in the paediatric department for respiratory diseases. Another purpose was to recommend and apply optimized protocols to reduce patient dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality for the x-ray images. The practice of two different radiographers was studied. The results were compared with the existing practice in paediatric chest radiography and the opportunities for optimization were identified in order to reduce patient doses. A methodology was developed for optimization of the x-ray examinations by grouping children in age groups or according to other appropriate indication and creating an algorithm for proper selection of the exposure parameters for each group. The algorithm for the optimisation of paediatric chest radiography reduced patient doses (PKA, organ dose, effective dose) between 1.5 and 6 times for the different age groups, the average glandular dose up to 10 times and the dose for the lung between 2 and 5 times. The resulting X-ray images were of good diagnostic quality. The subjectivity in the choice of exposure parameters was reduced and standardization has been achieved in the work of the radiographers. The role of the radiologist, the medical physicist and radiographer in the process of optimization was shown. It was proven the effect of teamwork in reducing patient doses at keeping adequate image quality. Key words: Chest Radiography. Paediatric Radiography. Optimization. Radiation Exposure. Radiation Protection

  7. Collaboration in radiography: A bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing research activity is an aim of the radiography profession, but there is a lack of knowledge of how this can be achieved. Collaboration between clinical and academic centres as well as between individuals has increased productivity in other professions and has been suggested as a strategy for radiography. This bibliometric study maps the current contribution to the radiography evidence base through a single journal. Method: All articles published in Radiography from 1997 to 2011 were reviewed to identify collaboration trends together with article type and subject. Analysis also enabled comparison of research and publication patterns. Results: 706 articles were published by 1205 individual authors. 63.0% were written by UK based authors, although this varied over time. Over 80% of authors published only single article. Two thirds of articles were collaborative with an increase in clinical-academic co-authorship over the 15 years of the study. Although the majority of articles were diagnostic imaging based, the pattern mirrors the UK workforce profile. Clinicians, including clinical-academic co-authors, tend to write about clinical practice and roles, whereas academics write about a broader range of topics. Conclusions: There has been a growth in research and scholarship within the UK radiography journal and both clinical and academic radiographers are contributing to the evidence base through increased collaboration.

  8. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  9. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  10. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  11. Which technologies to replace gamma radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani-Demange, M.L.; Chauveau, D.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma radiography with iridium source is largely used in the industrial sector for the control of welds, tubes and pressure vessels as well as for monitoring corrosion. Hazards due to the handling of ionizing radiation sources (Ir 192 ) and constraints due to a more and more demanding regulations call for alternative methods. The French 'Institut de soudure' has led a 4-year long study (Alter-X project) and has identified 3 alternative methods for the iridium gamma radiography: -) the TOFD (Time Of Flight Diffraction) which is based on the analysis of the diffraction of ultrasound waves on the edges of defects; -) phased array ultrasound which is based on a series of elementary sensors that can be handled in an individual manner by specific electronics, the sweeping is no more manual but electronic and enables the operator to localize and size defects deep under the surface; -) digit radiography that is a common radiography in which the film is replaced by a re-usable phosphorus screen that is more sensitive and can be easily digitalized and has no need for a chemical treatment to be read. Digit radiography used with Se 75 (another gamma emitter) gives comparable or even better results than with Ir 192 but with a dose rate cut by half at least. (A.C.)

  12. Personen- und Güterverkehr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flämig, Heike; Gertz, Carsten; Mühlhausen, Thorsten

    Im Jahr 2010 war in Deutschland der Verkehrssektor für fast 20 % der energiebedingten Treibhausgase verantwortlich. Das Klima hat sich bereits so weit verändert, dass zur Sicherung der Funktion der Verkehrssysteme auch Anpassungsmaßnahmen notwendig sind. Diese Maßnahmen müssen durch verkehrsreduzierende bzw. -beeinflussende Maßnahmen ergänzt werden. Ausgehend von den Emissionen im Verkehrssektor und möglichen Minderungen schlägt das Kapitel den Bogen zu Optionen der Anpassung an den Klimawandel, die ausführlich und konkret dargestellt werden. Besonders betrachtet werden die mannigfaltigen Gefahren der Rückkopplung sowie die vielfältigen Wechselwirungen mit anderen Themengebieten und Sektoren.

  13. Safety guide of safe use of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this guidance is to present general regulations for the safe use and radiation protection of industrial radiography. Storage and inspection of apparatus, personal instructions for working in radiography facilities are offered

  14. Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.

  15. Osteoporose und Genetik des Knochenstoffwechsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermayer-Pietsch B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporose ist in hohem Maß genetisch determiniert. Neue Wege der molekularbiologischen Forschung haben sich in den letzten Jahren auf diesem Gebiet etabliert. "Gene mapping" mit polymorphen genetischen Markern auf der Suche nach Phänotyp-assoziierten Genen ist ein aufwendiges, aber vielversprechendes Verfahren und wird durch die Erkenntnisse des Human Genome Projects beschleunigt. So wurde jüngst u. a. das Low-density Lipoprotein 5-Gen als wichtig für den Knochenstoffwechsel identifiziert. Kandidaten-gene wie Hormonrezeptor-, Cytokin- oder Kollagen-Gene werden hinsichtlich ihrer Gen-Gen- und Gen-Umwelt- Interaktionen untersucht und erlauben neue funktionelle Einsichten in Erkrankungen des Knochenstoffwechsels. Mutationen der Kollagen-Gene sind bei einigen seltenen Erkrankungen, wie dem Osteoporose-Pseudogliom-Syndrom oder der Osteogenesis imperfecta gefunden worden, könnten aber auch für häufige Varianten von Bindegewebsstörungen wie der congenitalen Hüftdysplasie verantwortlich sein, die etwa 10 % der weiblichen kaukasischen Bevölkerung in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß betrifft. Osteoporose am Schenkelhals und erhöhte Gelenkslaxizität sowie andere generalisierte Veränderungen des Knochen- und Kollagenstoffwechsels können hier möglicherweise ebenfalls durch Störungen des Kollagen I alpha 1-Gens erklärt werden. In Summe können wir zahlreiche neue Einsichten in die Pathophysiologie des Skelettsystems erwarten, die uns auch neue Zugangswege für Diagnostik und Therapie unserer Patienten ermöglichen werden.

  16. CLILiG und Musikunterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz von Musik und Liedern im Sprachunterricht ist seit der Entwicklung der kommunikativen Methoden ein beliebtes Thema in der Fremdsprachendidaktik. Musik und Sprache haben Ähnlichkeiten bei den kognitiven Verarbeitungsprozessen und der gedächtnisstützende Einfluss der Musik und ihr Nutzen für das Sprachenlernen sind allgemein bekannt. Dieser Nutzen wird aber meistens nur aus der (fremdsprachlichen Perspektive gezogen, die musikalische Erziehung der Lernenden bleibt im Hintergrund. Dabei bietet der bilinguale Musikunterricht mit der klaren Ausrichtung auf die musikalischen Ziele eine gute Möglichkeit, diese zwei Bereiche – Musik und Sprache – gleichwertig miteinander zu verbinden. Das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags ist es, die Vorteile des bilingualen Musikunterrichts zu erörtern und an einem Beispielmodul zum Thema Wetter im Herbst zu verdeutlichen. The use of music and songs in language teaching has been a popular topic in foreign language didactics since the development of communicative methods. Music and language have similarities in cognitive processing and the memory supporting influence of music and its beneficial effect on language learning are generally known. However, this benefit will usually be drawn only from the (foreign language perspective, the musical education of the learners remains in the background. Yet bilingual music education with a clear focus on the musical goals provides a great opportunity to connect these two areas - music and language - equally to each other. The aim of this paper is to discuss the advantages of bilingual music education and to present an example based on the bilingual module Weather in Autumn.

  17. New north beam tube for the neutron radiography reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.P.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron radiography of the fuel undergoing examination in the argon cell is performed in the NRAD Facility and is one of many examinations performed on the fuel. The reactor and examination procedure are described. The new radiography system, developed to expand the present radiography capabilities to radiograph both irradiated and unirradiated specimens and to provide for the development of new radiography techniques without interfering with the argon cell production schedule is presented

  18. Strategische Beschaffung: Grundlagen, Planung und Umsetzung eines integrierten Supply Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, A.J.; Eßig, M.

    2017-01-01

    Dieses Buch bietet – erstmalig in deutscher Übersetzung – eine umfassende und sehr anschauliche Darstellung zu Grundlagen, Planung und Umsetzung einer modernen Beschaffungsfunktion. Beschaffung und Supply Management werden dabei als wesentliches Bindeglied innerhalb des Managementsystems eines

  19. Theoriebedingte Wörterbuchform- probleme und wörterbuch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zunehmend mehr neue Elemente der Wörterbuchform im Vorspann, im Wörterverzeichnis und im. Nachspann ...... tur und -architektur aufweisen und sich nur quantitativ bei den überdachten ...... modernen Printwörterbüchern. Lexikos 18: ...

  20. Emil Fahrenkamp : Bauten und Projekte für Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thema der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die umfassende Aufarbeitung und Dokumentation der Bauten und Projekte Emil Fahrenkamps (*1885, 1966) in Berlin und Potsdam-Babelsberg sowie die kritische Einordnung seiner Arbeiten in den Kontext der Baugeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Den zentralen

  1. [Preussen und Livland im Zeichen der Reformation] / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Preussen und Livland im Zeichen der Reformation. Hrsg. von Arno Mentzel-Reuters und Klaus Neitmann. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung, 28). Fibre Verlag. Osnabrück 2014

  2. Liquid metal flow measurement by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Ono, A.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    Visualization of a liquid metal flow and image processing methods to measure the vector field are carried out by real-time neutron radiography. The JRR-3M real-time thermal neutron radiography facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Lead-bismuth eutectic was used as a working fluid. Particles made from a gold-cadmium intermetallic compound (AuCd 3 ) were used as the tracer for the visualization. The flow vector field was obtained by image processing methods. It was shown that the liquid metal flow vector field was obtainable by real-time neutron radiography when the attenuation of neutron rays due to the liquid metal was less than l/e and the particle size of the tracer was larger than one image element size digitized for the image processing. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic neutron radiography of a combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, J.; Hillenbach, A.; Schillinger, B.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic neutron radiography is a non-destructive testing method, which made big steps in the last years. Depending on the neutron flux, the object and the detector a time resolution down to 50 ms is possible. In the case of repetitive processes the object can be synchronized with the detector and better statistics in the image can be obtained by adding radiographies of the same phase. By delaying the trigger signal a radiography movie can be composed with a time resolution down to 100 μs. A combustion engine is an ideal sample for the explained technique, because the motor block of metal is relatively easy to penetrate, while oil and fuel attenuate the thermal neutron beam much stronger. Various experiments were performed at ILL and PSI. Soon the tomography station ANTARES at FRM-II will be ready for measurements. (author)

  4. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  5. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  6. Efficient radiologic diagnosis of pelvic and acetabular trauma; Rationelle bildgebende Diagnostik von Becken- und Azetabulumverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Rommens, P.M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the widespread availability of CT scanners, conventional X-ray radiographs remain the basic imaging modality in patients with pelvic and/or acetabular trauma. However, the extent of their use will depend on local utilities (e.g., availability of CT scanners) and on the patient's clinical condition. Regarding the inaccuracy of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of injuries of the dorsal pelvic ring and of the acetabulum, computed tomography represents the most important imaging modality in the clinically stable patient. CT provides an exact staging of the extent of trauma and allows for differentiation of pelvic instabilities. CT clearly demonstrates the severity of acetabular trauma and is superior in the detection of local complicating factors, i.e., impressions fractures and (sub-)luxations of the femoral head as well as free intraarticular fragments. CT findings provide the basis for definite treatment regimens of the injured patient. By extension of the examination, all relevant organs and systems (craniospinal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary) can be imaged during one session. The speed of spiral CT scanners and their diagnostic accuracy will play a major role in the management of, especially, polytraumatized patients. The indication for angiography with the option of therapeutic embolization exists if a pelvic bleeding persists even after reposition and operative fixation of the injury. (orig.) [German] Bei der Klaerung einer Verletzung des Beckens oder des Azetabulums stellen konventionelle Uebersichtsaufnahmen weiterhin die Basis der bildgebenden Diagnostik dar. Art und Umfang werden bestimmt von lokalen Gegebenheiten (z.B. Verfuegbarkeit von CT-Geraeten) sowie vom klinischen Zustand des Patienten. Aufgrund der diagnostischen Ungenauigkeit der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik gerade im Bereich des stabilitaetsbedeutsamen dorsalen Beckenringes und des Azetabulums schliesst sich beim klinisch stabilen

  7. Charter of good practices in industrial radiography; Charte de bonnes pratiques en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document describes good practices in the field of industrial radiography. After having presented the main prevention and radiation protection principles, the actors inside and outside of the company, and actors intervening during an operation subcontracting in industrial radiography, this report analyzes the activity: prerequisites for work preparation, prevention coordination, work preparation, transportation, work achievement, return on experience. It addresses personnel training and information, and the dosimetric and medical monitoring of technicians in industrial radiography. Some aspects are addressed in appendix: principles (justification, optimization, and limitation), regulations, intervention form, exposure form, and so on

  8. Opportunities for TRIGA reactors in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John P.

    1978-01-01

    In this country the two most recent installations of TRIGA reactors have both been for neutron radiography, one at HEDL and the other at ANL. Meanwhile, a major portion of the commercial neutron radiography is performed on a TRIGA fueled reactor at Aerotest. Each of these installations has different primary objectives and some comparative observations can be drawn. Another interesting comparison is between the TRIGA reactors for neutron radiography and other small reactors that are being installed for this purpose such as the MIRENE slow pulse reactors in France, a U-233 fueled reactor for neutron radiography in India and the L88 solution reactor in Denmark. At Monsanto Laboratory, in Ohio, a subcritical reactor based on MTR-type fuel has recently been purchased for neutron radiography. Such systems, when driven by a Van de Graaff neutron source, will be compared with the standard TRIGA reactor. Future demands on TRIGA or competitive systems for neutron radiography are likely to include the pulsing capability of the reactor, and also the extraction of cold neutron beams and resonance energy beams. Experiments recently performed on the Oregon State TRIGA Reactor provide information in each of these categories. A point of particular current concern is a comparison made between the resonance energy beam intensity extracted from the edge of the TRIGA core and from a slot which penetrated to the center of the TREAT reactor. These results indicate that by using such slots on a TRIGA, resonance energy intensities could be extracted that are much higher than previously predicted. (author)

  9. Digital radiography: a survey of pediatric dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Julie M; Russo, James A; Guelmann, Marcio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the popularity of digital radiography among members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD); and (2) report the most common systems in use. An AAPD-approved, voluntary, and anonymous electronic survey was developed and sent to 923 board certified pediatric dentists. Years in practice and in-office x-ray technology (digital or conventional) were inquired about initially. If negative for the use of digital radiography, future consideration for converting to digital radiography was ascertained. For positive responses, more in-depth information was requested. Information on type of system (sensor or phosphor plate), user friendliness, diagnostic ability, patient's comfort, general costs, durability, and parental and overall satisfaction was collected. For most of the questions, a 5-point assessment scale was used. Opportunity for additional comments was provided upon survey completion. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A 32% (296/923) response rate was obtained. Twenty-six percent of practitioners (78/296) implemented digital radiography in their practices, whereas 71% considered future acquisition. Similar distribution for sensor and phosphor plate users was found. Sensor technology was reported to produce faster images, but was less tolerable by young children due to size and thickness. Phosphor plates were considered more children friendly, less expensive, and less durable. Parental satisfaction was very high with great marketing value. Picture quality was comparable to conventional film. Overall, digital radiography users would recommend it to other pediatric dentists. Digital radiography is not yet popular among pediatric dentists. Cost reduction and technology advancement may enhance utilization.

