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Sample records for radiographic equipment medical

  1. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  2. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  3. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  4. 21 CFR 1020.31 - Radiographic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.31 Radiographic... and time, a preset number of pulses, or a preset radiation exposure to the image receptor. (i) Except... exposure of greater than one-half second. Except during panoramic dental radiography, termination of...

  5. Radiographic Co-60 in component of heavy equipment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoli Soembogo, Harun Al Rasyid R dan Namad Sianta

    2016-01-01

    The application of radiography using isotope Co-60 source has been used on component of heavy equipment such as component of heavy equipment casting. Components of heavy equipment casting made through metal casting of carbon steel. This study tried applying digital radiography are using isotope Co-60 sources and using scanning positive film media of Epson V700 for digitization results of conventional radiographic films. This radiography is using film AGFA D7 and Fuji 100 to obtain a contrast medium, medium sensitivity and image quality is good. The purpose radiographic Co-60 at a component of heavy equipment casting is detecting indications of the shape and type casting defects of component of heavy equipment casting thus fit for use. Radiographic test of Co-60 has been carried out on component of heavy equipment casting with single wall single image method and the results of radiographic films digitization using scanning positive film media of Epson V700 with observation parameters casting defects. Time exposure of Co-60 radiation was 10 and 15 minutes hours for metal castings of carbon steel for thickness 20.00-50.00 mm by using activity 30.05 Ci and the perpendicular distance to the source of the film is 820 mm. Scanner positive film results in the form of digital radiography which allow for the transfer of digital data or digital computerized data storage. Radiographic test results on component of heavy equipment casting with single wall single image method produce the parameter casting defect of component of heavy equipment casting in position of critical area is found shrinkage that should be repaired and in position of safety area is not found defect indication so casting defect of component of heavy equipment casting are not acceptable according to standards referenced. (author)

  6. Radiographic techniques adaptation for any conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Diana R.; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz; Martinez, Alexandre S.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Trad, Clovis S.; Brochi, Marco Aurelio C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to obtain a better risk-benefice relation in diagnostic radiology it turns out to be essential the control and optimization of the radiographic techniques used to reduce the absorbed doses until its minimum, keeping or adjusting the diagnostic image at any X-ray equipment. The present work deals with the standardization of radiographic techniques of chest, skull and pelvis, which is more suitable for obtaining a safe diagnostic with smaller doses, for a standard patient, at any conventional X-ray equipment. (author)

  7. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  8. Acquired image quality in digital industrial radiographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Oliveira, Davi F.

    2008-01-01

    The computerized radiographic application in the industrial area is a recent event. The imaging plate is the equipment used as imaging receiver during the exposition radiographic technique, which consists of a flexible photostimulable phosphor screen, capable of storing the photons energy of the incident X and γ rays and of a reading unit which uses a laser device to stimulate a visible light. As two types of phosphor screen are manufactured, one for general use (General Plate - GP) and another one for specific using (High Resolution-HR), one of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the spatial resolution capability in both plates using the Kodak equipment. Furthermore, equipment from different makers, Kodak and General Electric Company - GE, were compared. Two phosphor screen HR were used as the main objective of this study. Imaging Quality Indicators - IQI were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the images in accordance with ASME and DIN standard. The results show that after evaluating the GP and HR Kodak plates, the HR plate was capable of showing a larger resolution of details. However, after evaluating the performance of the HR Kodak plate and GE plate, over the same acquisition condition and with the same size of the laser focal set of 87 μm, the results show a superiority in the GE equipment used for industrial radiographic, mainly for processed images in each specific ambient of digital processing and its performance in meeting satisfactorily the ASME code and the DIN standard. (author)

  9. Qualification of a digital radiographic equipment for thin weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, G.; Furlan, J.

    1988-04-01

    The level of quality asked for welding plugs to fuel pins requires to test all the welds, that is to say about 200 000 welds of the fuel assemblies of the fast reactor Super-Phenix. X-ray radiography is one of the tests. Before the operation was done on a film by the personnel automatic selection of tested material and image processing are substituted to the film in the digital radiographic equipment IRENE. Main advantages are: elimination of human factor in defect appreciation, reliability of image processing and instant availability. On 1000 welds a good correlation is obtained between results on films and those of image processing [fr

  10. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  11. Advanced Neutron Radiographic Equipment within the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The first of the two new neutron generators developed for ARDEC was built and delivered by Phoenix Nuclear Labs ( PNL ) located in Madison, WI...PRELIMINARY NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHS AND RESULTS During the hardware and software testing of the PNL neutron generator several test shots were

  12. Guidance for the licensing procedure concerning the application of radiographic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    According to article 4 of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984 the operation of radiographic equipment has to be licensed. The personnel and material requirements that are to be fulfilled by a licensee prior to commissioning X-ray or gamma equipment, are discussed in detail

  13. Review and evaluation of technology, equipment, codes and standards for digitization of industrial radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This reports contains a review and evaluation of the technology, equipment, and codes and standards related to the digitization of industrial radiographic film. The report presents recommendations and equipment-performance specifications that will allow the digitization of radiographic film from nuclear power plant components in order to produce faithful reproductions of flaw images of interest on the films. Justification for the specifications selected are provided. Performance demonstration tests for the digitization process are required and criteria for such tests is presented. Also several comments related to implementation of the technology are presented and discussed

  14. Ethical home medical equipment business practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parver, C

    1991-11-01

    National uniform standards as a condition for receipt of a Medicare provider number would help rid the home medical equipment industry of those unethical and unscrupulous suppliers who have tarnished the industry's reputation.

  15. Quantitative techniques for medical equipment maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Houria, Zeineb; Masmoudi, Malek; Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Khatrouch, Ikram; Masmoudi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance department in a hospital is responsible for ensuring the safety of medical equipment and their availability while keeping the operation costs minimal. The selection of the best maintenance strategy is a key decision to reduce the equipment downtime, increase the availability, and

  16. Radiographic quality and radiation protection in general medical practice and small hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, B.D.P.; Le Heron, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection and image quality were assessed in a survey of 22 general medical practices (GP) and the 24 smallest hospitals with x-ray facilities. Limited radiography, usually of extremities for trauma, was being performed in these facilities since access to regular radiology services was restricted, mainly for geographic reasons. An anthropomorphic phantom foot and ankle with two simulated fractures of the lateral and medical malleoli was presented at each facility for radiography, and the resulting films assessed for radiographic technique and basic diagnostic usefulness. The x-ray equipment was adequate for the range of procedures performed. While the standard of radiographic techniques was lower than in regular x-ray departments, most films of the phantom ankle were still diagnostically useful and only four were rejected entirely. The principal deficiency in general practice x-ray was in darkrooms and x-ray film processing. Consultation in this regard with registered medical radiation technologists is recommended. Generally, the x-ray equipment and working procedures complied with the National Radiation Laboratory Code of Safe Practice for the Use of X-rays in Diagnosis (Medical). Radiation doses to the phantom ankle ranged widely for effectively the same procedure, although none was excessive. Improved x-ray film processing, and tighter x-ray beam collimation, would result in a narrower range of doses to patients. Personnel exposures to radiation were satisfactorily low and special shieldings are not required in general practice. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. 78 FR 59623 - Emergency Medical Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... accordance with the FAA master minimum equipment list does not adversely affect aviation safety. This action... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 121 and 135 [Docket No... inoperative Emergency Medical Kit (EMK) or automated external defibrillator (AED). A copy of Master Minimum...

  18. Potentialities of fluorography in radiographic testing of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Kapustin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of fluorography of steel 5-250 mm thick with the application of different radiation sources in accordance with existing test requirements and standards for NPP equipment under industrial conditions, are presented. Sensitivity curves of fluorographic and radiographic testing methods using the RUP-150/300-10 X-ray device, LUEh-15-15000 D linear accelerator flaw detectors with 192 Yr, 60 Co, 137 Cs sources, are given. The radiation energy range is 24O keV-8 MeV. It is shown that fluorographic method meets the requirements of sensitivity and is recommended to test welded joints 5-220 mm thick in NPP equipment under laboratory and industrial conditions

  19. Defects in medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, H.; Wahl, H.; Troeger, W.

    1979-01-01

    A careful estimate of the effects on the genetically significant radiation load shows that it is in the same order of magnitude as the increase in the skin dose area product. This is to say that of the genetically significant radiation dose of about 500 mJ/kg (50 mrem) per year and person due to medical X-ray diagnostics, about 75 mJ/kg (7.5 mrem) are due to serious defects in X-ray equipment. (orig.) [de

  20. Construction of an analytic-realistic phantom for adaptation of the radiographic techniques in any conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Trad, C.S.; Brochi, M.A. Corte; Duarte, S.B.; Pina, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we construct a homogeneous phantom, for calibrating the X-ray beam. Each homogeneous phantom was used in the time-scale sensitometric method for obtaining a radiographic technique which is able to produce in the film, an optical density around 1,0 higher than the density of base plus fog. These radiographic techniques were applied in a anthropomorphic phantom (Rando) and its images were analyzed by specialists in radiology. They identified the best image and then a ideal radiographic technique for a standard patient with smaller doses, at any conventional X-ray equipment. (author)

  1. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  2. Evaluation of different X ray equipment and incubators for pediatric radiographic images implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbi, E.D.O.; Souza, R.T.F.; Pina, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The children frequent/y are exposed to the ionizing radiation and other emotional and physical risks in the attempts repeated to get radiographic images of quality. This study it has as objective to evaluate X ray beam about quality and intensity at three different equipment with single-phase generator of voltage and the absorption factors to 5 different incubators and 3 different cradles in the neonatal UTI of the Clinics Hospital on the Medicine College in Botucatu. The methodology consisted of carrying through measured of half Layer Value and Radiation output for the different X ray equipment with voltage with in between 45 and 100 kVp, applied at the X ray tube. The measures of the absorption factors had been carried through varying the thicknesses of attenuating material (phantom) for the different voltage value with in between 50 and 100kVp. The results had shown the same energy effective for the different X ray equipment and the same absorption factors for the different incubators and evaluated cradles, taking into account, the same thickness of attenuating material and same voltage. (author)

  3. Medical equipment in government health facilities: Missed opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeshi Geeta

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability and optimal utilization of medical equipment is important for improving the quality of health services. Significant investments are made for the purchase, maintenance and repair of medical equipment. Inadequate management of these equipment will result in financial losses and deprive the public of the intended benefits. This analysis is based on the conceptual framework drawn from the WHO recommended- lifecycle of medical equipment. AIMS: (1) To identify the probl...

  4. Procurement of medical equipment in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Terio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many hospitals in Sweden the importance of technology management is already accepted and accepted since the hospital managements have recognised that technology is an integral part of all major policy and planning decisions. Today’s medical devices are technically complex and sometimes a system of interacting devices is required to achieve the desired clinical function. If the hospitals want to use the latest, modern technology, then they need to make substantial investments in both equipment and competence. Complex technology, large investments and need of highly qualii ed personnel to handle the medical devices are factors that indicate a need of well-dei ned procurement process as an essential part of the total health technology management system that should be used in a hospital. In such a procurement process, carefully prepared planning of technology investments can reduce the running costs and costs for maintenance substantially. In addition, a well-dei ned procurement process contributes to increase the patient safety. In Karolinska University Hospital goods and services are purchased for more than 20% of the hospital’s €1.2 billion turnover. It is therefore very important that the procurement is carried out ef ectively.

  5. The introduction of compulsory compliance testing of medical diagnostic x-ray equipment in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, M. W.; Jacob, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Performance testing of medical diagnostic X-ray equipment can reveal equipment faults which, while not always clinically detectable, may contribute to reduced image quality and unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff. Routine testing of such equipment is highly desirable to identify such faults and allows them to be rectified. The Radiological council of Western Australia is moving towards requiring compulsory compliance testing of all (new and existing) medical diagnostic X-ray equipment that all new mobile radiographic and new mammographic X-ray equipment be issued with a compliance test certificate as a prerequisite for registration. Workbooks which provide details of the tests required and recommended test methods have been prepared for medical radiographic (mobile and fixed), fluoroscopic and mammographic X-ray equipment. It is intended that future workbooks include details of the tests and methods for dental and computed tomography X-ray units. The workbooks are not limited to the compliance testing of items as specified in the Regulations, but include tests for other items such as film processing, darkrooms and image quality (for fluoroscopic equipment). Many of the workbook tests could be used within a regular quality assurance program for diagnostic X-ray equipment. Persons who conduct such compliance tests will need to be licensed and have all test certificates endorsed by a qualified expert. Suitable training and assessment of compliance testers will be required. Notification of such tests (including non-compliant items and corrective actions taken) will be required by the Radiological Council as a condition of equipment registration. 9 refs

  6. Internet-accessible radiographic database of Vietnam War casualties for medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Eric P; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of archiving radiographic images from Vietnam era conflict casualties into a personal computer-based electronic database of text and images and displaying the data using an Internet-accessible database for preservation and educational purposes. Thirty-two patient cases were selected at random from a pool of 1,000 autopsy reports in which radiographs were available. A total of 74 radiographs from these cases were digitized using a commercial image scanner and then uploaded into an Internet accessible database. The quality of the digitized images was assessed by administering an image-based test to a group of 12 medical students. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences were found between test scores when using the original radiographs versus using the digitized radiographs on the Internet-accessible database. An Internet-accessible database is capable of effectively archiving Vietnam era casualty radiographs for educational purposes.

  7. An H-module linear actuator for medical equipment applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Wu, Keyuan; ye, yunyue

    2012-01-01

    An H-module linear actuator (HMLA) is proposed in this paper for medical equipment applications. Compared to the existing linear actuators used in medical equipment, the proposed H-module linear actuator has much lower normal force, which makes use of an additional air-suspension system unnecessary...

  8. Medical equipment in government health facilities: missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Geeta S

    2005-01-01

    The availability and optimal utilization of medical equipment is important for improving the quality of health services. Significant investments are made for the purchase, maintenance and repair of medical equipment. Inadequate management of these equipment will result in financial losses and deprive the public of the intended benefits. This analysis is based on the conceptual framework drawn from the WHO recommended- lifecycle of medical equipment. (1) To identify the problems in different stages of the life cycle. (2) To assess its financial implications and effect on service delivery. Analysis of secondary data from the latest Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) Reports for the states in India. The study variables were category of equipment, financial implications and problems in the stages of life cycle. Calculation of proportions. A total of forty instances mentioning problems in the first phase of the life cycle of medical equipment were noted in 12 state reports. The equipment from the radiology department (15), equipment in the wards (5), laboratory (3) and operation theatres (4) were the ones most frequently implicated. In a majority of cases the financial implications amounted to twenty-five lakhs. The financial implications were in the form of extra expenditure, unfruitful expenditure or locking of funds. In 25 cases the equipment could not be put to use because of non-availability of trained staff and inadequate infrastructural support. Careful procurement, incoming inspection, successful installation and synchronization of qualified trained staff and infrastructural support will ensure timely onset of use of the equipment.

  9. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  10. Radiation protection calculations for diagnostic medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueter, R.

    1992-01-01

    The standards DIN 6812 and DIN 6844 define the radiation protection requirements to be met by biomedical radiography equipment or systems for nuclear medicine. The paper explains the use of a specific computer program for radiation protection calculations. The program offers menu-controlled calculation, with free choice of the relevant nuclides. (DG) [de

  11. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment.

  12. [Medical equipment product lines in basic pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesková, B; Lipská, J

    2003-07-01

    Medical appliances dispensed in basic type pharmacies for cash or vouchers for medical or orthopedic appliances require expertise of pharmacists and laboratory assistants concerning the assortment, payment, construction of prices, conditions for prescription, ordering, properties, and functions of individual appliances. Using the method of frequency analysis, the analysis of data from five pharmacies within a period of three months (more than 17,000 records) revealed how individual subgroups of medical appliances and their concrete items are represented in both types of dispensation. The method of the semistructured questionnaire (10 respondents) was used to find what problems are encountered in dispensation, and which medical appliances and their subgroups are the sources of the problems. The respondents regard the contemporary level of knowledge concerning medical appliances gained in pregradual studies as insufficient.

  13. The ethical commitment of Australian radiographers: Does medical dominance create an influence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Sarah [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: s.lewis@fhs.usyd.edu.au; Heard, Robert [School of Behavioural and Community Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Robinson, John [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); White, Karolyn [Centre for Values and Ethics and the Law in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Poulos, Ann [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, East Street, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2008-05-15

    There is a lack of awareness and openness surrounding ethical debate in Diagnostic Radiography literature and culture, perpetuated in part by the historical growth of the technical realm of radiography, radiology and medicine. Hence, the impact of Australian radiographers' current level of professional autonomy, combined with the influence of medical dominance and radiographers' ethical commitment was undocumented. This study investigated the role, importance and attitudes of Australian radiographers towards ethics through a qualitative study following a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Australian. A conceptual framework mapping the causal conditions affecting the ethical commitment was developed. This study argues that a number of internal and external variables weave an intricate fabric of poor identity, subservience and negative workplace culture. Australian radiographers, whist attempting to set a standard of ethical commitment, are hindered by difficulties of medical dominance, relatively poor professional autonomy and difficulty in accepting responsibility. The presence of private radiology enterprise and the association between patient referral and money has eroded the radiographer-patient relationship and introduced the potential for unethical practice in the radiographer-radiologist-referring practitioner relationship.

  14. The ethical commitment of Australian radiographers: Does medical dominance create an influence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Sarah; Heard, Robert; Robinson, John; White, Karolyn; Poulos, Ann

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of awareness and openness surrounding ethical debate in Diagnostic Radiography literature and culture, perpetuated in part by the historical growth of the technical realm of radiography, radiology and medicine. Hence, the impact of Australian radiographers' current level of professional autonomy, combined with the influence of medical dominance and radiographers' ethical commitment was undocumented. This study investigated the role, importance and attitudes of Australian radiographers towards ethics through a qualitative study following a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Australian. A conceptual framework mapping the causal conditions affecting the ethical commitment was developed. This study argues that a number of internal and external variables weave an intricate fabric of poor identity, subservience and negative workplace culture. Australian radiographers, whist attempting to set a standard of ethical commitment, are hindered by difficulties of medical dominance, relatively poor professional autonomy and difficulty in accepting responsibility. The presence of private radiology enterprise and the association between patient referral and money has eroded the radiographer-patient relationship and introduced the potential for unethical practice in the radiographer-radiologist-referring practitioner relationship

  15. Use of Audiovisual Media and Equipment by Medical Educationists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently used audiovisual medium and equipment is transparency on Overhead projector (O. H. P.) while the medium and equipment that is barely used for teaching is computer graphics on multi-media projector. This study also suggests ways of improving teaching-learning processes in medical education, ...

  16. Comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-08-01

    Throughout the medical equipment life cycle, preventive maintenance is considered one of the most important stages that should be managed properly. However, the need for better management and control by giving a reasonable prioritization for preventive maintenance becomes essential. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). The quality function deployment is proposed in order to identify the most important criteria that could impact preventive maintenance priority decision; meanwhile the role of the fuzzy logic is to generate a priority index of the list of equipment considering those criteria. The model validation was carried out on 140 pieces of medical equipment belonging to two hospitals. In application, we propose to classify the priority index into five classes. The results indicate that the strong correlation existence between risk-based criteria and preventive maintenance priority decision.

  17. [Fundamental aspects for accrediting medical equipment calibration laboratories in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamosa-Rincón, Luis E; López-Isaza, Giovanni A; Villarreal-Castro, Milton F

    2010-02-01

    Analysing the fundamental methodological aspects which should be considered when drawing up calibration procedure for electro-medical equipment, thereby permitting international standard-based accreditation of electro-medical metrology laboratories in Colombia. NTC-ISO-IEC 17025:2005 and GTC-51-based procedures for calibrating electro-medical equipment were implemented and then used as patterns. The mathematical model for determining the estimated uncertainty value when calibrating electro-medical equipment for accreditation by the Electrical Variable Metrology Laboratory's Electro-medical Equipment Calibration Area accredited in compliance with Superintendence of Industry and Commerce Resolution 25771 May 26th 2009 consists of two equations depending on the case; they are: E = (Ai + sigmaAi) - (Ar + sigmaAr + deltaAr1) and E = (Ai + sigmaAi) - (Ar + sigmaA + deltaAr1). The mathematical modelling implemented for measuring uncertainty in the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira's Electrical Variable Metrology Laboratory (Electro-medical Equipment Calibration Area) will become a good guide for calibration initiated in other laboratories in Colombia and Latin-America.

  18. Problems of radiation protection at medical use of radiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larwin, K.

    1979-01-01

    For medical use of radiation equipment man is not only operator, but also object (patient). The question, if or how much it is necessary to expose the patient, is a medical problem and therefore not to be discussed here. For the user of medical equipments we have often special conditions. For many diagnostic applications the physician has to stay in the application room in contact with the patient. As a typical example for the problems of radiation protection there is discussed the situation on a well known fluoroscopic unit for lung and stomach examinations. (author)

  19. Management information system of medical equipment using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, C.; Castro, D.

    2011-09-01

    The large numbers of technologies currently incorporated into mobile devices transform them into excellent tools for capture and to manage the information, because of the increasing computing power and storage that allow to add many miscellaneous applications. In order to obtain benefits of these technologies, in the biomedical engineering field, it was developed a mobile information system for medical equipment management. The central platform for the system it's a mobile phone, which by a connection with a web server, it's capable to send and receive information relative to any medical equipment. Decoding a type of barcodes, known as QR-Codes, the management process is simplified and improved. These barcodes identified the medical equipments in a database, when these codes are photographed and decoded with the mobile device, you can access to relevant information about the medical equipment in question. This Project in it's actual state is a basic support tool for the maintenance of medical equipment. It is also a modern alternative, competitive and economic in the actual market.

  20. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The advice in this guidance note is aimed at employers in control of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation and ancillary equipment. This includes NHS trusts, health authorities or boards, private hospitals, clinics, surgeries, medical X-ray facilities in industry, dentists and chiropractors. The guidance should also be useful to radiation protection advisers appointed by such employers. The guidance provides advice on the requirements of regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85). In particular, it covers: (a) the selection, installation, maintenance, calibration and replacement of equipment to ensure that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended diagnostic or therapeutic purpose; (b) recommended procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy treatment; and (c) the need to investigate incidents involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which result in medical exposures much greater than intended and to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 'Medical exposure' is defined in IRR85 as exposure of a person to ionising radiation for the purpose of his or her medical or dental examination or treatment which is conducted under the direction of a suitably qualified person and includes any such examination or treatment conducted for the purposes of research. For convenience, people undergoing medical exposure will be referred to as 'patients' in this guidance. Nothing in this publication is intended to indicate whether or not patients should be informed of any incident resulting from malfunction or defect in equipment used for medical exposure and the possible consequences of that exposure. As stated above, this guidance concerns medical exposures much greater than intended and although exposures much lower than intended can also have serious consequences, the incident would not

  1. Comparison between the implementation of quality criteria of radiographic image in conventional and digital mammography equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.C.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Furquim, T.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The mammographic examination needs a strict quality control. A publication of the European Commission provides guidelines on quality criteria for the images of the breast, quantifying the quality obtained in the image. Following the recommendations of the European Commission, two kinds of mammographic equipments, at a same institution, were evaluated to compare the quality of the conventional and digital images. Besides of that, the Average Glandular Dose (AGD) and the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) were measured by using an ionization chamber (Radcal, 6M) in the radiation beams of each equipment. The digital equipment fulfills more quality criteria than the conventional equipment, provided ESD values, AGD values and a rejection index lower than the conventional equipment. Therefore, the digital mammography can be considered more adequate than the conventional one, both for criteria analyses and for dose optimization. (author)

  2. Methods for improvement of some parameters of medical X-ray diagnostic equipment. Basic faults in selection of appropriate new or used units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, M.; Danev, N.; Constantinov, B.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is made of the factors determining the quality and performance of the main types of medical equipment: conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic X-ray unit; X-ray computer tomograph (CT); angiographic, mammographic, densitometric and dental X-ray equipment; magnetic resonance MRI. The aim is to give certain directions for the method one should adopt on choosing and purchasing X-ray equipment. Also one should take into consideration the new Health law and the Regulation for radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The problems can be solved with the close cooperation between radiologists, medical physicists and x-ray engineers

  3. Decision Support Procedure for Medical Equipment Maintenance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masmoudi, Malek; Houria, Zeineb Ben; Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Masmoudi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals outsource several activities of the service support in order to focus on the core healthcare production as maintenance service. Recently, faced to the sophistication and the costs of medical equipment that continue to escalate, governments have implemented new reforms to control costs and

  4. Performance of X-ray equipment used for conventional radiographic examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Khoury, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of X-ray equipment that are used for conventional X-ray examinations of children in four hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The methodology proposed by the Brazilian authority for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology was adopted. The performance tests were carried out in six X-ray machines and they consisted of measurements and determination of the X-ray tube output, linearity and constancy of radiation output, accuracy and reproducibility of the exposure time and tube potential, half-value layer (HVL), light field / X-ray field alignment and accuracy of the X-ray field indicator. It was observed that only one hospital had the suitable equipment for X-ray examinations of children. Results showed that all six equipment of the four hospitals presented unsatisfactory performance in some quality control tests. Only for some combinations of the exposure parameters, generally employed in pediatric X-ray examinations, some equipment complied with the authority requirements. (author)

  5. Radiographic Findings in Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted of the records and panoramic radiographs of 35 patients treated with bisphosphonates (BP and diagnosed with MRONJ. Panoramic radiography was used for evaluation, by two examiners, the following findings were subject of search: osteolysis (OT, cortical bone erosion (EC, bone sclerosis focal (FS and diffuse (DS, bone sequestration (BS, thickening of lamina dura (TD, prominence of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN, persisting alveolar sockets (SK, and the presence of a pathological fracture (PF. Medical information and staging were also recorded in order to correlate with radiographic findings. Bone sclerosis was the most frequent alteration, followed by OT and TD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. There was no significant difference between genders or significant correlation between the number of injuries with age and duration of BP usage. Considering the association between the radiographic findings and MRONJ staging, EC was predominant in stage 3 and DS in stage 2. IAN and PF demonstrated greater association with stage 3. In conclusion, the higher the clinical staging, the greater the severity of the bone alteration. Panoramic radiographic examination is a useful screening tool in patients submitted to antiresorptive therapy.

  6. Working with the medical equipment: the status of the medical physicist in Romania today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanca, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The presentation will emphasize on the following points: a) General Information; b) Medical Physics activities in the following fields; c) Role of the medical physicist; d) The National Government Organization and the implementation of the status of the medical physicist working in the hospitals in Romania; e) Organizational Structure; f) Purpose; g) Aims; h) Legislation of Medical Physics; i) Medical equipment in Romania (author)

  7. Analysis of Medical Equipment Management in Relation to the Mandatory Medical Equipment Safety Manager (MESM in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Half a decade has passed since the fifth revision of the medical law and mandatory appointment of a medical equipment safety manager (MESM in hospitals in Japan. During this period, circumstances have changed regarding maintenance of medical equipment (ME. We conducted a survey to examine these changes and the current situation in ME management. Maintenance of ME and related work were found to have increased in many hospitals, but the number of clinical engineering technologists (CETs has only slightly increased. The appointed MESM was a CET or physician in most hospitals. In hospitals where physicians were appointed as the MESM, 81% had operation managers. Many respondents commented that it was difficult for one person to cover all the tasks required by the MESM, due to a lack of knowledge, too much work, or other reasons. This suggests the importance of an operation manager for ME to work under the MESM.

  8. Comparing the disinfecting efficacies of Micro 10, Deconex, Alprocid and Microzid af on the microorganisms on radiographic equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Mohammadi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The exposure and processing of dental radiographs are not routinely associated with the spatter of blood or saliva; however, infection control is still an issue resulting from contaminated equipment, supplies, film packets or cassettes. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of four commercially available disinfectants on microorganisms present on the equipment of radiology department. Materials and methods. Samples from twelve sites of the radiology department were collected using a sterile swab smeared with normal saline, which was then dipped in a test tube. Experimental surfaces were then disinfected by the spray-wipe-spray method using one of Micro 10, Deconex, Alprocid or Microzid AF disinfectants, followed by resampling. The samples were subsequently cultured on blood agar and EMB plates and the colonies were counted. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests. For statistical analysis, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. Results. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci had the highest and Lactobacillus spp. had the lowest prevalence before disinfection. There were significant differences between the cfu/mL of bacteria before and after disinfection with any of the four disinfectant solutions. There was a significant difference between efficacy of Deconex and Alprocid (P = 0.014, Deconex and Microzid AF (P = 0.001, and Deconex and Micro 10 (P = 0.001. Conclusion. According to the results, Deconex has the highest disinfectant efficacy compared to other solutions.

  9. Effectiveness of medical equipment donations to improve health systems: how much medical equipment is broken in the developing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lora; Malkin, Robert

    2011-07-01

    It is often said that most of the medical equipment in the developing world is broken with estimates ranging up to 96% out of service. But there is little documented evidence to support these statements. We wanted to quantify the amount of medical equipment that was out of service in resource poor health settings and identify possible causes. Inventory reports were analyzed from 1986 to 2010, from hospitals in sixteen countries across four continents. The UN Human Development Index was used to determine which countries should be considered developing nations. Non-medical hospital equipment was excluded. This study examined 112,040 pieces of equipment. An average of 38.3% (42,925, range across countries: 0.83-47%) in developing countries was out of service. The three main causes were lack of training, health technology management, and infrastructure. We hope that the findings will help biomedical engineers with their efforts toward effective designs for the developing world and NGO's with efforts to design effective healthcare interventions.

  10. Development of Skylab medical equipment and flight preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. S.; Stonesifer, J. C.; Hawkins, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    The major medical systems in the Skylab orbital workshop are described. They comprise the food system, the waste management system, operational bioinstrumentation, personal hygiene, gas sampling, an inflight medical support system, and a cardiovascular counterpressure garment. Life sciences experiments carried out aboard Skylab are also reviewed; these include an ergometer and metabolic analyzer, a lower-body negative pressure device, an electrode harness and body temperature probe, a blood pressure cuff, a leg volume measuring band, sleep studies, a body-mass measuring device, a rotating litter chair, a blood sample processor, and small-mass measuring apparatus. All performance requirements were met with the equipment, and no failures were encountered.