  10. The industrial radiography of defects inside the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Burkhardt; Kaempf, B.

    1976-03-01

    The concept of the industrial radiography applied to defect invesigation is defined. The following topics are successively discussed: the development of the industrial 'defect radiography', apparatus and auxiliary equipments used in the field, the market, the constructors, trade currents in 'defect radiography' inside the Community and in the outer market; prognostics on future requirements in the fields

  11. Chest radiography: new technological developments and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Karssemeijer, N.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital chest radiography is still the most common radiological examination. With the upcoming three-dimensional (3D) acquisition techniques the value of radiography seems to diminish. But because radiography is inexpensive, readily available, and requires very little dose, it is still being used

  12. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... industrial radiography. An application for a specific license for the use of licensed material in industrial...

  13. Development of techniques for furthering the use of isotope radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.; Kalurkar, A.R.; Jagasia, N.S.; Malhotra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography techniques in the non-conventional applications such as : (a) hot radiography - a method for examination of radioactive materials, and (b) thin section radiography for inspection of biological specimen and non-metallic specimen are described. Also, a process used for the reproduction of gamma-graphs of welds and castings has been discussed in detail. (author)

  14. Industrial radiography in the Philippines: safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L.; Artificio, Thelma P.; Cerbolles, Justina S.; Caseria, Estrella S.; Agron, Inocencio A.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial radiography utilizes the highest activity (5.55 tera becquerel (TBq) to 7.4 TBq) among the various mobile application of radioisotopes. It is highly possible that radiographers exceed the annual dose limits for workers occupationally exposed to radiation (as prescribed in the Code of PNRI Regulations part 3) if they do not give cautious consideration to the factors that determine the radiation dose, namely: the gamma source dose rates, time distance and shielding. To enhance the safety culture among radiographers, various strategies are recommended to be undertaken by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as well as the licensed companies undertaking activities in industrial radiography. (Authors)

  15. Advantages of digital radiography: The DSI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouillard, J.

    1990-01-01

    The experience gained over a period of several months, applying the digital and image-enhanced radiography with the DSI system for examination of some hundreds of patients, has confirmed in our eyes the system's diagnostic and economic efficiency, and the important achievement of radiation dose abatement. Looking at the current results and improvements under way (Release 2), there is reason enough to support an extension of the range of indications, especially regarding arteriography and interventional radiography. According to our experience, the DSI system meets the requirements of a modern radiology department: reduction of operating costs, limitation of radiation dose, efficiency enhancement by digital imaging. (orig.) [de

  16. New developments in radiography. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Orphan, V.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for radiographic inspection are undergoing change. Changes in X-ray sources include higher voltage and current, pulse techniques, smaller focal spots, portability, ease-of-use, and high reliability. Detector improvements include better films, screens and scintillators, real-time methods, electrostatic methods and solid state detectors. We now use many radiation for radiography (X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons and charged particles) and can process radiographic information to accomplish such things as image enhancement, tomography and digital radiography. In this review, the authors discuss some of these developments, many of which have not been applied - or widely applied in the nuclear industry

  17. Cold neutron radiography using low power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Iwasa, Hirokatu

    1993-01-01

    A cold neutron source which can be adopted at a low power accelerator was studied. Time-of-flight radiography using the cold neutron source was performed. It is suggested that time-of-flight cold neutron radiography has possibility to distinguish the materials more clearly than the traditional film method since large contrast differences can be obtained by using digital data of the neutron intensity at different energies from thermal to cold region. Material will be identified at the same time by this method. (author)

  18. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, A.; Kokko, M.L.; Pitkaenen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  19. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  20. Supervision of radiography licensees - using electronic questionnaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aa. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    The results from this questionnaire gave a general view of the state of the radiography practices in Sweden, and the questionnaire hopefully contributed to improve the knowledge of these regulations for the licensees. The largest deficiencies were found in the documentation of the radiation protection organisation as well as documentation of quality assurance and operational statistics. The results of the questionnaire constitute a useful basis for selecting companies for future inspections by SSI. Those who has not answered the questionnaire and are working with site radiography can expect a visit in the near future.

  1. [Geisteswissenschaft und Publizistik im Baltikum des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts] / Manfred von Boetticher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Boetticher, Manfred von, 1947-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Geisteswissenschaft und Publizistik im Baltikum des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts (Schriften der Baltischen Historischen Kommission, 17; Baltische Biographische Forschungen, 1). Hrsg. von Norbert Angermann, Wilhelm Lenz und Konrad Maier. (Berlin: LIT-Varlag, 2011)

  2. Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer NMR-Methoden: Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern und Metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Büchler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern, sowie die Etablierung von Metabonomics-Studien an Flüssigzellkulturen und Reispflanzen.

  3. Radiation shielding in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, B.; Rehnmark-Larsson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.

    1983-01-01

    The protective effect in the thyroid region from different types of radiation shieldings at intraoral radiography has been studied as well as the reduction of the absorbed dose to the sternal and the gonadal regions. The shieldings tested were five different types of leaded aprons, of which three had an attached leaded collar and the other two were used in combination with separate soft leaded collars. Furthermore one of the soft leaded collars and an unflexible horizontal leaded shield were tested separately. Two dental x-ray machines of 60 and 65 kVp with rectangular and circular tube collimators were used. The exposure time corresponded to speed group E film. The absorbed doses were measured with two ionization chambers. No significant difference in the protective effect in the thyroid gland could be found between the different types of radiation shieldings. There was a dose reduction by approximately a factor of 2 to the thyroid region down to 0.08 mGy per full survey using parallelling technique, and below 0.001 mGy per single bitewing exposure. The shieldings reduced the thyroid dose using bisecting-angle technique by a factor of 5 down to 0.15 mGy per full survey (20 exposures). In the sternal region the combinations of apron and collar reduced the absorbed dose from a full survey to below 2 μGy compared with 18 μGy (parallelling) and 31 μGy (biscting-angle) without any shielding. With the horizontal leaded shield a reduction by a factor of 6 was obtained but no significant sternal dose reduction could be detected from the soft collar alone. The gonadal dose could be reduced by a factor of 10 with the horizontal leaded shield, parallelling technique and circular collimator. Using leaded aprons the gonadal dose was approximately one per cent of the dose without any shielding, i.e. below 0.01 μGy per single intraoral exposure. (Authors)

  4. Comparison of the quality of the chest film between digital radiography and conventional high kV radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Cen Renli; Chen Ling; He Jianxun; Lin Hanfei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality and usefulness of direct digital radiography system in roentgenogram of chest in clinical practice. Methods: 1000 cases of chest roentgenograms with digital radiography and high kV conventional radiography were selected for analysis by 3 senior radiologists. Results: 1. With digital radiography system, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 50.6%, grade B in 38.5%, grade C in 10.9%, and no waste film. 2. With conventional high kV radiography, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 41.1%, grade B in 44.1%, grade C in 13.3%, and waste film in 1.5%. The direct digital radiography was statistically superior to the conventional high kV radiography. 3. The fine structure of the lungs could be revealed in 100.0% of chest roentgenogram with direct digital radiograph system, which was significantly higher than that acquired with the conventional high KV radiography (78.6%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Direct digital radiography could provide the chest film with better quality than that with the conventional high kV radiography. The direct digital radiography system is easy to operate, fast in capturing imaging and could provide post-processing techniques, which will facilitate the accurate diagnosis of chest radiography

  5. Klimaanpassung in Land- und Forstwirtschaft: Ergebnisse eines Workshops der Ressortforschungsinstitute FLI, JKI und Thünen-Institut

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmelpfennig, Sonja; Heidecke, Claudia; Beer, Holger; Bittner, Florian; Klages, Susanne; Krengel, Sandra; Lange, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Das Working Paper stellt die Ergebnisse einer Umfrage und eines Workshops zusammen, die von Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen der Ressortforschungsinstitute Thünen-Institut, Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI) und Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) im Herbst 2016 zusammengetragen und diskutiert worden sind. Ziel des Workshops und der Umfrage war, den Stand des Wissens zu Klimaanpassungsthemen in der Ressortforschung des BMEL und die zukünftigen Herausforderungen einer Anpassung an den Klimawand...

  6. Geschmackspapillendichte und Geschmackswahrnehmung bei Jugendlichen mit Essstörungen und einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenhofer, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Fragestellung Die Schmeckwahrnehmung wird u.a. über Lernprozesse, kognitive Vorgänge, genetische und biochemische Faktoren reguliert. Ess- und Diätverhalten werden durch sie beeinflusst. Den anatomisch und physiologisch ersten Abschnitt der Schmeckwahrnehmung bilden die fungiformen Geschmackspapillen. In den Geschmackspapillen liegen die Geschmacksknopsen, mit deren Hilfe die Schmeckstoffe aufgenommen und in Form von Aktionspotentialen zum Thalamus, dem limbischen System,dem Gyrus postzentral...

  7. Kontrolle des Verwaltungsrates : eine Untersuchung der internen und externen Kontrollinstitutionen, -instrumente und -mechanismen

    OpenAIRE

    Reust, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Eine wichtige Erkenntnis dieser Arbeit ist, dass eine effiziente und effektive Kontrolle des Verwaltungsrates nur über das Zusammenspiel der internen körperschaftlichen Kontrollinstitutionen und -instrumente mit den externen Kontrollinstitutionen und Kontrollmechanismen des Marktes erreicht wird. Die Vorschriften der VegüV betreffend transparente Entschädigungspolitik und unabhängige Stimmrechtsvertreter sowie die in der Aktienrechtsrevision angestrebte Stärkung der Informations-, Mitwirk...

  8. Recht und Rechtssystem als globale Struktur und Medium der Verhaltensorientierung / Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Narits, Raul, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Äratr.: Multiple Modernität, Globalisierung der Rechtsordnung und Kommunikationsstruktur der Rechtssysteme : Internationales Symposium zur Theorie der Rechtskommunikation an der Universität Tartu im April 2006 ; II. Sonderheft Estland. Berlin, 2008, lk. 219-238. - (Rechtstheorie : Zeitschrift für Logik und Juristische Methodenlehre, Rechtsinformatik, Kommunikationsforschung, Normen- und Handlungstheorie, Soziologie und Philosophie des Rechts ; Bd. 38, 2007, H. 2/3)

  9. Das Sabbatjahr für Lehrerinnen und Lehrer: Wer profitiert und in welcher Form?

    OpenAIRE

    Rothland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Das Sabbatjahr für Lehrerinnen und Lehrer wird programmatisch als Maßnahme der Belastungsreduktion, der Regeneration sowie der Ressourcenstärkung diskutiert. Empirische Belege für die erwarteten Effekte finden sich jedoch kaum. Im Rahmen einer Längsschnittstudie mit drei Erhebungszeitpunkten vor, während und nach dem Sabbatjahr werden die Entwicklung der Belastungswahrnehmung, des Gesundheitszustands und allgemeiner sowie arbeitsbezogener Emotionen (Berufs- und Lebenszufriedenheit) auf der Ba...

  10. Referenzmodelle im Mobile Business: Analyse und Entwicklung neuer Rollen, Szenarien und Geschäftsmodelle

    OpenAIRE

    Hufenbach, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Das digitale Zeitalter ist charakterisiert durch sich stetig wandelnde Märkte, Techniken und wirtschaftliche Voraussetzungen. Klassische Wertschöpfungsketten brechen auf und wandeln sich zu Wertschöpfungsnetzen. Dabei findet eine Neuzuordnung zwischen Wertschöpfungstätigkeiten und Marktteilnehmern statt. Diese digitale Welt ist zudem durch hohe Interdependenzen wirtschaftlicher, informationstechnischer und rechtlicher Fragestellungen gekennzeichnet. Vor diesem Hintergrund verfolgt die Arb...

  11. Arbeitszeitflexibilisierung in der westdeutschen Metall- und Elektroindustrie und die Verbandsstrategien - Eine vergleichende Analyse der arbeitszeitpolitischen Strategien des Arbeitgeberverbandes Gesamtmetall und der Industriegewerkschaft Metall

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Ufuk

    2005-01-01

    Arbeitszeitpolitik und Arbeitszeitgestaltung haben seit dem Tarifkompromiss im Jahre 1984 in der Metall-, und Elektroindustrie in der politischen und wissenschaftlichen Diskussion einen immensen Bedeutungszuwachs erfahren. Die Forderungen nach einer flexibleren Arbeitszeitgestaltung haben zeitgleich sowohl aus der Globalisierungsdiskussion und der Debatte um die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des "Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland" heraus wie auch aus beschäftigungspolitischen Gründen neuen Auftrieb bek...