  11. Successful reporting by non-medical practitioners such as radiographers, will always be task-specific and limited in scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.; Manning, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Reporting by radiographers is currently an extended role. The College of Radiographers however considers that in the future reporting will be a requirement for all radiographers. If performance is looked at, then in certain specific tasks trained radiographers can match the accuracy of radiologists, such as A and E skeletal reporting and mammography. But radiologists themselves are prone to interpretation errors. Communication of radiological findings is important if findings are to be translated into useful diagnostic outcomes for the patient. Radiographers are able to provide a descriptive report but lack the training and flexibility to provide a medical report and make judgments about the relevance of radiological findings. Experts when viewing radiographic images are visually efficient, demonstrate flexible reasoning and have many disease schemata to resolve incongruities in clinical data. We do not yet have a definitive answer to what makes a good reporting radiographer, but without a medical training it is unlikely that radiographers can become experts beyond their current role in certain well-circumscribed tasks

  12. Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations in radiologists and medical radiographers chronically exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuba, V.; Rozgaj, R.; Jazbec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are fairly reliable indicators of damage induced by ionising radiation. This study included 180 radiologists and medical radiographers (technicians) and 90 controls who were not occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. All exposed subjects were routinely monitored with film badge, and none was exposed to a radiation dose exceeding the limit for occupational exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two hundred metaphases for each person were scored. The frequencies of acentric fragments, dicentrics, ring chromosomes and chromosomal exchanges were determined and compared to those obtained in the control group. Chromosome aberrations were analysed using Poisson regression for profession, age, sex, smoking and years of exposure. Age, smoking, diagnostic exposure to X-rays and occupation were found to correlate with the occurrence of acentric fragments. The influence of exposure duration on the frequency of acentric fragments was greater in medical radiographers than in radiologists. Smoking and sex were found to correlate with the occurrence of dicentric chromosomes, which were more common in men than in women. As chromosome aberrations exceeded the expected level with respect to the absorbed dose, our findings confirm the importance of chromosome analysis as a part of regular medical check-up of subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.(author)

  13. Integrated software system for improving medical equipment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznakov, Z; Pappous, G; Bliznakova, K; Pallikarakis, N

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of biomedical technology has led to an extraordinary use of medical devices in health care delivery. During the last decade, clinical engineering departments (CEDs) turned toward computerization and application of specific software systems for medical equipment management in order to improve their services and monitor outcomes. Recently, much emphasis has been given to patient safety. Through its Medical Device Directives, the European Union has required all member nations to use a vigilance system to prevent the reoccurrence of adverse events that could lead to injuries or death of patients or personnel as a result of equipment malfunction or improper use. The World Health Organization also has made this issue a high priority and has prepared a number of actions and recommendations. In the present workplace, a new integrated, Windows-oriented system is proposed, addressing all tasks of CEDs but also offering a global approach to their management needs, including vigilance. The system architecture is based on a star model, consisting of a central core module and peripheral units. Its development has been based on the integration of 3 software modules, each one addressing specific predefined tasks. The main features of this system include equipment acquisition and replacement management, inventory archiving and monitoring, follow up on scheduled maintenance, corrective maintenance, user training, data analysis, and reports. It also incorporates vigilance monitoring and information exchange for adverse events, together with a specific application for quality-control procedures. The system offers clinical engineers the ability to monitor and evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of the service provided by means of quality and cost indicators. Particular emphasis has been placed on the use of harmonized standards with regard to medical device nomenclature and classification. The system's practical applications have been demonstrated through a pilot

  14. Are chest radiographs justified in pre-employment examinations. Presentation of legal position and medical evidence based on 1760 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, S.C.; Krause, U.; Ladd, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The legal and medical basis for chest radiographs as part of pre-employment examinations (PEE) at a University Hospital is evaluated. The radiographs are primarily performed to exclude infectious lung disease. A total of 1760 consecutive chest radiographs performed as a routine part of PEEs were reviewed retrospectively. Pathologic findings were categorized as ''nonrelevant'' or ''relevant.'' No positive finding with respect to tuberculosis or any other infectious disease was found; 94.8% of the chest radiographs were completely normal. Only five findings were regarded as ''relevant'' for the individual. No employment-relevant diagnosis occurred. The performance of chest radiography as part of a PEE is most often not justified. The practice is expensive, can violate national and European law, and lacks medical justification. (orig.) [de

  15. Does the Use of a Checklist Help Medical Students in the Detection of Abnormalities on a Chest Radiograph?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ellen M; Abed, Abdelrazek; Robben, Simon G F

    2017-12-01

    The interpretation of chest radiographs is a complex task that is prone to diagnostic error, especially for medical students. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which medical students benefit from the use of a checklist regarding the detection of abnormalities on a chest radiograph. We developed a checklist based on literature and interviews with experienced thorax radiologists. Forty medical students in the clinical phase assessed 18 chest radiographs during a computer test, either with (n = 20) or without (n = 20) the checklist. We measured performance and asked participants for feedback using a survey. Participants that used a checklist detected more abnormalities on images with multiple abnormalities (M = 50.1%) than participants that could not use a checklist (M = 41.9%), p = 0.04. The post-experimental survey shows that on average, participants considered the checklist helpful (M = 3.25 on a five-point scale), but also time consuming (M = 3.30 on a five-point scale). In conclusion, a checklist can help medical students to detect abnormalities in chest radiographs. Moreover, students tend to appreciate the use of a checklist as a helpful tool during the interpretation of a chest radiograph. Therefore, a checklist is a potentially important tool to improve radiology education in the medical curriculum.

  16. SiNC: Saliency-injected neural codes for representation and efficient retrieval of medical radiographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ahmad

    Full Text Available Medical image collections contain a wealth of information which can assist radiologists and medical experts in diagnosis and disease detection for making well-informed decisions. However, this objective can only be realized if efficient access is provided to semantically relevant cases from the ever-growing medical image repositories. In this paper, we present an efficient method for representing medical images by incorporating visual saliency and deep features obtained from a fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN pre-trained on natural images. Saliency detector is employed to automatically identify regions of interest like tumors, fractures, and calcified spots in images prior to feature extraction. Neuronal activation features termed as neural codes from different CNN layers are comprehensively studied to identify most appropriate features for representing radiographs. This study revealed that neural codes from the last fully connected layer of the fine-tuned CNN are found to be the most suitable for representing medical images. The neural codes extracted from the entire image and salient part of the image are fused to obtain the saliency-injected neural codes (SiNC descriptor which is used for indexing and retrieval. Finally, locality sensitive hashing techniques are applied on the SiNC descriptor to acquire short binary codes for allowing efficient retrieval in large scale image collections. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on the radiology images dataset reveal that the proposed framework achieves high retrieval accuracy and efficiency for scalable image retrieval applications and compares favorably with existing approaches.

  17. The research of medical equipment on-line detection system based on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Dong, Xinyu; Zhang, Hongjie; Liu, Mengjun

    2017-06-01

    With the unceasing enhancement of medical level, the expanding scale of medical institutions, medical equipment as an important tool for disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention, used in all levels of medical institutions. The quality and accuracy of the Medical equipment play a key role in the doctor's diagnosis and treatment effect, medical metrology as the important technical foundation is to ensure that the equipment, technology, material components are accurate and the application is safe and reliable. Medical equipment have the feature of variety, large quantity, long using cycle, expensive and multi-site, which bring great difficulty in maintenance, equipment management and verification. Therefore, how to get the medical measurement integrate deeply into the advanced internet technology, information technology and the new measuring method, for real-time monitoring of medical equipment, tracking, positioning, and query is particularly important.

  18. Using Survival Analysis to Evaluate Medical Equipment Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital medical device managers obtain more data, opportunities exist for using the data to improve medical device management, enhance patient safety, and evaluate costs of decisions. As a demonstration of the ability to use data analytics, this article applies survival analysis statistical techniques to assist in making decisions on medical equipment maintenance. The analysis was performed on a large amount of data related to failures of an infusion pump manufacturer's lithium battery and two aftermarket replacement lithium batteries from one hospital facility. The survival analysis resulted in statistical evidence showing that one of the third-party batteries had a lower survival curve than the infusion pump manufacturer's battery. This lower survival curve translates to a shorter expected life before replacement is needed. The data suggested that to limit unexpected failures, replacing batteries at a two-year interval, rather than the current industry recommendation of three years, may be warranted. For less than $5,400 in additional annual cost, the risk of unexpected battery failures can be reduced from an estimated 28% to an estimated 7%.

  19. Preventing infection from reusable medical equipment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Tony

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures – alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. Methods We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. Results For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70–80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies. Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies. Conclusions Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain.

  20. Automated Quality Assurance of Medical Digital X-Ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelikman, Mikhail; Kruchinin, Sergey

    2013-06-01

    Quality assurance of the x-ray equipment includes a set of various tests among which are installation and periodic exams performed by qualified engineers as well as daily routine tests carried out by the medical staff of the Radiology Department. As a rule, the decision concerning the applicability of the x-ray equipment for using in clinical studies is made on the basis of the routine tests results. The presented method is based on the detector's output signals, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Modulation Transfer Function evaluation in automated way using the simple test-object's digital image registered with given geometry and x-ray exposure parameters settings. Rectangular 20 mm thick aluminum plate with fixed 1 mm thick well-finished steel edge (for general x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy systems) or 2 mm thick aluminum plate with fixed 1 mm thick aluminum well-finished edge (for digital x-ray mammography systems) can be used as a test equipment. Relevant to the decision concerning the x-ray device operation status are the parameters: deviations from the reference levels of the tube voltage and mAs as well as internal detector's noise variance and detector's gain deviations. Everyday testing procedure includes the following steps. On the first step the roentgenographer places the test-object at the center of the detector's surface, makes an exposure with specified parameters setting and geometry and after this, test results are displayed on the work station monitor or console screen in automatic way. In order to provide an automated regime of the presenting algorithm, the software must be integrated with the program module intended for the x-ray device control. The use of the presented method in clinical practice provides the reliable daily monitoring of the x-ray equipment operation status prior to its utilizing for patient diagnostic process. As a rule, it will take not more than 3-5 minutes for the roentgenographer to complete the routine

  1. Radiation Protection in the Medical Practice: Myth and Reality the French Radiographers point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerson, P.; Fraboulet, P.; Menechal, P.

    2002-01-01

    The use of the ionising radiation in the medical practice has evolved since its beginnings. Their benefit for the patient is considerable in term of comfort, diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness. The users can be brought to think that the radiological risk is completely controlled and that the problems of radiation protection for the workers is now of the past. Indeed, the evolutions and the technical, material and scientific revolutions tend to decrease the doses delivered to the patients, and also to the professionals. In addition, the regulation associated with the use of the ionising radiation is strict and constraining, and one can estimate that radiation protection is a model of management of occupational hazards through its mode of declaration, authorization, controls, management and traceability. However, the daily practice and the experience on the hospital ground shows that the radiological exposures remain alarming and that any risk cannot be isolated, generally dependent on unsuited human behaviours. The participation of the radiographers to this reflection is essential. In fact, he is or should be the permanent link between the emission of radiation and the patient. For this reason, he is the last barrier regarding protection for the patient or the staff. He is thus the essential link beside the experts for a quality control in radiation protection. After a detailed and concrete description of the encountered problems, we will submit some non exhaustive but essential proposals for an improvement so that a real policy ALARA is applied and developed in the medical practice. (Author)

  2. Medical Equipment Management through the Use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Joaquin

    2004-01-01

    ...) in the management of medical equipment at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD). In doing so, the project seeks to derive potential benefits through the use of RFID technology by comparing a group of medical equipment items that are tracked within NMCSD...

  3. Radiographic imaging. 4 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, D.N.; Chesney, M.O.

    1981-01-01

    This is a revised edition of the textbook previously entitled 'Radiographic Photography' and accords with the current syllabus of training for the Diploma of the Royal College of Radiographers. The aim is a non-mathematical approach to provide a guide for the student to the knowledge and understanding of the theoretical concepts which affect the quality of radiographic image; materials and practices are also reviewed, particularly in relation to the characteristics of the radiographic image, and to processing equipment and processing areas. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the photographic process, film materials in x-ray departments, sensitometry, storage of film materials and radiographs, intensifying screens and cassettes, film processing, developing, fixing, rinsing, washing, drying, the processing area and equipment, systems for daylight film handling, the radiographic image, management of the quality, presentation of the radiograph, light images and their recording, fluorography, some special imaging processes, e.g. xerography, copying radiographs. (U.K.)

  4. Does reporting of plain chest radiographs affect the immediate management of patients admitted to a medical assessment unit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosvenor, L.J.; Verma, R.; O'Brien, R.; Entwisle, J.J.; Finlay, D.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of our study was to investigate whether reporting of plain chest radiographs affects immediate management of patients admitted to a medical assessment unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 3 month period we prospectively evaluated 200 patients who had a plain chest radiograph on admission. After the post on-call ward round, an independent medical specialist registrar reviewed the notes, retrieving relevant clinical details. The plain chest films were reported independently by a trainee radiologist and consultant, reaching a consensus report. RESULTS: There was 93% agreement between trainee and consultant radiologists (95% CI=89-96%). Seventy percent had documented reports by the on-call medical team. There was disagreement between radiology and medical reports in 49% of reported films (95% CI=40-57%). The radiologist's report led to a direct change in the immediate management of 22 patients (11%). CONCLUSION: Only 70% of films had documented reports in the clinical notes despite this being a legal requirement. Radiology reporting does cause a direct change in patient management. Chest radiographs of patients admitted to a medical admissions unit should be reported by a radiologist with the minimum of delay

  5. Electromagnetic interference from radio frequency identification inducing potentially hazardous incidents in critical care medical equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togt, R. van der; Lieshout, E.J. van; Hensbroek, R.; Beinat, E.; Binnekade, J.M.; Bakker, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health care applications of autoidentification technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have been proposed to improve patient safety and also the tracking and tracing of medical equipment. However, electromagnetic interference (EMI) by RFID on medical devices has never

  6. Safety problems with the use of medical equipment/devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decennia medical technology has rapidly developed. Nowadays it plays an important role in all medical fields. It introduced technologic solutions for many medical problems and it definitely increased the possibilities in the medical field to increase the quality of life. However with

  7. Research in medical imaging and the role of the consultant radiographer: A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the need for research in radiography as a means to provide the evidence base for radiographic practice. The review examines the role of the consultant radiographer in providing potential research leadership and outlines possible avenues for research. The article uses three main themes to set out its proposals: - The need for patient focus. - The need for a greater mix of research methods and, specifically, more studies which utilise qualitative methods. - The need for consultant leadership in research and some potential studies. The article concludes by arguing the need for a greater academic community in radiography with consultant radiographers stepping up to play their part in that community

  8. A complex method of equipment replacement planning. An advanced plan for the replacement of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    This complex method of equipment replacement planning is a methodology; it is a means to an end, a process that focuses on equipment most in need of replacement, rather than the end itself. It uses data available from the maintenance management database, and attempts to quantify those subjective items important [figure: see text] in making equipment replacement decisions. Like the simple method of the last issue, it is a starting point--albeit an advanced starting point--which the user can modify to fit their particular organization, but the complex method leaves room for expansion. It is based on sound logic, documented facts, and is fully defensible during the decision-making process and will serve your organization well as provide a structure for your equipment replacement planning decisions.

  9. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  10. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given

  11. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  12. Medical equipment management through the use of radio frequency identification (RFID)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Joaquin A.; Nixon, Richard A.; Chávez, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The purpose of this MBA project is to identify the potential value of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) use in the management of medical equipment at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD). In doing so, our project seeks to derive potential benefits through the use of RFID technology by comparing a group of medical equipment items that are tracked within NMCSD. The project includes a discussion of additio...

  13. [Development of a medical equipment support information system based on PDF portable document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiangbo; Wang, Weidong

    2010-07-01

    According to the organizational structure and management system of the hospital medical engineering support, integrate medical engineering support workflow to ensure the medical engineering data effectively, accurately and comprehensively collected and kept in electronic archives. Analyse workflow of the medical, equipment support work and record all work processes by the portable electronic document. Using XML middleware technology and SQL Server database, complete process management, data calculation, submission, storage and other functions. The practical application shows that the medical equipment support information system optimizes the existing work process, standardized and digital, automatic and efficient orderly and controllable. The medical equipment support information system based on portable electronic document can effectively optimize and improve hospital medical engineering support work, improve performance, reduce costs, and provide full and accurate digital data

  14. Equipping medical graduates to address health systems challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We defined HSR and strengthening competencies for medical graduates through a literature review and expert consultations. Learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skill or attitude in the 64 module guides of the curriculum were compared with the competencies required. A survey of recent medical graduates ...

  15. Primary Salvage Survey of the Interference of Radiowaves Emitted by Smartphones on Medical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hiroyuki; Yeh, Yu Chih; Arita, Hiroyuki; Obatake, Takumi; Sakano, Teppei; Kurihara, Minoru; Matsuki, Akira; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    Use of mobile phones has become a standard reality of everyday living for many people worldwide, including medical professionals, as data sharing has drastically helped to improve quality of care. This increase in the use of mobile phones within hospitals and medical facilities has raised concern regarding the influence of radio waves on medical equipment. Although comprehensive studies have examined the effects of electromagnetic interference from 2G wireless communication and personal digital cellular systems on medical equipment, similar studies on more recent wireless technologies such as Long Term Evolution, wideband code division multiple access, and high-speed uplink access have yet to be published. Numerous tests targeting current wireless technologies were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 in an anechoic chamber, shielded from external radio signals, with a dipole antenna to assess the effects of smartphone interference on several types of medical equipment. The interference produced by electromagnetic waves across five frequency bands from four telecommunication standards was assessed on 49 components from 22 pieces of medical equipment. Of the 22 pieces of medical equipment tested, 13 experienced interference at maximum transmission power. In contrast, at minimum transmission power, the maximum interference distance varied from 2 to 5 cm for different wireless devices. Four machines were affected at the minimum transmission power, and the maximum interference distance at the maximum transmission power was 38 cm. Results show that the interference from smartphones on medical equipment is very controllable.

  16. The influence of experiential learning on medical equipment adoption in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jane; Roper, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The benefits of the availability and use of medical equipment for medical outcomes are understood by physicians and policymakers alike. However, there is limited understanding of the decision-making processes involved in adopting and using new technologies in health care organisations. Our study focuses on the adoption of medical equipment in Irish general practices which are marked by considerable autonomy in terms of commercial practice and the range of medical services they provide. We examine the adoption of six items of medical equipment taking into account commercial, informational and experiential stimuli. Our analysis is based on primary survey data collected from a sample of 601 general practices in Ireland on practice characteristics and medical equipment use. We use a multivariate Probit to identify commonalities in the determinants of the adoption. Many factors, such as GP and practice characteristics, influence medical equipment adoption. In addition, we find significant and consistent evidence of the influence of learning-by-using effects on the adoption of medical equipment in a general practice setting. Knowledge generated by experiential or applied learning can have commercial, organisational and health care provision benefits in small health care organisations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance testing of medical US equipment using US phantom (ATS-539)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyung [Daegu Branch, Korea Association of Health Promotion, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Deok Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study is to provide accurate information as medical imaging equipment to check for the presence of body disease US equipment. We investigated the status of medical US equipment performance in Daegu and criteria US phantom (ATS-539) for US equipment performance measurements. The results in this study, 1. US phantom measurement results: The test passed rate were 88.6% and the failed rate were 11.4%. 2. The difference between the group of mean and the pass/failed groups were statistically significant. Focal zone and 4 mm functional resolution in the two items that are not present the passing standard. 3. The difference was statistically significant number of years and used equipment and pass the failed equipment (4.13 vs 7.25 years). We investigated the performance status of US equipment used in the clinical area in Daegu. The basis for the two items are not present this proposed passing standard. Equipment performance was associated with the number of years of using US equipment. It is necessary to maintain the best performance of the equipment phantom measurements for performance testing of US equipment.

  18. Performance testing of medical US equipment using US phantom (ATS-539)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hyung; Kwon, Deok Moon

    2014-01-01

    This study is to provide accurate information as medical imaging equipment to check for the presence of body disease US equipment. We investigated the status of medical US equipment performance in Daegu and criteria US phantom (ATS-539) for US equipment performance measurements. The results in this study, 1. US phantom measurement results: The test passed rate were 88.6% and the failed rate were 11.4%. 2. The difference between the group of mean and the pass/failed groups were statistically significant. Focal zone and 4 mm functional resolution in the two items that are not present the passing standard. 3. The difference was statistically significant number of years and used equipment and pass the failed equipment (4.13 vs 7.25 years). We investigated the performance status of US equipment used in the clinical area in Daegu. The basis for the two items are not present this proposed passing standard. Equipment performance was associated with the number of years of using US equipment. It is necessary to maintain the best performance of the equipment phantom measurements for performance testing of US equipment

  19. Health technology assessment to improve the medical equipment life cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margotti, Ana E; Ferreira, Filipa B; Santos, Francisco A; Garcia, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool to support decision making that is intended to assist healthcare managers in their strategic decisions. The use of HTA as a tool for clinical engineering is especially relevant in the domain of the medical equipment once it could improve the performance of the medical equipment. It would be done by their systematically evaluation in several aspects, in their life cycle. In Brazil, the Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IEB-UFSC) through the clinical engineering area has been working on the development of methodologies and improvements on HTA for medical equipment. Therefore, this paper presents the effort to create specific methodologies that will improve the dissemination of HTA, focusing on incorporation and utilization phase of the medical equipment life cycle. This will give a better support to the decision makers in the management of the health care system.

  20. [Current Situation and Prospects of Emergency Medical Equipment in Our Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lijing; Cheng, Feng

    2016-03-01

    This article analyzes the new demand of emergency medical equipment in the current development trend based on the analysis of the development and current situation of emergency medicine in our country. At the same time it introduces the current industrial characteristics of our country. Finally it analyzes the development trend of this kind of equipment in the new emergency medicine field.

  1. 42 CFR 410.38 - Durable medical equipment: Scope and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or purchase of durable medical equipment, including iron lungs, oxygen tents, hospital beds, and wheelchairs, if the equipment is used in the patient's home or in an institution that is used as a home. (b... vehicle whose steering is operated by an electronic device or a joystick to control direction and turning...

  2. A method for performance assessment of medical radioisotope equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, T.; Slavtchev, Ath.; Nedeltchev, M.; Kjurktchiev, T.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of tests and procedures exist for the performance assessment of radioisotope diagnostic equipment. The complex performance index which has been introduced to date is based on an heuristic approach. The present work tries to interconnect algorithmically the most important factors as the influence of the measurement geometry, the statistic peculiarities for lower activities and the information loss at high count rates. All this is reflected in a criterion which integrates the spatial resolution, the effective detector's field of vision, the radionuclide's sensitivity, the background count rate and the effective dead-time of the system under investigation. (Auth.)

  3. Preventive maintenance prioritization index of medical equipment using quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Sharawi, Amr A; Elwahed, Manal Abd; Petti, Alberto; Puppato, Daniele; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering, and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This paper aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a three-domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix. The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes five levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of two hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The dataset includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk-based criteria and the prioritization list.

  4. ER-1A-DEL-92 regulation. Procedure for evaluation and registration of medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this regulation is to provide additional guidance on the method of evaluation and registration of a medical team, so it is used by manufacturers, health institutions, testing centers and other institutions related to the topic. The provisions of this regulation apply to domestically produced medical equipment in relation to the necessary assessment for registration purposes of a medical team. However, the evaluation process may require evaluations and tests not explicitly included in this regulation, so that at each stage of the process the Center for State Control of Medical Equipment (Center) set the requirements for each computer or device class in particular.

  5. [Hospital clinical engineer orientation and function in the maintenance system of hospital medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zheng, Yunxin; He, Dehua; Jiang, Ruiyao; Chen, Ying; Jing, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The quantity of medical equipment in hospital rise quickly recent year. It provides the comprehensive support to the clinical service. The maintenance of medical equipment becomes more important than before. It is necessary to study on the orientation and function of clinical engineer in medical equipment maintenance system. Refer to three grade health care system, the community doctors which is called General practitioner, play an important role as the gatekeeper of health care system to triage and cost control. The paper suggests that hospital clinical engineer should play similar role as the gatekeeper of medical equipment maintenance system which composed by hospital clinical engineer, manufacture engineer and third party engineer. The hospital clinical engineer should be responsible of guard a pass of medical equipment maintenance quality and cost control. As the gatekeeper, hospital clinical engineer should take the responsibility of "General engineer" and pay more attention to safety and health of medical equipment. The responsibility description and future transition? development of clinical engineer as "General Engineer" is discussed. More attention should be recommended to the team building of hospital clinical engineer as "General Engineer".

  6. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Jahangir, S M; Haque, M A S; Hoq, M; Mawla, Y; Morium, T; Uddin, M R; Xie, Y

    2002-01-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past centur...

  7. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  8. Supporting management of medical equipment for inpatient service in public hospitals: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Vallejos, Guido E

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of medical equipment availability in the short and long term. The work is divided in two parts. The first part is an analysis of the medical equipment inventory for the institution of study. We consider the replacement, maintenance, and reinforcement of the available medical equipment by considering local guidelines and surveying clinical personnel appreciation. The resulting recommendation is to upgrade the current equipment inventory if necessary. The second part considered a demand analysis in the short and medium term. We predicted the future demand with a 5-year horizon using Holt-Winters models. Inventory analysis showed that 27% of the medical equipment in stock was not functional. Due to this poor performance result we suggested that the hospital gradually addresses this situation by replacing 29 non-functional equipment items, reinforcing stock with 40 new items, and adding 11 items not available in the inventory but suggested by the national guidelines. The results suggest that general medicine inpatient demand has a tendency to increase within the time e.g. for general medicine inpatient service the highest increment is obtained by respiratory (12%, RMSE=8%) and genitourinary diseases (20%, RMSE=9%). This increment did not involve any further upgrading of the proposed inventory.

  9. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  10. Private sector involvement in times of armed conflict: What are the constraints for trading medical equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Georg

    Today, healthcare facilities are highly dependent on the private sector to keep their medical equipment functioning. Moreover, private sector involvement becomes particularly important for the supply of spare parts and consumables. However, in times of armed conflict, the capacity of the corporate world appears to be seriously hindered. Subsequently, this study researches the influence of armed conflict on the private medical equipment sector. This study follows a qualitative approach by conducting 19 interviews with representatives of the corporate world in an active conflict zone. A semistructured interview guide, consisting of 10 questions, was used to examine the constraints of this sector. The results reveal that the lack of skilled personnel, complicated importation procedures, and a decrease in financial capacity are the major constraints faced by private companies dealing in medical equipment in conflict zones. Even when no official sanctions and embargoes for medical items exist, constraints for trading medical equipment are clearly recognizable. Countries at war would benefit from a centralized structure that deals with the importation procedures for medical items, to assist local companies in their purchasing procedures. A high degree of adaption is needed to continue operating, despite the emerging constraints of armed conflict. Future studies might research the constraints for manufacturers outside the conflict to export medical items to the country of war.

  11. Texture analysis of trabecular bone using conventional radiographs: medical imaging and osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Panicker, T.M.R.; Paul Korath, M.; Jagadeesan, K.; Ganesan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, microstructural deterioration with advancing age, and an increase in fracture risk. The accurate clinical assessment of bone strength and fracture risk is important for management of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis risk. From a clinical point of view, microarchitecture is an interesting aspect to study and define patterns of bone alterations with aging and pathology. Microarchitecture seems to be a determinant of bone fragility independent of bone density. Moreover, bone microarchitecture seems to be important to understand the mechanisms of bone fragility independent of bone density. Moreover bone microarchitecture seems to be important to understand the mechanisms of bone fragility as well as the action of the drugs used to prevent osteoporotic fractures. In the case of osteoporosis the bone texture of the trabecular network as it appears on the plain radiographs can be quantified by applying image processing tools. Among the factors conditioning bone strength and osteoporotic fractures, bone mineral density is the most important and the best studied. Though, other factors also play a role: macroarchitecture of bones, cortical thickness, quality of bone crystal and of collagen network and trabecular microarchitecture. The microarchitecture plays a major role, and is an aspect of the definition of osteoporosis. Therefore, it would be very helpful if these alterations could be measured in addition to bone mineral density with noninvasive techniques, such as radiographs, and to assess the status of the bone by texture analysis

  12. Radiographic testing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Radiographic testing is a nondestructive inspection technique which uses penetrating radiation. The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a broad spectrum of equipment and techniques for radiographic testing. These resources include low-energy vacuum systems, low- and mid-energy cabinet and cell radiographic systems, high-energy linear accelerators, portable x-ray machines and radioisotopes for radiographic inspections. For diagnostic testing the NDE Section also has real-time and flash radiographic equipment

  13. 38 CFR 17.351 - Grants for the replacement and upgrading of equipment at Veterans Memorial Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... replacement and upgrading of equipment at Veterans Memorial Medical Center. 17.351 Section 17.351 Pensions... Philippines § 17.351 Grants for the replacement and upgrading of equipment at Veterans Memorial Medical Center. Grants to assist the Republic of the Philippines in the replacement and upgrading of equipment and in...

  14. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  15. In-flight medical emergencies during airline operations: a survey of physicians on the incidence, nature, and available medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinkelbein J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jochen Hinkelbein,1,2 Christopher Neuhaus,2,3 Lennert Böhm,1 Steffen Kalina,1 Stefan Braunecker1,2 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, 2Working group “Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue”, German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society.Materials and methods: Using unipark.de (QuestBack GmbH, Cologne, Germany, an online survey was developed and used to gather specific information. Members of the German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin e.V.; DGLRM were invited to participate in the survey during a 4-week period (21 March 2015 to 20 April 2015. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Altogether, 121 members of the society responded to the survey (n=335 sent out. Of the 121 respondents, n=54 (44.6% of the participants (89.9% male and 10.1% female; mean age, 54.1 years; n=121 were involved in at least one in-flight medical emergency. Demographic parameters in this survey were in concordance with the society members’ demographics. The mean duration of flights was 5.7 hours and the respondents performed 7.1 airline flights per year (median. Cardiovascular (40.0% and neurological disorders (17.8% were the most frequent diagnoses. The medical equipment (78.7% provided was sufficient. An emergency diversion was

  16. Questionnaire-based evaluation of mobile phone interference with medical-electrical equipment in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Stig; Samuelsson, Göran; Larsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Barbro; Jönsson, Patrik X; Ivarsson, Bodil; Olofsson, Per-Åke

    2017-08-09

    National recommendations in Sweden recommend a safety distance of 3 meter (m) between mobile phones and medical-electrical (ME) equipment in hospitals. A questionnaire was used to investigate how often mobile phones were reported to interfere with ME products in clinical practice across Sweden. The results confirmed that ME equipment can be affected by mobile phone use but, the risk of the patient's outcome being affected were minimal; no cases were identified which led to injury or death. In conclusion, the results support recommendations for a general safety distance of 0.5 m between mobile phones and ME equipment in care environments.

  17. Measurement of irradiation doses secondary to bedside radiographs in a medical intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J M; Boussert, F; Manens, J P; Le Cam, B; Bellet, M; Garre, M

    1987-01-01

    The authors prospectively studied the radiation doses to radio-sensitive organs secondary to bedside radiographs in intensive care patients and in a control phantom. Dosimeters were taped on different organs during each bedside X-ray. The mean radiation doses, expressed in 10(-5) Gy (m-rad), for an ''average patient'' who was hospitalized 9 days and had 6 chest X-rays were respectively: 292 to the sternal bone marrow; 239 to the thyroid gland; 3 to the testes; 1 to the ovaries; 605 to the eye for 2 maxillary sinus X-rays. No diffused irradiation was measured during a 2-month period in the intensive care unit nor on dosimeters worn by four nurses.

  18. EM-18-2008 regulation. Essential requirements for the registration of medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This rule lays down additional rules for the evaluation and the State Control of Medical Equipment provisions. Medical equipment must be designed and constructed so that they are used under the conditions and for the intended purpose and shall, where applicable, by virtue of the technical knowledge, experience, education or training of users, do not compromise the clinical condition or safety of patients, or the safety and health of users or, where applicable, other persons, assuming that any risks that may be associated with their use constitute acceptable risks versus the benefits for the patient and is compatible with a high level of protection of health and safety.

  19. Analysis of environmental impact assessment for large-scale X-ray medical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jin; Pei Chengkai

    2011-01-01

    Based on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project, this paper elaborates the basic analysis essentials of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment, and provides the analysis procedure of environmental impact and dose estimation method under normal and accident conditions. The key points of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment include the determination of pollution factor and management limit value according to the project's actual situation, the utilization of various methods of assessment and prediction such as analogy, actual measurement and calculation to analyze, monitor, calculate and predict the pollution during normal and accident condition. (authors)

  20. Managing medical equipment used by technology-dependent children: evaluation of an instructional tool for pediatric residents and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer M; Radulovic, Andrea; Nageswaran, Savithri

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a workshop on managing medical devices used in technology-dependent children. Study participants included residents and medical students rotating in the pediatrics department at the time of the study. A workshop was conducted consisting of learning stations for common medical devices, including brief presentations and opportunities for hands-on practice with each device. Participants completed surveys before and after the workshop assessing their perceived ability to manage medical equipment before and after the workshop and their ongoing learning needs. All participants indicated a substantial need for training on how to manage medical devices used by technology-dependent patients. Scores for perceived ability to manage the devices improved significantly after workshop participation for nearly all devices taught. Medical trainees have significant learning needs for managing devices used by technology-dependent patients. Hands-on, small-group training can be an effective instructional tool for improving confidence in these skills.

  1. Legalities of the radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiograph itself plays a major role in medical malpractice cases. Also, many questions arise concerning the rights to and storage of x-ray films. These issues are addressed in this chapter. To keep the terminology simple, the word radiograph represents all imaging documentation on hard copy film (x-rays, nuclear medicine, computer-assisted studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)

  2. Image quality control of mammography equipment -Mammography System MX-300- of the Teachers Hospital of UNSA and dose measurement in breasts with radiographic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quispe F, L. K.; Vega R, J.

    2015-10-01

    This work is part of medical imaging for the evaluation of quality. Will have an accredited breast phantom Rmi-156 that allows evaluating the image quality of mammography equipment and through a series of techniques and processes that will submit to mammography films we obtain characteristic curves, which allows to evaluate different parameters that will serve for our study. Images were acquired with different k Vp and m As of the equipment, also with different thicknesses of the breast phantom. Also we want to use the lowest possible dose for obtaining our images. In this paper we develop a simple protocol that aims to unify the conditions under which are acquired the images for later evaluation. By obtaining these characteristic curves demonstrate that the Kodak film is the most suitable for our study because it requires lower dose for obtaining our images. (Author)

  3. Who are they? Identities in the Norwegian radiographer profession as presented in the Norwegian printed press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalsberg, R.; Thingnes, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore how Norwegian radiographers are portrayed in written press. Method: Textual discourse analysis, following a multiple step strategy, combining both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. 189 newspaper articles were included. The articles were registered and subject fields were inductively categorized. Each subject field was analysed regarding the field's role as an agent of influence on public perception of radiographers. Results: On average, less than one article a year concerning radiography profession is published in Norwegian newspapers. A majority are published in newspapers with small circulation figures, often reporting on resources in the local health services where radiographers are involved. Mostly radiographers are placed in the articles' background playing supporting roles, frequently mentioned in the cutline as an operator of a new medical technology. There is a heavy emphasis on the technology, leaving the specialized expertise and radiography knowledge out. This focus persist in the instances where radiographers play a main role in the texts. When patient stories are told, positive value-laden words are used to describe the radiographer and both the technical and the patient-care aspects of being a radiographer are noticeable. Conclusion: Norwegian radiographers typically appear, in glimpses, as anonymous allied health technicians in local reports on new diagnostic equipment or resource utilization. The professional qualities and decisive skills required to handle sophisticated diagnostic equipment and continuity of patient care are underestimated. A more-nuanced media coverage might give radiographers a strengthened identity as important health-care service contributors. - Highlights: • The radiography profession is an inconspicuous topic in Norwegian written press. • Written press involving radiographers highlight new equipment and medical technology. • Radiographers' professional qualities and decisive

  4. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1979-01-01

    Raytheon Company, U.S.A. have patented an on-line electronic system of normalising the responses from the photomultiplier tubes used in conjunction with a scintillator in an X-ray radiographic camera. A problem with present cameras is that the individual photomultipliers have different intensity responses which also change in time with respect to each other. The individual responses of each photomultiplier tube are measured with a uniform sheet of radioactive material in front of the camera. The associated electronic equipment then calculates scaling factors which give all photomultiplier tubes an identical response and then places these factors in an addressable store. The store is then addressed in an on-line mode to produce a visual display of the transmitted X-rays. (U.K.)

  5. ER-E4 regulation. Transitional arrangement to implement the rules for evaluating and state control of medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Establish a regulatory document where the validity and status of the documents contained in the Regulatory Legal Base Technical Program of medical equipment is exposed, given the scope thereof to comply with the provisions of the Regulation. This regulation is aimed at all subjects (manufacturers or producers, suppliers or distributors, importers, users, medical equipment, as well as health institutions SNS) involved in activities related to the evaluation and control of the State Medical equipment and make use of complementary technical legal documents.

  6. Regulation EM-ER-6. Requirements for the realization of clinical essays to the medical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This regulation applies to the medical equipment that become incorporated to the stage of clinical trial required for its evaluation and record, for which they are subdued to clinical investigation for the sake of verifying, in conditions specified of use, its functioning, identifying besides any undesirable defect. It extends to manufacturers of medical equipments, Public Health's units where the clinical investigations with those equipments take place and to the rest of the entities of the MINSAP . Its objective is to protect the participating subjects in the clinical investigations; Assuring the conduction of the clinical investigation and specifying the requirements for the conduction of the clinical investigations and the documentation required for it.

  7. 75 FR 26196 - Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers AGENCY: Office of Inspector...) 205-0007. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In our publication of the OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on...

  8. Prior use of durable medical equipment as a risk adjuster for health-based capitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. van Kleef (Richard); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines a new risk adjuster for capitation payments to Dutch health plans, based on the prior use of durable medical equipment (DME). The essence is to classify users of DME in a previous year into clinically homogeneous classes and to apply the resulting classification as a

  9. Interference by new-generation mobile phones on critical care medical equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Erik Jan; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Hensbroek, Reinout; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess and classify incidents of electromagnetic interference (EMI) by second-generation and third-generation mobile phones on critical care medical equipment. METHODS: EMI was assessed with two General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) signals (900 MHz, 2 W, two

  10. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, Saleh Mahmud; Xie, Y.; Uddin, Md. Rokon; Haque, Mohammod Abu Sayid; Hoq, Mahbubul; Mawla, Yasmeen; Alom, Md. Zahangir; Morium, Tasnim

    2002-11-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past century there was an uprising in the computer technology and most of the manually operated machines were brought under computerization. It was basically done with a custom built processor to perform only the specific job and spare the users from doing some extra manual work. But the performances of the recent models of the same computerized equipment are by far the best as compared with the past ones. This report describes the role of the IAEA in the upgradation of medical equipment, PC interfacing, upgrading of old gamma cameras and the technological and socio-economic impact in Bangladesh

  11. Assessing the Oldness and Capacity of Radiography and Ultrasound Equipments in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamati, Payman; Ghanaati, Hossein; Ghasemzadeh, Shahram; Jalali, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of imaging equipment is a very important part of the management of all medical imaging centers. To assess the oldness and capacity of radiography and ultrasound equipment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The study was performed in 16 hospitals, 4 faculties and three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. We evaluated all the X-ray equipment (including the simple plain and dental, panorex, mammography, fluoroscopy and C-arm X-Ray devices) and also simple and Doppler ultrasound machines in terms of the type and usage of the device, production year, quantity of utilization, location, brand and current condition. Among fixed X-ray systems, 15 were currently in use, two were junk, two were damaged, and one was not utilized. The mean (SD) of the usage of these was 2151 (2230) cliché/month, and the mean (SD) of the oldness was 16.9 (13.6) years. The oldness of radiography equipment in our study was more than 20 years in 16, between 11 and 20 in 46, and less than 10 years in 76 devices. The mean (SD) usage (patients/month) of simple and color Doppler devices were 234.1 (365.2) and 597.5 (505.3), respectively. The oldness of ultrasonography equipment in our study was more than 11 years in 12 and less than 10 years in 55 devices. We found that 22 (15.9%) of the radiography systems and two (3%) of the ultrasonography systems had been used for more than 20 years. Radiology equipment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences have potential capacity, but they need repair, and better maintenance and management and application of standards for the imaging system needs organized supervisory mechanisms

  12. British Standard method for determination of ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/process combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Under the direction of the Cinematography and Photography Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/film-process combinations. The method determines the speed and gradient, i.e. contrast, of the X-ray films processed according to their manufacturer's recommendations. (U.K.)

  13. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  14. 3D web based learning of medical equipment employed in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Aydın

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, both synchronous and asynchronous web based learning of 3D medical equipment models used in hospital intensive care unit have been described over the moodle course management system. 3D medical equipment models were designed with 3ds Max 2008, then converted to ASE format and added interactivity displayed with Viewpoint-Enliven. 3D models embedded in a web page in html format with dynamic interactivity-rotating, panning and zooming by dragging a mouse over images-and descriptive information is embedded to 3D model by using xml format. A pilot test course having 15 h was applied to technicians who is responsible for intensive care unit at Medical Devices Repairing and Maintenance Center (TABOM) of Turkish High Specialized Hospital.

  15. Medical image compression and its application to TDIS-FILE equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubura, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Eitaro; Iwai, Shunsuke

    1990-01-01

    In order to compress medical images for filing and communication, we have developed a compression algorithm which compresses images with remarkable quality using a high-pass filtering method. Hardware for this compression algorithm was also developed and applied to TDIS (total digital imaging system)-FILE equipment. In the future, hardware based on this algorithm will be developed for various types of diagnostic equipment and PACS. This technique has the following characteristics: (1) significant reduction of artifacts; (2) acceptable quality for clinical evaluation at 15:1 to 20:1 compression ratio; and (3) high-speed processing and compact hardware. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 862.2050 - General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or... TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2050 General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use. (a) Identification. General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or...

  17. [The set of wearable medical equipment for medical and nursing teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N a; Valevskii, V V; Lyutov, V V; Makhnovskii, A I; Sorokin, S I; Blinda, I V

    2015-06-01

    The kit is designed in accordance with the list of the first medical aid procedures and syndromic standards of emergency medical care providing. The kit contains modern local hemostatic agents, vent tubes, cricothyrotomy, needles to eliminate pneumothorax, portable oxygen machine, sets for intravenous and intraosseous infusion therapy, collapsible plastic tires, anti-shock pelvic girdle, and other medical products and pharmaceuticals. As containers used backpack and trolley bag on wheels camouflage colours. For the convenience and safety of the personnel of the vest is designed discharge to be converted in the body armour.

  18. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  19. Effectiveness of Medical-Care Equipment Management: Case Study in a Public Hospital in Belo Horizonte / Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Estevão Maria Campolina de Oliveira; Eloísa Helena Rodrigues Guimaraes; Ester Eliane Jeunon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the management of medical-care equipment at the Hospital of Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. To achieve this goal, a case study was performed along with a field research at HC-UFMG, through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire to professionals who handle and operate medical-care equipment; professionals who provide maintenance on equipment, and ...

  20. A novel approach to collaborative product development in the medical-equipment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Kevin C; Chien-Lung, Hsu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we summarise the requirements for collaborative product development based on our investigation of the differences in the resources and tools that are needed for the various stages of collaborative product development and the needs of system users during these various stages. We proposed a user-oriented approach of collaborative product development for medical equipment and designed a collaborative product development system with the required functionalities to satisfy different...

  1. Specification for high voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard Specification has been prepared for three-conductor and four-conductor high-voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment. The standard deals with the essential dimensions to ensure mechanical interchangeability, the recommended dimensions, the wiring connections to contacts of plug and socket and the marking of contacts of plug and socket. (U.K.)

  2. Regulation E 67-13. Opinion of acceptance for the clinical use of medical equipment using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this regulation is to establish the regulatory requirements for the granting of the 'Act of Acceptance for the clinical use of radiation Medical Equipment employing' complementing the provisions of the 'Regulations for the Evaluation and State Control of Medical Equipment' and aims help to improve the legal basis of the Regulatory technical Medical Equipment Program. The provisions of this regulation is aimed at any institution of the National Health System, hereinafter applicant required an Opinion of Acceptance for the clinical use of a medical team that uses radiation to authorization of use in humans.

  3. Human-centered design of the human-system interfaces of medical equipment: thyroid uptake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Jonathan K.R.; Farias, Marcos S.; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making healthcare increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine. Poorly design human-system interfaces can increase the risks for human error. The human-centered approach emphasizes the development of the equipment with a deep understanding of the users activities, current work practices, needs and abilities of the users. An important concept of human-centered design is that the ease-of-use of the equipment can be ensured only if users are actively incorporated in all phases of the life cycle of design process. Representative groups of users are exposed to the equipment at various stages in development, in a variety of testing, evaluation and interviewing situations. The users feedback obtained is then used to refine the design, with the result serving as input to the next interaction of design process. The limits of the approach are that the users cannot address any particular future needs without prior experience or knowledge about the equipment operation. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework that contributes to the design of the human-system interfaces, through an approach related to the users and their activities. A case study is described in which the methodological framework is being applied in development of new human-system interfaces of the thyroid uptake system. (author)

  4. A Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Impact of 939 Chest Radiographs Using the Medical Records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geijer, M.; Ivarsson, L.; Gothlin, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Between one-third and half of all radiology examinations worldwide are probably chest studies. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical influence of chest radiography. Methods. In a tertiary referral hospital, 939 consecutive daytime chest radiography examinations were evaluated. The outcome was classified as normal, incidental, or pathologic. The referring physicians reaction to radiologic outcome was classified as highly expected, moderately expected, or unexpected. The influence on the patients' treatment was divided into four groups from major to no influence. Results. In all, 71.6% of the studies had a highly expected outcome. Moderately expected or unexpected outcomes were noted in 36.6% of 500 pathologic examinations. Unexpected outcome was noted in 11.6% of all studies. The radiologic outcome influenced treatment in 65.4% of patients where pathology was demonstrated. Patients with normal or incidental findings had treatment influenced in 1/3 of the cases. Unexpected findings influenced treatment more than moderately expected findings. When radiological findings were highly expected, treatment was influenced in less than half of the cases. Surprisingly few chest radiology examinations were commented upon in the medical records

  5. Radiographic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes how to: perform a systematic evaluation of a chest radiograph; state the classic radiographic description of hyaline membrane disease; list the conditions that cause hyperaeration and describe the radiologic feature of hyperaeration; describe the radiograph of a patient with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia; identify optimum placement of an endotracheal tube, gastric feeding tube, and umbilical artery catheter on a radiograph; differentiate between pulmonary interstitial air and hyaline membrane disease; select radiographic features that would indicate the presence of a tension pneumothorax; describe a lateral decubitus projection and state the type of problem it is most often used to identify; explain the procedure used in obtaining a lateral neck radiograph and list two problems that may require this view; and describe the radiograph of a patient with cystic fibrosis

  6. The clinical value of daily routine chest radiographs in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graat, Marleen E; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K; Korevaar, Johanna C; Spronk, Peter E; Stoker, Jaap; Vroom, Margreeth B; Schultz, Marcus J

    2006-02-01

    The clinical value of daily routine chest radiographs (CXRs) in critically ill patients is unknown. We conducted this study to evaluate how frequently unexpected predefined major abnormalities are identified with daily routine CXRs, and how often these findings lead to a change in care for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a 28-bed, mixed medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital. Over a 5-month period, 2,457 daily routine CXRs were done in 754 consecutive ICU patients. The majority of these CXRs did not reveal any new predefined major finding. In only 5.8% of daily routine CXRs (14.3% of patients) was one or more new and unexpected abnormality encountered, including large atelectases (24 times in 20 patients), large infiltrates (23 in 22), severe pulmonary congestion (29 in 25), severe pleural effusion (13 in 13), pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum (14 in 13), and malposition of the orotracheal tube (32 in 26). Fewer than half of the CXRs with a new and unexpected finding were ultimately clinically relevant; in only 2.2% of all daily routine CXRs (6.4% of patients) did these radiologic abnormalities result in a change to therapy. Subgroup analysis revealed no differences between medical and surgical patients with regard to the incidence of new and unexpected findings on daily routine CXRs and the effect of new and unexpected CXR findings on daily care. In the ICU, daily routine CXRs seldom reveal unexpected, clinically relevant abnormalities, and they rarely prompt action. We propose that this diagnostic examination be abandoned in ICU patients.

  7. Automatic tracking of the constancy of the imaging chain radiographic equipment using integrated tool for dummy and evaluation software; Seguimiento automatico de la constancia de la cadena de imagen de Equipos Radiograficos mediante herramienta integrada por maniqui y software de evaluacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, P.; Rodenas, F.; Marin, B.; Alcaraz, D.; Verdu, G.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents an innovative tool nationwide for the automatic analysis of the constancy of the imaging chain digital radiographic equipment, both computed radiography (CR) and direct digital (DR).

  8. Reducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease readmissions: the role of the durable medical equipment provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Exacerbation and frequent rehospitalization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacts a heavy toll on the US health care system. To address these issues, new initiatives have been proposed that are largely based on financial penalties to promote patient education and postdischarge care. However, as laudable as these goals are, improving outcomes in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease population is more confounding than it may first appear. Chronic hypoxia, cognitive dysfunction, poor nutrition, and economic disadvantage are just a few of the challenges that require creative solutions and ongoing support. Case managers need to utilize all the potential products and services that can assist in improving outcomes for these patients. Durable medical equipment providers are often viewed as purveyors of medical equipment that offer little in the form of clinical support. However, in many cases these providers represent an overlooked resource that provides individualized, highly structured patient education and ongoing support programs. The challenge is in identifying those durable medical equipment providers that offer patients contemporary technology, and have both the resources and the commitment to provide patient support that is amenable to the goals of the hospital. This article reviews many of the confounding issues that contribute to the frequent rehospitalization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Recommendations to improve patient education and oxygen therapy outcomes are provided along with suggestions to aid in the vetting of durable medical equipment providers. Acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, extended care facilities, integrated delivery systems. 1. An understanding of the complex variables that play in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will help the case manager to plan an effective course of care. 2. Case managers need to ensure that patients receive long-term oxygen technology that

  9. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2006-01-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  11. [Investigation of non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in 16 medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-xi; Zhou, Wei; Qiu, Hai-li; Yang, Guang-tao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in medical institutions and to explore feasible control measures for occupational diseases. On-site measurement and assessment of ultra-high-frequency radiation, high-frequency electromagnetic field, microwave radiation, and laser radiation were carried out in 16 medical institutions using the methods in the Measurement of Physical Agents in Workplace (GBZ/T189-2007). All the investigated medical institutions failed to take effective protective measures against non-ionizing radiation. Of the 17 ultra-short wave therapy apparatus, 70.6%, 47.1%, and 17.64% had a safe intensity of ultra-high-frequency radiation on the head, chest, and abdomen, respectively. Of the 4 external high-frequency thermotherapy apparatus, 100%, 75%, and 75%had a safe intensity of high-frequency electromagnetic field on the head, chest, and abdomen, respectively. In addition, the intensities of microwave radiation and laser radiation produced by the 18 microwave therapy apparatus and 12 laser therapeutic apparatus met national health standards. There are non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in medical institutions, and effective prevention and control measures are necessary.

  12. An engineering development of fluoroscopic X-ray medical equipment based-on fluorescent screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry Suyatno; I Putu Susila; Djoko Sukmono

    2011-01-01

    Fluoroscopic x-ray medical equipment uses fluorescent screen to capture structural image of organs. Unlike conventional x-ray equipment which uses film, in the fluoroscopic x-ray, the resulting image is visualized on the fluorescent screen and directly observed by physicians in the patients' rooms. In this study, we developed an image capture system that transforms the image on the fluorescent screen into digital data, which is then transferred to computer for visualization and further processing. By using this system, the observation of the resulting image can be done on a computer that is placed in the control room. The image can also be stored easily and at low cost compared to conventional film. The experiment shows that the system could be used to capture image of the object. However, its quality needs to be improved. In the future, the system will be modified and tested with different types of cameras to obtain better results. (author)

  13. Automated Risk Control in Medical Imaging Equipment Management Using Cloud Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M. Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging equipment (MIE is the baseline of providing patient diagnosis in healthcare facilities. However, that type of equipment poses high risk for patients, operators, and environment in terms of technology and application. Considering risk management in MIE management is rarely covered in literature. The study proposes a methodology that controls risks associated with MIE management. The methodology is based on proposing a set of key performance indicators (KPIs that lead to identify a set of undesired events (UDEs, and through a risk matrix, a risk level is evaluated. By using cloud computing software, risks could be controlled to be manageable. The methodology was verified by using a data set of 204 pieces of MIE along 104 hospitals, which belong to Egyptian Ministry of Health. Results point to appropriateness of proposed KPIs and UDEs in risk evaluation and control. Thus, the study reveals that optimizing risks taking into account the costs has an impact on risk control of MIE management.

  14. The study on the perceptions of radiological technologist in medical imaging equipment used by the oriental doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Ho; Kang, Gi Bong; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine how Radiological Technologists perceive the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment, surveys were conducted for the members of the Korean Radiological Technologists Association. The total number of respondents were 515 and 481, with 34 insincere responses removed caused of nonvalidated answer. The results of the analysis are as follows. Although there were no statistical significance in the difference in perception by location of residence, work place, and educational background, respondents with higher education showed a tendency to agree on the use of comprehensive medical imaging equipment, but tended to oppose the use of special medical imaging equipment. Differences in perception by gender showed a greater negative perception toward the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment by women than men. In particular, women showed more negative tendency for oriental doctor's use of special medical imaging equipment such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound equipment compared to men, and this was statistically significant. The difference in perception by age showed that the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment was negative in the 20∼30s, neutral in the 40∼50s, and positive in the 60s, which were statistically significant. The difference in perception by work experience showed that the longer the work experience was, the more positive it was toward oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment. Specifically, the most favorable tendency was found with work experience of more than 30 years, which was statistically significant. The results of this study revealed the Radiological Technologists' perceptions on the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment and this can contribute to the direction of public health promotion in the future

  15. The study on the perceptions of radiological technologist in medical imaging equipment used by the oriental doctor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gi Bong [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Shinhan University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-03-15

    In order to examine how Radiological Technologists perceive the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment, surveys were conducted for the members of the Korean Radiological Technologists Association. The total number of respondents were 515 and 481, with 34 insincere responses removed caused of nonvalidated answer. The results of the analysis are as follows. Although there were no statistical significance in the difference in perception by location of residence, work place, and educational background, respondents with higher education showed a tendency to agree on the use of comprehensive medical imaging equipment, but tended to oppose the use of special medical imaging equipment. Differences in perception by gender showed a greater negative perception toward the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment by women than men. In particular, women showed more negative tendency for oriental doctor's use of special medical imaging equipment such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound equipment compared to men, and this was statistically significant. The difference in perception by age showed that the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment was negative in the 20∼30s, neutral in the 40∼50s, and positive in the 60s, which were statistically significant. The difference in perception by work experience showed that the longer the work experience was, the more positive it was toward oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment. Specifically, the most favorable tendency was found with work experience of more than 30 years, which was statistically significant. The results of this study revealed the Radiological Technologists' perceptions on the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment and this can contribute to the direction of public health promotion in the future.

  16. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Simon J; Beggs, Clive B; Smith, Caroline F; Kerr, Kevin G; Noakes, Catherine J; Sleigh, P Andrew

    2010-04-12

    In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionizers to control the spread of infection in hospitals and a number of researchers have investigated the biocidal action of ions in both air and nitrogen. By comparison, the physical action of air ions on bacterial dissemination and deposition has largely been ignored. However, there is clinical evidence that air ions might play an important role in preventing the transmission of Acinetobacter infection. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is hypothesized that a physical effect may be responsible: the production of air ions may negatively charge items of plastic medical equipment so that they repel, rather than attract, airborne bacteria. By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition on these items. In so doing they may help to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter infection in certain healthcare settings such as intensive care units. A study was undertaken in a mechanically ventilated room under ambient conditions to accurately measure changes in surface potential exhibited by items of plastic medical equipment in the presence of negative air ions. Plastic items were suspended on nylon threads, either in free space or in contact with a table surface, and exposed to negative ions produced by an air ionizer. The charge build-up on the specimens was measured using an electric field mill while the ion concentration in the room air was recorded using a portable ion counter. The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large negative charge (i.e. generally >-100V) in the presence of a negative air ionizer. While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and monitoring system (the only item made from styrene acrylonitrile), did however develop a positive charge in the

  17. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionizers to control the spread of infection in hospitals and a number of researchers have investigated the biocidal action of ions in both air and nitrogen. By comparison, the physical action of air ions on bacterial dissemination and deposition has largely been ignored. However, there is clinical evidence that air ions might play an important role in preventing the transmission of Acinetobacter infection. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is hypothesized that a physical effect may be responsible: the production of air ions may negatively charge items of plastic medical equipment so that they repel, rather than attract, airborne bacteria. By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition on these items. In so doing they may help to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter infection in certain healthcare settings such as intensive care units. Methods A study was undertaken in a mechanically ventilated room under ambient conditions to accurately measure changes in surface potential exhibited by items of plastic medical equipment in the presence of negative air ions. Plastic items were suspended on nylon threads, either in free space or in contact with a table surface, and exposed to negative ions produced by an air ionizer. The charge build-up on the specimens was measured using an electric field mill while the ion concentration in the room air was recorded using a portable ion counter. Results The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large negative charge (i.e. generally >-100V in the presence of a negative air ionizer. While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and monitoring system (the only item made from styrene

  18. A Fuzzy method for the usability evaluation of nuclear medical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Cláudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Farias, Marcos S.; Farias, Larissa P.; Filho, Alfredo M.V., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br, E-mail: msantana@ien.gov.br, E-mail: larissapfarias@ymail.com, E-mail: marques@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DENN/IEN/CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    To avoid errors when handling nuclear medical equipment, it is important to develop products with a high degree of usability. This can be achieved by performing usability evaluations in the product development process to detect and mitigate potential usability problems. Usability evaluation focuses on how well users can learn and use a product to achieve their goals. Thus, the usability evaluation has become recognized as a valuable complement to the established approaches to design good user interfaces, to reduce incidents and accidents as well the time required to learn how to use the equipment. To gather information about usability, practitioners use a variety of methods that gather feedback from users about an existing interface or plans related to a new interface. A wide range of usability evaluation methods have been proposed, but few methods focus on developing an objective and practical evaluation method for usability. Moreover, the usability evaluations are based on human judgments and most methods cannot fully solve the subjectivity of these evaluations. In order to remedy this deficiency, the purpose of this work is to adopt a Fuzzy Set Theory (FST) approach to establish a method for the usability evaluation of nuclear medical equipment based on usability heuristics for user interface design and international standards for ergonomics of human-system interaction. To exemplify the method we performed a usability evaluating of the Digital Spectrometer ESP 13004 by testing it with representative users. The results showed that the method is a proactive tool to provide a basis for checking usability of medical device interfaces. (author)

  19. A Fuzzy method for the usability evaluation of nuclear medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Cláudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Farias, Marcos S.; Farias, Larissa P.; Filho, Alfredo M.V.

    2017-01-01

    To avoid errors when handling nuclear medical equipment, it is important to develop products with a high degree of usability. This can be achieved by performing usability evaluations in the product development process to detect and mitigate potential usability problems. Usability evaluation focuses on how well users can learn and use a product to achieve their goals. Thus, the usability evaluation has become recognized as a valuable complement to the established approaches to design good user interfaces, to reduce incidents and accidents as well the time required to learn how to use the equipment. To gather information about usability, practitioners use a variety of methods that gather feedback from users about an existing interface or plans related to a new interface. A wide range of usability evaluation methods have been proposed, but few methods focus on developing an objective and practical evaluation method for usability. Moreover, the usability evaluations are based on human judgments and most methods cannot fully solve the subjectivity of these evaluations. In order to remedy this deficiency, the purpose of this work is to adopt a Fuzzy Set Theory (FST) approach to establish a method for the usability evaluation of nuclear medical equipment based on usability heuristics for user interface design and international standards for ergonomics of human-system interaction. To exemplify the method we performed a usability evaluating of the Digital Spectrometer ESP 13004 by testing it with representative users. The results showed that the method is a proactive tool to provide a basis for checking usability of medical device interfaces. (author)

  20. Medical radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described which relates to computer-assisted tomography. The apparatus provides for investigating a cross-section slice of a patient's body and includes a source of fan-shaped distribution of penetrating radiation and a means for locating the source, in relation to the patient's body so that the radiation is directed towards a slice of the body. The source can be rotated about the patient's body and radiation detected by a number of detectors situated in an arc around the body. The number, and thus the cost, of detectors can be reduced by putting the ring of detectors between the x-ray source and the patient's body. This presents a problem in that if the detectors are on the same side of the body as the source and if no steps are taken to the contrary, the detectors will interupt the radiation so that it does not pass through the patient's body. This invention overcomes that problem. (OT)

  1. Radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wave-length radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  2. An approach to human-centered design of nuclear medical equipment: the system of caption of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Silva, Carlos Borges da; Santana, Marcos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Mol, Antonio Carlos Mol; Grecco, Claudio Henrique; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro

    2005-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making health care increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine and can increase the risks for human error. Human error has many causes such as performance shaping factors, organizational factors and user interface design. Poorly design human system interfaces of nuclear medical equipment can increase the risks for human error. If all nuclear medical equipment had been designed with good user interfaces, incidents and accidents could be reduced as well as he time required to learn how to use the equipment. Although some manufacturers of nuclear medical equipment have already integrate human factors principles in their products, there is still a need to steer the development of nuclear medical technology toward more human-centered approach. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology that contributes to the design, development and evaluation of nuclear medical equipment and human system interface, towards a human-centered approach. This methodology includes the ergonomic approach, based on the operator activity analysis, together with human factors standards and guidelines, questionnaires and user based testing. We describe a case study in which this methodology is being applied in evaluation of the thyroid uptake system, getting essential information and data, that ill be used in development of a new system. (author)

  3. RESULTS OF THE SURVEY CONDUCTED AMONG OPHTHALMOLOGISTS ON THE ISSUE OF EQUIPMENT OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS WITH OPHTHALMOLOGY DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Seraphimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of limited accessibility and quality of ophthalmic medical care remains one of the leading ones in the national healthcare. This article presents results of the survey conducted among ophthalmologists about the effect of large-scale equipment of all medical institutions in the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic devices over the recent years.Objective is to determine the contribution of the health care modernization program to equipping the medical institutions of the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic medical devices, and to identify the main areas for improving the ophthalmologic care for residents of the Leningrad region with cataracts.Materials and methods. According to a specially developed questionnaire, 105 ophthalmologists from the Leningrad Region were interviewed. The survey was conducted among physicians working both in out-patient medical facilities and in medical facilities with in-patient modalities.Results. The results of the study confirmed positive changes that occurred in recent years as a result of equipping medical institutions with modern medical devices. Almost two-thirds (59.9% of respondents noted that equipping with modern medical devices had a significant impact on the quality of the medical and diagnostic measures carried out in healthcare facilities of the region.Conclusions. The equipment had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases of the eye and its appendages, especially such eye disease which is so common among the population of the Leningrad Region as cataracts (75.0 per 100 ophthalmologists surveyed. At the same time, in spite of these efforts, the standard for equipping ophthalmologic departments in individual medical institutions has not been fully provided. Only every fifth (20.9% ophthalmologist noted during the survey that the list of available ophthalmic devices was sufficient, and that they all worked properly.