  12. Inspection reliability comparison of digital radiography, film radiography and radioscopy for inspection of Inconel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Kidwell, C.; Warren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Radiography offers the promise of economic and environmental advantages over traditional film based inspection. Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group has an on-going effort to evaluate this emerging radiographic method for production of aerospace hardware. Included in this effort was a program to evaluate the potential for utilizing amorphous silicon based digital radiography for the inspection of inconel weldments in engine ducting. For this particular program, probability of detection (POD) studies were conducted to compare the reliability of digital radiography with the existing production processes that utilize film radiography and image-intensifier based radioscopy. Cycle time studies were also conducted to determine the potential economic benefit for switching to the new process. The methodology and findings of this comparison are presented. (author)

  13. Inspection reliability comparison of digital radiography, film radiography and radioscopy for inspection of Inconel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, W.; Kidwell, C.; Warren, G. [Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group, Renton, Washington (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Digital Radiography offers the promise of economic and environmental advantages over traditional film based inspection. Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group has an on-going effort to evaluate this emerging radiographic method for production of aerospace hardware. Included in this effort was a program to evaluate the potential for utilizing amorphous silicon based digital radiography for the inspection of inconel weldments in engine ducting. For this particular program, probability of detection (POD) studies were conducted to compare the reliability of digital radiography with the existing production processes that utilize film radiography and image-intensifier based radioscopy. Cycle time studies were also conducted to determine the potential economic benefit for switching to the new process. The methodology and findings of this comparison are presented. (author)

  14. Osteopetrose - aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz AS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unter dem Begriff Osteopetrose wird eine heterogene Gruppe von Krankheiten zusammengefasst, die durch eine pathologisch vermehrte Knochenmasse charakterisiert ist. Diese Osteosklerose basiert in den meisten Fällen auf einem Defekt in der Knochenresorption durch Osteoklasten. Beim Menschen können mehrere Typen unterschieden und nach dem Vererbungsmodus, dem Manifestationsalter, der Schwere der klinischen Symptomatik und nach assoziierten Symptomen klassifiziert werden. Hauptformen sind die infantile "maligne" autosomal rezessive Osteopetrose (ARO, intermediäre autosomal rezessive Formen (IARO und milder verlaufende autosomal dominante Subtypen (ADO. In den letzten Jahren konnten mehrere zur Osteopetrose führende Genveränderungen identifiziert werden. Alle diese Genveränderungen bei humaner Osteopetrose betreffen Proteine, die an der Differenzierung oder Funktion der Osteoklasten beteiligt sind. Da die Osteoklasten sich aus der hämatopoietischen Stammzelle differenzieren, ist die hämatopoietische Stammzelltransplantation eine kurative Therapieoption bei schweren Osteopetroseformen. Allerdings ist diese Therapie mit erheblichen Risiken verbunden. Darüber hinaus sind bestimmte Subtypen der Osteopetrose mit schweren neurologischen Veränderungen assoziiert, die durch eine Stammzelltransplantation nicht positiv beeinflusst werden können. Ein genaues Verständnis der Pathogenese der humanen Osteopetrose ist daher wichtig für die Wahl der richtigen Therapie und gewährt darüber hinaus einen tieferen Einblick in die Physiologie and andere Pathologien des Knochens.

  15. Natur und Moderne um 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , nordeuropäischen Vergleich widmen sich die Beiträge den medialen Repräsentationen von Natur (in Literatur, Philosophie, Film, Foto) ebenso wie der Kolonisierung des Raumes (in Tourismus, Reisen, Sport, Natur- und Heimatschutz). Der Band bietet damit auch Impulse für die neuen theoretisch-methodischen Ansätze der...

  16. In vitro-Permeationsstudien von hydrophilen und lipophilen Arzneistoffen an okularen Geweben und Zellkulturen

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Martina

    2003-01-01

    Da die Arzneistoffpermeation durch okulare Gewebe einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Heilung vieler Augenleiden hat, wurde die in vitro-Permeation hydrophiler und lipophiler Arzneistoffe durch okulare Gewebe und Zellkulturen in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Die Dissertation befasst sich vorrangig mit der Permeation des hydrophilen Modellarzneistoffs Pilocarpinhydrochlorid (P-HCl) durch isolierte Schweinecornea (SC), Schweinesklera, Kaninchenkonjunktiva und corneale bzw. konjunktivale Kan...

  17. Philologie im Horizont der Geschichtlichkeit von Sprache und Text: zum Tagungsband von Wulf Oesterreicher und Maria Selig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Müller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wulf Oesterreicher und Maria Selig, Hrsg., Geschichtlichkeit von Sprache und Text: Philologien – Disziplingenese – Wissenschaftshistoriographie (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2014, 332 S.

  18. Standing of industrial radiography in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this article a look is taken at industrial radiography in South Africa to determine where radiographic testing is being used, and for what reasons. The status of training of industrial radiographers is considered and it is compared to radiographic techniques used in South Africa

  19. Feline dental radiography and radiology: A primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2014-11-01

    Information crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of feline oral diseases can be ascertained using dental radiography and the inclusion of this technology has been shown to be the best way to improve a dental practice. Becoming familar with the techniques required for dental radiology and radiography can, therefore, be greatly beneficial. Novices to dental radiography may need some time to adjust and become comfortable with the techniques. If using dental radiographic film, the generally recommended 'E' or 'F' speeds may be frustrating at first, due to their more specific exposure and image development requirements. Although interpreting dental radiographs is similar to interpreting a standard bony radiograph, there are pathologic states that are unique to the oral cavity and several normal anatomic structures that may mimic pathologic changes. Determining which teeth have been imaged also requires a firm knowledge of oral anatomy as well as the architecture of dental films/digital systems. This article draws on a range of dental radiography and radiology resources, and the benefit of the author's own experience, to review the basics of taking and interpreting intraoral dental radiographs. A simplified method for positioning the tubehead is explained and classic examples of some common oral pathologies are provided. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  20. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  1. Radiography of oral cavity disorders [dentistry, stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic examination in odonto-stomatology can he made easier by using intra-oral dental films and a dental X-ray machine. Parallel and bissecting angle techniques allow X-ray pictures to be taken with intra-and extra-oral films. Radiography provides information for diagnosis but it also allows the evaluation of dental treatments

  2. Safety culture in industrial radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Furo, Evelyn

    2015-02-01

    This project reviewed published IAEA materials and other documents on safety culture with specific references to industrial radiography. Safety culture requires all duties important to safety to be carried out correctly, with alertness, due thought and full knowledge, sound judgment and a proper sense of accountability. The development and maintenance of safety culture in an operating organization has to cover management systems, policies, responsibilities, procedures and organizational arrangements. The essence is to control radiation hazard, optimize radiation protection to prevent or reduce exposures and mitigate the consequences of accidents and incidents. To achieve a high degree of safety culture appropriate national and international infrastructure should exist to ensure effective training of workers and management system that supports commitment to safety culture at all level of the organization; management, managers and workforce. The result of the review revealed that all accidents in industrial radiography facilities were due to poor safety culture practices including inadequate regulatory control oversight. Some recommendations are provided and if implemented could improve safety culture leading to good safety performance which will significantly reduce accidents and their consequences in industrial radiography. These examples call for a review of safety culture in Industrial radiography. (au)

  3. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milczarek, Jacek J.; Trzcinski, Andrzej; El-Ghany El Abd, Abd; Czachor, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms

  4. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milczarek, Jacek J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)]. E-mail: jjmilcz@cyf.gov.pl; Trzcinski, Andrzej [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); El-Ghany El Abd, Abd [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Nuclear Research Center, PC 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Czachor, Andrzej [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2005-04-21

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms.

  5. The Delphi technique in radiography education research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John-Matthews, J.St.; Wallace, M.J.; Robinson, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and review the Delphi technique as a tool for radiographers engaged in mixed-methods research whereby agreement is required on the proficiencies needed by educational programmes for pre- and post- registration radiographers. This is achieved through a description offering a brief history of the technique. Through a literature search, radiography education research using this technique is identified. A protocol for a research project using the technique is presented. Using this worked example, advantages and disadvantages of the method are explored including sampling of participants, sample size, number of rounds and methods of feedback. Key findings: There are limited examples of the use of the Delphi technique in radiography literature including considerations on how to select experts and panel size. Conclusion: The Delphi technique is a suitable method for establishing collective agreement in the design of radiography educational interventions. Additional research is needed to deepen this evidence-based knowledge. - Highlights: • The Delphi Technique is used to gain collective agreement in forecasting healthcare education priorities. • There is increase of the use of the technique in healthcare education literature. • There are some examples of the technique in radiography education research. • A worked example of this technique is provided to critically evaluate this tool.

  6. Radiography journals 1935-1940: '1937'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H. Brian

    2009-01-01

    This is the third of the series 1935-1937, two years before the Second World War and sixty-one years ago. There is much to indicate the contribution of physicists, radiologists and radiographers to the under pinning of the science of radiography. We shall continue the series with the period from 1938-1940.

  7. Detection unit for X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svobodova, B.; Hamouz, J.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L.; Pohanka, J.

    1987-01-01

    The detection field consists of a carrier accommodating detection elements with Umaplex light pipes connected to photomultipliers with level converters. The detection field and the photomultipliers are placed in a light-proof cover. The configuration improves the hygiene conditions of work with radiation. It makes possible the use of pulsed fluoroscopy instead of continuous radiography. (M.D.). 1 fig

  8. Satisfaction of Search in Chest Radiography 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbaum, Kevin S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Schartz, Kevin M; Caldwell, Robert T; Madsen, Mark T; Hur, Seung; Laroia, Archana T; Thompson, Brad H; Mullan, Brian F; Franken, Edmund A

    2015-11-01

    Two decades have passed since the publication of laboratory studies of satisfaction of search (SOS) in chest radiography. Those studies were performed using film. The current investigation tests for SOS effects in computed radiography of the chest. Sixty-four chest computed radiographs half demonstrating various "test" abnormalities were read twice by 20 radiologists, once with and once without the addition of a simulated pulmonary nodule. Receiver-operating characteristic detection accuracy and decision thresholds were analyzed to study the effects of adding the nodule on detecting the test abnormalities. Results of previous studies were reanalyzed using similar modern techniques. In the present study, adding nodules did not influence detection accuracy for the other abnormalities (P = .93), but did induce a reluctance to report them (P chest radiography (P chest radiography has changed, but it is not clear why. SOS may be changing as a function of changes in radiology education and practice. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiography With the Patient in the centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The health care system is becoming more technological, and at the same time, it is verbalized that the patient should be in the center. The purpose of this study was to illucidate how radiography with the patient in the center is performed and what patients and radiographers understand about center...

  10. Code of practice in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karma, S. E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research is to developing a draft for a new radiation protection code of practice in industrial radiography without ignoring that one issued in 1998 and meet the current international recommendation. Another aim of this study was to assess the current situation of radiation protection in some of the industrial radiography department in Sudan. To achieve the aims of this study, a draft of a code of practice has been developed which is based on international and local relevant recommendations. The developed code includes the following main issues: regulatory responsibilities, radiation protection program and design of radiation installation. The practical part of this study includes scientific visits to two of industrial radiography departments in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of that department with what state in the developed code. The result of each scientific visits revealed that most of the department do not have an effective radiation protection program and that could lead to exposure workers and public to unnecessary dose. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in industrial radiography department. (Author)

  11. Radiography Student Participation in Professional Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kimberly; Tran, Xuan; Keller, Shelby; Sayles, Harlan; Custer, Tanya

    2017-09-01

    To gather data on educational program requirements for student membership in a state or national professional society, organization, or association. A 10-question online survey about student involvement in professional societies was emailed to 616 directors of Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)-accredited radiography programs. A total of 219 responses were received, for a 36% response rate. Of these, 89 respondents (41%) answered that their programs require students to join a professional organization. The society respondents most often required (70%) was a state radiography society. Sixty respondents (68%) answered that students join a society at the beginning of the radiography program (from matriculation to 3 months in). Of programs requiring student membership in professional societies, 42 (49%) reported that their students attend the state or national society annual conference; however, participation in activities at the conferences and in the society throughout the year is lower than conference attendance. Some directors stated that although their programs' policies do not allow membership mandates, they encourage students to become members, primarily so that they can access webinars and other educational materials or information related to the profession. Survey data showed that most JRCERT-accredited radiography programs support but do not require student membership in professional organizations. The data reveal that more programs have added those requirements in recent years. Increased student participation could be realized if programs mandated membership and supported it financially. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  12. Neutron radiography devices and their own applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farny, G.

    1975-04-01

    Three kinds of neutron radiography devices were developed by the Saclay Reactor Department: underwater facilities for active rig or loop examination; extracted beam without γ for industrial applications; a special unit for the examination of spent fuels several meters long from power plants. These devices are described and their applications and performances discussed [fr

  13. Neutron Radiography at the RP-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinostrosa, H.; Ravello, Y.; Cornejo, N.; Mendoza, M.; Montoya, M.

    1992-01-01

    The facility of neutron radiography at the RP-10 peruvian research reactor is described. The factor of collimation L/D is 149; the Cadmium ratio for the gold in the inspection's area is 4.5, and the thermal neutrons flux on the sample is 3,14 x 10 6 n/cm 2 s (author). 5 refs. 5 fig

  14. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements

  15. Neutron radiography at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleinert, H.; Lehmann, E.; Hammer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron radiography provides an efficient tool of measurement for many applications in fundamental research as well as in industrial non-destructive testing (NDT). A neutron radiography program has been initiated at the Paul Scherrer Institute and implemented since 1992. From the beginning of 1992 until the end of 1993, a neutron facility has been in operation at the SAPHIR research reactor. Several applications have been tested and programs on two main fields of application have been established, focusing on the study of porous materials, especially concrete and granitic rock. The investigations on concrete and other building materials are carried out in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. The experimental activities are currently carried out at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna, in the framework of a cooperation program with the Atominstitute. The continuation of the activities on a new radiography facility at the spallation source SINQ is planned at the Paul Scherrer Institute. In the following an overview of the method, of the actual and potential applications of neutron radiography at the Paul Scherrer Institute is given. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  16. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  17. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  18. Optimal radiography of the horsetoe in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellhelm, B.; Fritsch, R.; Reckels, F.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Requirements for optimal radiography of the horsetoe are described. Examples are given for getting X-rays of high quality under practice conditions, by using special intensifying screens and all the possibilities of radiological technique to guarantee a short exposure time

  19. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene [fr

  20. Zoophilie in Zoologie und Roman: Sex und Liebe zwischen Mensch und Tier bei Plutarch, Plinius dem Älteren, Aelian und Apuleius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hindermann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Bedeutung von Zoophilie in der antiken Literatur wurde bislang – mit Ausnahme des Mythos – kaum untersucht. Überblickt man die überlieferten literarischen Texte, fällt auf, dass Zoophilie ausserhalb des Mythos vor allem in zwei literarischen Gattungen auftritt : Einerseits in den zoologischen Schriften von Plutarch, Plinius dem Älteren und Aelian, andererseits im antiken Roman, d.h. in den Metamorphosen des Apuleius und im pseudo-lukianischen Onos. In diesem Beitrag soll untersucht werden, welche Funktion Zoophilie in den beiden literarischen Gattungen hat und wie die Autoren die sexuelle Praktik bewerten, die weder nach griechischem noch römischen Recht strafbar war. Da Vorstellungen über Tiere eng mit Gender und Geschlechterhierarchien verbunden sind, soll insbesondere die Frage berücksichtigt werden, inwiefern männliche und weibliche Verhaltens- und Rollenzuschreibungen bei der Darstellung zoophiler Akte wirksam werden.