  4. Relationship between type of medical institutions according to the equipment list and inspection fee computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Cheol; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Joo, Yeong Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates holding condition of CT by medical institution classification and by season, and examination fee in Korea currently to quantitatively understand frequency of examination region by change of CT equipment, domestic growing trend and change of distribution and using rate. Recent 10 years of CT holding condition by medical institution classification (Tertiary hospital, General hospital, Hospital, Clinic, Dental hospital, Dental clinic, Hospitalized health center) and by year (2003-2012), and CT examination fee of distribution of medical institution by year is surveyed. The holding ratio of Tertiary hospital level and General hospital level is 32.7% in 2003 and 33.0% in 2012. Whereas, Hospital and Clinic level is 74.2% in 2003 and 66.8% in 2012, which takes approximately 70%. Based on data in 2012, it is 82.2% of total examination fee in Tertiary hospital and General hospital, while 17.5% in hospital and clinic. CT holding rate of Hospital level is increasing, while Clinic level is decreasing. Approximately 80% of CT examination fee is claimed by Tertiary hospital and General hospital. Therefore, there is a significant correlation between CT holding condition of medical institution classification and examination fee. Particularly, correlation between CT holding number of Tertiary hospital and examination fee is significant (p< .001). The more CT holding number, the higher the amount claimed examination fee

  5. Relationship between type of medical institutions according to the equipment list and inspection fee computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Cheol; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Joo, Yeong Cheol [Dept. of Dept. of Health Care, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study demonstrates holding condition of CT by medical institution classification and by season, and examination fee in Korea currently to quantitatively understand frequency of examination region by change of CT equipment, domestic growing trend and change of distribution and using rate. Recent 10 years of CT holding condition by medical institution classification (Tertiary hospital, General hospital, Hospital, Clinic, Dental hospital, Dental clinic, Hospitalized health center) and by year (2003-2012), and CT examination fee of distribution of medical institution by year is surveyed. The holding ratio of Tertiary hospital level and General hospital level is 32.7% in 2003 and 33.0% in 2012. Whereas, Hospital and Clinic level is 74.2% in 2003 and 66.8% in 2012, which takes approximately 70%. Based on data in 2012, it is 82.2% of total examination fee in Tertiary hospital and General hospital, while 17.5% in hospital and clinic. CT holding rate of Hospital level is increasing, while Clinic level is decreasing. Approximately 80% of CT examination fee is claimed by Tertiary hospital and General hospital. Therefore, there is a significant correlation between CT holding condition of medical institution classification and examination fee. Particularly, correlation between CT holding number of Tertiary hospital and examination fee is significant (p< .001). The more CT holding number, the higher the amount claimed examination fee.

  6. The clinical value of daily routine chest radiographs in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit is low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, Marleen E.; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Spronk, Peter E.; Stoker, Jaap; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical value of daily routine chest radiographs (CXRs) in critically ill patients is unknown. We conducted this study to evaluate how frequently unexpected predefined major abnormalities are identified with daily routine CXRs, and how often these findings lead to a change in care

  7. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  8. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Transmission of hazardous diseases via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (calcifying nanoparticles, nanobes are one of the most controversial issues in contemporary biology. Studies show accumulating evidence on association of nanobacteria with pathologic calcifications such as kidney stone, arterial plaque, calcification of coronary arteries, and cardiac valves calculus. The Hypothesis: Nanobacteria can tolerate harsh conditions extremely well. The apatite mineral layer around the organism and slow metabolism is likely to be the reason for the resistance of nanobacteria. They showed a wide resistance to the several disinfecting and sterilizating chemicals as well as autoclaving, ultraviolet light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments. Hence, it seems logic to postulate that hazardous diseases can be easily transmitted via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is not enough to claim an agent not living according to the standard view on living creatures, as irrelevant to biological safety of cell cultures, or to human and animal health. Although the nature of prions is still under debate and prions are classified as nonliving, they exist and cause diseases, and thus form a serious risk for animal and human health. The risk was recognized only after enormous economical losses. It appears that nanobacteria situation is rather similar, except the fact that nanobacteria appear to cause or contribute to common hazardous diseases of the mankind. Hence, world-widely well-known organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the World Health Organization should pay more attention to transmission of hazardous diseases via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment.

  10. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  11. Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Medical Equipment Market: MEDICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Dimitris; Panou-Diamandi, Ourania; Zeelenberg, Cees; van Nimwegen, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Background The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers' Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers' sites is called the MEDICOM system. Objective To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). Methods The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers' servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database

  12. Design and implementation of a portal for the medical equipment market: MEDICOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamas, S; Kalivas, D; Panou-Diamandi, O; Zeelenberg, C; van Nimwegen, C

    2001-01-01

    The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers sites is called the MEDICOM system. To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database Management Systems are used for

  13. Reduced medical and occupational exposures by optimizing working procedures in fluoroscopy equipment in the University Hospital of Santa Maria (RS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Guilherme L.; Claus, Thiago V.; Baumhardt, Tadeu; Shuch, Luiz A.

    2013-01-01

    This work seeks to reduce medical (patient) and occupational (workers) exposure by standardizing resources available in fluoroscopy equipment used in interventional procedures. Such procedures use transportable surgical arch type fluoroscopy equipment, with applications in orthopedics, angiography and pacemaker implantation. Improper use of these devices generates excessive radiation doses in both patients and the medical staff. It is observed that the equipment after being connected to the grid, is pre-selected to work in continuous fluoroscopy and no additional filtration, producing higher doses of radiation. For specific applications, changes in protocols should be undertaken according to medical indication. This work used a fluoroscopy equipment Shimadzu Active Opescope two radiation monitoring equipment, brand Radcal, models 9010 and 9015, two ionization chambers, of 60 cc and 180 cc and a low contrast phantom and a catheter, information that simulate the human body. Incidences were performed by changing the conditions of exposure as frame rates (fps - frames per second) and additional filtration. For each composition parameters was generated and filed an image, with the extent of their respective doses. These images were evaluated by radiologists. In more extreme cases we obtained a reduction of a factor 25 in occupational exposure (medical personnel) using the pulsed with the greatest 2 fps additional filter (0.3 mm Cu) compared to continuous system without any additional filtration. In medical exposure (of patients), decreased by a factor 39, the same conditions described above. With these arguments it is justified the optimization and standardization of the equipment used in fluoroscopy, which besides providing a dose reduction the patient and the medical personnel, increases the life of the X-ray tube while maintaining the quality of medical diagnosis. (author)

  14. Chesneys' radiographic imaging. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Price, T.

    1989-01-01

    This new edition of Chesney and Chesney: Radiographic Imaging has been completely written by two new authors. The book reflects the change in emphasis in radiology from photographic processes towards electronic imaging methods. There is new material on image intensifiers and television imaging, digital imaging and digital subtractions. Analyses of the various characteristics of, and defects in, images on radiographs, xeroradiographs and the television screen are included. The methods, equipment and materials used to record the cathode ray tube image are described and there is new material on the principles of alternative diagnostic imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and radionuclide imaging which provide cathode ray tube images. The book is primarily for student radiographers studying for the Diploma of the College of Radiographers, but radiographers studying for postdiplomate qualifications such as the Higher Diploma (HDCR) will also find the book helpful. (author)

  15. Review of the regulation on the installation and use of X-ray equipment for medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Garcia, C.; Arguelles Sanchez, R.; Franco Artero, P.; Gil Gahete, M.; Rodriguez Marti, M.; Rueda Guerrero, M. D.; Villarroel Gonzalez-Eipe, R.

    2009-01-01

    The first regulation on the installation and use of X-ray equipment for the purposes of medical diagnosis was approved in 1991. This allowed the control of the safety of such equipment to be significantly improved. Royal Decree 1891/1991 has now been subjected to a review to update its contents and include the regulatory changes that have been incorporated in later standards, this having materialised with the Royal Decree 1085/2009, of July 3rd. (Author)

  16. Effectiveness of Medical-Care Equipment Management: Case Study in a Public Hospital in Belo Horizonte / Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão Maria Campolina de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and analyze the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the management of medical-care equipment at the Hospital of Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. To achieve this goal, a case study was performed along with a field research at HC-UFMG, through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire to professionals who handle and operate medical-care equipment; professionals who provide maintenance on equipment, and professionals who manage the operation and maintenance of equipment. As a strategy for discussion of the results, the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD was used supported by the analysis of the Central Idea (CI of each question or question groups. According to the CSD results, it was possible to identify factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the management of medical-care equipment, such as: professional qualification; practical knowledge; work professionalization; supervision focused on evaluation, development, results and continuous improvement; professional updating and technical support; individual accountability; adequate infrastructure; and implementation of equipment management planning. These factors indicate, to the institutions, opportunities of culture change and organizational growth.

  17. Evaluation of different X ray equipment and incubators for pediatric radiographic images implementation;Avaliacao de diferentes equipamentos de raios-X e incubadoras para implementacao de imagens radiograficas pediatricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbi, E.D.O.; Souza, R.T.F.; Pina, D.R. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2009-07-01

    The children frequent/y are exposed to the ionizing radiation and other emotional and physical risks in the attempts repeated to get radiographic images of quality. This study it has as objective to evaluate X ray beam about quality and intensity at three different equipment with single-phase generator of voltage and the absorption factors to 5 different incubators and 3 different cradles in the neonatal UTI of the Clinics Hospital on the Medicine College in Botucatu. The methodology consisted of carrying through measured of half Layer Value and Radiation output for the different X ray equipment with voltage with in between 45 and 100 kVp, applied at the X ray tube. The measures of the absorption factors had been carried through varying the thicknesses of attenuating material (phantom) for the different voltage value with in between 50 and 100kVp. The results had shown the same energy effective for the different X ray equipment and the same absorption factors for the different incubators and evaluated cradles, taking into account, the same thickness of attenuating material and same voltage. (author)

  18. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  19. A timeline for predicting durable medical equipment needs and interventions for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Mark B; Brownell, Alexander A; Forshew, Dallas A; Swenson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    ALS is progressive with increasing patient needs for durable medical equipment (DME) and interventions (gastric feeding tube - PEG, and non-invasive ventilation - NIV). We performed a chart review of deceased patients to determine the time-course of needs and their estimated costs. A timeline of needs was based on when clinic personnel felt an item was necessary. The point in time when an item or intervention was needed was expressed as a percentage of a patient's total disease duration. A wide range of DME and interventions was needed irrespective of site of ALS symptom onset (bulbar, upper, lower extremity), beginning at 10% of disease duration of lower extremity onset and increasing thereafter for all sites. The cumulative probability of costs of items and interventions began at 25%-50% of disease duration and increased to between $18,000 and $32,000 (USD), highest for lower extremity onset due to the cost of wheelchairs. We conclude that a high percentage of ALS patients will need a full spectrum of major DME items and interventions during the second half of disease duration. This results in a linear rise in costs over the second half of the disease duration.

  20. [Medical equipment companies and their ties with technology development centers in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Arredondo, A; Cruz, C; Sánchez, E; Damián, T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the companies that produce, distribute, and service medical equipment in Mexico and the factors related to whether or not they had established ties with research and technology development centers. The data analyzed came from a survey of such companies carried out in Mexico City and environs in 1989. The information was updated in 1991. Multivariate analyses were carried out in order to identify the characteristics of companies that had established ties or wished to do so and the areas of interest of those companies. Of 208 companies surveyed, only 23% had ties with research centers. The companies that had such ties or were interested in establishing them tended to invest in research and to have made plans for expansion. The establishment of ties appeared to be a two-way process, with positive consequences for the companies involved, the research centers, and the health sector. It was concluded that it would be advantageous to design programs to promote ties with companies having the characteristics mentioned.

  1. Evidence-based approach to the maintenance of laboratory and medical equipment in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Robert; Keane, Allison

    2010-07-01

    Much of the laboratory and medical equipment in resource-poor settings is out-of-service. The most commonly cited reasons are (1) a lack of spare parts and (2) a lack of highly trained technicians. However, there is little data to support these hypotheses, or to generate evidence-based solutions to the problem. We studied 2,849 equipment-repair requests (of which 2,529 were out-of-service medical equipment) from 60 resource-poor hospitals located in 11 nations in Africa, Europe, Asia, and Central America. Each piece of equipment was analyzed by an engineer or an engineering student and a repair was attempted using only locally available materials. If the piece was placed back into service, we assumed that the engineer's problem analysis was correct. A total of 1,821 pieces of medical equipment were placed back into service, or 72%, without requiring the use of imported spare parts. Of those pieces repaired, 1,704 were sufficiently documented to determine what knowledge was required to place the equipment back into service. We found that six domains of knowledge were required to accomplish 99% of the repairs: electrical (18%), mechanical (18%), power supply (14%), plumbing (19%), motors (5%), and installation or user training (25%). A further analysis of the domains shows that 66% of the out-of-service equipment was placed back into service using only 107 skills covering basic knowledge in each domain; far less knowledge than that required of a biomedical engineer or biomedical engineering technician. We conclude that a great majority of laboratory and medical equipment can be put back into service without importing spare parts and using only basic knowledge. Capacity building in resource-poor settings should first focus on a limited set of knowledge; a body of knowledge that we call the biomedical technician's assistant (BTA). This data set suggests that a supported BTA could place 66% of the out-of-service laboratory and medical equipment in their hospital back

  2. Radiosterilization and other sterilization methods of medical equipment on Kilmer's conference, Brussels, 12-16 June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson and Johnson Co. organized the scientific conference devoted to different aspects and methods of sterilization of medical equipment and materials. A condensed review of the main problems discussed during the conference has been done. Attention has been paid especially on: actual problems with primary infections control, problems of sterilization in pharmacy, hazards problems, investigations and control methods and radiation sterilization. 2 figs

  3. Detectability of T1a lung cancer on digital chest radiographs: an observer-performance comparison among 2-megapixel general-purpose, 2-megapixel medical-purpose, and 3-megapixel medical-purpose liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Jinnnouchi, Mikako; Yonezawa, Masato; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    There has been no comparison of detectability of small lung cancer between general and medical LCD monitors or no comparison of detectability of small lung cancer between solid and part-solid nodules. To compare the detectabilities of T1a lung cancer on chest radiographs on three LCD monitor types: 2-megapixel (MP) for general purpose (General), 2-MP for medical purpose (Medical), and 3-MP-Medical. Radiographs from forty patients with T1aN0M0 primary lung cancer (27 solid nodules, 13 part-solid nodules) and 60 patients with no abnormalities on both chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) were consecutively collected. Five readers assessed 100 cases for each monitor. The observations were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A jackknife method was used for statistical analysis. A P value of General, 2-MP-Medical, and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors were 0.86, 0.89, and 0.89, respectively; there were no significant differences among them. The average AUC for part-solid nodule detection using a 2-MP-General, 2-MP-Medical, and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors were 0.77, 0.86, and 0.89, respectively. There were significant differences between the 2-MP-General and 2-MP-Medical LCD monitors (P = 0.043) and between the 2-MP-General and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors (P = 0.027). There was no significant difference between the 2-MP-Medical and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors. The average AUC for solid nodule detection using a 2-MP-General, 2-MP-Medical, and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors were 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively; there were no significant differences among them. The mean AUC values for all and part-solid nodules of the low-experienced readers were significantly lower than those of the high-experienced readers with the 2 M-GP color LCD monitor (P general-purpose LCD monitor was significantly lower than those using medical-purpose LCD monitors. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  4. Reporting by radiographers: a policy and practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Audrey M.; Price, Richard C.; Thomas, Adrian; Nuttall, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    Reporting by radiographers and other non-medical staff has developed considerably in the past decade, and especially so since the College of Radiographers published its vision paper on reporting by radiographers, in 1997. It was felt necessary, therefore, to develop guidance to assist radiographers and others undertaking radiographic reporting. The guidance provided includes guidance on planning and implementing a reporting service using reporting radiographers; the education, continuing education and support required by reporting radiographers; quality and standards related to reporting; and the nature of a report. Broader issues that will need to be addressed as reporting by radiographers becomes the norm are also raised

  5. Conversion into numerical form of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappabianca, C.; Della Rocca, A.B.; Ferriani, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic means are widely used for non destructive testing. However, human and technological factors strongly influence reliability of the results and further use of these technique. Image Processing can help to overtake those difficulties if radiographic films are previously digitized. This paper shows methods and equipments used in this field. The system EDI (Enea Digital. Imagery) operating in Casaccia Energy Research Centre is described

  6. Handling of radiation emergency involving accidental detachment of 20 Ci iridium-192 source in a guide tube of a radiographic equipment in industrial radiography site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaparde, S.P.; Murthy, B.K.S.; Vora, V.B.; Subramanian, G.

    1979-01-01

    The source capsule containing about 17.2 Ci of iridium-192 got accidently unscrewed in a guide tube of a gamma radiography equipment while carrying out the radiography of the spiral casing at construction site of a Hydroelectric Power Station. Immediately after the incident about 10 meter distance all around the spiral casing was cordoned off. The unscrewed capsule along with the source pellet was transferred to a lead container by raising the closed end of the guide tube of about 1/2 meters in length. The source pencil cable and cap of source capsule were separated from the source pellet. The source pellet was further shielded by a steel container and lead sheets. The source pellet was reloaded in the source capsule with limited facilities available at the work site. The source capsule cap was perfectly screwed by standing behind the L bench temporarily constructed out of lead sheets for the above jobs. During the above operation, the person received a whole body dose of 2000 mR and extrimety dose of 3000 mR. Handling of one more radiation emergency of similar type is described. A few appliances designed and fabricated for use in such emergencies are briefly described. (auth.)

  7. A study on developpement of guideline on writing technical document for electrical medical devices: Dental x-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Youl; Kim, Jae Ryang; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Chang Won [Division of Medical Device Research, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Mnistry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Due to recent population aging, the number of check-up for senior citizens has increased steadily. According to this trend, the market size of dental X-ray equipment and the number of approval and review for these devices have simultaneously increased. The technical document of medical device is required for approval and review for medical device, and medical device companies needs to have work comprehension and expertise, as the document needs to include the overall contents such as performances, test criteria, etc.. Yet, since most of domestic manufacturers or importers of medical devices are small businesses, it is difficult for them to recruit professional manpower for approval of medical devices, and submission of inaccurate technical documents has increased. These problems lead to delay of the approval process and to difficulties in quick entering into the market. Especially, the Ministry of Food and Drug safety (MFDS) standards of a dental extra-oral X-ray equipment, a dental intra-oral X-ray equipment, an arm-type computed tomography, and a portable X-ray system have been recently enacted or not. this guideline of dental X-ray equipment adjusting revised standards was developed to help relative companies and reviewers. For this study, first, the methods to write technical document have been reviewed with revised international and domestic regulations and system. Second, the domestic and foreign market status of each item has been surveyed and analyzed. Third, the contents of technical documents already approved by MFDS have been analyzed to select the correct example, test items, criteria, and methods. Finally, the guideline has been developed based on international and domestic regulation, through close review of a consultative body composed of academic, industrial, research institute and government experts.

  8. A study on developpement of guideline on writing technical document for electrical medical devices: Dental x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Youl; Kim, Jae Ryang; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Chang Won

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent population aging, the number of check-up for senior citizens has increased steadily. According to this trend, the market size of dental X-ray equipment and the number of approval and review for these devices have simultaneously increased. The technical document of medical device is required for approval and review for medical device, and medical device companies needs to have work comprehension and expertise, as the document needs to include the overall contents such as performances, test criteria, etc.. Yet, since most of domestic manufacturers or importers of medical devices are small businesses, it is difficult for them to recruit professional manpower for approval of medical devices, and submission of inaccurate technical documents has increased. These problems lead to delay of the approval process and to difficulties in quick entering into the market. Especially, the Ministry of Food and Drug safety (MFDS) standards of a dental extra-oral X-ray equipment, a dental intra-oral X-ray equipment, an arm-type computed tomography, and a portable X-ray system have been recently enacted or not. this guideline of dental X-ray equipment adjusting revised standards was developed to help relative companies and reviewers. For this study, first, the methods to write technical document have been reviewed with revised international and domestic regulations and system. Second, the domestic and foreign market status of each item has been surveyed and analyzed. Third, the contents of technical documents already approved by MFDS have been analyzed to select the correct example, test items, criteria, and methods. Finally, the guideline has been developed based on international and domestic regulation, through close review of a consultative body composed of academic, industrial, research institute and government experts

  9. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  10. Development of a handmade device for collimation and central ray alignment tests in medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.L. da; Brito, E.B.; Gomes, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Ordinance 453/98 of the Ministry of Health establishes that medical X-ray equipment should be monitored by tests that prove its efficiency. This practice is called quality control (QC), and two important tests jointly evaluate the operation of the collimation and alignment systems of the central axis of the X-ray beam. The low supply and the high cost generate allegations of difficulties in the periodic realization of the tests. The aim of this work is to design, make and evaluate the performance of a handmade device for the mentioned tests, using low cost materials. Once built, the device had its performance evaluated and compared with the traditionally marketed device. The handmade device proved to be fit in its functions. It is possible to make a device that tests X-ray medical equipment, using the radiology technologist himself as the test runner. Radiation protection is promoted and legislation with no real financial burden

  11. Corruption in the Procurement of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Equipment in China: The Incentives Facing Multinationals, Domestic Firms and Hospital Officials

    OpenAIRE

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan; Tan, Yingqi

    2014-01-01

    Calls for reform of the Chinese healthcare system are voiced at the highest levels of the Chinese government, but reform cannot succeed unless policymakers confront the incentives for corruption built into the institutional structure of the healthcare system. Focusing on the markets for pharmaceuticals and medical equipment, this article isolates the special features of the Chinese healthcare system that are conducive to corruption. Without denying the responsibility of individual corporate r...

  12. Investments for medical equipment in a mother and child health hospital: correlation with level of services/departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Raggi, Roberto; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Tudevdorj, Erkhembaatar; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether investments for medical equipments assigned by a team of experts to a mother and child health hospital located in Mongolia were correlated with structural, organizational, and educational level of its services/departments. A score was used for evaluating the level of each service/department. It was based on a 'structural area' and an 'organizational and educational area'. Destination of funds was determined by a team of experts in collaboration with the head of the service/department. Thirty-three of 36 services/departments (91.6%) were evaluated. A total sum of 4,432,140 Euros to invest in medical equipment was estimated. Assigned investments were inversely correlated with the total (structural plus organizational and educational area) score (n = 33; r =  -0.59; p = 0.0002), and the specific scores for structural area (n = 33; r = -0.46; p = 0.005) and organizational and educational area (n = 33; r =  -0.56; p = 0.0006). A large part of the funds for medical equipment was destined to services/departments with low organizational and educational conditions, limiting the potential effect of the aid meanwhile supporting the most in need departments. Educational efforts and monitoring of specific long-term indicators are mandatory.

  13. Compliance testing of medical diagnostic x-ray equipment: three years experience of a public hospital in western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchyna, T.; Jacob, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A formal compliance testing program which began on 1 January 1997 called for all medical and diagnostic x-ray equipment to be tested according to protocols established by the Western Australian Radiological Council. This work describes the impact of the legislation three years post implementation on a major teaching Hospital with 45 x-ray tubes located throughout 37 rooms. Testing is performed prior to scheduled service by licensed compliance testers according to test methods specified in the Western Australian Compliance Testing Workbook, 1997. A dedicated non-invasive x-ray beam analyser is instrumental in accurately determining radiation output parameters of the generator and x-ray tube. Assessment of compliance is determined by a Qualified Expert. Repair and re-testing of non-compliant items is coordinated with service personnel. Notices of non-compliance were received for approximately 60% of the equipment in the Hospital following the equipment' first annual test. Reasons and seriousness of failure varied according to equipment category, test category, equipment use and age. The majority of non-compliance issues were resolved within 90 days. At the end of the third year of testing, approximately 75% of the x-ray units tested met the compliance criteria. The main reasons for non-compliance were found to be design limitations associated with old technology and the current radiation legislation that makes it difficult for older equipment to meet the stringent criteria. The number and categories of failure did not significantly decrease in the second or third years of testing. Exemptions from compliance criteria have been sought for two units on the basis of age and design. Units unable to meet the criteria following several repair attempts or where the cost of repair was deemed not justified, were decommissioned. Formal testing of medical x-ray equipment has demonstrated various non-compliance issues that did not significantly improve during the

  14. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This patent application describes a radiographic apparatus including an array of radiation sensors, a source of radiation for projecting a beam through a body and means for moving one of said source and array relative to the body and for producing an electrical signal representative of the movement of the other of said source and array needed to bring the array into register with the beam. Drive means are arranged to move the other of said source and array in response to the electrical signal. In one embodiment, the source is rotated by an amount measured by a grating and associated electronics. The required movement of the array to maintain registration is calculated and transmitted to a driver. Alternatively, a laser may be mounted with the same and the array driven so that the laser beam continuously impinges on a photocell mounted with the array. (author)

  15. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment

  16. Professional realization of the graduated in 2014 radiographers in Medical College “J. Filaretova” –, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagova, P.; Boninska, N.; Yovchev, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The interest of the X-ray technician students to this profession appears in the beginning of their education. From the first year onwards parallel to their own goals, specific characteristics and the desire to work in the sphere of healthcare, they demonstrate and develop skills for practicing the studied profession. The aim of the presentation is to demonstrate the professional realization of the graduated X-ray technicians and their adaptation to the services they perform. Documentary and sociologic methods are applied. A questionnaire study is made in December 2014. thirty-two students, graduated this year in Medical College “J. Filaretova” - Sofia, are assayed. The study shows that 75% of the questioned graduates in the specialty “X-ray technician” are implemented in the healthcare system immediately after their graduation. the professional knowledge acquired in the Medical College is assessed as “effective” by 75% of them and 96 % report that they have not had problems their adaptation to practical activity. The willingness for upgrading their education shows serious attitude towards profession. 84% of the respondents demonstrate desire to continue their development in the sphere of healthcare. The basic training is on the required academic level. the teaching, educational practice and the free time organization of the trainees are on a high level. The questioned indicate as a problem that they have no possibility of upgrading the educational degree in the same profession, in which they are trained, however, as their colleagues in other professions, graduated Medical College – Sofia, have

  17. Order No. 217 of 29 April 1977 on X-ray diagnostic equipment for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order was made by the National Health Service and is divided into several parts covering inter alia approval and notification of X-ray installations, conditions of liability, occupational radiation protection, construction of X-ray apparatus and its shielding and inspection of such equipment by the National Health Service. (NEA) [fr

  18. Strategic Consolidation of Medical War Reserve Material (WRM) Equipment Unit Type Code (UTC) Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    anomalies such as listing 640 deployments in 2003 but only 11 for 2005 and 3 for 2008. The poor data quality was attributed to a lost hard drive 31...Dosimetry Equipment 9171 Expeditionary Dental Clinic 902P RAD/ NUC Dosimetry A ug Equipm ent 9171 High A ltitude A ir Dr op M ission Support 903A Oxygen

  19. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskov, L; Abild, A; Christensen, A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital....

  20. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Oguntade, G. T.

    2007-01-01

    The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received, period of practice, work load and radio logical procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have attempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001). The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices

  1. Just a piece of equipment? The importance of medical device education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2012-12-01

    The use of medical devices is an increasingly important element of a healthcare professional's role. It is crucial that users receive regular teaching and education to ensure that they are competent in the use of devices. This is particularly relevant in the increasingly litigious society in which we live. This article focuses upon the importance of a medical device education.

  2. Students attitude towards professional development of radiographers in Medical College 'J. Filaretova', Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boninska, N.; Borisova, I.; Djambazova, D.; Grozdanov, Z.; Gagova, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the given study is to establish the attitude towards professional development of the students at the Medical College in Sofia. An anonymous survey was undertaken in April, 2015. the 71 students who participated were all x-ray technician students, who are either in 1st, 2nd or 3rd year of study. Documentary and sociological method and analysis were used in order to process the results. The results were illustrated and presented graphically in various tables and charts. The analysis displays that 91% of the participants have stated that the educational level in the Medical College in Sofia is effective, which aids their professional development. Despite the fact that 23.9 % of the participants are worried about working in an environment of ionizing radiation, 80.3% of the participants are determined that they will practice the given profession. The research shows that the 47.9% of the participants have stated that the economic status of the profession is “great”, and 26.8% have stated that it is “satisfactory”, which is one of the main reasons for a possible realization abroad (54.9% of the participants). only 11.3% have stated that, if possible, they would change their choice of profession, which is mainly because they would like to have the opportunity to build upon their bachelor's degree, but they are unable to do so. The choice of realization is pursuant with the professional training, skills and personal attributes of the individual. For our education, it is essential that key competencies and social skills are formed, as they are vital contributing factors in the individual realization in both educational and professional environments

  3. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  4. Radiographic tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities. Meth...... of their narrative alertness. Errors and failure to keep the time schedule can, however, lead the radiographers to a change of perspective that makes them displace man from the scene of radiography by playing on the premises of technology.......Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities...... a practice in which the relationship between man and technology is marked by a struggle of domination of one over the other. The struggle expresses itself through two competing plots: A diagnostic plot with a prevailing, but not merely chronological structure mostly composed of events tied to pathology...