  1. Efficacy of daily bedside chest radiography as visualized by digital luminescence radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stueckle, C.A.; Schilling, E.M.; Peters, J.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic impact of daily bedside chest radiography in comparison with digital luminescence technique (DLR; storage phosphor radiography) and conventional film screen radiography, a prospective randomized study was completed in 210 mechanically ventilated patients with a total of 420 analysed radiographs. The patients were allocated to two groups: 150 patients underwent DLR, and 60 patients underwent conventional film screen radiography. Radiological analysis was performed consensually and therapeutic efficacy was assessed by the clinicians. There was no statistical significant difference between the frequency of abnormal findings seen on DLR and conventional film screen radiography. In total, 448 abnormal findings were present in 249 of 300 DLR and 97 of 120 conventional film screen radiographs. The most common findings were signs of overhydration (41 %), pleural effusion (31%), partial collapse of the lung (11%) and pneumothorax (2%). One hundred and twenty-three of 448 (27%) of these abnormal findings were thought to have a considerable impact on patient management. The high rate of abnormal findings with significant impact on patient management suggests that the use of daily bedside chest radiography may be reasonable. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of conventional radiography, digital radiography, and ultrasound in diagnosing periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Namita; Reddy, Sujatha S; Giridhar, A G; Murthy, Srinivas; Yashodha Devi, B K; Santana, N; Rakesh, N; Kaushik, Atul

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography, digital radiography and ultrasound imaging in diagnosing periapical lesions. Twenty-one patients aged between 15 and 45 years with well defined periapical radiolucency associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth requiring endodontic surgery or extraction were selected and consented to the study. Preoperative intraoral periapical radiographs and digital images using charge-coupled device obtained by paralleling technique were assessed by 3 specialist observers who gave their diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Then ultrasound examination was performed and the images were assessed for size, contents, and vascular supply by 3 ultrasonographers. It was followed by curettage of periapical tissues to enable histopathologic investigation, which is the gold standard in diagnosis. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS, analysis of variance, and kappa statistics. The percentage accuracy of diagnosing periapical lesions using conventional radiography was 47.6%, digital radiography 55.6%, and ultrasound 95.2%. Ultrasound had the highest sensitivity and specificity: 0.95 and 1.00, respectively. Conventional and digital radiography enable diagnosis of periapical diseases, but not their nature, whereas ultrasound provides accurate information on the pathologic nature of the lesions, which is of importance in predicting the treatment outcome. Therefore ultrasound can be used as an adjunct to conventional or digital radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiography - A new field among health sciences in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, Ritva; Jussila, Aino-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    In order to secure high quality X-ray services and efficient operation of clinical radiography, a study programme in radiography science was implemented at the University of Oulu in 1999. The need for a specific field of science has emerged as a result of social changes, such as the aging population, and the fast development of technology that has caused significant changes in the radiological working environment and clinical radiography. A need for a new, research-based informational foundation of clinical radiography is the basis for the programme. As service producers, radiographers need vast knowledge as well as specific expertise. The research object of radiography science is clinical radiography. If it was studied from the viewpoint of other sciences, the key professional skills of a radiographer would remain unexplored. Implementing an own field of science has enabled the development of radiography from its own bases. Basic research in the field is represented, for example, by the concept analysis of radiography in health sciences. Radiography science should produce research results for both clinical radiography and the instruction of radiography. So far, research results have dealt with the professional decision-making of a radiographer, the influences of computer technology on a radiographer's work and measuring the radiation exposure of a population

  4. The advantages of digital radiography in department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Lijuan; Luo Xiaomei; Wu Tengfang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the advantages of digital radiography in department of radiology by comparing digital radiography with common radiography. Methods: Test card was used for testing the spatial resolution of DR and common radiography. 1000 films of chest by DR and 1000 films of chest by common radiography were compared in image quality, dose of radiation, the rate of waste film, and the advantages of DR was analyzed. Results: Compared to common radiography, DR had a high sensitivity, high DQE (quantum detection efficiency), high spatial resolution and density resolution. The speed of acquisition and X-ray conversion efficiency were fast. The function of post-processing was strong and the rate of disease detection was high. Conclusion: DR is better than common radiography in all respects, it will be widely applied. (authors)

  5. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  6. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  7. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in … shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  8. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  9. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, H.; Kumpan, W.; Sinzinger, H.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  10. Standardization activities of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.

    1982-06-01

    In 1979 a working group on neutron radiography was formed at Euratom. The purpose of this group is the standardization of neutron radiographic methods in the field of nuclear fuel. Activities of this Neutron Radiography Working Group are revised. Classification of defects revealed by neutron radiography is illustrated in a special atlas. Beam purity and sensitivity indicators are tested together with a special calibration fuel pin. All the Euratom neutron radiography centers will perform comparative neutron radiography with those items. The measuring results obtained, using various measuring aparatus will form the basis to formulate conclusions about the best measuring methods and instruments to be used in that field. Besides the atlas of neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel, the Euratom Neutron Radiogrphy Working Group has published a neutron radiography handbook in which the neutron radiography installations in the European Community are also described. (author)

  11. Videofluoroscopy of the pharynx and esophagus in patients with globus pharyngis. Comparison with static radiography; Die radiologische Abklaerung des Globus pharyngis. Vergleich der diagnostischen Wertigkeit von konventionellem Roentgen mit der Videokinematographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, E. [Abt. Roentgen fuer Konservative Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Schima, W. [Abt. Roentgen fuer Konservative Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Pokieser, P. [Abt. Roentgen fuer Chirurgische Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    1995-10-01

    The symptom is associated with a multitude of pharyngoesophageal abnormalities. Our study compares the diagnostic yield of videofluoroscopy to that of static radiography in patients suffering from globus pharnygis. A total of 150 consecutive patients complaining of a lump in the throat, but without evidence of dysphagia, were studied in a standardized fashion with both methods. Videofluoroscopy combined with static radiography revealed morphological or functional abnormalities in 75% of our patients. The combination of the two methods yielded significantly more abnormalities in the pharynx and esophagus than videofluoroscopy or static radiography alone. Esophageal motor disorders, pharyngoesophageal sphincter dysfunction and pharyngeal residue of contrast material proved to be the most common abnormalities. In conclusion, videofluoroscopy combined with static radiography is mandatory in the radiological assessment of patients suffering from the globus sensation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unsere Studie vergleicht die diagnostische Wertigkeit des konventionellen Roentgens mit jener der Videokineamtographie von Pharynx und Oesophagus bei der Abklaerung des Globusgefuehls. Wir haben 150 konsekutive Patienten mit Globusgefuehl, jedoch ohne Dysphagie mit beiden Methoden nach einem standardisierten Protokoll untersucht. Mittels der Kombination von konventionellem Roentgen mit der Videokinematographie fanden sich bei 75% der Patienten pathologische Veraenderungen. Durch die Kombination beider Methoden konnten signifikant mehr morphologische und funktionelle Stoerungen des Pharynx sowie Oesophagus aufgezeigt werden, als mit der alleinigen konventionellen Technik oder der alleinigen Videokinematographie. Die haeufigsten pathologischen Veraenderungen in unserem Kollektiv waren Oesophagusmotilitaetsstoerungen, eine Dyskinesie des pharyngooesophagealen Sphinkters sowie eine abnorme pharyngeale Kontrastmittelretention. Unsere Ergebnisse belegen eindeutig, dass die radiologische

  12. Recht und soziales Kapital im Wohlfahrtsstaat

    OpenAIRE

    Karstedt, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    'Das Konzept des sozialen Kapitals spielt eine zentrale Rolle in der Diskussion um den Um- und Abbau des Wohlfahrtsstaates. Zerstört der Wohlfahrtsstaat soziales Kapital? Können staatliche Sozialleistungen durch das soziale Kapital in Familien, Nachbarschaften und Gemeinden umstandslos ersetzt werden, und individuelle Rechtsansprüche als Forderungen an diese sozialen Netzwerke zurückverwiesen werden? Kann die angestrebte 'Verantwortungsgesellschaft' (Etzioni) die Leistungen übernehmen, mit de...

  13. Variationen und ihre Kompensation in CMOS Digitalschaltungen

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Variationen bei der Herstellung und während des Betriebs von CMOS Schaltungen beeinflussen deren Geschwindigkeit und erschweren die Verifikation der in der Spezifikation zugesicherten Eigenschaften. In dieser Arbeit wird eine abstraktionsebenenübergreifende Vorgehensweise zur Abschätzung des Einflusses von Prozess- und betriebsbedingten Umgebungsvariationen auf die Geschwindigkeit einer Schaltung vorgestellt. Neben Untersuchungen der Laufzeitsensitivität in low-power CMOS Technologien von...

  14. Von Medien, Übertragungen und Automaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barberi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Zuge der Debatten zum Medialen Habitus wurde vielfach betont, dass die >Theorie der Praxispraxeologischen Medientheorie< des Medialen Habitus avant la lettre gesprochen werden kann. Dieser Artikel untersucht – ausgehend von den Debatten zur "Medienkompetenz" – wie Bourdieu Sprache, Sprechen und Diskurs, sowie Akteure, Felder und Habitus als Medien begreift und betont dabei die Nützlichkeit der Bourdieuschen Bildungssoziologie im Rahmen einer sozialwissenschaftlichen Grundlegung der Medienpädagogik.

  15. Verletzungen und Fehlbeanspruchungen im leistungsorientierten Rudersport

    OpenAIRE

    Bussian, Marc Robert

    2004-01-01

    Die Stellung der Breitensportart Rudern als gesundheitsfördernde Sportform ist in der Literatur gleichlautend positiv beschrieben. Im leistungsorientierten Rudersport müssen neben den Verletzungen und Fehlbeanspruchungen der eigentlichen Sportart die unabdingbaren Nebentrainingsformen berücksichtigt werden. In den neunziger Jahren vollzog sich ein trainingsmethodischer Wandel, die Einführung eines erschwinglichen Rudersimulators und eine technische Weiterentwicklung im Boots- und Ruderbau. Ei...

  16. Pflege und Beruf: ungleiche Chancen der Vereinbarkeit

    OpenAIRE

    Keck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Die Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Pflege wird in der Öffentlichkeit zu wenig thematisiert. Pflegende in einkommensschwachen Familien können sich keine zusätzlichen Pflegedienste leisten und müssen häufiger Einschnitte im Beruf in Kauf nehmen. Beschäftigte in unteren Hierarchieebenen können Beruf und Pflege nur schwer vereinbaren, da sie flexible Arbeitszeitregelungen seltener nutzen können.

  17. Polnische qualitative Soziologie: Entwicklung und Hauptthemen

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof T.; Kacperczyk, Anna M.; Marciniak, Lukasz T.

    2005-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Entwicklung der qualitativen Soziologie in Polen rekonstruiert, indem deren wesentliche intellektuelle Wurzeln und einige Hauptthemen der polnischen Soziologie vorgestellt werden. Romantizismus und die induktive Methode sind essenzielle Elemente für die Entwicklung der Disziplin in Polen gewesen und Charakteristika ihrer Besonderheit. Die Bedeutung von Florian ZNANIECKI für die Entstehung der polnischen qualitativen Soziologie wird gewürdigt. URN: urn:n...

  18. Bedeutung von Umwelt- und Organismusfaktoren bei Autoaggressionen

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmann, Ulrich H.; Elbing, Ulrich; Hartmann, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden übergeordnete Hypothesen zu autoaggressiven Verhaltensweisen formuliert, wobei prozeßhafte Abläufe von umweltbezogenen und organischen Variablen angenommen werden. Eine solche dynamische Beziehung hat ihre Bedeutung sowohl für verursachende als auch aufrechterhaltende Faktoren. In einer Querschnittuntersuchung lassen sich Korrelationen von Tageszeit- und Tätigkeitscharakteristiken (umweltbezogene Variablen) zur Autoaggressionshäufigkeit und Pulsfrequenz (Orga...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. New scientific insights and practical application; Magnetresonanztomographie der Hand bei rheumatoider Arthritis. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, K.G.A. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Radiologie am Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive diagnostic modality for the detection of inflammatory changes in peripheral joints. Nevertheless, the widespread clinical use of MRI in assessing patients with early rheumatoid arthritis is still hampered by the technical complexity and higher cost of MRI compared with conventional radiography. This overview summarizes the results of recent research and gives practical tips on how to perform MRI of the hands. The authors present an MR protocol for hand imaging, discuss the pros and cons of low-field MR scanners, and outline pitfalls and artifacts. The MRI changes associated with rheumatoid arthritis such as synovitis, tenosynovitis, erosions, and bone marrow edema are described including their prognostic significance. The proven facts on the validation and grading of MR changes in rheumatoid arthritis are summarized. Finally, the role of MRI in the differential diagnosis of arthritis is critically discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist ein sensitives Verfahren zur Detektion entzuendlicher Veraenderungen der peripheren Gelenke. Den breiten Einsatz der MRT im Fruehstadium der rheumatoiden Arthritis behindern derzeit jedoch der im Vergleich zur konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik hoehere technische Aufwand und vermehrte Kosten. Diese Uebersichtsarbeit fasst wichtige Studienergebnisse zusammen und gibt praktische Hinweise fuer Hand-MRTs. Ein geeignetes Sequenzprotokoll wird vorgestellt, Vor- und Nachteile von Niederfeld-MRTs werden beruecksichtigt, moegliche Fehlerquellen und Artefakte diskutiert. Magnetresonanztomographische Befunde bei rheumatoider Arthritis wie Synovitis, Tenosynovitis, Erosionen und Knochenmarkoedeme werden beschrieben und deren prognostische Bedeutung dargestellt. Gesicherte Fakten zur Validierung und Moeglichkeiten der Graduierung MR-tomographischer Veraenderungen bei rheumatoider Arthritis werden zusammengefasst. Der Nutzen der MRT zur differenzialdiagnostischen

  20. An application of neutron radiography to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron radiography is more useful for certain materials than are the other radiographic techniques. Some neutrons are attenuated by light materials such as water, hydrocarbons and boron, but penetrate through heavy materials such as steel, lead and uranium. The object must be irradiated by neutrons for neutron radiography. The neutron irradiation can take place in a reactor or with a neutron source. The transfer technique relies on the build-up of radioactivity in a foil due to neutron absorption. In this way an activation image is formed in the foil. For this technique, dysprosium ( 164 Dy) and indium ( 115 In) foils can be used. After this irradiation, foils are transferred to a film in the dark-room, the latent image being formed in the film by decay radiation from the foil. The neutron radiography technique has been applied to a sword together with its sheath (inventory number 83/173) (Tugrul and Erdal 1987); a piece of cloth was visible on the handle of the sword. Sword and sheath had become corroded together. The artefact is from the Ikiztepe excavation near the city of Samsun in north Anatolia and belongs to the Early Bronze Age. First, X-ray radiography showed that the sword had been destroyed in large part and was not suitable for conservation and restoration procedures. Second, neutron radiography was carried out. Dysprosium-164 was used for the transfer method as a foil screen and irradiated in the reactor at 100 kW for half an hour. The dysprosium foil remained against the radiographic (Structurix, D-7) film for approximately three half-lives after the irradiation. The neutron radiograph shows the cloth layer continuing towards the bottom of the sheath. Through the cloth, water would have been introduced to the inside of the sheath and this was the main cause of corrosion to the artefact and so of the sword's destruction. (author)

  1. Rechtspopulistische Einstellungen in Ost- und Westdeutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Küpper

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Während sich die Mehrheit der Deutschen für Demokratie, Vielfalt und Gleichwertigkeit positioniert, sind zugleich rechtspopulistische Einstellungen lauter geworden. Der Beitrag berichtet über Befunde der Mitte-Studie der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung 2016 zu der Verbreitung rechtspopulistischer und rechtsextreme Einstellungen, wirft einen besonderen Blick auf potentielle Wähler_innen der AfD und diskutiert am Ende mögliche Erklärungen für die gefundenen Unterschiede zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschen.

  2. Postoperative and posttherapeutic changes after primary bone tumors. What's important for radiologists?; Postoperative und posttherapeutische Veraenderungen nach primaeren Knochentumoren. Was ist wichtig fuer den Radiologen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, T. [Klinikum Augsburg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Augsburg (Germany); Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M. [Med. Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Posttreatment imaging of primary bone tumours represents a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Depending on the primary bone tumour common radiological procedures, such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are employed. Radiography and CT are particularly useful in benign bone tumours and in matrix-forming bone tumours. MRI comes into consideration with malignant tumour recurrence and tumoral soft tissue infiltration. Bone scintigraphy is of superior importance if a primarily multifocal manifestation of bone tumour or metastasizing tumour disease is suspected. Molecular imaging (FDG-PET and hybrid imaging, using CT) are gaining increasing importance in light of monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and detecting recurrent tumour appearance. The current literature shows sensitivity and specificity values for recurrent detection of up to 92% and 93%. Diagnostic accuracy is as high as 95%, thus, exceeding accuracy values for CT (67%) and MRI (86%) by far. Likewise, this is also applicable for the assessment of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, PET-based modalities are able to establish prognostic statements using SUV-threshold values at baseline (especially for Ewing sarcomas). Advanced imaging techniques have made a great diagnostic step forward and have proven to be relevant and reproducible with respect to both relapse detection and treatment assessment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether a higher detection rate of early tumour recurrence will inevitably lead to better outcome and survival. (orig.) [German] Die posttherapeutische Bildgebung primaerer Knochentumoren stellt eine diagnostische Herausforderung fuer jeden Radiologen dar. In Abhaengigkeit vom primaeren Knochentumor werden zur Nachsorge die gaengigen radiologischen Standardverfahren eingesetzt (Projektionsradiographie, Computertomographie [CT] und Magnetresonanztomographie [MRT]). Die Projektionsradiographie und CT haben einen besonderen Stellenwert v. a

  3. Editorial 01/2013 Normen und Normierungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Swertz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Auf unterschiedlichsten Ebenen werden die Diskussionen und Forschungen der Medienpädagogik von normativ aufgeladenen Begriffen durchzogen: so, wenn es um Standards in der Medienbildung geht, wenn beispielsweise diskutiert wird, welche Inhalte in welcher Form vermittelt werden sollen; so auch wenn zur Debatte steht, wie Medienpädagogik institutionalisiert werden sollte und welche Voraussetzungen gegeben sein müssen, um einen geplanten Bildungsprozess zu lenken oder anzuleiten.Derartige Norm(ierungen wurden bereits mit der Konzeptualisierung des Begriffs Medienkompetenz und im Blick auf die Emanzipation des Menschen kritisch beleuchtet, womit auch Kritik an gesellschaftlichen Herrschafts- und Machtstrukturen verbunden war. Die Orientierung an der sozialwissenschaftlich verstandenen Emanzipation des Menschen ist allerdings in anderen pädagogischen Disziplinen durchaus umstritten. Gleichzeitig ist zu beobachten, dass die gesellschaftskritische Perspektive im medienpädagogischen Diskurs über die Orientierung von Medienkompetenz und Medienbildung eine immer geringere Rolle spielt. Deshalb hat sich die Redaktion der MEDIENIMPULSE entschlossen, dem Thema Normen und Normierungen eine eigene Ausgabe zu widmen.Dabei sollten folgende Fragen behandelt werden:Wie sieht es mit Norm(ierungen im Bereich der Mediendidaktik aus? Wie sind die mit aktuellen Medienkompetenz- und Medienbildungsbegriffen verbundenen Normen epistemologisch und (medientheoretisch abgestützt? Wie lassen sich – nur scheinbar paradox formuliert – wissenschaftlich begründbare medienpädagogische Normen finden, die sich den genannten Normierungen widersetzen und entziehen? Inwiefern führt die Einführung von Laptopklassen oder Smartboards im schulischen Bereich oder die Gestaltung von Videospielprojekten in der außerschulischen Medienbildung zu einer unreflektierten Sozialdisziplinierung, die als illegitime Form(atierung des Menschen verstanden werden kann? Der Schwerpunktteil

  4. Medienpädagogik und die Digitale Gesellschaft im Spannungsfeld von Regulierung und Teilhabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Iske

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vor 25 Jahren stellte Tim Berners-Lee sein Konzept eines World Wide Web (WWW vor und legte damit einen der bedeutendsten Grundsteine der digitalen Vernetzung. Was ursprünglich zum Austausch von Informationen und Daten unter Forschenden entworfen wurde, hat sich zu einem umfassenden Kultur- und Bildungsraum entwickelt und ist ein universaler und zentraler Dienst des Internet geworden. Dieser gegenwärtige Status des Internet und des World Wide Web ist der vorläufige Zwischenstand einer historischen Entwicklung, der sowohl Transformationen und Veränderungen als auch Konstanten zugrunde liegen. Nicht erst zum diesjährigen Geburtstag des World Wide Web wird deutlich, dass durch digitale und vernetzte Technologien zentrale Kategorien wie Bildung, Erziehung und Sozialisation berührt werden. Beispielhaft kann auf die aktuellen Debatten über Regulierungsmechanismen im Internet wie auch auf die Enthüllungen Edward Snowdens hingewiesen werden. Aus dem Vorangehenden lassen sich medienpädagogische Fragestellungen ableiten, die zum Beispiel die Handlungsautonomie von Subjekten sowie Möglichkeitsräume der Mitgestaltung von und Teilhabe an Gesellschaft (Winter 2012, Swertz 2014 thematisieren. Zudem sind es Fragen der Mediensozialisation und der Konstruktion von Identität in digital vernetzten Räumen (Jörissen/Marotzki 2008, die sowohl bei der Theoriebildung als auch im Rahmen medienpädagogischer Praxis eine hohe Relevanz besitzen.

  5. Steueroasen und Regulierungsoasen – Auswirkungen auf die Stabilität des Finanzmarkts und politische Implikationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Schmidt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Beitrag wird dargelegt, dass Steuer- und Regulierungsoasen nicht nur Steuerausfälle und Kapitalflucht ermöglichen, sondern auch eine Hauptursache für die Finanzkrise 2007/2008 waren und weiterhin die Stabilität des Finanzmarkts gefährden. Sie haben den Boden bereitet für das Aufkommen nicht regulierter Finanzinstitutionen, sogenannter Schattenbanken. Regulierungsoasen ermöglichen Finanzmarktakteuren eine Umgehung von Regulierungs- und Aufsichtsvorschriften und heizen den Wettbewerb um niedrige Regulierungsvorschriften maßgeblich an. Jeder Schritt zu einer finanzpolitischen Re-Regulierung von Steuer- und Regulierungsoasen sowie Schattenbanken ist ein aktiver Schritt zur Krisenvorbeugung und damit zum Schutz der ArbeitnehmerInnen vor den gewaltigen volkswirtschaftlichen Kosten von Finanzkrisen.

  6. Erfahrungen an der Schnittstelle von Medienarbeit und Praxisforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holzwarth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag reflektiert die Verbindung von praktischer Medienarbeit und Forschung am Beispiel eines internationalen EU-Forschungsprojekts zum Thema Medien und Migration. Neben didaktischen Prinzipien und Konzepten für die aktive Medienarbeit im Forschungskontext geht es um die Kooperation von medienpädagogischer Begleitung (MB und wissenschaftlicher Begleitung (WB sowie um deren spezifische Kompetenzen.

  7. Leitung und Kooperation in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken Berlins - eine empirische Untersuchung

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit greift ein im bibliotheks- und IuK-wissenschaftlichen sowie im fachprofessionellen Diskurs bisher weitgehend vernachlässigtes, aber immer bedeutsameres Thema auf: das vertikale soziale Geschehen in der Arbeitsorganisation ?wissenschaftliche Bibliothek". Die Absicht der Untersuchung lag darin, einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Interaktionsverhalten der Leitungspersonen einerseits und der Mobilisierung von Leistungs- und Innovationspotentialen bei den Mitarbeiterinnen und M...

  8. [Sascha Möbius. Das Gedähtnis der Reichsstadt. Unruhen und Kriege in der lübeckischen Chronistik und Kriege und Erinnerungskultur des späten mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Sascha Möbius. Das Gedähtnis der Reichsstadt. Unruhen und Kriege in der lübeckischen Chronistik und Kriege und Erinnerungskultur des späten mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit. (Göttingen, 2011)

  9. Dysphagia following stroke: evaluation with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Sung Nam; Kang, Heoung Keun; Joo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Chang Il; Park, Soo Min; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Tae Woong

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of digital radiography in the assessment of dysphagia following stroke. Eighteen stroke patients (8 men, 10 women) referred for dysphagia and ten controls without known pharyngeal swallowing difficulty underwent digital radiography using a 1:1 mixture of barium and water. We evaluated oropharyngeal transit time and the location and severity of dysphagia; transit time was defined as the time from the first movement of the bolus to the return of the epiglottis to its original position. We sought to observe specific patterns of oropharyngeal dysfunction; dysphagia was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The dynamic image of the pharynx, as seen on a digital radiograph, may be diagnostically useful for defining the location and severity of dysphagia; in order to make feeding recommendations, this information is essential. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

  10. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. The authors have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed in this paper, the author's intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made

  11. Engineering applications of microfocal radiography. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, R.S.; Parish, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering applications of microfocal radiography are reviewed in detail. After describing the terminology used, the types of application are identified where the advantages of the reduced focal spot size are utilised e.g. finer detail, dynamic radiography of temporally changing events, lower background in the film and superior depth of focus. The quality of the images obtained with microfocal techniques is also discussed in detail. Finally various types of microfocal equipment which are commercially available are described and explicit examples of the areas of application are given, e.g. non-destructive testing in the nuclear industry, microporosity in aero-engine gas turbine blades and inspection of miniaturised electronic components such as integrated circuits. (U.K.)

  12. Dysphagia following stroke: evaluation with digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Nam; Kang, Heoung Keun; Joo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Chang Il; Park, Soo Min; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Tae Woong [Chonnam Univ., Kwanju (Korea, Republic of). Medical School

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of digital radiography in the assessment of dysphagia following stroke. Eighteen stroke patients (8 men, 10 women) referred for dysphagia and ten controls without known pharyngeal swallowing difficulty underwent digital radiography using a 1:1 mixture of barium and water. We evaluated oropharyngeal transit time and the location and severity of dysphagia; transit time was defined as the time from the first movement of the bolus to the return of the epiglottis to its original position. We sought to observe specific patterns of oropharyngeal dysfunction; dysphagia was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The dynamic image of the pharynx, as seen on a digital radiograph, may be diagnostically useful for defining the location and severity of dysphagia; in order to make feeding recommendations, this information is essential. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Current and future neutron radiography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Only two organizations are actively producing standards which are used in neutron radiology (NR): the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Six ASTM standards exist that address the neutron radiography method. Two of the ASTM standards have been extensively used world-wide. ISO has a working group which is developing three standards that also address the neutron radiography method. Two of these are currently making their way through the ISO approval system. No ASTM or ISO standards exist for the neutron radioscopic method. Future ASTM standards will address the neutron radioscopic method and neutron radiologic system characterization. It is expected that similar efforts will be undertaken in ISO. Given the relatively small community providing neutron radiologic services, international cooperation and the need for ISO standards will most likely continue to grow.(author)

  14. A system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10 10 neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10 7 to 3.8x10 8 n/cm 2 depending on the type of screen and film

  15. Computed Radiography: An Innovative Inspection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, William A.; Councill, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Florida Power and Light Company's (FPL) Nuclear Division combined two diverse technologies to create an innovative inspection technique, Computed Radiography, that improves personnel safety and unit reliability while reducing inspection costs. This technique was pioneered in the medical field and applied in the Nuclear Division initially to detect piping degradation due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Component degradation can be detected by this additional technique. This approach permits FPL to reduce inspection costs, perform on line examinations (no generation curtailment), and to maintain or improve both personnel safety and unit reliability. Computed Radiography is a very versatile tool capable of other uses: - improving the external corrosion program by permitting inspections underneath insulation, and - diagnosing system and component problems such as valve positions, without the need to shutdown or disassemble the component. (authors)

  16. Nachhaltiger Lebensmittelkonsum gestern, heute und morgen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Die Weltgemeinschaft sieht sich mit steigendem Bevölkerungswachstum und Zielkonflikten der Nutzung von Land und Agrarrohstoffen konfrontiert. Dies wirft die Frage auf, wie nachhaltiger Lebensmittelkonsum in der Zukunft auszusehen hat. Der Beitrag diskutiert die Frage aus Sicht der Konsumverhaltens...

  17. Ruhende Flüssigkeiten und Gase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten und Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:

  18. Handlung und Kommunikation als Grundbegriffe der Soziologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, W.P.M.; Albert, H.; Greshoff, R.; Schützeichel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Handlung und Kommunikation gelten in der Soziologie manchmal als alternative, konkurrierende Grundbegriffe für die Beschreibung und Erklärung sozialer Zusammenhänge (siehe u.a. Luhmann 1984; 1990; Schneider 1994; Stichweh 2000; Greshoff 1999; Schwinn 2001; Albert et. al. 2003). Eine Soziologie,

  19. Die Gestalten und das Gestalten der Welt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Höfer, Ulf; Valent, Juta

    2017-01-01

    In seiner Kosmogonie bespricht Ehrenfels den Ursprung, die Entwicklung, und das endgültige Schicksal des Universums: die Gestalt der Welt. Einerseits ist sie ein Kosmos, ein Geschöpf des Ordnungsprinzips, andererseits ein Chaos, als Resultat des Prinzips des Zufalls und der Entropie. Diese beiden

  20. Systeme im Einsatz. Lernmanagement, Kompetenzmanagement und PLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Schön, Sandra; Lindner, Martin; Roth, Detlev; Baumgartner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Kalz, M., Schön, S., Lindner, M., Roth, D., & Baumgartner, P. (2011). Systeme im Einsatz. Lernmanagement, Kompetenzmanagement und PLE. In M. Ebner, & S. Schön (Eds.), L3T - Lerhbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologie (pp. 111-118). Graz, Austria: Uni Graz. Available at

  1. Panoramic radiography and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yonoshin

    1971-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a term that is applied to the radiographic techniques which record is the dental arches and related structures on one or two extraoral films. It consists of two methods, one using the intraoral anode, and the other employing tomography. Because of an increase in practical application, about 10 kinds of panoramic dental X-ray units were commercially available in U.S.A.