  5. Is the European medical products authorization regulation equipped to cope with the challenges of nanomedicines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Chowdhury, Nupur; Chowdhury, Nupur

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the emerging European regulatory activities in relation to nanopharmaceuticals. The central question is whether the regulatory responses are appropriate to cope with the regulatory problems nanomedicinal development is posing. The article explores whether the medical product

  6. Radiation protection in medical equipment therapy and diagnosis in (RICK) and (MC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.I.

    2006-04-01

    In the present research work we are trying to study the status of the radiation protection applications around some medical facilities in Khartoum. The rules and principles of radiation protection in Radiation and Isotope Center (Khartoum), and at Medical Corporation (MC) were investigated. It is found that the rules are applied in accordance with international recommendations. Results of the investigations, measurements and some concluding remarks to improve the situation are reported.(Author)

  7. [The Application of the Fault Tree Analysis Method in Medical Equipment Maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the traditional fault tree analysis method is presented, detailed instructions for its application characteristics in medical instrument maintenance is made. It is made significant changes when the traditional fault tree analysis method is introduced into the medical instrument maintenance: gave up the logic symbolic, logic analysis and calculation, gave up its complicated programs, and only keep its image and practical fault tree diagram, and the fault tree diagram there are also differences: the fault tree is no longer a logical tree but the thinking tree in troubleshooting, the definition of the fault tree's nodes is different, the composition of the fault tree's branches is also different.

  8. Information needs assessment of medical equipment offices based on Critical Success Factors (CSF) and Business System Planning (BSP) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, F; Ahmadi, M; Alizadeh, A; Roozbeh, N; Mohseni, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Given the ever-increasing importance and value of information, providing the management with a reliable information system, which can facilitate decision-making regarding planning, organization and control, is vitally important. This study aimed to analyze and evaluate the information needs of medical equipment offices. Methods: This descriptive applied cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010. The population of the study included the managers of statistic and medical records at the offices of vice-chancellor for treatment in 39 medical universities in Iran. Data were collected by using structured questioners. With regard to different kinds of designing information systems, sampling was done by two methods, BSP (based on processes of job description) and CSF method (based on critical success factors). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16. Results: Our study showed that 41% of information needs were found to be critical success factors of managers of office. The first priority of managers was "the number of bed and bed occupancy in hospitals". Of 29 identified information needs, 62% were initial information needs of managers (from the viewpoints of managers). Of all, 4% of the information needs were obtained through the form, 14% through both the form and database, 11% through the web site, and 71% had no sources (forms, databases, web site). Conclusion: Since 71% of the information needs of medical equipment offices managers had no information sources, the development of information system in these offices seems to be necessary. Despite the important role of users in designing the information systems (identifying 62% of information needs), other scientific methods is also needed to be utilized in designing the information systems.

  9. Information needs assessment of medical equipment offices based on Critical Success Factors (CSF) and Business System Planning (BSP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, F; Ahmadi, M; Alizadeh, A; Roozbeh, N; Mohseni, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Given the ever-increasing importance and value of information, providing the management with a reliable information system, which can facilitate decision-making regarding planning, organization and control, is vitally important. This study aimed to analyze and evaluate the information needs of medical equipment offices. Methods: This descriptive applied cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010. The population of the study included the managers of statistic and medical records at the offices of vice-chancellor for treatment in 39 medical universities in Iran. Data were collected by using structured questioners. With regard to different kinds of designing information systems, sampling was done by two methods, BSP (based on processes of job description) and CSF method (based on critical success factors). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16. Results: Our study showed that 41% of information needs were found to be critical success factors of managers of office. The first priority of managers was “the number of bed and bed occupancy in hospitals”. Of 29 identified information needs, 62% were initial information needs of managers (from the viewpoints of managers). Of all, 4% of the information needs were obtained through the form, 14% through both the form and database, 11% through the web site, and 71% had no sources (forms, databases, web site). Conclusion: Since 71% of the information needs of medical equipment offices managers had no information sources, the development of information system in these offices seems to be necessary. Despite the important role of users in designing the information systems (identifying 62% of information needs), other scientific methods is also needed to be utilized in designing the information systems. PMID:28255389

  10. Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Surfaces and Medical Equipment in Wards of the Panjom Azar Hospital of Gorgan in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaye Noroozi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods: In this cross-sectional study, different wards of panjom Azar educational hospital including ICU, dialysis and surgery room were investigated. Samples were collected randomly, for three months from July to September 2014, from beds, oxygen masks, oxygen manometer, patient table, covers of the patient's medical records, nurse's desk, border walls and water tap.  Samples were then cultured on blood agar and EMB agar. In order to determine the bacteria type, specific culture media with specific biochemical tests and diagnostic disks were used. Results: Results showed that from 216 samples collected from the levels, the 190 cases (88% had microbial contamination. Most of the recognized bacteria were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and klebsiela. Results of microbial culture of equipments and levels were positive in case of bacterial contamination and maximum contamination was observed in the dialysis ward of the hospital. Conclusion: Due to the relatively high detected contamination, contamination control of levels and patient care equipments could considered as an effective action in reducing nosocomial infections. Thus, using appropriate disinfectant equipment, monitoring the disinfectants preparation, continuous monitoring and detection of common microorganisms are the most important ways for infection control in hospitals.

  11. Maintenance of medical nuclear equipment. A proposal for quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Paulo H.B.

    1996-01-01

    A project of quality control in radiotherapy that is been implemented by Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria from Brazilian National Energy Commission (CNEN) in cooperation with International Atomic Energy Agency is described. The establishment of a laboratory for the maintenance of medical dosemeters is proposed

  12. 77 FR 14989 - Medicare Program; Revisions to the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...), a skilled nursing facility (SNF), a comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facility (CORF), a home..., a rehabilitation agency, or a public health agency that has in effect a similar agreement but only... for reduction of fractures and dislocations'' as one of the ``medical and other health services'' that...

  13. 75 FR 52629 - Medicare Program; Establishing Additional Medicare Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... outpatient rehabilitation facility (CORF), a home health agency (HHA), or a hospice that has in effect an agreement to participate in Medicare, or a clinic, a rehabilitation agency, or a public health agency that... devices used for reduction of fractures and dislocation'' as one of the ``medical and other health...

  14. Early fault detection using design models for collision prevention in medical equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.J.; Hooman, J.; Albers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the medical domain there is a tension between the requested speed of innovation and the time needed to deliver a certifiable system. To ensure the required safety, usually a long test and integration phase is needed. To shorten this phase and to avoid late bug fixing, the aim is to detect faults

  15. Method of estimating patient skin dose from dose displayed on medical X-ray equipment with flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Koshida, Kichiro; Togashi, Atsuhiko; Matsubara, Kousuke

    2004-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has stipulated that medical X-ray equipment for interventional procedures must display radiation doses such as air kerma in free air at the interventional reference point and dose area product to establish radiation safety for patients (IEC 60601-2-43). However, it is necessary to estimate entrance skin dose for the patient from air kerma for an accurate risk assessment of radiation skin injury. To estimate entrance skin dose from displayed air kerma in free air at the interventional reference point, it is necessary to consider effective energy, the ratio of the mass-energy absorption coefficient for skin and air, and the backscatter factor. In addition, since automatic exposure control is installed in medical X-ray equipment with flat panel detectors, it is necessary to know the characteristics of control to estimate exposure dose. In order to calculate entrance skin dose under various conditions, we investigated clinical parameters such as tube voltage, tube current, pulse width, additional filter, and focal spot size, as functions of patient body size. We also measured the effective energy of X-ray exposure for the patient as a function of clinical parameter settings. We found that the conversion factor from air kerma in free air to entrance skin dose is about 1.4 for protection. (author)

  16. Basic concepts and issues: a primer on distribution and sales representative agreements in the medical device and durable medical equipment industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Heiko E; Kolls, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    Counsel for a manufacturer of medical devices or durable medical equipment must have working knowledge of various legal disciplines to draft contracts with intermediaries (sales representatives and distributors) for the marketing and sale of the manufacturer's products. If the manufacturer wishes to sell its products abroad, counsel must become familiar with the laws and business practices of the target country, and methods of gaining access to the foreign market. This Article gives readers an overview of the applicable legal principles, under U.S. and foreign laws, in the areas of agency, contracts, healthcare regulation, consumer protection, intellectual property protection, and dealer protection. To aid counsel in drafting intermediary agreements, specific contractual terms and issues are explored in depth, including: appointment clauses, performance provisions, provisions concerning pricing and payment, protective clauses (shielding the manufacturer from liability), term and termination provisions, independent contractor clauses, export control clauses, recordkeeping and audit provisions, choice of law clauses, and dispute resolution clauses.

  17. Physical activity education in the undergraduate curricula of all UK medical schools: are tomorrow's doctors equipped to follow clinical guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision of physical activity teaching content in the curricula of all medical schools in the UK. Our results, with responses from all UK medical schools, uncovered some alarming findings, showing that there is widespread omission of basic teaching elements, such as the Chief Medical Officer recommendations and guidance on physical activity. There is an urgent need for physical activity teaching to have dedicated time at medical schools, to equip tomorrow's doctors with the basic knowledge, confidence and skills to promote physical activity and follow numerous clinical guidelines that support physical activity promotion.

  18. Current role of the radiographers in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy in modern departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karidova, S.; Velkova, K.; Panamska, K.; Petkova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the communication we set out to focus the attention of the medical staff and the public on the place and the constantly growing role (relative burden) of the radiographers in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy in the field of modern medicine. The advanced radiographers level and rapid development of the contemporary equipment and apparatuses used in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, as well as the methods of their utilization, presuppose very good and constantly improving theoretical and practical training of the imaging technician. The radiographer fulfills responsible tasks under the guidance of the physician or independently and bears specific responsibilities. Having mastered the fundamentals of radiation protection, the imaging technician protects both himself and the patient from the impact of ionizing radiation. To be able to fulfill his/her constantly increasing duties and obligations, the imaging radiographer has acquired wide knowledge of general education subjects, subjects of general medicine and special subjects. The radiographer has a good knowledge of Latin and a modern foreign language, and he is also computer literate so as to be able to cope with the widely spread visualizing methods. The radiographer acquires additional post-graduate training to work in narrowly specialized fields as well as to improve his/her qualifications

  19. FY 2000 Report on the survey results. Survey on international cooperation for medical treatment/welfare equipment; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The NEDO's representatives visited Europe and China with the objectives of, e.g., international cooperation and information exchanges for medical treatment/welfare equipment. For the welfare equipment technologies, they visited the research institutes and facilities in UK and Germany, among others, to find that the European countries place more emphasis on researches to meet the needs than on advancing the equipment itself. For the medical treatment equipment, they visited the bio-research institutes in Europe for exchanging information on post-genome and tissue engineering. The European countries are behind USA in research fund and manpower for bio-technology and bio-medical, although making great efforts with much expectation on these areas. The China's medical treatment/welfare technologies seem to be clearly still in the stage of needing aids rather than rendering cooperation. However, China has been producing a number of new products in the areas where her traditional arts of medicine are combined with advanced techniques of the West, e.g., those for examination, as felt from a number of the equipment types presented to the China Medical Treatment Equipment Exhibition. (NEDO)

  20. Studies on failure kind analysis of the radiologic medical equipment in general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo Cheul; Kim, Jeong Lae

    1999-01-01

    This paper included a data analysis of the unit of medical devices using maintenance recording card that had medical devices of unit failure mode, hospital of failure mode and MTBF. The results of the analysis were as follows : 1. Medical devices of unit failure mode was the highest in QC/PM such A hospital as 33.9%, B hospital 30.9%, C hospital 30.3%, second degree was the Electrical and Electronic failure such A hospital as 23.5%, B hospital 25.3%, C hospital 28%, third degree was mechanical failure such A hospital as 19.6%, B hospital 22.5%, C hospital 25.4%. 2. Hospital of failure mode was the highest in Mobile X-ray device(A hospital 62.5%, B hospital 69.5%, C hospital 37.4%), and was the lowest in Sono devices(A hospital 16.76%, B hospital 8.4%, C hospital 7%). 3. Mean time between failures(MTBT) was the highest in SONO devices and was the lowest in Mobile X-ray devices which have 200 - 400 failure hours. 4. Average failure ratio was the highest in Mobile X-ray devices(A hospital 31.3%, B hospital 34.8%, C hospital 18.7%), and was the lowest in Sono(Ultrasound) devices (A hospital 8.4%, B hospital 4.2%, C hospital 3.5%). 5. Failure ratio results of medical devices according to QC/PM part of unit failure mode were as follows ; A hospital was the highest part of QC/PM (50%) in Mamo X-ray device and was the lowest part of QC/PM(26.4%) in Gastro X-ray. B hospital was the highest part of QC/PM(56%) in Mobile X-ray device, and the lowest part of QC/PM(12%) in Gastro X-ray. C hospital was the highest part of QC/PM(60%) in R/F X-ray device, and the lowest a part of QC/PM(21%) in Universal X-ray. It was found that the units responsible for most failure decreased by systematic management. We made the preventive maintenance schedule focusing on adjustment of operating and dust removal

  1. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  2. FY 2000 Research and development of technology for medical and welfare equipment. Report on the comprehensive survey on welfare equipment; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. Fukushi kiki sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey is conducted on the advanced basic and application technologies for medical and welfare equipment, e.g., biotechnology and drug delivery systems, to promote development of these technologies. For development of the gene-aided diagnostic system equipment for clinical purposes, surveys are conducted on current medical equipment and related technologies, and the results are summarized and pigeonholed for each equipment type. Also summarized are the small- to medium-sized enterprises which are considered to have techniques needed for development of sensors for heart disease treatment systems. For usability of welfare-related equipment products, investigations are made viewed from the designs oriented to human adaptability, human adaptable designs in the aging societies, and welfare-related problems in the aging societies and usability. The latest information on leading organizations and researchers is collected, for continuation and development of the usability programs for welfare-related equipment products, and also for inviting the current related technologies and researchers on life supporting for the aged in Japan to the programs. (NEDO)

  3. National data analysis of general radiography projection method in medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Deok Nam; Choi, In Seok [Dept. of Bio-Convergence Engineering, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-09-15

    According to database of medical institutions of health insurance review and assessment service in 2013, 1,118 hospitals and clinics have department of radiology in Korea. And there are CT, fluoroscopic and general radiographic equipment in those hospitals. Above all, general radiographic equipment is the most commonly used in the radiology department. And most of the general radiographic equipment are changing the digital radiography system from the film-screen types of the radiography system nowadays. However, most of the digital radiography department are used the film-screen types of the radiography system. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed present conditions of technical items for general radiography used in hospital and research on general radiographic techniques in domestic medical institutions. We analyzed 26 radiography projection method including chest, skull, spine and pelvis which are generally used in the radiography department.

  4. Procedure to evaluate and control efficiently the operations management of medical equipment in the maintenance unit of a health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Galán Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance management plays a very important role in the success of any company. As a consequence of this, in the year of 2013, a study was carried out in health facilities found in the South Eastern Region of Jamaica with the objective of evaluating the existing Maintenance Management Program for Medical Equipment. Among the results obtained, it showed that there is an inadequacy in the existing program whose principal deficiency is attributed to the operations management. As such, this work proposes a procedure for evaluating and controlling in an efficient manner the operations management within the Biomedical Department which forms part of the South East Regional Health Authority Maintenance Unit (SERHAMU, this latter is found on the premises of the Bustamante Hospital for Children (BHC, Jamaica. The method used to develop the procedure (GOMHO is based fundamentally on the design of: a codification system to identify control registers and to record failures associated with each equipment, a system of placing equipment into categories and further differentiating them based on the potential hazard such pose on the human body in the event of an operational failure. In addition, this procedure gives the SERHAMU at the BHC the opportunity to calculate the amount of human resources needed to carry out efficiently the preventative and corrective maintenance work being demanded on the department. During the implementation phase, the results demonstrated that from the control procedure designed there was an improvement in the planning and carrying out of maintenance work and a better system of monitoring the activities that are executed. Also, it was evidenced that there is a 61.53% of the amount of human resources needed to carry out the maintenance actions.

  5. Effectiveness of disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria on patients' environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenama, Chakkraphong; Tachasirinugune, Peenithi; Jintanothaitavorn, Duangporn; Kachintorn, Kanchana; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of inoculated bacteria on patients' environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital. Tryptic soy broths containing MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were painted onto the surfaces of patient's stainless steel bed rail, patient's fiber footboard, control panel of infusion pump machine and control panel of respirator. The contaminated surfaces were cleaned by either tap water, tap water containing detergent, Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes or PAL disinfectant wipes. The surfaces without any cleaning procedures served as the control surface. The contaminated surfaces cleaned with the aforementioned procedures and control surfaces were swabbed with cotton swabs. The swabs were streaked on agar plates to determine the presence of MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were recovered from all control surfaces. All surfaces cleaned with tap water or tap water containing detergent revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with tap water containing detergent were less than those cleaned with tap water alone. All surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes also revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes were less than those cleaned with tap water containing detergent. No bacteria were recovered from all surfaces cleaned with Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes. Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes were more effective than tap water; tap water containing detergent and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria inoculated on patients environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.

  6. Effects of electromagnetic interference on the functional usage of medical equipment by 2G/3G/4G cellular phones: A revie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy M. Mariappan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the potential use of wireless devices in healthcare domain for a variety of reasons. The most commonly used device is the cellular phone, which emits strong electromagnetic energy affecting thereby the functionality of the vital medical equipment such as ventilators, ECG monitors, cardiac monitors, and defibrillators. This prompted the healthcare concerns to restrict the use of these phones in the proximity of critical and non-critical care medical equipment. Due to the developments made in the design of medical equipment to comply with the EMC standards, the restriction had been slowly laid off. Still, the researchers are concerned about the electromagnetic interference with medical devices by cellular phones in the healthcare domain and recommend for conducting continuous research to study their interaction with medical equipment. This paper overviews the certain investigations carried out in the recent years to study the electromagnetic interference between medical devices and 2G/3G/4G LTE cellular phones. During the initial development of cellular phones, the 2G cellular phones had caused more interference that affects the function and operation of some medical devices. The possibility of interference from 3G cellular phones with medical devices was considerably lower than the 2G phones, but still exists. Furthermore, almost all of the 4G phones have little to no interference with the medical devices. Currently, with the development of the medical devices industry, the current medical devices are designed to operate safely under any conditions of usage. Finally, a careful analysis would require statistics on the frequency of adverse events across the healthcare system, which apparently do not exist.

  7. COM1/348: Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Market of the Medical Equipment (MEDICOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamas, S; Vlachos, I; Panou-Diamandi, O; Marinos, G; Kalivas, D; Zeelenberg, C; Nimwegen, C; Koutsouris, D

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The MEDICOM system provides the electronic means for medical equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers supporting the Purchasing Process and the Post Market Surveillance. The MEDICOM service will be provided over the Internet by the MEDICOM Portal, and by a set of distributed subsystems dedicated to handle structured information related to medical devices. There are three kinds of these subsystems, the Hypermedia Medical Catalogue (HMC), Virtual Medical Exhibition (VME), which contains information in a form of Virtual Models, and the Post Market Surveillance system (PMS). The Universal Medical Devices Nomenclature System (UMDNS) is used to register all products. This work was partially funded by the ESPRIT Project 25289 (MEDICOM). Methods The Portal provides the end user interface operating as the MEDICOM Portal, acts as the yellow pages for finding both products and providers, providing links to the providers servers, implements the system management and supports the subsystem database compatibility. The Portal hosts a database system composed of two parts: (a) the Common Database, which describes a set of encoded parameters (like Supported Languages, Geographic Regions, UMDNS Codes, etc) common to all subsystems and (b) the Short Description Database, which contains summarised descriptions of medical devices, including a text description, the codes of the manufacturer, UMDNS code, attribute values and links to the corresponding HTML pages of the HMC, VME and PMS servers. The Portal provides the MEDICOM user interface including services like end user profiling and registration, end user query forms, creation and hosting of newsgroups, links to online libraries, end user subscription to manufacturers' mailing lists, online information for the MEDICOM system and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Results Platform independence and interoperability characterise the system design. A general purpose RDBMS is used

  8. Delivering health information about self-medication to older adults: use of touchscreen-equipped notebook computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, P J; Strickler, Z; Shellman, J; Padula, A T

    2001-11-01

    Preventing Drug Interactions in Active Older Adults is an educational intervention to prevent prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug and alcohol interactions in active, community-living older adults. The objectives of the program are to increase older adults' knowledge of potential interactions of prescription medications with OTC drugs and alcohol and to increase their confidence (self-efficacy) about how to avoid such interactions. An interactive multimedia computer software program (Personal Education Program or PEP) was designed for the learning styles and psychomotor skills of older adults. Focus groups of older adults evaluated PEP components in a formative manner during development. The program content dealing with antacids, calcium supplements, and acid reducers was pilot tested with 60 older adults recruited from local senior centers. Participants used the PEP on notebook computers equipped with infrared-sensitive touchscreens. Users of PEP had greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores than controls. Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the PEP and reported their intent to make specific changes in self-medication behaviors.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BULGARIA AND COUNTRIES WORLDWIDE AND OPTIMIZATION AIMED AT IMPROVING THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the current condition of medical equipment in Bulgaria related to those major groups of socially significant diseases and to make an attempt to define guidelines for its optimization in view of improving the functioning and management of the healthcare system in this field. Material and methods: The following research methods have been applied: 1. Document review method – research, processing and analysis of medical statistical information taken from data from WHO and annual reports of NRA. The study includes data from 2009 - 2015. 2. Graphical method – summarizing data in relevant tables and diagram presentations. Results: The article analyzes the condition of medical equipment in the field of oncologic and cardiologic medical aid in Bulgaria based on data taken from WHO (World Health Organization and annual reports of NRA (Nuclear Regulatory Agency. Six types of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy devices have been studied: Magnetic Resonance Imaging units (MRI; Computed Tomography Scanners (CT, Positron Emission Tomography Scanners, Mammographs, Linear accelerators and Telecobalt units (Cobalt-60. The condition of medical equipment since 2009 has been analyzed, results have been reported and trends - studied. Conclusion: The oncologic and cardiologic medical equipment in Bulgaria has been gradually improving in the last seven years, but quantitative indicators regarding the devices studied are still far away from the figures recommended by WHO with one single exception, i.e. Computed Tomography Scanners.

  10. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed ex vivo by dental students at Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Faus-Llácer, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal fillings and compare manual and rotary preparation performed on extracted teeth by undergraduate dental students. Study Design: A total of 561 premolars and molars extracted teeth were prepared using nickel-titanium rotary files or manual instrumentation and filled with gutta-percha using a cold lateral condensation technique, by 4th grade undergraduate students. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical quality of the root canal filling, evaluating three variables: length, density and taper. These data were recorded, scored and used to study the “technical success rate” and the “overall score”. The length of each root canal filling was classified as acceptable, short and overfilled, based on their relationship with the radiographic apex. Density and taper of filling were evaluated based on the presence of voids and the uniform tapering of the filling, respectively. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment, considering p rotary instruments (52% against 28% with a manual one, p rotary instrumentation. Key words:Dental education, endodontics, rotary instrumentation, radiographs, root canal treatment, undergraduate students. PMID:24121911

  11. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats

  12. Quality of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed on how to get a good radiograph. There are several factors that can make good radiograph such as density of radiograph, the contrast of radiograph, definition of radiograph, the present of artifact and backscattering. All of this factor will discuss detailed on each unit of chapter with some figure, picture to make the reader understand more when read this book. And at the end, the reader will introduce with penetrameter, one of device to determine the level of quality of the radiograph. There are two type of penetrameter like wire type or holes type. This standard must be followed by all the radiographer around the world to produce the good result that is standard and more reliable.

  13. Consultant breast radiographers: Where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Zebby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to: • Evaluate the current role of the consultant breast radiographer. • Compare current practice with the four key components for consultant practice. • Gauge the support of radiologist colleagues. • Determine the other professional commitments involved with the role. This study could be the precursor for a macro study of all consultant radiographer practice in other specialities. Methodology: Methodology used was a comparative ethnographic study. Questionnaires to the 24 consultant breast radiographers currently in post, and consultant breast radiologists, who work with them, were conducted. Data collection was a qualitative thematic approach. Conclusion: Consultant breast radiographers provide high quality care to patients through excellent clinical practice, leadership and good communication. However, this study shows hospital Trusts emphasis for non medical consultants is for clinical practice first. Some radiologists are still a barrier to progression for consultant breast radiographers, and radiologists have a big influence in recruitment decisions. Consultant breast radiographer posts are well established, their numbers are increasing through recognition of the role and of their abilities and performance. Consultant breast radiographers state that becoming a consultant is the major achievement of their career, proving the Society of Radiographers' vision of the four-tier career structure has been well received by the radiography profession

  14. PACS influence the radiographer's work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridell, Kent; Aspelin, Peter; Edgren, Lars; Lindskoeld, Lars; Lundberg, Nina

    2009-01-01

    a new PACS technology and digital workflow. Using PACS technology, together with an adjustment to the new system workflow, the experience among radiographers was that the production of images increased and as a result the stress in work increased as well. Using PACS technology, medical staff had little control over the organization of image production and its workflow, so that radiographers experienced PACS as a more technical deterministic system allowing small human control in the organization of work.

  15. Lack of genotoxicity in medical oncology nurses handling antineoplastic drugs: effect of work environment and protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulten, Tuna; Evke, Elif; Ercan, Ilker; Evrensel, Turkkan; Kurt, Ender; Manavoglu, Osman

    2011-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate the genotoxic effects of antineoplastic agents in occupationally exposed oncology nurses. Genotoxic effects mean the disruptive effects in the integrity of DNA and they are associated with cancer development. Biomonitoring of health care workers handling antineoplastic agents is helpful for the evaluation of exposure to cytostatics. The study included an exposed and two control groups. The exposed group (n=9) was comprised of oncology nurses. The first (n=9) and second (n=10) control groups were comprised of subjects who did not come into contact with antineoplastic drugs working respectively in the same department with oncology nurses and in different departments. Genotoxicity evaluation was performed using SCE analysis. After applying culture, harvest and chromosome staining procedures, a total of 25 metaphases were analyzed per person. Kruskal Wallis test was used to perform statistical analysis. A statistically significant difference of sister chromatid exchange frequencies was not observed between the exposed and control groups. Lack of genotoxicity in medical oncology nurses might be due to good working conditions with high standards of technical equipment and improved personal protection.

  16. 171 ROYAL DECREE 1891/1991 of 30 December 1991 on the installation and use of X-ray equipment for the purposes of medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Decree lays down the rules enabling government authorities to monitor the proper functioning of such appliances. It takes account of the Council of European Communities' Directive 80/836/Euratom amended by Directive 84/466/Euratom on basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionization and Directive 84/467/Euratom laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Decree provides for a register of firms authorised to sell and maintain medical X-ray equipment, and a register of the equipment installed. It also sets out requirements relating to third party liability insurance, and to the qualifications and training of personnel operating the equipment. (NEA)

  17. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 2. Equipment, Safe Driving Practices, Legal Aspects, Controlling the Situation, Action Evaluation Conference. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the second in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains five sections that cover the following course content: ambulance equipment, safe driving practices for emergency vehicle drivers, legal aspects of the EMT's job, how to maintain control at an accident scene…

  18. 浅谈医疗设备管理中的预防性维护%On advantages and disadvantages of preventive maintenance for medical equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宜江; 焦明阳

    2012-01-01

    目的:医疗设备是医院现代化建设的物质基础,加强医疗设备管理,使医疗设备预防性维护(PM)成为医院现代化管理的一项重要措施.方法:在医院建设中,人才是基础,医疗器械是条件,管理是关键.加强医疗设备管理是医院重点工作之一,在医疗设备管理中维修与保养则是重中之重.结果:做好医疗设备的维护保养对延长仪器寿命、提高诊断准确率起到重要作用.结论:预防性维护是指周期性地对仪器进行一系列科学的维护工作,以确保仪器安全地处于最佳工作状态.%Objective: Hospital medical equipment is the material basis of hospital modernization, and also an important symbol of the modernization. Methods: In hospital construction, talent is the foundation, medical equipment is the condition, management is the key. Strengthen the management of medical equipment is a focal point of the work of the hospital. In the management of medical equipment, repair and maintenance is very important. Results: The maintenance plays an important role in extending equipment life and improving the accuracy of diagnosis. Conclusion: Preventive maintenance is a series of scientific maintenance work for equipments, to ensure that the apparatus securely in the best working condition. This series of maintenance work mainly includes the operating performance test and adjustment, electrical safety testing, cleaning, lubricating, and replacing consumable components.

  19. 21 CFR 866.4540 - Immunonephelometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4540 Immunonephelometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunonephelometer equipment for clinical use...

  20. 21 CFR 866.4520 - Immunofluorometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4520 Immunofluorometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunofluorometer equipment for clinical use with...

  1. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  2. Visual simulation of radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made

  3. Radiographic inspection on offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno; Sperandio, Augusto Gasparoni

    1994-01-01

    One of the great challenges for non-destructive inspection is on offshore platforms, where safety is a critical issue. Inspection by gammagraphy is practically forbidden on the platform deck due to problems to personnel safety and radiological protection. Ir-192 sources are used and the risk of an accident with loss of radioisotope must be considered. It is unfeasible to use gammagraphy, because in case of an accident the rapid evacuation from the platform would be impossible. This problem does not occur when X-ray equipment is used as the radiation source. The limited practicality and portability of the X-ray equipment have prevented its use as a replacement for the gammagraphy. This paper presents the preliminary tests to see the viable use of radiographic tests with constant potential on offshore platforms. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 photos

  4. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  5. Medical equipment archives management based on internet%基于互联网的医疗器械档案管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼

    2017-01-01

    目的:有效管理医疗器械档案,实现档案信息资源的共享.方法:通过互联网管理平台与内网相结合的多途径、多渠道管理模式,根据医疗设备和医用耗材档案管理的不同需求进行分类管理.结果:销售公司作为用户参与到医院管理工作中来,充分发挥了他们的主观能动性,有效减轻了设备科的工作压力;工作人员可以随时随地登录网站查阅、录入信息,为工作提供方便,实现了医疗器械电子档案精确动态管理.结论:医疗器械档案管理网络化是档案收集及充分发挥档案作用的一个有效途径.%Objective To effectively manage the archives of medical equipment and realize the sharing of archives information resources.Methods Multi-way management mode integrating internet management platform and intranet was involved in classification management according to the requirements of medical equipment and consumables archives management.Results Distribution company was involved in hospital management as the user,and the workload of the equipment department was relieved effectively.The staff could inquire and input information by logging in the website,and precision and dynamic management of medical equipment electronic archives was realized.Conclusion Network-based medical equipment archives management contributes to the collection and application of the archives.