  2. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs

  3. Mobile radiography at a music festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Brenchley, J; Hughes, N

    2009-08-01

    Limb injuries are common at music festival sites and traditionally patients seen by on-site medical services require referral to hospital emergency departments for radiographic exclusion of bony injury. This takes clinical personnel off site, increases demand on local emergency departments and is inconvenient for revellers. This is an audit of the use of a portable digital radiography system at the Virgin music festival in Staffordshire over a 3-year period.

  4. Quantitative analysis of boron by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayuelken, A.; Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Buchberger, T.

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative determination of boron in ores is a long process with chemical analysis techniques. As nuclear techniques like X-ray fluorescence and activation analysis are not applicable for boron, only the neutron radiography technique, using the high neutron absorption cross section of this element, can be applied for quantitative determinations. This paper describes preliminary tests and calibration experiments carried out at a 250 kW TRIGA reactor. (orig.) [de

  5. Mathematics and physics of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Wyman, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides detailed descriptions and analyses of selected experiments and their mathematical characterization. Also included are illustrative and quantitative procedures for applications. This book also discusses the radiography, nondestructive testing and nuclear reactor utilization. The contents discussed are: I: Introduction. II: Component Characterization. III: Object-Image Relations. IV: Rectangular Geometry. V: Cylindrical Geometry. VI: Two-Dimensional Analysis. VII: Object Scattering. VIII: Linear Systems Formulation. IX: Selected Topics. X: Neutron Radiographs. XI: Bibliography and References. Subject Index

  6. Digital detection systems for projection radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    This article gives a survey of digital X-ray detection systems for projection radiography. The different principles are compared and some general characteristics are derived. The basic conversion mechanisms in the absorption layers are described. The basic principles of solid state X-ray detectors and their general characteristics are elucidated as well as some similarities with detectors for computed tomography. Some important application and system aspects are considered. An outlook on further possible developments in this field is given. (orig.) [de

  7. Digital chest radiography: collimation and dose reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian

    ,3 mAs and SID SID of 180 centimetres using a phantom and lithium fluoride thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD). Dose to risk organs mamma, thyroid and colon are measured at different collimations with one-centimetre steps. TLD results are used to estimate dose reduction for different collimations...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  8. Radiography student perceptions of clinical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Starla L

    2006-01-01

    Technological change and the increasingly rapid pace of life in the United States and globally have contributed to increased levels of stress and burnout experienced by workers and their families. Although studies are available on the levels of workplace stress and burnout affecting radiographers, little to no research has been conducted to assess the stressors encountered by radiography students in the clinical environment. This study was designed to pinpoint the primary sources of stress for radiography students and to determine the most effective measures to alleviate the stress that students experience in the clinical environment. It also sought to identify the clinical activities and practices that enhance learning. A convenience sample of radiography students attending an Association of Collegiate Educators in Radiologic Technology meeting was surveyed. Students were asked to rank their greatest stressors in the clinical environment, the most desired qualities in a clinical instructor and clinical environment, and the clinical practices and activities that best enhance their learning. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Data were collected for 82 first-year and second-year students. Students identified 7 primary clinical stressors: fear of making a mistake/repeat, feeling unprepared/inexperienced, intimidation by staff and by instructors, difficult/critical patients, hurtful criticism, too much supervision and negative responses to questions/requests for help. Students indicated that more frequent feedback, availability of the clinical instructor and other staff, assurance that mistakes happen and the opportunity to make mistakes were clinical practices that eased stress. The majority of students cited hands-on learning and repetition as the clinical activities that most reinforced their learning. Summary Radiography students in this survey experience some of the same clinical stressors as radiographers and other allied health workers

  9. Source of scattering in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruault, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Variations concerning emission and detection of ionizing radiations in industrial radiography are reviewed. Sources of errors come from emulsion and emulsion processing (fabrication, aging, processing, chemicals, temperature, development time, shaking down, drying, delay for processing), from emission (X ray generators, emission spectra, voltage, angular repartition of photon fluence, radioactive sources) and also from radiation measurement (dosimetry and spectrometry). Influence of all these parameters on sensitivity is examined [fr

  10. Quality assessment of orthodontic radiography in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Ekholm, Marja; Haukka, Jari; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna

    2016-02-01

    Numbers of dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) outweigh other radiographic examinations in 7- to 12-year-old Finns. Orthodontists and general practitioners (GPs) involved in orthodontics hold therefore the highest responsibility of the exposure of children to ionising radiation with its risks. Against this background, lack of reports on the quality of orthodontic radiography is surprising. The purpose of our study was to shed some light and draw the awareness of the orthodontic community on the subject by analyzing the quality of orthodontic radiography in Oral Healthcare Department of City of Helsinki, in the capital of Finland. We analyzed randomly selected 241 patient files with DPTs and 118 patient files with LCRs of 7- to 12-year-olds for the indications of radiography, quality of referrals, status of interpretation, and number of failed radiographs. The majority of DPTs (95%) and all LCRs had been ordered for orthodontic reasons. Of the DPTs, 60% were ordered by GPs, and of the LCRs, 64% by orthodontists. The referrals were adequate for most DPTs (78%) and LCRs (73%), orthodontists being responsible for the majority of inadequate referrals. Of the DPTs, 80% had been interpreted. Of the LCRs, 65% lacked interpretation, but 67% had been analysed cephalometrically. Failed radiographs, leading to repeated exposure, were found in 2-3%. The quality assessment revealed that orthodontic radiography may not completely fulfill the criteria of good practice. Our results stress further need of continuing education in radiation protection among both orthodontists and GPs involved in orthodontics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Schaulust und Horror Soziokulturelle - Perspektiven auf PEEPING TOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ballhausen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Geschichte des Kinos und des Films ist mindestens ebenso sehr eine Geschichte des Schreckens (und der damit verbundenen Schaulust wie sie eine Geschichte des Dokumentarischen zu sein scheint. Es sind die außergewöhnlichen Körper und deren Bewegungen, die das Publikum zu allen Zeiten faszinierten, schockierten und zum Schauen und Sehen lockten. Besonders das Genre des Horrorfilms ist mit diesem zentralen Aspekt des Kinos besonders deutlich verbunden.

  12. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2009-03-01

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  13. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections

  14. Representability of metastatic bone lesions in magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Magnification radiography, bone scintigraphy, and normal roentgenography were performed on patients with malignant tumors to detect their bone metastases, and from the results obtained, these diagnostic procedures were evaluated for the detectability and representability of metastatic bone lesions. Bone scan and normal roentgenography were performed on 90 metastatic bone lesions in 37 patients, and magnification radiography was done on 14 bone lesions noted in 10 of the 37 and another with benign osseous change. Among the three, bone scintigraphy was best, and magnification radiography and normal roentgenography did not differ significantly in detectability. In magnification radiography, some metastatic bone lesions were represented more clearly than by normal roentgeography, but some were not. As regards the representability of the ribs, magnification radiography was very useful. One case of bone destruction was detected by magnification radiography, but not by normal roentgenography. (author)

  15. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  16. The technological development of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, D.A.; Berger, H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a relatively recent technological development in the annals of non-destructive evaluation. It promises to play a role of increasing importance as the technology is further developed. The technique is placed in prospective with regard to other non-destructive evaluation methods in this paper. The history of the development of neutron radiography is traced to the early work of Becker, Bothe and the Joliot-Curies in Europe, and to the work of Chadwick in Great Britain. Details of the experiments which led to the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932, nuclear properties and energy classifications of neutrons, and the various interactions of neutrons with matter are discussed in detail. A history of neutron radiography is presented which outlines the early experiments by Kallmann and Kuhn; these experiments led to the production of the first neutron radiograph in Germany in 1938. The paper continues with a description of the general techniques that are characteristic of the neutron radiographic process. The breadth and extent of present neutron radiographic technology is discussed as a conclusion of the paper. (author)

  17. Application of neutron radiography to plant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko

    1995-01-01

    Neutron radiography was used to image plant roots in soils. Soybeans were used as experimental plants. When the length of the soybean root was 3-5 cm, the plant was transferred to an alminum foil and cultivated by adding polyvinyl alcoholic polymer (polymer A) and pulm-derived polymer (polymer B) as water absorbing polymers to soils. Plant samples were removed sequentially and irradiated with neutrons for 19 seconds at the JRR-3M neutron radiography facility. After irradiation, X-ray film images were obtained to observe water dynamics of roots and soils. Neutron images of soybean roots showed that secondary roots had grown on the side of water absorbing polymer-added soils in the case of polymer A, but on the side of non-added soils in the case of polymer B. When polymer B was added just below the soils where roots were grown, root growth was restricted only to the soil surface, and plant growth condition and dry weight were similar to those in the control plants. Thus the design of root shape may be possible by using polymer B. Similar experiment was made on 5 kinds of trees. Images of cross section of Japanese Cypress revealed that water contained in the tree is not always present along with growth ring of the tree. These findings may have an important implication for the potential application of neutron radiography in plant research. (N.K.)

  18. Digital radiography: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthel, A.; Bonin, Th.; Cadilhon, S.; Thiery, Ch.; Chatellier, L.; Kaftandjian, V.; Honorat, Ph.; Torrent, J.; Le Brun, A.; Maglaive, J.C.; Moreau, Ph.; Pettier, J.L.; Rebuffel, V.; Roenelle, P.; Roussilhe, J.; Staat, St.; Tahon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The presented document arises from the work of the group 'Digital Radiography and sensors' of COFREND. It is a collective work of synthesis aimed to analyze the quality parameters of digital images influencing the answer and the diagnosis brought to a given industrial problem. Five families of digital sensors have been studied: 1. Image Intensifier coupled with CCD devices - 2. scintillators coupled with a CCD device- 3. Flat Panels with indirect conversion - 4. Flat Panels with direct electric conversion - 5. Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Screens). In particular, concerning a complete imaging chain, it deals with the notions of magnification, blur (unsharpness) (geometrical, kinetic or internal to the very sensor), noises, scattered radiation, spatial resolution, which is different from the one of analog detectors such as films, Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), sensitivity using IQIs, dynamic range, detection quantum efficiency, persistence and temporal resolution. This document is not a standard; it must be understood as a user's guide, and it approaches some essentials corrections to bring to a sensor in order to optimize his efficiency without losing information during the pre-processing phase in the radiographic acquisition. It also introduces some image processing tools commonly used. It can be used as a source document to the future elaboration of a standardisation document. It augurs not at all of the choice of a digital sensor with regard to the traditional radiographic film, but gives bases of reflection to a radio user for a sensible transfer from the classic radiography to the digital radiography. (authors)

  19. Assessment of cold neutron radiography capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Roberts, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors goals were to demonstrate and assess cold neutron radiography techniques at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manual Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), and to investigate potential applications of the capability. The authors have obtained images using film and an amorphous silicon detector. In addition, a new technique they have developed allows neutron radiographs to be made using only a narrow range of neutron energies. Employing this approach and the Bragg cut-off phenomena in certain materials, they have demonstrated material discrimination in radiography. They also demonstrated the imaging of cracks in a sample of a fire-set case that was supplied by Sandia National Laboratory, and they investigated whether the capability could be used to determine the extent of coking in jet engine nozzles. The LANSCE neutron radiography capability appears to have applications in the DOE stockpile maintenance and science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) programs, and in industry

  20. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  1. Sowjetunion und Völkerrecht 1962-1973 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1980-01-01

    Tutvustus: Sowjetunion und Völkerrecht 1962-1973 : Bibliographie und analyse / hrsg. Boris Meissner, Dietrich Frenzke und Erika Chilicki. Köln : Wissenschaft und Politik, 1979 [t.p. incorrectly: 1977

  2. Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Umekawa, Hisashi; Ami, Takeyuki; Saito, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

  3. Bewegung bei Vorschulkindern: Empfehlungen und Wirklichkeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graf C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bewegung und körperliche Aktivität spielen insbesondere in der ganzheitlichen Entwicklung von Kindern eine wichtige Rolle. Heutzutage ist der kindliche Lebensstil allerdings von Bewegungsarmut und der Nutzung audiovisueller Medien geprägt. Bereits Kindergartenkinder sind überwiegend inaktiv bzw. verbringen viel Zeit mit Fernsehen. Eine mögliche Folge von mangelnder Bewegung können motorische Defizite darstellen. In eigenen Kollektiven schneiden mindestens 45 % der Kinder unterdurchschnittlich in den motorischen Hauptbeanspruchungsformen Koordination, Kraft und Schnelligkeit ab. Inwiefern sich dies langfristig auf die gesunde körperliche, aber auch geistige und emotionale Entwicklung der Kinder auswirkt, kann derzeit noch nicht beantwortet werden. Sicherlich unterstützen aber motorische Defizite ein Meidungsverhalten und den weiteren Rückzug aus der Bewegung sowie die Entwicklung von Übergewicht und Adipositas. Allgemein wird für Kinder in dieser Altersgruppe mindestens 2 Stunden tägliche Bewegungszeit sowie eine Reduktion der Fernsehzeit auf maximal 30 Min. empfohlen. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen bzw. zu unterstützen, sind effektive präventive Programme in den verschiedenen Lebensräumen der Kinder, Kindergärten, aber auch pädiatrischen Praxen etc. vonnöten. Bislang ist kein gesundheitsförderlicher/ präventiver „Königsweg“ bekannt, insbesondere nicht für Risikofamilien mit einem geringen sozioökonomischen Status und/oder Migrationshintergrund. Wichtig erscheinen aber die Förderung der intersektoralen Zusammenarbeit und ein Schwerpunkt in der Planung und Umsetzung auf Qualitätssicherung und Projektmanagement, um auch nachhaltig die Gesundheit der Kinder zu unterstützen.