  6. Pattern of scattered exposure from portable radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, D.

    1985-01-01

    Concern periodically arises among the nursing and medical staffs of the institution's intensive care unit regarding their occupational exposure to radiation from the many radiographs taken in the unit. The patients are located in open areas or within individual cubicles whose walls are relatively thin and not shielded. To form a data base for educating the nursing/medical staffs and the technologists, the intensity and distribution of scattered exposure from actual radiographs of patients were measured. Comparison was also made with a simple phantom experiment in which the variables could be more precisely controlled

  7. Procuring, maintaining and using equipment: the key issues in controlling exposure to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra, I.R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Not only are acceptance criteria directly related to the design of medical x-ray equipment and quality assurance exercised during its manufacture, but also its performance, safety and reliability must feature in requirements for procuring new equipment. In the UK this issue is dealt with under the Department of Health and Social Security Manufacturer Registration Scheme for Medical Equipment in its application to radiological equipment. In the UK quality of maintenance services has been considered by one of our Working Parties commissioned by the South-East Thames Regional Health Authority who are the ''Centre of Responsibility'' for diagnostic imaging equipment in the National Health Service. The report prepared from the first phase of activity of this working group describes features of a procurement specification for maintenance services and prescribes complementary duties of contractors and customers. Radiograph reject analysis has indicated human error outweighs unsatisfactory equipment performance as the reason for rejecting poor radiographs. The use in X-ray departments of the kind of manufacturing quality system used by most reputable equipment manufacturers has the potential for a dramatic reduction in exposure. (author)

  8. Special equipment for etching nitrocellulose film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrocellulose film and converter screens used for neutron radiography are described. Difficulties in visualization of radiographs on those films are mentioned. Because there is no equipment for etching nitrocellulose film available on the market Risoe has designed and produced such equipment at an estimated cost of Dkr. 15,000. Design criteria for this equipment are given and its performance described

  9. Methods for medical device and equipment procurement and prioritization within low- and middle-income countries: findings of a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Karin; Chen, Yen-Fu; Cummins, Carole; Jimenez Moyao, Gabriela; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Lilford, Richard

    2017-08-18

    Forty to 70 % of medical devices and equipment in low- and middle-income countries are broken, unused or unfit for purpose; this impairs service delivery to patients and results in lost resources. Undiscerning procurement processes are at the heart of this issue. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to August 2013 with no time or language restrictions to identify what product selection or prioritization methods are recommended or used for medical device and equipment procurement planning within low- and middle-income countries. We explore the factors/evidence-base proposed for consideration within such methods and identify prioritization criteria. We included 217 documents (corresponding to 250 texts) in the narrative synthesis. Of these 111 featured in the meta-summary. We identify experience and needs-based methods used to reach procurement decisions. Equipment costs (including maintenance) and health needs are the dominant issues considered. Extracted data suggest that procurement officials should prioritize devices with low- and middle-income country appropriate technical specifications - i.e. devices and equipment that can be used given available human resources, infrastructure and maintenance capacity. Suboptimal device use is directly linked to incomplete costing and inadequate consideration of maintenance services and user training during procurement planning. Accurate estimation of life-cycle costing and careful consideration of device servicing are of crucial importance.

  10. Quality control of conventional radiographic facilities in Kinshasa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woto, M.L.; Lukanda, M.V.; Mulumba, L.C.P.; Palangu

    2009-01-01

    The continuous development of medical applications of ionizing radiation, due to the benefit derived by diagnostic or therapeutic patients, their diversity, ease of implementation, explains the importance of medical exposure. The latter is currently the leading cause of human exposure to artificial origin. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the optimization of radiographic facilities in the city of Kinshasa. This study has revealed that city of Kinshasa has an average of 122 medical training with conventional radiology facilities distributed in six districts of health. Of the 122 facilities, only 30 (or 24.59%) are controlled from the point of view of quality assurance. Some generators and X-ray tubes are respectively controlled adjustment and de centered, and other devices are cannibalized. So, nationally and particularly in Kinshasa, quality control equipment and diagnostic facilities is at a generally delayed compared with international recommendations of X W. Major efforts must be made at government level to raise awareness and establish a quality assurance program in diagnostic radiology. An awareness of the entire medical profession and the competent administrative authorities of medical devices could be beneficial to the quality of care delivered to patients, limiting radiation exposure and improving image quality and only the financial balance of the health sector. The delivery of quality care passes through the justification of acts, the development and dissemination of good practice references and the establishment of quality control radiological installations.

  11. Potentiality Studies of Stainless Steel 304 Material for Production of Medical Equipment using Micro Electrical Discharge Machining (micro-EDM) Analysis and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    Stainless steel 304 (SS304) is a material widely used for production of medical equipment mainly because of its anti-corrosive properties. It has excellent mechanical properties, strength and reliability because of which it is one of the best materials for fabrication of medical devices. This paper...... and process parameters were developed. Grey relational analysis was used to optimize the micro-EDM quality characteristics, and the highest grey relational grade (GRG) of 0.8021 was obtained at a voltage of 100 V and a capacitance of 0.4 μF....

  12. Report on the FY 1999 R and D on medical welfare equipment technology. Comprehensive survey of welfare equipment; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu hokokusho. Fukushi kiki sozo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper made it clear what kinds of R and D will be required for equipment which supports action of aged handicapped persons in daily life and social life in the following three fields: support of walking and movement in daily life, grasp of action and life situation, and support of operation of life information. The purpose of the survey is to intensify the results as the data for effective promotion of the commercialization of the welfare equipment/system which are great in safety and convenience, low-priced, and high-efficient making use of high-tech industrial technology in the project for the R and D of medical welfare equipment technology promoted by NEDO. Therefore, the item for survey in the important field was made 'the comprehensive survey on the project of the R and D on welfare technology such as life supporting robot systems.' The survey was made on the following: (1) 'life support robot' which supports walking and simple motion in daily life of aged people, (2) 'life support information terminal' which enables regional communication and is easy for aged people to use, (3) 'monitoring system for at-home daily activities and life situation' using sensor integrated into electric home appliances, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the FY 1999 R and D on medical welfare equipment technology. Comprehensive survey of welfare equipment; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu hokokusho. Fukushi kiki sozo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper made it clear what kinds of R and D will be required for equipment which supports action of aged handicapped persons in daily life and social life in the following three fields: support of walking and movement in daily life, grasp of action and life situation, and support of operation of life information. The purpose of the survey is to intensify the results as the data for effective promotion of the commercialization of the welfare equipment/system which are great in safety and convenience, low-priced, and high-efficient making use of high-tech industrial technology in the project for the R and D of medical welfare equipment technology promoted by NEDO. Therefore, the item for survey in the important field was made 'the comprehensive survey on the project of the R and D on welfare technology such as life supporting robot systems.' The survey was made on the following: (1) 'life support robot' which supports walking and simple motion in daily life of aged people, (2) 'life support information terminal' which enables regional communication and is easy for aged people to use, (3) 'monitoring system for at-home daily activities and life situation' using sensor integrated into electric home appliances, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  15. Preliminary survey on the distribution of medical equipment and frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in Brazil: a contribution to the UNSCEAR report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazotto, Bruna; Taboza de Oliveira, Alexandre; Baptista de Freitas, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Information about Brazil published in the UNSCEAR 2000 report are still scarce when compared to others countries. In this study, a survey on the distribution of medical equipment (X-ray generators, ultrasound, CT and MRI scanners, nuclear medicine equipment and teletherapy and brachytherapy units) and frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures at the various Brazilian States was carried out. The overall information was obtained from a national database supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the Computer Science Department of the National Health System (SUS - Sistema Unico de Saude). The distribution of equipment and the annual frequency of each type of procedure were analyzed considering the five geographical regions that form the country and their respective population. Temporal and regional trends in the annual frequency of procedures for 2000-2007 were also summarized in this study. National annual frequencies for the total of all medical X-ray examinations (259.0 examinations per 1000 population) were evaluated. Some examples can be given from chest, mammography and CT examinations: 67.4, 30.2 and 7.2 per 1000 population, respectively. In addition, annual frequencies for other modalities of diagnostic imaging have also been estimated: 61.5, 1.6 and 1.4 per 1000 population for ultrasound, nuclear medicine and MRI procedures, respectively. A total of 38.7 therapeutic procedures per 1000 population (teletherapy and brachytherapy) are annually performed in the country. The health services localized in Brazil comprised a total number of 253.1 diagnostic imaging equipment per million population, without considering dental X-ray. Amongst them, X-ray equipment used in common radiological examinations (chest, skull, spine, etc.) stands for 39% (97.7 per million). As expected, a significant decrease in the offer of equipment is observed when technologically more sophisticated equipment is concerned: magnetic resonance (3.5 per million), gamma

  16. Radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heselson, N G; Cremin, B J [Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations.

  17. Occupational stress among radiographers: the impact of sonagraphy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sonography responsibility on radiographers did not have any significant effect on psychosocial stress. A balance in the extended role could aid efficiency in service delivery while improving the social strength of the individual. Keywords: Occupational stress; radiographers; sonographers. Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

  18. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  19. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  20. [Prevention of medical device-related adverse events in hospitals: Specifying the recommendations of the German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS) for users and operators of anaesthesia equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Zippel, Claus; Siebert, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The use and organisation of medical technology has an important role to play for patient and user safety in anaesthesia. Specification of the recommendations of the German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS) for users and operators of anaesthesia equipment, explore opportunities and challenges for the safe use and organisation of anaesthesia devices. We conducted a literature search in Medline/PubMed for studies dealing with the APS recommendations for the prevention of medical device-related risks in the context of anaesthesia. In addition, we performed an internet search for reports and recommendations focusing on the use and organisation of medical devices in anaesthesia. Identified studies were grouped and assigned to the recommendations. The division into users and operators was maintained. Instruction and training in anaesthesia machines is sometimes of minor importance. Failure to perform functional testing seems to be a common cause of critical incidents in anaesthesia. There is a potential for reporting to the federal authority. Starting points for the safe operation of anaesthetic devices can be identified, in particular, at the interface of staff, organisation, and (anaesthesia) technology. The APS recommendations provide valuable information on promoting the safe use of medical devices and organisation in anaesthesia. The focus will be on risks relating to the application as well as on principles and materials for the safe operation of anaesthesia equipment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Arizona, Washington, Oregon, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas... based on sections 1834(a)(12) and 1834(h) of the Act, which authorize the Secretary to designate one... equipment (and related supplies) as defined in section 1861(n) of the Act; (2) Prosthetic devices (and...

  2. FY 1999 report on the survey of the international joint research project on medical welfare equipment; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of internationally cooperating in the R and D of medical welfare equipment, visits were paid to Australia and the U.S. to survey the related administration/research institutes/medical welfare facilities. Australia is a world leader of heart (transplant) operation, organ transplant, artificial middle ear, apneic relaxation equipment, ophthalmological equipment, bio-materials, etc. The country wants to positively promote the international cooperation with Japan because both countries are complementary to each other. Starting about 1999, the U.S. entered the age of competition of the R and D with the use of genome, and the post-genome age is already beginning there. A number of ventures are running for creation of new industry. As to the U.S. government's measures taken for subsidy, regulation, etc. toward new industry, the information could be obtained from the persons concerned. The impression of a tour of welfare facilities in the U.S. was that hardware/software are systematically prepared there, and the aged live bright and positive lives and enjoy lives. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1999 report on the survey of the international joint research project on medical welfare equipment; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of internationally cooperating in the R and D of medical welfare equipment, visits were paid to Australia and the U.S. to survey the related administration/research institutes/medical welfare facilities. Australia is a world leader of heart (transplant) operation, organ transplant, artificial middle ear, apneic relaxation equipment, ophthalmological equipment, bio-materials, etc. The country wants to positively promote the international cooperation with Japan because both countries are complementary to each other. Starting about 1999, the U.S. entered the age of competition of the R and D with the use of genome, and the post-genome age is already beginning there. A number of ventures are running for creation of new industry. As to the U.S. government's measures taken for subsidy, regulation, etc. toward new industry, the information could be obtained from the persons concerned. The impression of a tour of welfare facilities in the U.S. was that hardware/software are systematically prepared there, and the aged live bright and positive lives and enjoy lives. (NEDO)

  4. Design and preliminary validation of a mobile application-based expert system to facilitate repair of medical equipment in resource-limited health settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong AL

    2018-05-01

    the access to knowledge and resources in low- and middle-income countries. Further research will include prospective studies to determine the impact of an application on the availability of functional equipment in a hospital and the effect on the provision and safety of surgical care. Keywords: medical apps, global health, mHealth, repair system, pulse oximeter

  5. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  6. Personal Protective Equipment Guide for Military Medical Treatment Facility Personnel Handling Casualties From Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Ebola, and Marburg viruses may be particularly prone to aerosol nosocomial spread. Not all infected patients develop VHFs. 3. There must be...strict adherence to hand hygiene (Ref. 100): Health care workers should clean their hands prior to donning personal protective equipment for patient...good example of a nonstochastic effect of radiation (Ref. 103). Nosocomial infection Infection acquired in the hospital. Nucleocapsid In a

  7. Standardization of thorax, skull and pelvis radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Trad, C.S.; Brochi, M.A. Corte; Duarte, S.B.; Pina, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    The radiographic techniques for production of chest, skull and pelvis exam were determined for the standard patient. These techniques produced the quality image with smaller dose, for a standard patient, at any conventional X-ray equipment. The radiographic contrast produced for these techniques was measured utilizing the realistic-analytic phantom and classified as an ideal radiographic contrast. This work has the aim to keep the standard of the quality image, for any thickness of patients usually found in clinic routine of the radiodiagnosis service, satisfying the relation risk-benefit for the patient and cost- benefit for the institution. (author)

  8. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.U.V.; Fatouros, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  9. Prevention of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries Associated With Respiratory Equipment Use in a Critical Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cynthia A; Paradis, Heidi; Goodwin, Robert; Lynch, Judith; Hegerich-Bartula, Deborah

    Medical devices have been identified as an extrinsic risk factor for development of pressure injuries, with as many as 30% to 70% of medical device-related pressure injuries resulting from respiratory equipment. This article describes a quality improvement project undertaken to reduce the occurrence of respiratory device-related pressure injuries in a critically care unit. Multiple actions were implemented to achieve this goal. Respiratory therapists were trained to document occurrences on a daily basis, and apparent cause analyses were conducted on each occurrence. An interdisciplinary team conducted biweekly rounds on patients with respiratory devices and consulted other professionals as indicated. Nurses and respiratory therapists attended an evidence-based, collaborative, educational offering and completed a measure of team functioning before the program and at the end of the study period. The occurrence rates of respiratory device-related pressure injuries were reduced over the project period, and these changes were sustained over the subsequent 12 months.

  10. Nondestructive examination - radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First the basic principles of radiography are to be treated, especially the different radiation sources (X-ray, gamma-ray, neutrons, heat). In the second part those radiographic methods are shown, which are in common use for technical purposes, especially under the aspect of flaw recognition. (orig./RW)

  11. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  12. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  13. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is directed towards giving radiographers an introduction to and basic knowledge of computerized tomography. The technical section discusses gantries and x-ray production, computer and disc drive image display, storage, artefacts quality assurance and design of departments. The clinical section includes patient preparation, radiotherapy planning, and interpretation of images from various areas of the anatomy. (U.K.)

  14. Report for fiscal 1998 on the international joint research project of medical welfare equipment; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In connection with the international joint research project of medical welfare, a report was made on the results of the investigation conducted in 1998 concerning the technology of overseas medical welfare equipment. In the investigation of china, observation was made on the actual state of the representative medial institutions, with opinions exchanged. Obsolete equipment and old technology are the present state in China, which is strongly desirous of exchanging information with Japan. In Taiwan, being full of venture spirit, an ultrasonic thermal treatment apparatus and an ultrasonic echo device have been produced for example. In Europe, an observation tour was conducted on a German manipulator and process robot while an investigative visit and exchange of opinions were made on the living environment and facilities in Italian training center for physically handicapped persons. Japan's self-supporting and assisting system for excretion attracted many questions and comments. In the investigation in the U.S., views were exchanged concerning '{sup 13}C-MRS device for non-invasion brain metabolic measurement' in research institutions such as universities. A machine developed in Japan received a high evaluation in that {sup 13}C spectrum was obtained from a substantial depth. (NEDO)

  15. Radiographic progession of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozos, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis can be graded on a 0-IV scala. For this purpose five objective criteria are used: a) destruction, b) osteoporosis, c) narrowing of joint space, d) luxation and e) ankylosis. The grading of the radiographic progression is defined by the extent and the number of the measured alterations. The radiographic progression can be registered yearly. (orig.) [de

  16. Development of cancer medical treatment/diagnostic equipment using the source of X-rays in space coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Isamu; Shintomi, Kazutaka; Hayakawa, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In Nihon University, the research and development of Parametric X-rays radiation (PXR) by the 100 MeV electron linac are advanced. It was proved by basic experiment that PXR was a source of coherent X-rays. Coherent X-rays have the characteristic that a refraction action is guided with an irradiation matter. According to this action, the contrast image pick-up of an irradiation matter is attained, and X-rays becomes possible to focus a point itself. Research of cancer medical treatment and diagnosis are advanced using the new source of X-ray. Miniaturization of the source is important for the spread of cancer medical new treatment and diagnoses. Recently, the tabletop type 100 MeV class cryogenic linac with energy recovery is under development. In symposium, we report progress of these research and development. (author)

  17. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C.; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  18. MINAC, portable high energy radiographic inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, M.E.; Schonberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    MINAC, a portable, high energy radiographic source (1) was recognized as a desired inspection device for nuclear generation plants during EPRI-sponsored studies of the late 1970s and rapidly transitioned from proof-of-principle (1978-1980) to field-proven hardware (1981-present date). The equipment has completed its second generation of configuration development (SHRINKAC), that has recently been used in the field for detection of pipe cracks. Important auxiliaries for image data processing and real-time, thick section radiography have been demonstrated in both laboratory and field situations. Finally, a 6 MeV accelerator alternate is in bench test. These significant developments have, and are expected to continue to upgrade the utility of radiographic inspection in power plant practice. This paper describes the development and experience with this modular system during the last three years

  19. Modeling dental radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has been actively collaborating with the Clinical Investigations Branch, NIDR, in applied research involving diagnostic use of ionizing radiation in dentistry. This work has centered on the search for alternatives to conventional radiographic systems in an attempt to improve diagnostic performance while reducing the required exposure. The basic approach involves analysis of factors limiting performance of properly defined diagnostic tasks and the modeling alternative systems with an eye toward increasing objective measures of performance. Previous collaborative work involved using a nonlinear model to compare various x-ray spectra. The data were expressed as brightness-contrast versus exposure for simulated tasks of clinical interest. This report supplements these findings by extending the number of parameters under investigation and modifying the mode of data display so that an actual radiographic image can be simulated on a television screen

  20. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  1. Quality control of diagnostic x-ray equipment and film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the section 40 of the Radiation Act (592/92), the licensee is required in Finland to make the arrangements to control the function of the radiation equipment and related facilities used for medical procedures. The guide explains how quality control can be organized for diagnostic x-ray equipment. It also gives recommendations for constancy tests for conventional x-ray radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment and for film processing. The recommendations are based on the publications and statements of the International Committee for Radiation Protection (ICRP) and standardization organizations. The intention is that the operators of x-ray equipment or the maintenance personnel are able to perform the quality control tests presented in the guide

  2. Radiographic findings in immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, R.; Lynch, D.A.; Cink, T.M.; Newell, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans in patients with immunodeficiency disorders and define the role of HRCT. Thirty-three cases were retrospectively graded according to the consensus of two radiologists. Patients with HIV seropositivity and asthma were excluded. HRCT was performed in 12 cases with standard techniques. Diagnoses included common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 19), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 4), chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 4), and selective immunoglobulin g deficiencies (n = 2). Chest radiographs showed bronchiectasis in 11 of 33 cases with a predominant lower lobe distribution (82%). Nodules were present in six cases and mucus plugs in four cases. HRCT showed bronchiectasis in nine of 12 cases; in five of these nine cases, bronchiectasis was not apparent on chest radiographs. Other HRCT findings included segmental air trapping (four of 12), mucus plugs (three of 12), hazy consolidation (four of 12), nodules (five of 12), and bronchiolectasis (two of 12). Therapy was altered in seven of 12 cases in which HRCT was performed. Most pertinent to clinical management were the presence of a thymoma (n = 1) and severe focal of diffuse bronchiectasis

  3. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  4. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  5. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  6. Transfer function analysis of radiographic imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of the techniques of transfer function analysis used in radiographic imaging systems are reviewed. The mathematical principles of transfer function analysis are developed for linear, shift-invariant imaging systems, for the relation between object and image and for the image due to a sinusoidal plane wave object. The other basic mathematical principle discussed is 'Fourier analysis' and its application to an input function. Other aspects of transfer function analysis included are alternative expressions for the 'optical transfer function' of imaging systems and expressions are derived for both serial and parallel transfer image sub-systems. The applications of transfer function analysis to radiographic imaging systems are discussed in relation to the linearisation of the radiographic imaging system, the object, the geometrical unsharpness, the screen-film system unsharpness, other unsharpness effects and finally noise analysis. It is concluded that extensive theoretical, computer simulation and experimental studies have demonstrated that the techniques of transfer function analysis provide an accurate and reliable means for predicting and understanding the effects of various radiographic imaging system components in most practical diagnostic medical imaging situations. (U.K.)

  7. Haughton-Mars Project/NASA 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation: Equipment and Methods for Medical Evacuation of an Injured Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, S. P.; Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chase, T.; Gernhardt M.; Wilkinson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving NASA's Space Exploration Vision scientific objectives will require human access into cratered and uneven terrain for the purpose of sample acquisition to assess geological, and perhaps even biological features and experiments. Operational risk management is critical to safely conduct the anticipated tasks. This strategy, along with associated contingency plans, will be a driver of EVA system requirements. Therefore, a medical contingency EVA scenario was performed with the Haughton-Mars Project/NASA to develop belay and medical evacuation techniques for exploration and rescue respectively. Methods: A rescue system to allow two rescuer astronauts to evacuate one in incapacitated astronaut was evaluated. The systems main components were a hard-bottomed rescue litter, hand-operated winch, rope, ground picket anchors, and a rover-winch attachment adapter. Evaluation was performed on 15-25deg slopes of dirt with embedded rock. The winch was anchored either by adapter to the rover or by pickets hammered into the ground. The litter was pulled over the surface by rope attached to the winch. Results: The rescue system was utilized effectively to extract the injured astronaut up a slope and to a waiting rover for transport to a simulated habitat for advanced medical care, although several challenges to implementation were identified and overcome. Rotational stabilization of the winch was found to be important to get maximize mechanical advantage from the extraction system. Discussion: Further research and testing needs to be performed to be able to fully consider synergies with the other Exploration surface systems, in conducting contingency operations. Structural attachment points on the surface EVA suits may be critical to assist in incapacitated evacuation. Such attach points could be helpful in microgravity incapacitated crewmember transport as well. Wheeled utility carts or wheels that may be attachable to a litter may also aid in extraction and

  8. Image quality control of mammography equipment -Mammography System MX-300- of the Teachers Hospital of UNSA and dose measurement in breasts with radiographic films; Control de calidad de imagen del equipo de mamografia -Mammography System MX-300- del Hospital de Docentes de la UNSA y medicion de dosis en mamas con peliculas radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quispe F, L. K.; Vega R, J., E-mail: karinaqflores839@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Escuela Profesional de Fisica, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    This work is part of medical imaging for the evaluation of quality. Will have an accredited breast phantom Rmi-156 that allows evaluating the image quality of mammography equipment and through a series of techniques and processes that will submit to mammography films we obtain characteristic curves, which allows to evaluate different parameters that will serve for our study. Images were acquired with different k Vp and m As of the equipment, also with different thicknesses of the breast phantom. Also we want to use the lowest possible dose for obtaining our images. In this paper we develop a simple protocol that aims to unify the conditions under which are acquired the images for later evaluation. By obtaining these characteristic curves demonstrate that the Kodak film is the most suitable for our study because it requires lower dose for obtaining our images. (Author)

  9. General-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Noritaka

    1982-01-01

    A new series of diagnostic tables, Model DT-KEL, was developed for general-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic systems. Through several investigations, the table was so constructed that the basic techniques be general radiography and GI examination, and other techniques be optionally added. The diagnostic tables involve the full series of the type for various purposes and are systematized with the surrounding equipment. A retractable mechanism of grids was adopted first for general use. The fine grids with a density of 57 lines per cm, which was adopted in KEL-2, reduced the X-ray doses by 16 percent. (author)

  10. A radiographic method for measurement of leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, O; Koivisto, E; Wegelius, C

    1985-01-01

    An accurate and simple radiographic method for the measurement of weight-bearing leg length inequality with a minimum of radiated body area is described. The measurement can be made in a conventional chest X-ray unit without other extra equipment than a gonad shield described here.

  11. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Direct final rule; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for their performance. These standards are currently limited to film radiographs. In recent years, many medical facilities have phased out film radiography in favor of digital radiography. This direct final rule updates the existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of osteosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Miny, H.; Erlemann, R.; Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Baranowski, D.

    1991-01-01

    Surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and neurosurgeons employ a wide variety of different osteosynthetic devices in the treatment of fractures and in spinal surgery. In order to assess these instruments correctly, the radiologist should be aware of their purpose and normal apperance. The complications should be identified, such as delayed union, pseudarthrosis, dislocation, device loosening, fracture of the device, osteomyelitis, and refracture. To evaluate the fixation device adequately two plain radiographs are mandatory. An normal fracture healing and the most commonly used fixation devices, the abnormalities of fracture healing and their complications are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  14. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  15. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  16. Trampoline related injuries in children: risk factors and radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter Michael; Juen, David; Stranzinger, Enno; Wolf, Rainer; Slongo, Theddy

    2013-05-01

    Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.

  17. Patients Radiation Load Caused by Digitalised X-Ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.; Horvathova, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The radiation load of population all over the world from medical examinations clearly demonstrate the importance of implementation of quality assurance and quality control programmes into the activities of radiological departments. The basic aim of quality assurance programme is to ensure that the radiation dose is kept as low as reasonably practicable consistent with adequate image quality. As many other fields, the rapid development of techniques brought change-over from the conventional analogue technique to the digital technique. In this connection conventional X-ray film is being abandoned and images are being viewed on either laser film or monitor. The main advantages of using digital equipment lay in improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy through digital image processing, reduction in patient exposure, cost reduction by reduction film usage, more efficient storage and retrieval of radiographic images through picture archiving. Several studies that have been conducted for comparison of various diagnostic examinations performed on digital and analogue X-ray equipment have shown that in barium meal examinations, there is potential for dose saving in the digital image intensifier technique. The aim of this study was to compare measured values of dose-area product for colon investigations using different X-ray equipment types, on digital and one analogue. Our material consisted of 60 randomly selected patients, 24 of them were examined with digital equipment and 36 patients with the analogue equipment. (author)

  18. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  19. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  20. incidence of occupational stress among medical radiographers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which future studies in view of the on going health sector reform in Nigeria could be compared. Key Words: ... disturbing individual's well being physically and mentally (Akpa and .... not only mental health but also the ... Stressors and employee.

  1. incidence of occupational stress among medical radiographers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job satisfaction rating was 61.3% and anxiety level was 45.3%. This study has provided a baseline stress level and prevalence among ... theoretical terms predisposes the individual to increased ... checked, burnout ensures. Burnout is an individual's reaction to chronic stress .... neurovegetative functioning of the mental but.

  2. Radiological equipment analyzed by specific developed phantoms and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M.; Campayo, J. M.; Mayo, P.; Verdu, G.; Rodenas, F.

    2010-10-01

    The use of radiographic phantoms specifically designed to evaluate the operation of the radiographic equipment lets the study of the image quality obtained by this equipment in an objective way. In digital radiographic equipment, the analysis of the image quality can be computerized because the acquisition of the image is possible in different technologies that are, computerized radiography or phosphor plate and direct radiography or detector. In case of film-screen equipment s this analysis could be applied digitalising the image in a professional scanner. In this work we have shown an application to assess automatically the constancy quality image in the image chain of the radiographic equipment s. This application is integrated by designed radiographic phantoms which are adapted to conventional, dental equipment s and specific developed software for the automatic evaluation of the phantom image quality. The software is based on digital image processing techniques that let the automatic detection of the different phantom tests by edge detector, morphological operators, threshold histogram techniques... etc. The utility developed is enough sensitive to the radiographic equipment of operating conditions of voltage (kV) and charge (m As). It is a friendly user programme connected with a data base of the hospital or clinic where it has been used. After the phantom image processing the user can obtain an inform with a resume of the imaging system state with accepting and constancy results. (Author)

  3. Radiological equipment analyzed by specific developed phantoms and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Campayo, J. M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, Local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Mayo, P. [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, Local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G.; Rodenas, F., E-mail: m.soto@lainsa.co [ISIRYIM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The use of radiographic phantoms specifically designed to evaluate the operation of the radiographic equipment lets the study of the image quality obtained by this equipment in an objective way. In digital radiographic equipment, the analysis of the image quality can be computerized because the acquisition of the image is possible in different technologies that are, computerized radiography or phosphor plate and direct radiography or detector. In case of film-screen equipment s this analysis could be applied digitalising the image in a professional scanner. In this work we have shown an application to assess automatically the constancy quality image in the image chain of the radiographic equipment s. This application is integrated by designed radiographic phantoms which are adapted to conventional, dental equipment s and specific developed software for the automatic evaluation of the phantom image quality. The software is based on digital image processing techniques that let the automatic detection of the different phantom tests by edge detector, morphological operators, threshold histogram techniques... etc. The utility developed is enough sensitive to the radiographic equipment of operating conditions of voltage (kV) and charge (m As). It is a friendly user programme connected with a data base of the hospital or clinic where it has been used. After the phantom image processing the user can obtain an inform with a resume of the imaging system state with accepting and constancy results. (Author)

  4. Radiographer interpretation of trauma radiographs: Issues for radiography education providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.

  5. Survey of dental radiographic equipment and radiation doses in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havukainen, R.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation dose exposure, and the faults in about 1 700 dental units inspected at dental surgeries by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in 1981-1985, were analysed. The mean value of skin doses in the bite-wing projection was about 6.2 mGy, the range 0.5 to 151 mGy. The mean energy imparted per bite-wing examination was estimated as 0.68 mJ and that per panoramic examination as 1.2 mJ. That gives a total imparted energy of about 600 J per year for conventional dental examinations and about 420 J per year for panoramic examinations. This gives a total of 0.13 mJ from conventional and 0.089 mJ from panoramic examinations per inhabitant per year. The collective effective dose equivalent was calculated as about 9 manSv for conventional dental examinations and about 6 manSv for panoramic examinations. Twenty per cent of units had some fault which was capable of decreasing radiation safety. Forty per cent of units were served reparation orders or other remarks were made in inspection documents. Large doses were usually accounted for by incorrect film processing and malfunction of the exposure timer. (orig.)

  6. Equipment for shielding the gonad region while performing radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starp, F.

    1979-01-01

    The shield consists of a fixed square central lead plate and, associated to it, lead sheets arranged linear displaceable and/or rotatable, by means of which the superficial extent may be variated. For protection from damaging and contamination this shield itself is enclosed by a casing in the form of two cup-shaped discs e.g. from plexiglas put one above the other at the edge. (DG) 891 HP/DG 892 MKO [de

  7. Construction of a homogeneous phantom for radiographic image standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    1996-01-01

    The principle of radiodiagnosis consists in the fact the X-ray beam is attenuated at different degrees by distinct tissues. For this reason, the anatomical structures have distinct radiological opacities, that produce the radiographic image. The progresses in radiology are related to the development if new radiographic image formation systems that enable an amplification in the quality, with low dose and/or risk to the patient. The objective of this work is the sensitometric valuation of a screen-film combination, that is still the most used, for the standardization, of radiographic images. Thinking about this, were constructed homogeneous phantoms of the chest, skull and pelvis, for the calibration of X-ray beams, with the purpose of obtaining radiographic images of good quality, basing in the routine of a radiodiagnosis service and in the scientific knowledge. Questions were approached about the choice of the suitable equipment, that allow the obtention of k Vp and m As combinations, to produce radiographic images of good quality, and the reproduction of these combinations to any conventional equipment of diagnostic X-rays. Also presented are the comparison of the doses imparted by these combinations and those used in routine of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto's radiodiagnosis service. (author)

  8. The radiographic examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, T.R.; Saba, G.P. II.

    1980-01-01

    To provide medical and scientific background on certain selected technologies generally considered to be of particular significance, the National Center for Health Care Technology commissioned a series of overview papers, one of which is entitled 'The Radiographic Examination of the Colon.' These overviews are likely to be of most immediate interest to clinicians and biomedical scientists; they also may provide valuable background for assessments undertaken by the Center and for exploring the broad societal implications of health care technologies. Barium enema is the most available and widely used technique for examining the colon. It is often a routine part of the gastrointestinal work-up regardless of the suspected basis, anatomical or functional, of the patient's symptoms. Indeed, common practice is not to entertain a diagnosis of functional disorder before excluding all reasonable possibility of an anatomical abnormality. Barium enema is one of the most frequently ordered radiographic examinations

  9. Evaluation of medical exposure and exposure by the public in a typical scenario of examinations using mobile X-ray equipment through the Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Felipe A.; Galeano, Diego C.; Santos, William S.; Carvalho Júnior, Albérico B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work irradiation scenarios that simulated chest and abdomen examinations involving mobile X-ray equipment in hospitals were modeled with the purpose of calculating conversion coefficient for effective dose (CC E ), normalized to entrance surface dose (ESD), applied to patients and public individuals. These coefficients can easily be used in this practice. Patients and public individuals were represented by a pair of anthropomorphic phantoms inserted in the MCNPX 2.7.0 radiation transport code. One of the phantoms (patient) was irradiated with the direct beam simulating examinations of the chest and abdomen, each with two fields of irradiation, ideal (IF) and extrapolated (EF). Using the software SPECGEN X-ray spectra from 60 to 100 kVp at 10 kVp intervals were generated and used in this work. The other phantom (public individual) was positioned 50–200 cm from the patient. In relation to the CC E calculated in the patient, the average increase obtained between the irradiation fields was 62.4% for the chest examinations, and for the same conditions the CC E was calculated for abdomen examinations and found to be 8.0%. Increasing the distance between public individual and patient, reductions of up to 81.7% in the CC E in abdomen examinations and 83.4% in chest examinations were observed. Through the assessment of CC E of these scenarios, it is possible to measure the damages relating to this practice for both patients and public individuals. - Highlights: • A computational scenario involving mobile X-ray equipment in hospitals were modeled. • Evaluation of medical exposure and exposure by the public was made by CC E (E/ESD). • A pair of the anthropomorphic simulators was inserted into the input file MCNPX. • Analyze the influence in CC E for the different types of fields used in examinations. • Monitoring the reduction of CC E 's with increasing distance between the beds.

  10. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K.; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs.

  11. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, M.; Lischer, C.; Ohlerth, S.; Vargas, J.; Auer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PXTM, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually

  12. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-09-01

    Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers. Yet, justification remains an inconsistent practice implemented amongst Australian radiographers. This review aims to identify associated barriers inhibiting the consistent practice of justification and the hesitance by radiographers in practicing justification responsibilities. It also recommends a change in workplace culture which encourages radiographers to accept a more autonomous role that cultivates critical thinking, reflection and research-informed decision making as justification will ultimately benefit patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  13. Radiographically detectable intracortical porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Since the measurement of intracortical resorptive spaces by histologic methods is difficult and very few data are available in normal humans, we have measured their lengths and widths and calculated the intracortical porosity in metacarpals and phalanges of 79 normal women and 69 normal men, using fine-detail radiographs of the hands and a computerized semi-automatic image analysis system (Zeiss MOP-3), this being the first study of this kind. Several methodological problems were solved satisfactorily, and the results of this study could serve as a data bank for further investigations concerned with intracortical resorption. Significant differences were found between age and sex versus several intracortical resorptive parameters; also significant correlations were found with age in some cases. Normal intracortical porosity was found to be about three times greater in the proximal phalanges than in the metacarpals. It is concluded that this methodology could be used for further studies of intracortical resorption in osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. (orig.)

  14. Odontogenic keratocyst radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, N. O.; Saini, T.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features often patients with odontogenic keratocysts were studied. One patient had Gorlin-GoJtz syndrome. A total of fourteen radiolucent lesions were observed on radiographic examination. All the fourteen lesions were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst after histopathclogical examination of biopsied tissue from the patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 25-72 years with a mean age of 37.6 years. The male : female ratio was 2.3:1. Thirteen of these lesions occurred in the mandible, nine involved the mandibular third molar region. Involvement of the ramus of the mandible produced a sausage-shaped radiolucency. Cystic lesions which have been present for long periods of time showed scalloped margins, due to the regional resorption of the surrounding bone. The bony ledges present on the cortical bones simulated multilocular appearance in such cases. It was also observed that the lesions in older individuals perforated the cortical plates rather than eliciting a periostally induced bony expansion. (author)

  15. A radiographic examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, A.P.; Cable, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for performing radiographic examination, particularly of large items such as international container units is disclosed. The system is formed as an installation comprising housings for respective linear accelerators transmitting a beam of radiation across the path of a conveyor along which the units can be displaced continuously or incrementally. On either end of the installation are container handling areas including roller conveyors with drag chains and transverse manipulators, and the whole installation is secured within automatically operated doors which seal the high energy region when a container on the conveyor is being subjected to examination. The radiation transmitted through a container is detected in a detector system incorporating a fluoroscopic screen light output from which is detected in a camera system such as a television camera, and transmitted as coded pulsed signals by a coding transfer unit to display screens where an image of the transmitted information can be displayed and/or recorded for further use. (author)

  16. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  17. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Lisa A.; Manning, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence

  18. Radiographic enhancement and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic image enhancement and analysis techniques are discussed as they apply to nondestructive inspection. A system is described which has been developed to enhance and quantitatively evaluate radiographic images using digital computer techniques. Some examples of typical applications are also presented as an introduction to this new inspection technique. (author)

  19. Performance of a thermal neutron radiographic system using imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Furieri, Rosanne; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    A performance evaluation of a neutron radiographic system equipped with a thermal neutron sensitive imaging plate has been undertaken. It includes the assessment of spatial resolution, linearity, dynamic range and the response to exposure time, as well as a comparison of these parameters with the equivalent ones for neutron radiography employing conventional films and a gadolinium foil as converter. The evaluation and comparison between the radiographic systems have been performed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN, using the Argonauta Reactor as source of thermal neutrons and a commercially available imaging plate reader. (author)

  20. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  1. Artificial intelligence for analyzing orthopedic trauma radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Jakub; Fahlberg, Niklas; Maki, Atsuto; Razavian, Ali Sharif; Jilert, Anthony; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof; Gordon, Max

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - Recent advances in artificial intelligence (deep learning) have shown remarkable performance in classifying non-medical images, and the technology is believed to be the next technological revolution. So far it has never been applied in an orthopedic setting, and in this study we sought to determine the feasibility of using deep learning for skeletal radiographs. Methods - We extracted 256,000 wrist, hand, and ankle radiographs from Danderyd's Hospital and identified 4 classes: fracture, laterality, body part, and exam view. We then selected 5 openly available deep learning networks that were adapted for these images. The most accurate network was benchmarked against a gold standard for fractures. We furthermore compared the network's performance with 2 senior orthopedic surgeons who reviewed images at the same resolution as the network. Results - All networks exhibited an accuracy of at least 90% when identifying laterality, body part, and exam view. The final accuracy for fractures was estimated at 83% for the best performing network. The network performed similarly to senior orthopedic surgeons when presented with images at the same resolution as the network. The 2 reviewer Cohen's kappa under these conditions was 0.76. Interpretation - This study supports the use for orthopedic radiographs of artificial intelligence, which can perform at a human level. While current implementation lacks important features that surgeons require, e.g. risk of dislocation, classifications, measurements, and combining multiple exam views, these problems have technical solutions that are waiting to be implemented for orthopedics.

  2. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography is regarded by many as a complicated union of sophisticated x-ray equipment and computer technology. This book overcomes these complexities. The rigid technicalities of the machinery and the clinical aspects of computed tomography are discussed including the preparation of patients, both physically and mentally, for scanning. Furthermore, the author also explains how to set up and run a computed tomography department, including advice on how the room should be designed

  3. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  4. The radiographic image: A cultural artefact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the radiographic images produced by diagnostic radiographers. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; that of the radiographic image as a cultural artefact, is explored in this article. The radiographic image is a cultural artefact which radiographers are protective of and take ownership of. Radiographers are conscious of the quality of their images and the images are an important aspect of their work. Radiographers take criticism of their images personally. The radiographic image is a record of the interaction that occurs between the radiographer and the patient. The way in which radiographic images are viewed, used and judged is an important aspect of the role of diagnostic radiographer

  5. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites.

  6. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievenart, E.F.; Plessers, H.S.; Neujens, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  7. Method for taking X radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, G.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at obtaining X radiographs of any human organ with the aid of an X-ray-shadowless radiation detector of a dose measuring device, which is arranged between patient and imaging system, and of a controlling microprocessor system, so that the image-forming parameters are automatically adjusted to the specific properties of the patient. This procedure minimices the efforts in preparing the radiograph and the radiation exposure of the patient

  8. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is described which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro

  9. The radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heselson, N.G.; Cremin, B.J.; Beighton, P.

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations. (author)

  10. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  11. Reflections on the role of consultant radiographers in the UK: What is a consultant radiographer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.; Henwood, S.; Miller, P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: This paper is the second paper from a two year in depth case study, exploring the role of consultant radiographers in the UK. Methods: A longitudinal case study approach was used to determine the role of consultant radiographers. Interviews were used to explore experiences of being a consultant, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Eight consultant radiographers participated (Note, two of the consultants withdrew after the first interview due to workload). Therefore two consultants were interviewed only once. The remaining six consultants were interviewed twice over a 12 month period. Findings: The data presented in this paper explores the nature of the role, differences between roles, the four domains of practice, and how the role fits into local organisational structures. The study shows wide variation in the types of roles undertaken, reflecting that the creation of these roles were in response to local clinical need and often related to an individual practitioner's skills. The broad scope of the role was shown across all the consultants, with evidence of roles developing into new areas of service delivery. Conclusions: The paper offers insight into the role(s) of consultant radiographers in the UK. The range and scope of their practice is extensive, with much variation. It is evident that the clinical aspect of the role dominates, with research being the least supported domain of practice. There remains a lack of clarity around the role, with concerns about remuneration and other limitations that may restrict the role developing further. - Highlights: • This paper shows the variation in roles between consultant radiographers. • The commonality with medical roles is highlighted. • Problem solving is identified as a core skill in consultant radiography. • Consultants offered evidence of the roles developing service provision. • While all four domains of practice are covered, research is the least well supported.

  12. The changing role of the radiographer under IR(ME)R 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the way in which the College of Radiographers has used the new Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 [IR(ME)R] to promote role development among its 17,000 radiographers in the UK. It aims to show that the resultant role development will have a beneficial effect on the radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiography. (author)

  13. FY 2000 Report on the results of the survey/research on advanced medical treatment equipment technology of the next generation; 2000 nendo jisedai senshin iryo kiki gijutsu ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For development of the advanced medical treatment equipment technology of the next generation, attempts are made to translate the policy targets, established through open discussions at the workshops and others, into the concrete techniques. As a result, the basic plans are concretely drafted for the (development of the gene-aided diagnostic system equipment for clinical purposes) and (development of heart disease treatment system equipment). The program for the (development of the gene-aided diagnostic system equipment for clinical purposes) is aimed at development of the system equipment which utilizes DNA microarrays and others to analyze the gene information highly reliably, quickly at low cost by simple procedure. The program for the (development of heart disease treatment system equipment) is aimed at development of various techniques, e.g., low-invasion type supercompact composite sensors capable of continuously measuring two or more types of information from a living body, basic techniques therefor, living hybridization techniques for stably operating these devices in a living body for extended periods, and intelligent drug delivery systems carrying multi-channel information transmission mechanisms and two or more types of drugs, and capable of delivering drugs independently at high precision. (NEDO)

  14. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  15. CEC quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images and patient exposure trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrstedt, U.; Wall, B.; Maccia, C.; Moores, B.M.; Padovani, R.

    1990-01-01

    The intention of this report has been to present the results of a multinational trial set up by a study group of the radiation protection programme of the CEC. In view of proceeding towards the harmonization and the optimization of the radiological techniques commonly used in different European countries, the relevance of quality criteria for radiographic images together with dose requirements were checked on about 900 examined patients. Due to the type of X-ray projections considered, more than 1 200 questionnaires concerning the real X-ray films were therefore collected and evaluated through a scoring system. Such an approach was relevant and contributed to providing practical considerations on how to reduce and optimize patient received dose while keeping the essential medical information imaged on the film. Indeed the results obtained allowed identification of technical modalities corresponding to that objective. Furthermore, analysis of results revealed two main areas which should be further taken into consideration: - personnel training in radiation protection (radiologists and radiographers), establishment of quality assurance programmes in diagnostic radiology (good usage of radiological equipment and reduction of wasted films)

  16. An audit of 3859 preadmission chest radiographs of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chest radiographs are routinely requested as part of the medical screening process prior to admission to institutions. Literature on the yield of such an exercise is sparse especially in the Nigerian setting. This study was therefore carried out to assess the usefulness of routine chest radiography for students at ...

  17. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  18. Radiographic examination takes on an automated image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.

    1988-01-01

    Automation can be effectively applied to nondestructive testing (NDT). Until recently, film radiography used in NDT was largely a manual process, involving the shooting of a series of x-rays, manually positioned and manually processed. In other words, much radiographic work is being done the way it was over 50 years ago. Significant advances in automation have changed the face of manufacturing, and industry has shared in the benefits brought by such progress. The handling of parts, which was once responsible for a large measure of labor costs, is now assigned to robotic equipment. In nondestructive testing processes, some progress has been achieved in automation - for example, in real-time imaging systems. However, only recently have truly automated NDT begun to emerge. There are two major reasons to introduce automation into NDT - reliability and productivity. Any process or technique that can improve the reliability of parts testing could easily justify the capital investments required

  19. The role of a consultant breast radiographer: A description and a reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Judith; Hogg, Peter; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Consultant radiographers are a relatively new concept within the British healthcare system, with them being first established in 2003. Consultant radiographer job roles are broad and include advanced clinical activities (often being similar in nature to those delivered by medical practitioners, e.g. radiologists), professional leadership, teaching and education and service improvement. Given their relative novelty almost no literature exists to describe in detail specific roles of consultant breast radiographers. Consequently, in this article we use a case study approach to describe and reflect critically upon the role of one consultant breast radiographer. The article commences with a general introduction about consultant radiographers; it then progresses to outline the context in which the case study of the breast consultant radiographer sits. Through description and reflective commentary we take the reader through the role of the consultant breast radiographer to highlight where the role has had perceived value and also to highlight where the role has been particularly challenging for the post holder. As a consequence of the case study approach taken, the article is written partly in the first person (taken from interview comments made by the consultant breast radiographer) and partly in the third person. The final element of the article is a reflective commentary given by the consultant radiographer regarding her feelings about her first few years as a consultant breast radiographer

  20. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  1. Reproductive health of male radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare certain reproductive health problems reported in 2 groups of males, one of which was exposed to x-ray radiation (radiographers) and the other group that was not exposed to x-ray radiation. The reproductive health problems were miscarriage, congenital anomalies, still births and infertility. Two groups of men were selected (90 in each group). The first group consisted of radiographers and the other groups consisted of men not exposed to x-ray radiation. The 2 groups were matched for age and source. Relative risk, attributable risk percentage and level of significance were calculated. Incidence rate of reproductive health problems was increasing with the increase in duration of exposure to x-ray radiation ranging between 17% (for those exposed for 1-5 years) to 91% (for those exposed for more than 15 years). There were significant associations between exposure to radiation and miscarriage (relative risk = 1.67, attributable risk percentage = 40%), congenital anomalies (relative risk = 10, attributable risk percentage 90%), still birth (relative risk = 7, attributable risk percentage = 86%), and infertility (relative risk = 4.5, attributable risk = 78%). The incidence rates of reproductive health problems reported by male radiographers were significantly higher than that reported by the non exposed group and higher than the incidence rates reported in community-based studies in Jordan. The incidence rates of fetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth together) and infertility reported by our radiographers were higher than had been reported by the British radiographers. An immediate plan of action is needed to protect our radiographers. Further studies are needed in this field taking into account all extraneous variables that may affect the reproductive health of radiographers. (author)

  2. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  3. Attitudes of radiographers to radiographer-led discharge: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, Laura; Cosson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional role of the Diagnostic Radiographer in image acquisition has gradually been extended through skill-mix, particularly to include abnormality detection. Aims: This research focused on the attitudes of Radiographers to Radiographer-led Discharge (RLD), where Radiographers discharge patients with minor injuries and perform tasks previously undertaken by Accident and Emergency staff. The effects of job role, hospital type, experience and whether RLD was used in the participant's trust were examined. Method: A multiple-indicator online questionnaire assessed attitudes to RLD. Snowball sampling was used with advertisement via emails, posters and cards, containing Quick Response (QR) codes. Statement responses were coded, with reverse coding for negative statements and total scores were calculated. A higher score represented a more positive attitude. Results: 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate) and the mean total score was 84/115. 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement in abnormality detection, with 46.5% selecting RLD as the preferred system for minor injuries patients vs 48.5% preferring commenting alone. Discussion: Participants were positive about extending their role through RLD and felt confident in their image interpretation abilities, though expressed concern for the legal consequences of the role and adequate pay. Generalization of the results is limited due to the possible low response rate. Conclusion: Overall, participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards RLD but they also indicate the need for appropriate payment for any additional responsibility. These findings are promising for successful implementation of RLD, though larger-scale research including radiologists, business managers, A and E staff and patients would be beneficial. - Highlights: • 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate). • 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement

  4. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  5. Order of the 29. of January 2010 approving the decision n. 2009-DC-0146 made on the 16. of July 2010 by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), modified by the decision n. 2009-DC-0162 of the 20. of October 2009, defining the list electric equipment generating X rays which are hold or used for purposes of biomedical research or medical, dental, forensics or veterinary diagnosis and submitted to a declaration regime on the account of the first paragraph of the article R. 1333-19 of the Public Health code and abrogating the 23 April 1969 order related to equipment and installations using ionizing radiations on medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal document indicates the list of equipment which must now be declared to the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority), specifies that any use of these equipment in conditions other than normal requires an authorization on the account of an article of the Public Health Code. A list of equipment is given which are used in medical and forensics radio-diagnosis, in biomedical research, in dental and veterinary radio-diagnosis

  6. Order of the 29. of January 2010 approving the decision n. 2009-DC-0146 made on the 16. of July 2010 by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), modified by the decision n. 2009-DC-0162 of the 20. of October 2009, defining the list electric equipment generating X rays which are hold or used for purposes of biomedical research or medical, dental, forensics or veterinary diagnosis and submitted to a declaration regime on the account of the first paragraph of the article R. 1333-19 of the Public Health code and abrogating the 23 April 1969 order related to equipment and installations using ionizing radiations on medical purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This legal document indicates the list of equipment which must now be declared to the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority), specifies that any use of these equipment in conditions other than normal requires an authorization on the account of an article of the Public Health Code. A list of equipment is given which are used in medical and forensics radio-diagnosis, in biomedical research, in dental and veterinary radio-diagnosis

  7. 78 FR 35575 - Black Lung Benefits Act: Standards for Chest Radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... toll-free number). Only comments of ten or fewer pages, including a Fax cover sheet and attachments, if... have different fee structures for film and digital radiographs. Instead, standard medical coding...

  8. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  9. Interpretation and evaluation of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After digestion, the interpreter must interpreted and evaluate the image on film, usually many radiograph stuck in this step, if there is good density, so there are no problem. This is a final stage of radiography work and this work must be done by level two or three radiographer. This is a final stages before the radiographer give a result to their customer for further action. The good interpreter must know what kind of artifact, is this artifact are dangerous or not and others. In this chapter, the entire artifact that usually showed will be discussed briefly with the good illustration and picture to make the reader understand and know the type of artifact that exists.

  10. Chesneys' radiographic imaging: revised and edited by John Ball and Tony Price. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    This book (5th edition) reflects the change in emphasis in radiology from photographic processes towards electronic imaging methods. There is new material on image intensifiers and television imaging, digital imaging and digital subtractions. Analyses of the characteristics of, and defects in, images on radiographs, xeroradiographs and the television on screen are included. Methods, equipment and materials used to record the cathode ray tube image are described and there is new material on the principles of alternative diagnostic imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and radionuclide imaging which provide cathode ray tube images. The book is primarily for student radiographers and radiographers studying for postdiplomate qualifications. (author)

  11. Increase in the efficiency of radiographic inspection of welded joints for quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, V.A.; Polevik, V.A.; Korneev, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of increasing the efficiency of radiographical inspection of metallic structures and pipelines welded joints for quality when mounting NPP equipment at the expense of a shorter exposure time is studied. The radiographic control has been conducted with X-ray RUP type instruments and ''Gammarid-25'' defectoscope. The exposure time is shown to be reduced when using active developers for processing radiograms. The sensitivity of radiographical images to X-ray and gamma-radiation increases when using D-82, D-72 active developers and ''roentgen-2'' standard developer for photochemical treatment

  12. Digital image analysis of NDT radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeme, W.A. Jr.; Eizember, A.C.; Douglass, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors the majority of image analysis performed on NDT radiographic images was done visually in the analog domain. While some film digitization was being performed, the process was often unable to capture all the usable information on the radiograph or was too time consuming. CCD technology now provides a method to digitize radiographic film images without losing the useful information captured in the original radiograph in a timely process. Incorporating that technology into a complete digital radiographic workstation allows analog radiographic information to be processed, providing additional information to the radiographer. Once in the digital domain, that data can be stored, and fused with radioscopic and other forms of digital data. The result is more productive analysis and management of radiographic inspection data. The principal function of the NDT Scan IV digital radiography system is the digitization, enhancement and storage of radiographic images

  13. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  14. Position statement on use of hand-held portable dental X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The position statement focuses on justification in the medical field, in particular on the use of hand-held portable dental x-ray equipment. It supplements another HERCA position paper, providing a general overview of the use of all hand-held portable X-ray equipment. Key Messages: - HERCA finds that the use of hand-held portable X-ray devices should be discouraged except in special circumstances. - As a general rule, these devices should only be used in scenarios where an intraoral radiograph is deemed necessary for a patient and the use of a fixed or semi-mobile x-ray unit is impractical, e.g.: - nursing homes, residential care facilities or homes for persons with disabilities; - forensic odontology, - military operations abroad without dental facilities

  15. 21 CFR 866.4500 - Immunoelectrophoresis equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents... clinical use with its electrical power supply is a device used for separating protein molecules...

  16. An evaluation of radiographer performed and interpreted barium swallows and meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, E.E.; Nightingale, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether radiographers are able to perform and interpret barium swallows and meals (BSM) to an acceptable standard. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit was performed of all radiographer-managed BSMs over a 4-year period in an acute hospital. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse patient demographics, radiation doses, referral sources, and imaging findings. Radiographer reports were compared with radiologist reports assumed to be the reference standard, and correlated with patient outcomes via electronic record searches and case note scrutiny. Reporting accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: Three radiographers performed a total of 962 BSMs in the 4-year audit period, including a varied and complex case-mix. Only 13 (0.01%) cases were abandoned due to technical reasons, with all other examinations of diagnostic quality. Although radiation dose levels were initially variable, following the installation of modern fluoroscopy equipment they remained comfortably within the national and regional diagnostic reference levels. Consultant radiologists verified the majority of the radiographer reports, with the most experienced radiographer independently reporting 230 cases (24%). Follow-up of patient outcome was possible in 935 cases. The overall radiographer accuracy based on the 935 cases was 98.9%, sensitivity 98%, and specificity 98.9%. Conclusions: Appropriately trained radiographers are able to perform and interpret BSM examinations to a very high standard.

  17. Pediatric interventional radiography equipment: safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses pediatric image quality and radiation dose considerations in state-of-the-art fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Although most fluoroscopes are capable of automatically providing good image quality on infants, toddlers, and small children, excessive radiation dose levels can result from design deficiencies of the imaging device or inappropriate configuration of the equipment's capabilities when imaging small body parts. Important design features and setup choices at installation and during the clinical use of the imaging device can improve image quality and reduce radiation exposure levels in pediatric patients. Pediatric radiologists and cardiologists, with the help of medical physicists, need to understand the issues involved in creating good image quality at reasonable pediatric patient doses. The control of radiographic technique factors by the generator of the imaging device must provide a large dynamic range of mAs values per exposure pulse during both fluoroscopy and image recording as a function of patient girth, which is the thickness of the patient in the posterior-anterior projection at the umbilicus (less than 10 cm to greater than 30 cm). The range of pulse widths must be limited to less than 10 ms in children to properly freeze patient motion. Variable rate pulsed fluoroscopy can be leveraged to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve image quality. Three focal spots with nominal sizes of 0.3 mm to 1 mm are necessary on the pediatric unit. A second, lateral imaging plane might be necessary because of the child's limited tolerance of contrast medium. Spectral and spatial beam shaping can improve image quality while reducing the radiation dose. Finally, the level of entrance exposure to the image receptor of the fluoroscope as a function of operator choices, of added filter thickness, of selected pulse rate, of the selected field-of-view and of the patient girth all must be addressed at installation. (orig.)

  18. Improving the Quality of Radiographs in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Utilizing Educational Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish O; Rorke, Jeanne; Abubakar, Kabir

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to develop an educational tool to improve the radiograph quality, sustain this improvement overtime, and reduce the number of repeat radiographs. A three phase quality control study was conducted at a tertiary care NICU. A retrospective data collection (phase1) revealed suboptimal radiograph quality and led to an educational intervention and development of X-ray preparation checklist (primary intervention), followed by a prospective data collection for 4 months (phase 2). At the end of phase 2, interim analysis revealed a gradual decline in radiograph quality, which prompted a more comprehensive educational session with constructive feedback to the NICU staff (secondary intervention), followed by another data collection for 6 months (phase 3). There was a significant improvement in the quality of radiographs obtained after primary educational intervention (phase 2) compared with phase 1 (p quality declined but still remained significantly better than phase 1. Secondary intervention resulted in significant improvement in radiograph quality to > 95% in all domains of image quality. No radiographs were repeated in phase 3, compared with 5.8% (16/277) in phase 1. A structured, collaborated educational intervention successfully improves the radiograph quality and decreases the need for repeat radiographs and radiation exposure in the neonates. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Radiographic testing in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic testing done in concrete structures is used to analyse the homogeneity, position and corrosion of armatures and to detect discontinuity in the concrete such as: gaps, cracks and segregations. This work develops a Image quality Indicator (IQI) with an adequated sensibility to detect discontinuites based on BS4408 norm. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heagney, J.; Lewis, S.; Chaffey, C.; Howlett, G.; Moran, A.; McLean, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  1. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heagney, Jillian; Lewis, Sarah; Chaffey, Clare; Howlett, Genevieve; Moran, Alexander; McLean, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  2. Radiographic evaluation of degenerative joint disease in horses: interpretive principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Blevins, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease in horses is characterized by the progressive deterioration of articular cartilage of synovial joints. The morbidity associated with degenerative joint disease, particularly the loss of function in pleasure and performance horses, costs horse owners millions of dollars each year. Although new drugs, such as polysulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid, are available for the treatment of patients with degenerative joint disease, the success of therapy depends on early diagnosis. Diagnostic imaging strategies, therefore, should focus on accurate and timely diagnosis of degenerative joint disease to provide prompt therapy. Early identification of degenerative joint disease is also beneficial because the use and/or training methods of affected patients may be altered, possibly limiting the progression of the disease. The pathogenesis of degenerative joint disease is complex and multifactorial. Current evidence suggests that initiating factors lead to a final common pathway-breakdown of articular cartilage. There are many diagnostic tests that aid practitioners in detecting degenerative joint disease; however, the most important imaging technique is radiography. During the early stages of the disease, radiographic changes may be slight; therefore, it is essential that practitioners have adequate equipment to obtain high-quality radiographs. Thinning of the joint space, osteophytosis, enthesopathy, changes in subchondral bone, and increased synovium and synovia provide radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease. By understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and how technical alterations affect the subtle radiographic changes, practitioners can more accurately diagnose degenerative joint disease during its early stages and institute proper therapy

  3. Image quality analysis of digital mammographic equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, P.; Pascual, A.; Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept. (Spain); Rodenas, F. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Applied Mathematical Dept. (Spain); Campayo, J.M. [Valencia Univ. Hospital Clinico, Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Clinico La Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The image quality assessment of a radiographic phantom image is one of the fundamental points in a complete quality control programme. The good functioning result of all the process must be an image with an appropriate quality to carry out a suitable diagnostic. Nowadays, the digital radiographic equipments are replacing the traditional film-screen equipments and it is necessary to update the parameters to guarantee the quality of the process. Contrast-detail phantoms are applied to digital radiography to study the threshold contrast detail sensitivity at operation conditions of the equipment. The phantom that is studied in this work is C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, which facilitates the evaluation of image contrast and detail resolution. One of the most extended indexes to measure the image quality in an objective way is the Image Quality Figure (I.Q.F.). This parameter is useful to calculate the image quality taking into account the contrast and detail resolution of the image analysed. The contrast-detail curve is useful as a measure of the image quality too, because it is a graphical representation in which the hole thickness and diameter are plotted for each contrast-detail combination detected in the radiographic image of the phantom. It is useful for the comparison of the functioning of different radiographic image systems, for phantom images under the same exposition conditions. The aim of this work is to study the image quality of different images contrast-detail phantom C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, carrying out the automatic detection of the contrast-detail combination and to establish a parameter which characterize in an objective way the mammographic image quality. This is useful to compare images obtained at different digital mammographic equipments to study the functioning of the equipments. (authors)

  4. Image quality analysis of digital mammographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, P.; Pascual, A.; Verdu, G.; Rodenas, F.; Campayo, J.M.; Villaescusa, J.I.