  4. Imaging and therapy of a chondroblastoma; Bildgebung und Therapie eines Chondroblastoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Meyer, D.R.; Geufke, P.; Andresen, R. [Krankenhaus Guestrow, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universitaet Rostock (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The chondroblastoma is a rare lytic osseous lesion, which is typically to be found in the epiphyses of the long tubular bones. We present a case report with the differential diagnostic imaging and the surgical therapy of a chondroblastoma of the proximal tibial epiphysis. A 16-year-old male presented in the traumatological accident and emergency centre with knee pain of unclear origin that had been increasing for several months. He had no memory of any acute trauma. For further clarification, a conventional radiography in two planes, a thin-layer CT, a multiplanar MRI before and after Gd-DTPA, and a bone scan were performed. The conventional radiological diagnostics show a smoothly circumscribed, osteolytic, eccentric lesion with marginal sclerosis, which does not exceed the epiphyseal seam of the proximal tibia. The thin-layer CT reveals an eccentric osteolysis, with a typical, narrow sclerotic seam and central calcifications. In the high-resolution MRI, the T2-weighted sequences show a locally limited, epiphyseal, lubulated lesion with a heterogeneous, in part raised signal. A further signal increase can be seen in the T1-weighted sequences after administration of Gd-DTPA. Perifocally, there is an epiphyseal edema and discrete (intraarticular fluid collection) fluid in the inner knee. In the skeletal scintigraphy, there is a strong focal and diffuse increased activity from the proximal, lateral tibial epiphysis. After the diagnosis had been rendered, curettage of the defect was performed and then, after histological confirmation of the diagnosis, completing spongiosaplasty was conducted. Taking into account the localisation and the patient's age, a virtually certain diagnosis can already be rendered using conventional imaging. A supplementary MRI or CT can be helpful for final clarification, while 3-phase skeletal scintigraphy is superfluous. The therapy of choice is curettage and subsequent filling of the defect with autologous spongiosa. (orig.) [German

  5. Initial diagnosis of therapeutically relevant thoracic lesions in polytraumatised patients; Zur Akutdiagnostik therapierelevanter Thoraxverletzungen bei schwer- und polytraumatisierten Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danz, B. [Radiologische Abt., Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Biehl, C. [Radiologische Abt., Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Baehren, W. [Radiologische Abt., Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    To determine the value of supine chest radiography in comparison to orientating chest CT in the initial diagnostic evaluation of severely polytraumatised patients. 303 patients with primary indication for a cranial CT following trauma were investigated between 1988 and 1993. After performing the cranial CT all patients underwent a chest CT with an average of 6 CT slices without changing the position of the patient and with a median scan time of 4 minutes. The results of the chest CT were correlated with the findings of the supine chest radiography in regard to therapeutically relevant pathological changes. The sensitivity in detection of pneumothorax in supine chest radiography was 53% versus 97% in CT, atelectasis 20% versus 94%, lung contusion 79% versus 99%, haemotothorax 62% versus 97%. More fractures were found conventionally (sensitivity 94%) than by chest CT (sensitivity 44%). Supine chest radiography of polytraumatised patients is clearly inferior to orientating chest CT in demonstrating posttraumatic lesions; obtaining therapeutically relevant information justifies the additionally needed small amount of time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser retrospektiven Untersuchung bestand darin, die Wertigkeit der a.p. Thoraxaufnahme im Liegen im Vergleich zur orientierenden Computertomographie der Thoraxorgane im Rahmen der Akutdiagnostik bei schwer- und polytraumatisierten Patienten zu analysieren. Im Zeitraum von 1988 bis 1993 bestand bei 303 Patienten wegen eines Schaedel-Hirn-Traumas die primaere Indikation zu einem CCT. Im Anschluss an das CCT wurde routinemaessig ein orientierendes CT der Thoraxorgane mit im Durchschnitt 6 Schichten ohne Umlagerung und einem medianen Zeitaufwand von 4 Minuten durchgefuehrt. Die Befunde des CT des Thorax wurden mit den Ergebnissen der durchgefuehrten a.p. Thoraxliegendaufnahmen im Hinblick auf die Erfassung therapierelevanter pathologischer Veraenderungen verglichen. Die Sensitivitaet fuer die Erkennung eines Pneumothorax in

  6. Der Einfluss von sozialer Ungleichheit und kulturellen Unterschieden auf die Wahrnehmung von finanziellen und Arbeitsplatzrisiken: Überlegungen zur Risikogesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, David; Quilgars, Deborah; Jones, Anwen

    2006-01-01

    Der vorliegende Artikel beruht auf Daten einer Studie, die sich mit der Frage beschäftigt, wie verschiedene soziale und kulturelle Gruppen die Risiken von Einkommens- und Arbeitsplatzverlust wahrnehmen und darauf reagieren. Autoren wie LASH, DOUGLAS und LUPTON betonten die Bedeutung von Gruppenzugehörigkeit und sozialen Kategorien für die Strukturierung der Reaktionsweisen auf verschiedene Risikoarten. Sie sprechen daher lieber von Risikokulturen als von der Risikogesellschaft. Trotzdem erken...

  7. Fast neutron radiography using photoluminescent imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Balasko, M.; Stade, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) and resonance neutron radiography (RNR) are complementary to the conventional radiography with high energy gamma-rays or brems-strahlung radiation used for the inspection of thick metal objects. In both non-destructive methods, the contrast sensitivity and the penetration power can be improved by using higher energy neutrons. At present direct techniques based either n Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTDs) or scintillating screens and transfer techniques using activation threshold detectors and radiographic films are applied for the detection of fast neutron images. Rather low detection sensitivity of film and SSNTD based fast neutron imaging methods and also rather poor inherent image contrast of SSNTD pose a problem for FNR in the fast neutron energy region 1-15 MeV interesting for NDT. For more efficient detection of fast neutron images the use of novel highly sensitive photoluminescent imaging plates (IP) in combination with threshold at the KFKI research reactor. The conventional IP produced by FUJI Photo Film Co. for the detection of beta and X-ray radiation were used. The threshold activation detectors were the reactions 115 In(n, n') 115m In, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 56 Fe(n, p) 56 Mn, 24 Mg(n, p) 24 Na and 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na. These threshold reactions cover the fast neutron energy region between 0,7 MeV and 12 MeV. Pure, commercially available metals 0,1 mm to 0,25 mm thick made of In, Zn, Fe, Mg and Al were used as converter screens. The very high sensitivity of IP, the linearity of their response over 5 decades of exposure dose and the high dynamic digitalisation latitude enabled fast neutron radiography of image quality comparable to the quality of thermal NR. In our experimental conditions (φ n ∼ 10 8 n/cm 2 s, R Cd ∼ 2) the neutron exposure and IP exposure periods were still practical and comparable to the half life of the corresponding reaction products (half an hour to several hours). Even with the 27 Al(n.α) 24

  8. New development of neutron radiography with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasushi; Ohkubo, Kohei; Kato, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Tomihisa; Fuji, Takayoshi.

    1990-01-01

    A series of neutron radiography testing has been performed for several years by using a small accelerator called 'Baby Cyclotron' manufactured by Japan Steel Works, Ltd. The Baby Cyclotron produces fast neutrons at the rate of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s, and enables to perform neutron radiography imaging by various techniques. The most important application of this Baby Cyclotron radiography system is the non-destructive testing (NDT) of various explosive devices prepared for space launch vehicles. It is assured that thermal neutron radiography testing is a very useful means for the NDT. Also fast neutron radiography testing is in progress. The fast neutron radiography with a CR39 track-etch image recorder was developed, and it was shown to be the very useful NDT means when the thicker objects used for new H-2 launch vehicles had to be examined. Because thermal neutron radiography has the high detectability of hydrogenous materials, organic elastomers such as O-rings and explosive powder are clearly observable through the opaque steel walls of containers. The Baby Cyclotron and the neutron radiography facility, thermal neutron and fast neutron radiography testings and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; Tobias, C.A.; Castro, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  10. Ein überfälliger Dialog. Wie Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung und Soziologie miteinander ins Gespräch kommen können

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Monographie von Brigitte Aulenbacher zum Zusammenhang von Rationalisierung, Geschlecht und Gesellschaft ist in gegenstandsbezogener und methodologischer Hinsicht ambitioniert, überzeugend und lesenswert. Die Studie stellt eine solide, manchmal auch etwas zu weitschweifige und detailreiche Grundlage für weiterführende Diskussionen zwischen der (sozialwissenschaftlichen Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung und der Soziologie, genauer der Gesellschaftstheorie in zeitdiagnostischer Perspektive, Arbeits-, Industrie-, Organisations- und Techniksoziologie, dar.

  11. Bariumexaminations of the small intestine and the colon in inflammatory bowel disease; Konventionelle Duenn- und Dickdarmdiagnostik bei entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antes, G. [Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Klinikum Kempten-Oberallgaeu g, GmbH, Kempten (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the possibilities of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine and colon.Material and methods For more than 25 years we examine the small bowel employing enteroclysis with barium and methylcellulose and the colon with the usual double-contrast method. In the last 152 months 1560 small bowel enemas were performed. In the last 40 months 410 examinations of the colon were performed. There is a thirty percent decrease in enteroclysis examinations within the past 5 years,however, the rate of examinations with positive results increased from 46 to 57%.The proportion of the inflammatory small intestinal diseases (not only Crohn's disease) remained constant with 18%.Concerning the examinations of the colon for inflammatory disease we confirmed the diagnosis in seven cases.The radiation exposure for the enteroclysis in inflammatory diseases was 7mSv, for colon examinations 14 mSv. Barium examinations, especially of the stomach and colon are decreasing in frequency.Therefore the art of performance and interpretation might get lost.Enteroclysis, however, is still the method of reference for the other imaging methods.The advantages compared to the other imaging methods are the excellent presentation of the details of the mucosal surface and the observation of functional disorders. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung Diese Uebersichtsarbeit soll die Moeglichkeiten der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik an Duenndarm und Kolon bei entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen aufzeigen.Material und Methoden Seit mehr als 25 Jahren untersuchen wir den Duenndarm mit dem Enteroklysma mit Barium und Methylzellulose und das Kolon mit der ueblichen Doppelkontrastmethode. In den letzten 152 Monaten wurden 1560 Duenndarmuntersuchungen durchgefuehrt. In den letzten 40 Monaten erfolgten 410 Kolonuntersuchungen.Ergebnisse Bei den Duenndarmuntersuchungen wurde in den letzten 5 Jahren ein Rueckgang um 30% beobachtet

  12. Reduction of radiation dose by using digital luminescence radiography compared to conventional screen film system with grid cassette; Reduktion der Strahlendosis mittels Speicherfolienradiographie im Vergleich zum konventionellen Film-Folien-System mit Rasterkassette am Schaedelphantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, J.P.; Merbold, H.; Neumann, R.; Freesmeyer, M.; Jonetz-Mentzel, L.; Kaiser, W.A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena, Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie (Germany); Sehner, J. [AGFA-Deutschland, Vertriebsgesellschaft (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: How much can the radiation dose be reduced for skull radiography by using digital luminescence radiography (DLR) compared to a conventional screen film system with a grid cassette? Methods and Materials: A skull phantom (3M) was X-rayed in anterior-posterior orientation using both a conventional screen film system with grid cassette and DLR (ADC-70, Agfa). The tube current time product (mAs) was diminished gradually while keeping the voltage constant. The surface entrance dose was measured by a sensor of Dosimax (Wellhoefer). Five investigators evaluated the images by characteristic and critical features, spatial resolution and contrast. Results: The surface entrance dose at 73 kV/22 mAs was 0,432 mGy in conventional screen film system and 0,435 mGy in DLR. The images could be evaluated very well down to an average dose of 71% (0,308 mGy; SD 0,050); sufficient images were obtained down to an average dose of 31% (0,136 mGy; SD 0,065). The resolution of the line pairs were reduced down to a 2 levels depending on the investigator. Contrast was assessed as being very good to sufficient. The acceptance of the postprocessed images (MUSICA-software) was individually different and resultde in an improvement of the assessment of bone structures an contrast in higher dose ranges only. Conclusion: For the sufficient assessment of a possible fracture/of paranasal sinuses/of measurement the skull the dose can be reduced to at least 56% (31%; SD 14,9%)/40% (27%; SD 9,3%)/18% (14%; SD 4,4%). Digital radiography allows question-referred exposure parameters with clearly reduced dose, so e.g. for fracture exclusion 73 kV/12,5 mAs and to skull measurement 73 kV/4 mAs. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Wie weit kann unter Einsatz der rasterlosen Speicherfolienradiographie bei einer Schaedelaufnahme die Strahlendosis im Vergleich zum Film-Folien-System (FFS) mit Rasterkassette (RK) fragestellungsbezogen gesenkt werden? Material und Methode: Ein Schaedelphantom (3M) wurde konventionell

  13. Bakteriochlorophyllvorstufen und Pigment-Protein-Komplexe in Rhodospirillum rubrum ST3 und GN11

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, Jörg U.

    2006-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden zwei Mutanten des Alpha-Proteobakteriums Rhodospirillum rubrum untersucht, die im Bakteriochlorophyll-Biosyntheseweg unterbrochen sind, um einen Beitrag zum genaueren Verständnis der Biosynthese dieser Moleküle und der einzelnen daran beteiligten Schritte zu liefern. Von den beiden Stämmen ST3 und GN11 wurden die ins Kulturmedium ausgeschiedenen Pigmente aufgereinigt und spektroskopisch analysiert. Ebenfalls wurden sowohl von ST3, als auch von GN11 die in int...

  14. Computerspielgewalt und Aggression: Längsschnittliche Untersuchung von Selektions- und Wirkungseffekten

    OpenAIRE

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    Auf Grundlage sozialkognitiver Aggressionsmodelle wurde die Beziehung zwischen Computerspielgewohnheiten und der Aggressionsneigung sowie Verzerrungen in der sozialen Informationsverarbeitung untersucht. Dazu wurden 499 Schüler/innen weiterführender Schulen (6.-8. Kl. Gymnasium, Haupt- und Realschule) in zwei Erhebungen mit einem Intervall von einem Jahr befragt. Mit hierarchischen Regressionsanalysen wurden Wirkungs- und Selektionseffekte geprüft, wobei relevante Drittvariablen (Monitoring u...

  15. Zu den Grundlagen der visuellen Soziologie: Wahrnehmen und Sehen, Beobachten und Betrachten

    OpenAIRE

    Bachleitner, Reinhard; Weichbold, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden die visuellen Modi des Wahrnehmens – das Sehen, Beobachten und Betrachten – in ihrem Wesen skizziert, und die doppelte Theorieabhängigkeit von Wahrnehmungsprozessen wird thematisiert. Dabei zeigt sich, dass mehrere offene methodologische und erkenntnistheoretische Fragen durch die Differenzierung des Wahrnehmungsvorgangs in drei Stufen (reines Sehen, kognitive Repräsentation, Transformation des Perzepts in Worte) sowie die Differenzierung der Wahrnehmungsmodi in jewei...

  16. Intermediale Synchronisation zwischen Volltext und Film und ihre Realisierung in Hybrideditionen

    OpenAIRE

    Bülow, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Diese Arbeit behandelt die theoretische Erfassung und prototypische Erzeugung komplexer Musterdokumente mit synchronisiertem »Volltext« und »Bewegtbild«. Dabei werden wesentliche Randbedingungen für die Dokumentengliederung ermittelt. Diese Randbedingungen erlauben es dann, unterhalb der Plattformebene (des »reinen« Buchs und des »reinen« Films) neue multimediale Hybrideditionen auf Basis elektronischer Publikationsformate als Ausgabeplattform »sinnvoll« zu generieren. Empirisch wird der F...

  17. Die Kunst des Intavolierens: Gebundenheit und Freiheit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A big part of 16th century keyboard repertory was intabulated vocal music; arrangements of motets, sets of masses and chansons. Marcant and sometimes little known examples show the different functions of intabulations: repertoire for the organists (liturgical function, music of delight and pedagogical functions. As a part of Ars Organistum intabulations were the basis of professional musical studies, learning to improvise organ music and to compose music. Masters like H. Scheidemann, the both Gabrielis, J. de Lublin, P. Philips, the both Cabezóns, some English and French anonym composers demonstrate that intabulations are much more than keyboard reductions - artful arrangements with their own life and character on the way to artful paraphrases. The intentions of the composers / arrangers in connection with the possibilities of the keyboard instruments definite the character and the step of transforming a vocal set in a (new piece of keyboard music.

    [de] Ein großer Teil des Musikrepertoires für Tasteninstrumente im 16. Jahrhundert bestand aus intavolierter Vokalmusik - Bearbeitungen von Motetten, Messsätzen und Chansons. Markante und teilweise wenig bekannte Beispiele zeigen verschiedene Funktionen der Intavolierungen. Zu nennen sind das Organistenrepertoire (liturgisches Umfeld, die Musik zur Erbauung und Unterhaltung und die pädagogische Funktion. Als Bestandteil der Ars Organistum waren Intavolierungen wichtig um professionell das Improvisieren von Musik und das Komponieren zu erlernen. Exemplarisch dokumentieren besonders H. Scheidemann, die beiden Gabrielis, J. de Lublin, P. Philips, die beiden Cabezóns und einige anonyme Komponisten aus England und Frankreich, dass ihre Kunst des Intavolierens weit über den Übertragungsmodus hinausgeht, bis hin zum virtuosen Arrangement und zur kunstvollen Paraphrase. Die Intentionen der Komponisten in Verbindung mit den Möglichkeiten der Tasteninstrumente pr

  18. Kommunikation und Lernen in partizipativen kulturellen und medialen Räumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Zobl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eine der interessantesten Transformationen in der Jugendkultur seit den 1990er-Jahren ist die steigende Zahl vor allem an Mädchen und jungen Frauen, die zu aktiven kulturellen Produzentinnen wurden. In diesem Artikel wird argumentiert, dass sie mit ihren eigenen kulturellen Produktionen und Netzwerken neue soziale und mediale Räume öffnen, die durch eine partizipative Kultur, selbst-organisiertes Lernen in informellen Kontexten und lokale, transnationale und virtuelle Vernetzung und Kommunikation geprägt sind. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, das Kommunizieren und Lernen in partizipativen kulturellen (bzw. sozialen und medialen Räumen am Beispiel queer-feministischer Festivals – sogenannter „Ladyfeste“ – darzustellen und ihre Bedeutung in (medien-pädagogischen Kontexten zu diskutieren.One of the most interesting transformations in youth culture since the 1990s is the growing number of girls and young women as active cultural producers. By creating their own cultural productions and networks, this article argues, that they open up new cultural (i. e. social and media spaces which are characterized by a participatory culture, self-organised learning and local, transnational and virtual networks and communication. Taking the example of queer-feminist festivals (so called “Ladyfests”, the aim of this article is to discuss communication and learning in participatory cultural and media spaces and their meaning in the context of (media-pedagogy.

  19. PHP und MySQL der Web-Baukasten fur Einsteiger und Individualisten

    CERN Document Server

    Damaschke, Giesbert

    2015-01-01

    Sie haben schon eigene Webseiten gebaut und mochten diese nun mit Funktionen ausstatten, fur die Sie PHP und MySQL benotigen? Giesbert Damaschke zeigt Ihnen in diesem Buch, wie Sie das schaffen. Schritt fur Schritt erlernen Sie die benotigten Programmier- und Datenbankgrundlagen - immer im Rahmen von typischen dynamischen Anwendungen. So erheben und speichern Sie zum Beispiel mit Formularen Kontaktdaten, prufen Benutzereingaben, erstellen Menus, richten einen Besucherzahler ein, verschicken E-Mails mit PHP oder entwickeln sogar einen eigenen Blog. Alle Codebeispiele werden ausfuhrlich erklart,

  20. Direct digital radiography versus storage phosphor radiography in the detection of wrist fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, Siegfried; Neitzel, Ulrich; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Pechlaner, Sigurd; KUenzel, Karl Heinz; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Gaber, O.; Jaschke, Werner

    2002-04-01

    AIM: To define the value of digital radiography with a clinical flat panel detector system for evaluation of wrist fractures in comparison with state of the art storage phosphor radiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hard copy images of 26 fractured wrist specimens were acquired with the same exposure dose on a state of the art storage phosphor radiography system and a clinical flat panel detector. Image features like cortical bone surface, trabecular bone, soft tissues and fracture delineation were independently analysed by 4 observers using a standardised protocol. Image quality ratings were evaluated with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Flat panel detector radiographs were rated superior with respect to cortical and trabecular bone representation as well as fracture evaluation, while storage phosphor radiographs produced better soft tissue detail. CONCLUSION: In some of the observed image quality aspects, the performance of caesium iodide/amorphous silicon flat panel detector exceeds state of the art storage phosphor radiography. This makes it well suited for skeletal imaging particularly in trauma as seen in the detection of wrist fractures. Peer, S. et al. (2002)

  1. Direct digital radiography versus storage phosphor radiography in the detection of wrist fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, Siegfried; Neitzel, Ulrich; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Pechlaner, Sigurd; KUenzel, Karl Heinz; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Gaber, O.; Jaschke, Werner

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To define the value of digital radiography with a clinical flat panel detector system for evaluation of wrist fractures in comparison with state of the art storage phosphor radiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hard copy images of 26 fractured wrist specimens were acquired with the same exposure dose on a state of the art storage phosphor radiography system and a clinical flat panel detector. Image features like cortical bone surface, trabecular bone, soft tissues and fracture delineation were independently analysed by 4 observers using a standardised protocol. Image quality ratings were evaluated with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Flat panel detector radiographs were rated superior with respect to cortical and trabecular bone representation as well as fracture evaluation, while storage phosphor radiographs produced better soft tissue detail. CONCLUSION: In some of the observed image quality aspects, the performance of caesium iodide/amorphous silicon flat panel detector exceeds state of the art storage phosphor radiography. This makes it well suited for skeletal imaging particularly in trauma as seen in the detection of wrist fractures. Peer, S. et al. (2002)

  2. Compton radiography, 2. Clinical significance of Compton radiography of a chest phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Fukuda, H; Shishido, F [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-09-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode.

  3. Wirkungen eines Bifidojoghurts mit Laktulose und eines konventionellen Joghurts auf Darmphysiologie und bakterielle Metaboliten als Risikomodulatoren der Kolonkarzinogenese sowie Darmflora und Blutlipide bei gesunden Erwachsenen

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Hintergrund: Probiotische und synbiotische Milchprodukte zählen zu den "funktionellen Lebensmitteln", denen im Vergleich zu herkömmlichen Produkten ein gesundheitsfördernder Zusatznutzen zugeschrieben wird. Dabei wird diskutiert, ob die Gesundheit bereits gesunder Personen noch optimierbar ist, ob und in welcher Weise die Darmflora gezielt "günstig" modifiziert werden kann und/oder ob diese Manipulation zu messbaren gesundheitsfördernden Veränderungen metabolischer und systemischer Biomarker ...

  4. Editorial: Theoriebildung in Mediendidaktik und Wissensmanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kerres

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Das Internet trägt massgeblich zur Entstehung einer neuen Lern- und Wissenskultur bei und ist mittlerweile Gegenstand einer ganzen Reihe von Projekten in der Erziehungswissenschaft. So wird zum Beispiel der Frage nachgegangen, welche Möglichkeiten der Strukturierung und Gestaltung von Lernmaterialien am besten geeignet sind, um Lernprozesse anzuregen, wie die interpersonale Kommunikation im Internet durch didaktische Gestaltungsmassnahmen gefördert werden können oder wie die entfernte Betreuung von Lernenden über das Netz funktioniert. Zunehmend wird dabei auch der Übergang bedeutsam zwischen didaktisch aufbereiteten Lernangeboten, wie sie die Mediendidaktik traditionell beschäftigt, und dem Austausch von nicht didaktisch aufbereiteten Informationen in Organisationen, wie es im Bereich des Wissensmanagements diskutiert wird. In diesen Projekten werden vielfach Detailfragen behandelt, und isoliert, ohne Bezug zu grundlegenden Theoriefragen untersucht. Es mangelt an einer genuin mediendidaktischen Theoriediskussion, die einen übergreifenden Bezugsrahmen aus erziehungswissenschaftlicher Perspektive liefert. In der Vergangenheit ist die Mediendidaktik von Seiten einer «kritischen» Medienpädagogik zeitweise skeptisch beäugt und in ihrer Existenz grundlegend infrage gestellt worden. In der aktuellen Diskussion wird gerne auf lerntheoretische Ansätze zurückgegriffen, die Lernen als aktiven Vorgang der individuellen und kooperativen Wissenskonstruktion begreifen. Doch Wissens- und Lerntheorien ersetzen keine mediendidaktische Modell- und Theoriebildung, die Perspektiven für eine Gestaltung zukünftiger Lernwelten liefert und dabei zum Beispiel sowohl bildungstheoretische Überlegungen als auch Konzepte des instructional design einbezieht. In dem ersten Teil dieser Ausgabe geht es um theoretische Perspektiven der Mediendidaktik. So diskutiert der Artikel von Michael Kerres und Claudia de Witt den Beitrag der Positionen von Behaviorismus

  5. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  6. Die Ware Buch und die Philologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hurch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Die im 19. Jahrhundert sich verändernden Produktionsbedingungen für Druckwerke (Buchdruck, Satz, Papier, Bindung wirkten katalysierend auf die Fachkonstitution und Institutionalisierung der Philologien. Hier steht der tatsächliche Buchmarkt im Vordergrund der Darstellung, das Käuferpublikum und die Voraussetzungen des Vertriebs. Dazu gehören auch die Rezension als entstehende Textsorte und die rasch arbeitenden Rezensionsorgane. F.-R. Hausmann wurde in den letzten Jahren unentbehrlicher Mitarbeiter dieses im Rahmen des Grazer Schuchardt-Projekts "Netzwerk des Wissens" angesiedelten Ansatzes.

  7. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  8. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Poage, T.F.; Alvarez, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR 2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  9. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    2014-01-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  10. Fluchen und Flamen, um ein Mann zu sein? Die Verknüpfung von Geschlecht und Sprache durch Vorurteile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Döring

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Die hier besprochene Monographie der Linguistin Anja Gottburgsen beschäftigt sich theoretisch und empirisch mit sprachbezogenen Geschlechterstereotypen, also mit unseren Vorstellungen darüber, ob und wie Männer und Frauen jeweils in spezifischer und distinkter Weise sprachlich kommunizieren. Im Theorieteil der Arbeit wird der aktuelle Stand der soziolinguistischen und sozialpsychologischen Diskussion zu Geschlecht, Sprachverhalten und Stereotypisierung kritisch referiert und die Bedeutung von sprachbezogenen Geschlechterstereotypen erläutert. Im empirischen Teil berichtet die Autorin die Ergebnisse von drei Fragebogen-Studien mit deutschsprachigen Studierenden. Es zeigt sich, dass bei Studierenden unabhängig von Geschlecht und Geschlechtsrollenorientierung stereotype Vorstellungen über das sprachliche Verhalten von Männern und Frauen verbreitet sind.

  11. Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurayama, Kohsuke; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

  12. Imaging of bone tumors: evaluation of direct magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Hillmann, A.; Erlemann, R.; Groenefeld, A.; Haeussler, M.; Heppe, A.E.; Vestring, T.; Peters, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the potentials of magnification radiography as compared with conventional radiography in diagnosing bone tumors. Design and patients. Sixty-two patients with primary bone tumors and tumorlike lesions underwent radiography with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (fivefold) techniques. All radiographs were analyzed by four radiologists and the findings correlated with the histopathology findings. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. Digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Results. The diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions as well as the individual tumor diagnosis were determined with higher accuracy using magnification compared with conventional radiography (88% vs 75% and 71% vs 52%, p<0.01). Margins of destruction, periosteal reactions and matrix patterns were evaluated with higher certainty by all of the radiologists (p<0.01). Conclusion. Magnification radiography may improve the evaluation and diagnosis of bone tumors. (orig.). With 6 tabs

  13. Quality control in radiography: a primary responsibility of the technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, G.F.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between quality control in radiography and radiation protection is emphasized. Methods of dose reduction discussed are the 0.1 mm fractional focal spot, the use of high speed intensifying screens, and automatic exposure control. The need for recommendations for the establishment of improved systems of radiography is discussed. The development of revised educational concepts for radiologists is considered. (U.S.)

  14. Reproducible positioning in chest X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A device is described that can be used to ensure reproducibility in the positioning of the patient during X-ray radiography of the thorax. Signals are taken from an electrocardiographic monitor and from a device recording the respiratory cycle. Radiography is performed only when two preselected signals coincide

  15. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  16. The profile of indications for radiography in the Neonatal Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Radiography is a key diagnostic tool in paediatric care. A pro-active approach (including the use of radiography) is required to ensure e.ective management of these patients. Taking into account the widely documented harmful e.ects of ionising radiation and the small organ masses of neonates, the number of ...

  17. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  18. Proceedings of 7th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    1986-10-01

    The first short period conference on neutron radiography was held in 1970, and now the 7th meeting was held. The works to develop neutron radiography in Japan are as active as those in western countries, and the research is in progress by using neutrons from reactors, radioisotopes and accelerators in order to achieve the technology of high standard. In this conference, 26 papers and six comments were presented, and the themes covered the equipment for radiography, the practical application, and the related research. The second World Conference on Neutron Radiography will be held in Paris in June, 1986, and the further promotion of the spread of neutron radiography can be expected. The proceedings of the conference is published with the hope that joint effort and information exchange are further enhanced in coming years to develop the neutron radiography in Japan. The neutron radiography using the Kinki University reactor, the Rikkyo Triga-2 reactor, the Musashi reactor, the Kyoto research reactor, a 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Toyota, a subcompact cyclotron in Sumitomo, a baby cyclotron-dual collimator in National Space Development Agency and so on, Cf-252 based thermal neutron radiography, CT with Sb-124/Be neutrons, pulse power neutron source, imaging converters, neutron radiographic image processing, computed tomography using neutron television systems and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. [Das Bild und die Wahrnehmung der Stadt und der städtischen Gesellschaft im Hanseraum im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Das Bild und die Wahrnehmung der Stadt und der städtischen Gesellschaft im Hanseraum im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit. hrsg. v. Roman Czaja. Torun, 2004. Torunis 2002. aastal toimunud konverentsi materjalid. Projekti "Pilt ja linn" raames ilmunud publikatsioonide loendit saab näha aadressil http://www.historiaurbium.org/english/attivita_images_en.html.

  20. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.