    2006-01-01

    The image quality assessment of a radiographic phantom image is one of the fundamental points in a complete quality control programme. The good functioning result of all the process must be an image with an appropriate quality to carry out a suitable diagnostic. Nowadays, the digital radiographic equipments are replacing the traditional film-screen equipments and it is necessary to update the parameters to guarantee the quality of the process. Contrast-detail phantoms are applied to digital radiography to study the threshold contrast detail sensitivity at operation conditions of the equipment. The phantom that is studied in this work is C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, which facilitates the evaluation of image contrast and detail resolution. One of the most extended indexes to measure the image quality in an objective way is the Image Quality Figure (I.Q.F.). This parameter is useful to calculate the image quality taking into account the contrast and detail resolution of the image analysed. The contrast-detail curve is useful as a measure of the image quality too, because it is a graphical representation in which the hole thickness and diameter are plotted for each contrast-detail combination detected in the radiographic image of the phantom. It is useful for the comparison of the functioning of different radiographic image systems, for phantom images under the same exposition conditions. The aim of this work is to study the image quality of different images contrast-detail phantom C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, carrying out the automatic detection of the contrast-detail combination and to establish a parameter which characterize in an objective way the mammographic image quality. This is useful to compare images obtained at different digital mammographic equipments to study the functioning of the equipments. (authors)

  5. Doses from Medical Radiation Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Radiation Sources Michael G. Stabin, PhD, CHP Introduction Radiation exposures from diagnostic medical examinations are generally ... of exposure annually to natural background radiation. Plain Film X Rays Single Radiographs Effective Dose, mSv Skull ( ...

  6. Importance of radiographic monitoring of endoscopic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated

  7. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both...

  8. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...

  9. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  10. Possible radiation dose reduction by using digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation load of population all over the world from medical examinations clearly demonstrates the importance of the introduction of the quality assurance and quality control programmes into the activities of radiology departments. The basic aim of quality assurance program is to ensure that the radiation dose is kept as low as reasonably practicable while still providing an adequate image quality. As many other fields, the rapid development of techniques brought change-over from the conventional analogue technique to the digital technique. In this process, the conventional X-ray film is being abandoned and images are being viewed on either laser film or monitor. The main advantages of using digital equipment lay in improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy through digital image processing, reduction in patients exposure, cost reduction by reduction of the film usage, more efficient storage and retrieval of radiographic images through picture archiving. Several studies that have been conducted for comparison of various diagnostic examinations show , that there is potential for dose saving in the digital image intensifier technique. The aim of this study was to compare measured values of dose-area product for colon investigations using different X-ray equipment types, two digital and two analogue. Our material consisted of 169 randomly selected patients, 115 of them were examined with digital equipment and 54 patients with the analogue equipment. The obtained results have confirmed the dose reduction and increase of diagnostic accuracy when using the digital equipment, with the added benefit of a good image quality. (authors)

  11. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  12. Radiology preparedness in ebola virus disease: guidelines and challenges for disinfection of medical imaging equipment for the protection of staff and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Palmore, Tara N; Folio, Les R; Bluemke, David A

    2015-05-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  13. Physiological conditions for the effective interpretation of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overington, I.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of factors influence the ability of the human observer to perceive detail in images. Most of these factors are of some significance in interpretation of one or more types of radiographic image. Human observer performance may be conveniently categorized in terms of multiparametric threshold surfaces, suprathreshold visibility and observer variance. The general multiparametric trends of human threshold performance are discussed, together with the implications for visibility. The importance and implications of observer variance are then explored, with particular reference to their effects on search processes. Finally, attempts are made to highlight the implications of some of the factors on typical radiographic interpretation tasks and on the adequacy of certain types of phantom image used for equipment calibration. (author)

  14. Radiographic evaluation of maxillofacial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwan, M.; Fliegel, C.

    1986-01-01

    The course and configuration of typical maxillofacial fractures (type Le Fort I-III) and lateral maxillary fractures including the zygomatic arch were reconstructed in detail by application of barium paste on a bony skull and radiogrpahs in standard projections were performed and evaluated. It was obvious from the resulting radiographs that for most maxillofacial fractures a half axial or Water's view was most helpful. Lateral views only give additional information when there is a considerable degree of dislocation of fragments. Comparison with a prediatric skull of 8 years of age demonstrated that fractures of the zygomatic arch in this age group cannot be demonstrated by the typical submento-vertical view, but are shown on a Towne projection. The radiographic appearance of important maxillofacial fractures is demonstrated. The necessity of further studies in cases where reconstructive surgery appears necessary is discussed and CT rather then conventional tomography is advocated. (orig.) [de

  15. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  16. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  17. Occupational health and the radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronach, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the occupational health hazards faced by radiographers in the hospital environment. There has been very little work done in this area in the past, and as the subject is so large this paper can do little other than raise some of the issues . The hazards addressed include: radiation, ergonomics, chemical, environmental, biological, occupational injury and accident, stress. 14 refs., 2 figs

  18. Methods of silver recovery from radiographs - comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L. R.; Ardelean, E.; Hepuţ, T.

    2018-01-01

    Management and recovery of waste are activities with multiple impacts: technologically (by using waste on current production flows, thus replacing poor raw materials), economically (can substantially reduce manufacturing costs by recycling waste), social (by creating new jobs where it is necessary to process the waste in a form more suited to technological flows) and ecologically (by removing waste that is currently produced or already stored - but poses a threat to the health of the population and / or to the environment). This is also the case for medical waste, for example radiographs, which are currently produced in large quantities, for which replacement solutions are sought, but are currently stored by archiving in hospital units. The paper presents two methods used for this kind of waste management, the result being the recovery of silver, material with applications and with increasing price, but also the proper disposal of the polymeric support. This analysis aims at developing a more efficient recycling technology for medical radiographs.

  19. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Mueller, Christina; Bertovic, Marija [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Pitkaenen, Jorma [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The radiographic testing is an important non-destructive testing method, especially in industrial areas where people could be injured in case of failing of a component. There it is a mighty method to find volumetric defects. As bigger the penetrated length of the defect in the component is, as bigger is the radiographic contrast. The detectability of volumetric defects in its turn is not only depending on the contrast but also on the noise, the defect area and its shape. The currently applied POD approach uses mostly only the contrast and the noise as detection threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the area of the defect. The presentation shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data. This approach was developed within a joint project with the company POSIVA, which is constructing a final depository for high active nuclear fuels in Finland. Radiographic testing is one of the NDT-methods they use to test the electron beam welds of the copper canisters. The copper canisters will be used in the depository as a corrosion barrier within the waste management concept. (Published as a poster session.)

  20. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 10 9 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author) [pt

  1. A Radiographic Study of Odontoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the clinical and radiographic features of the odontomas in the jaws. For this study, the authors examined and analyzed the clinical records and radiographs of 119 patients who had lesion of odontoma diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Odontoma occurred the most frequently in the 2nd decade (45.4%) and occurred more frequently in males (60.5%) than in females (39.5%). 2. The most common clinical symptom was the delayed eruption of the teeth (34.2%). 3. The type of lesions was mainly observed as compound odontoma (80.8%), and internal pattern of the complex odontoma was unevenly radiopaque (73.9%). 4. The compound odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of the maxilla (57.7%) and mandible (30.9%), and complex odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (34.8%) and posterior portion of mandible (30.5%). 5. The effects on adjacent teeth were impaction of teeth (71.7%) and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth (31.7%). 6. The impaction of the teeth occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (44.2%) amd mandible (19.2%), but root resorption of the adjacent teeth were not seen. 7. The boundary to adjacent structure was well-defined , the lesions appear as radiopaque mass with radiolucent rim.

  2. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  3. Improvement of a portable high-energy radiographic inspection system: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the development of miniaturized linear accelerator (MINAC) technology, including descriptions of all major developments sponsored by EPRI subsequent to previously sponsored work. In addition, this report describes MINAC-related developments in both real-time x-ray imaging and radiographic image data processing systems which were sponsored by EPRI concurrently. The objectives of this program have been to achieve modifications identified as desirable improvements to the basic ''MINAC 3'' equipment; to expand the range and effectiveness of MINAC applications through design improvements, achievement of wider energy/output capabilities, and the development of suitable imaging and digital processing technologies; and to provide technical information on high-energy radiographic equipment useful to scientists, educators, institutions, NDE technicians and others who may benefit from detailed information on the special equipment. Program, equipment and technical descriptions are followed by conclusions and recommendations for future work

  4. The parameters of X-ray equipment that influence in patient exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main components of the X-rays equipment and the secondary device for radiodiagnosis examination are showed. The influence of all radiographs parameters in human exposure as tension and current are also analysed. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  6. An evidence based protocol for peer review of radiographer musculoskeletal plain film reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Paul; Hannah, April; Jones, Helen; Edwards, Rosemary; Harrington, Kate; Baker, Sally-Anne; Fitzgerald, Nicole; Belfield, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Medical image interpretation by non-medically trained staff continues to court controversy. This article aims to show that any potential risks associated with radiographer reporting can be monitored and mitigated if a robust peer review system is introduced. A search of the evidence base illustrates a paucity of guidance on how reporting radiographers should be audited or how a peer review process should be implemented. A practical framework for designing a reporting radiographer peer review process is provided. Methods: Following a literature review, key issues faced when designing a peer review protocol were identified. The following questions are answered: How frequent should peer review take place? How many reports should be reviewed? How are reports selected for review? Who should peer review the radiographer reports? How should radiographer's reporting performance be measured? What standard of reporting is acceptable? Results: Details are provided of the process that has been used for over three years at a busy inner-city teaching hospital for auditing musculoskeletal plain film radiographer reporting. The peer review method presented is not intended to produce robust statistical data; it is a practical method of locally assessing the reporting competency. As such, our protocol should be viewed as part of a larger programme for continuing professional development. Conclusion: It is hoped that this practical protocol will encourage radiology departments to engage in a programme of peer review for reporting radiographers.

  7. Radiographic appearances in Crohn's disease. I. Accuracy of radiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildell, J; Lindstroem, C; Wenckert, A [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Pathology and Surgery, Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden

    1979-01-01

    Preoperative films of 176 patients operated upon for Crohn's disease were reviewed and compared with microscopic findings in the resected specimens in order to assess the accuracy of the radiographic techniques used. It was found that a diagnosis of the presence and the extent of the disease was often dependent on the demonstration of minor mucosal ulcers and less marked submucosal edema. These lesions were not adequately demonstrated by any of the techniques used for small bowel examination, but were consistently revealed by the double-contrast technique used for examination of the colon.

  8. Reduction of levels of radiation exposure over patients and medical staff by using additional filters of copper and aluminum on the outputs of X-ray tubes in hemodynamic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Guilherme L.; Müller, Felipe M.; Schuch, Luiz A.

    2013-01-01

    Radioprotection in hemodynamic services is extremely important. Decrease of total exposition time, better positioning of medical staff in the room, use of individual and collective protection equipment and shorter distance between the patient and the image intensifier tube are, among others, some ways to reduce the levels of radiation. It is noted that these possible forms of reducing the radiation exposition varies depending on the medical staff. Hence, the purpose of the present paper is to reduce such levels of radiation exposition in a way apart from medical staffs. It is proposed, therefore, the use of additional filters on the output of the X-ray tube in three hemodynamic equipment from different generations: detector with a flat panel of amorphous selenium, image intensifier tube with charge coupled device, and image intensifier tube with video camera. In order to quantify the quality of the images generated, a simulator made of aluminum plates and other devices was set up, so it was possible to measure and compare the acquired images. Methods of images analysis (threshold, histogram, 3D surface) were used to measure the signal/noise ratio, the spatial resolution, the contrast and the definition of the signal area, thus doubts regarding the analysis of the images among observers (inter-observers) and even for a single observer (intra-observer) can be avoided. Ionization chambers were also used in order to quantify the doses of radiation that penetrated the skin of the patients with and without the use of the filters. In all cases was found an arrangement of filters that combines quality of the images with a significant reduction of the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation, concerning both the patient and the medical staff. (author)

  9. International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ISRRT was formed in 1962 with 15 national societies and by the year 2000 has grown to comprise more than 70 member societies. The main objects of the organization are to: Improve the education of radiographers; Support the development of medical radiation technology worldwide; Promote a better understanding and implementation of radiation protection standards. The ISRRT has been a non-governmental organization in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1967. It is the only international radiographic organization that represents radiation medicine technology and has more than 200 000 members within its 70 member countries. Representatives of the ISRRT have addressed a number of assemblies of WHO regional committees on matters relating to radiation protection and radiation medicine technology. In this way, the expertise of radiographers worldwide contributes to the establishment of international standards in vital areas, such as: Quality control; Legislation for radiation protection; Good practice in radiographic procedures; Basic radiological services. The ISRRT believes that good and consistent standards of practice throughout the world are essential

  10. Para-acetabular peritendinitis calcarea; its radiographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Akira; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    Peritendinitis calcarea and os acetabuli have long been confused during interpretations of hip-joint radiographs. Such confusion is reflected in the medical literature. The present study differentiated these two entities according to their interval radiographic progression and regression. There were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications among 110 subjects (59 men and 51 women), whose mean age was 46.8 years at the time of their initial detection. Twenty-six of the subjects had lumbago, which was probably unrelated. Other abnormalities including narrowed intervertebral spaces, scoliosis, and spondylolysis were observed in 21 of the subjects. These could have been responsible for any symptoms they had had, but none of the subjects complained of local hip-joint pain when the radiographs in question were made. Ninety-three of these instances of calcification were reviewed by means of serial radiographs. Interval changes in the sizes and shapes of the calcifications occurred among 90 of them, indicative of the latent type of peritendinitis calcarea. No interval changes were noted in the remaining three cases, indicating they were secondary ossification centers; namely, os acetabuli. This study showed that in asymptomatic adults, most para-acetabular calcifications were really not os acetabuli, but actually peritendinitis calcarea. (author)

  11. Prevalence of dental developmental anomalies: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddini, Ardakani F; Sheikhha, M H; Ahmadi, H

    2007-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies in patients attending the Dental Faculty of Medical University of Yazd, Iran and the gender differences of these anomalies. A retrospective study based on the panoramic radiographs of 480 patients. Patients referred for panoramic radiographs were clinically examined, a detailed family history of any dental anomalies in their first and second degree relatives was obtained and finally their radiographs were studied in detail for the presence of dental anomalies. 40.8% of the patients had dental anomalies. The more common anomalies were dilaceration (15%), impacted teeth (8.3%) and taurodontism (7.5%) and supernumerary teeth (3.5%). Macrodontia and fusion were detected in a few radiographs (0.2%). 49.1% of male patients had dental anomalies compared to 33.8% of females. Dilaceration, taurodontism and supernumerary teeth were found to be more prevalent in men than women, whereas impacted teeth, microdontia and gemination were more frequent in women. Family history of dental anomalies was positive in 34% of the cases.. Taurodontism, gemination, dens in dente and talon cusp were specifically limited to the patients under 20 year's old, while the prevalence of other anomalies was almost the same in all groups. Dilaceration, impaction and taurodontism were relatively common in the studied populaton. A family history of dental anomalies was positive in a third of cases.

  12. Effect of display type and room illuminance in chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liukkonen, Esa; Jartti, Airi; Haapea, Marianne; Oikarinen, Heljae; Ahvenjaervi, Lauri; Mattila, Seija; Nevala, Terhi; Palosaari, Kari; Perhomaa, Marja; Nieminen, Miika T.

    2016-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy in the detection of subtle chest lesions on digital chest radiographs using medical-grade displays, consumer-grade displays, and tablet devices under bright and dim ambient light. Five experienced radiologists independently assessed 50 chest radiographs (32 with subtle pulmonary findings and 18 without apparent findings) under bright (510 lx) and dim (16 lx) ambient lighting. Computed tomography was used as the reference standard for interstitial and nodular lesions and follow-up chest radiograph for pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were calculated for assessments carried out in all displays and compared using the McNemar test. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Significant differences in sensitivity between the assessments under bright and dim lighting were found among consumer-grade displays in interstitial opacities with, and in pneumothorax without, Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine-Grayscale Standard Display Function (DICOM-GSDF) calibration. Compared to 6 megapixel (MP) display under bright lighting, sensitivity in pneumothorax was lower in the tablet device and the consumer-grade display. Sensitivity in interstitial opacities was lower in the DICOM-GSDF calibrated consumer-grade display. A consumer-grade display with or without DICOM-GSDF calibration or a tablet device is not suitable for reading digital chest radiographs in bright lighting. No significant differences were observed between five displays in dim light. (orig.)

  13. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Coverage and Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program Bid Surety Bonds, State Licensure and Appeals Process for Breach of Contract Actions, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program and Fee Schedule Adjustments, Access to Care Issues for Durable Medical Equipment; and the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System (PPS) for calendar year 2017. It also finalizes policies for coverage and payment for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program, including the inclusion of new quality measures beginning with payment year (PY) 2020 and provides updates to programmatic policies for the PY 2018 and PY 2019 ESRD QIP. This rule also implements statutory requirements for bid surety bonds and state licensure for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) Competitive Bidding Program (CBP). This rule also expands suppliers' appeal rights in the event of a breach of contract action taken by CMS, by revising the appeals regulation to extend the appeals process to all types of actions taken by CMS for a supplier's breach of contract, rather than limit an appeal for the termination of a competitive bidding contract. The rule also finalizes changes to the methodologies for adjusting fee schedule amounts for DMEPOS using information from CBPs and for submitting bids and establishing single payment amounts under the CBPs for certain groupings of similar items with different features to address price inversions. Final changes also are made to the method for establishing bid limits for items under the DMEPOS CBPs. In addition, this rule summarizes comments on the impacts of coordinating Medicare and Medicaid Durable Medical Equipment for dually eligible beneficiaries. Finally, this rule also summarizes comments received in response to a request for information related to the Comprehensive ESRD Care Model and future payment models affecting renal care.

  14. Stereoscopic radiographic images with gamma source encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocovsky, S.G.; Otero, D

    2012-01-01

    Conventional radiography with X-ray tube has several drawbacks, as the compromise between the size of the focal spot and the fluence. The finite dimensions of the focal spot impose a limit to the spatial resolution. Gamma radiography uses gamma-ray sources which surpass in size, portability and simplicity to X-ray tubes. However, its low intrinsic fluence forces to use extended sources that also degrade the spatial resolution. In this work, we show the principles of a new radiographic technique that overcomes the limitations associated with the finite dimensions of X-ray sources, and that offers additional benefits to conventional techniques. The new technique called coding source imaging (CSI), is based on the use of extended sources, edge-encoding of radiation and differential detection. The mathematical principles and the method of images reconstruction with the new proposed technique are explained in the present work. Analytical calculations were made to determine the maximum spatial resolution and the variables on which it depends. The CSI technique was tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with sets of spherical objects. We show that CSI has stereoscopic capabilities and it can resolve objects smaller than the source size. The CSI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections from the same object, while conventional radiography produces only one projection per acquisition. Projections are located in separate image fields on the detector plane. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple radiographic technique with extended sources, and get 3D information of the attenuation coefficient distribution for simple geometry objects in a single acquisition. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex objects typical of medical diagnostic radiography and industrial gamma radiography (author)

  15. Sensitometric curve of radiographic films by X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, E.A.S., E-mail: elicardo.goncalves@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, D.F.; Anjos, M.J. dos; Oliveira, L.F. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiographic film exposure is traditionally measured by the transmittance of a beam of light through the film. There are many mathematical and computational models to characterize the curve behavior and its properties, but almost none of them considers the limitations caused by the equipment used. As long as exposure in film increases, light intensity measured after the film decreases in a way that from a certain exposure, light could not be distinguished from any kind of noise. This work aims to propose x-ray fluorescence as a solution for better measure high exposed films and show how it could be modeled mathematically. (author)

  16. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.31 Inspection and... maintenance program must include procedures to assure that Type B packages are shipped and maintained in...

  17. Assessment of Radiographic Image Quality by Visual Examination of Neutron Radiographs of the Calibration Fuel Pin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Up till now no reliable radiographic image quality standards exist for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Under the Euratoro Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) Test Program neutron radiographs were produced at different neutron radiography facilities within the European Community...... of a calibration fuel pin. The radiographs were made by the direct, transfer and tracketch methods using different film recording materials. These neutron radiographs of the calibration fuel pin were used for the assessement of radiographic image quality. This was done by visual examination of the radiographs...

  18. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  19. Advanced radiographic practice - the legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, C.J.; Hogg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Allied health and nursing professionals are continuing to expand their responsibilities into clinical areas outside their traditional spheres of interest; typically, many of these new responsibilities are found within the medical (doctor) domain. Such responsibilities are often at an advanced clinical level and consequently higher demands are placed upon the professionals, not least in terms of clinical updating, competence to practice and also legal liability. This article explores the legal implications of practising at an advanced clinical level with particular reference to legal claims. The first part of the article commences with an outline of pertinent law in England and Wales. The latter part of the article explores actual cases from which allied health professionals (eg radiographers) can gain valuable information. Throughout the article suggestions for good practice are indicated. Examples of good practice include: the need to base your practice on evidence and peer practice; the need to keep detailed records (protocols) of such practice; the need to know when you are at the limit of your ability; and as such when to ask for advice from a medical practitioner/radiologist

  20. Specific developed phantoms and software to assess radiological equipment image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear; Mayo, P., E-mail: p.mayo@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain); Rodenas, F., E-mail: frodenas@mat.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Campayo, J.M., E-mail: j.campayo@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales S.A.U (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The use of radiographic phantoms specifically designed to evaluate the operation of the radiographic equipment lets the study of the image quality obtained by this equipment in an objective way. In digital radiographic equipment, the analysis of the image quality can be automatized because the acquisition of the image is possible in different technologies that are, computerized radiography or phosphor plate and direct radiography or detector. In this work we have shown an application to assess automatically the constancy quality image in the image chain of the radiographic equipment. This application is integrated by designed radiographic phantoms which are adapted to conventional, dental equipment and specific developed software for the automatic evaluation of the phantom image quality. The software is based on digital image processing techniques that let the automatic detection of the different phantom tests by edge detector, morphological operators, threshold histogram techniques, etc. The utility developed is enough sensitive to the radiographic equipment of operating conditions of voltage (kV) and charge (mAs). It is a friendly user programme connected with a data base of the hospital or clinic where it has been used. After the phantom image processing the user can obtain an inform with a resume of the imaging system state with accepting and constancy results. (author)

  1. Specific developed phantoms and software to assess radiological equipment image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Rodenas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radiographic phantoms specifically designed to evaluate the operation of the radiographic equipment lets the study of the image quality obtained by this equipment in an objective way. In digital radiographic equipment, the analysis of the image quality can be automatized because the acquisition of the image is possible in different technologies that are, computerized radiography or phosphor plate and direct radiography or detector. In this work we have shown an application to assess automatically the constancy quality image in the image chain of the radiographic equipment. This application is integrated by designed radiographic phantoms which are adapted to conventional, dental equipment and specific developed software for the automatic evaluation of the phantom image quality. The software is based on digital image processing techniques that let the automatic detection of the different phantom tests by edge detector, morphological operators, threshold histogram techniques, etc. The utility developed is enough sensitive to the radiographic equipment of operating conditions of voltage (kV) and charge (mAs). It is a friendly user programme connected with a data base of the hospital or clinic where it has been used. After the phantom image processing the user can obtain an inform with a resume of the imaging system state with accepting and constancy results. (author)

  2. The influence of a continuing education program on the image interpretation accuracy of rural radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony N; Traise, Peter; Cook, Aiden

    2009-01-01

    In regional, rural and remote clinical practice, radiographers work closely with medical members of the acute care team in the interpretation of radiographic images, particularly when no radiologist is available. However, the misreading of radiographs by non-radiologist physicians has been shown to be the most common type of clinical error in the emergency department. Further, in Australia few rural radiographers are specifically trained to interpret and report on images. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a group of rural radiographers in interpreting musculoskeletal plain radiographs, and to assess the effectiveness of continuing education (CE) in improving their accuracy within a short time frame. Following ethics approval, 16 rural radiographers were recruited to the study. At inception a purpose-designed 'test-object' of 25 cases compiled by a radiologist was used to assess image interpretation accuracy. The cases were categorised into three grades of complexity. The radiographers entered their answers on a structured radiographer opinion form (ROF) that had three levels of response - 'general opinion', 'observations' and 'open comment'. Subsequent to base-line testing, the radiographers participated in a CE program aimed at improving their image interpretation skills. After a 4 month period they were re-tested using the same methodology. The ROFs were scored by the radiologist and the pooled results analysed for statistically significant changes at all ROF levels and grades of complexity. While for the small number of less complex grade 1 cases there was no change in image interpretation accuracy, for the more numerous and more complex grade 2 and grade 3 cases there was a statistically significant improvement at the 'general opinion' and 'observation' levels (paired t-test, p radiologist. However, radiographers' ability to use radiological vocabulary needs improvement. The complementary role that exists between radiographers and other members of

  3. Radiographer involvement in mammography image interpretation: A survey of United Kingdom practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpan, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is most often diagnosed using x-ray mammography. Traditionally mammography images have been interpreted and reported by medically qualified practitioners – radiologists. Due to radiologist workforce shortages in recent years some non-medical practitioners, radiographers, now interpret and report mammography images. The aims of this survey were to describe the characteristics and practices of radiographers who interpret and report mammography images in NHS hospitals in the UK, and in particular to establish the extent of their practice beyond low-risk asymptomatic screening cases. This service evaluation demonstrated that UK radiographers are interpreting and reporting images across the full spectrum of clinical indications for mammography including: low-risk population screening, symptomatic, annual surveillance, family history and biopsy/surgical cases. The survey revealed that radiographers are involved in a diverse range of single and double reading practices where responsibility for diagnostic decision making is shared or transferred between radiologists and/or other radiographers. Comparative analysis of sub-group data suggested that there might be differences in the characteristics and practices of radiographers who interpret only low-risk screening mammograms and those who interpret and report a wider range of cases. The findings of this survey provide a platform for further research to investigate how and why the roles and responsibilities of radiographers who interpret and report mammograms vary between organisations, between practitioners and across different examinations. Further research is also needed to explore the implications of variation in practice for patients, practitioners and service providers. - Highlights: • UK radiographers interpret mammograms across the full spectrum of clinical indications. • UK radiographers are involved in a wide range of single/double mammography reading practices. • Characteristics required for

  4. Total elbow arthroplasty: a radiographic outcome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue Susan [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is becoming a popular alternative to arthrodesis for patients with end-stage elbow arthrosis and comminuted distal humeral fractures. Prior outcome studies have primarily focused on surgical findings. Our purpose is to determine the radiographic outcome of TEA and to correlate with clinical symptoms such as pain. This is an IRB-approved retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 of all patients with semiconstrained TEA. All available elbow radiographs and clinical data were reviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for radiographic and clinical survival. A total of 104 total elbow arthroplasties in 102 patients were reviewed; 75 % were in women and the mean patient age was 63.1 years. Mean radiographic follow-up was 826 days with average of four radiographs per patient. Seventy TEAs (67 %) developed radiographic complications, including heterotopic ossification (48 %), perihardware lucency (27 %), periprosthetic fracture (23 %), hardware subluxation/dislocation (7 %), polyethylene wear (3 %), and hardware fracture/dislodgement (3 %); 56 patients (55 %) developed symptoms of elbow pain or instability and 30 patients (30 %) underwent at least one reoperation. In patients with radiographic complications, 66 % developed elbow pain, compared to 19 % of patients with no radiologic complications (p = 0.001). Of the patients with radiographic complications, 39 % had at least one additional surgery compared to 0 % of patients without radiographic complications (p = 0.056). Radiographic complications are common in patients after total elbow arthroplasty. There is a strong positive association between post-operative radiographic findings and clinical outcome. Knowledge of common postoperative radiographic findings is important for the practicing radiologist. (orig.)

  5. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  6. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  7. The use and abuse of radiographic grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that scattered radiation degrades the quality of the radiographic image. When this problem occurs, a radiographic grid may be applied which necessitates an increase in exposure. Investigations are reported in the following areas: reasons for the introduction of a radiographic grid; the ratio between kilovoltage and grid ratio; techniques resulting in higher contrast and resolution at low patient dose and the abuse of grids

  8. Measure by image analysis of industrial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1988-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system for non destructive testing intends to provide the expert with computer tool, to precisely quantify radiographic images. The author describes the main problems, from the image formation to its characterization. She also insists on the necessity to define a precise process in order to automatize the system. Some examples illustrate the efficiency of digital processing for radiographic images [fr

  9. Radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Roswati, N.; Ismail, K.

    1989-01-01

    Many studies have been reported on radiographic lesion sizes of periapical lesions. However no studies have been reported on prevalences of subjective radiographic features in these lesions except for the early assumption that a periapical cyst usually exhibit a radiopaque cortex. This study is conducted to evaluate the prevalences of several subjective radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas in the hope to identify features that maybe suggestive of either diagnosis. The resu...

  10. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justification for automation is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 3x10 (to the power of nine) bits per 14x17. This is equivalent to 2200 computer floppy disks parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, a computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14x27 (inch) film in 6-8 seconds can digitize film in information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for film digital radiography system) is moving toward 50 micron (16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. (Author). 4 refs.; 21 figs

  11. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraste, H.; Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films frompatients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping. (orig.)

  12. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraste, H; Brostroem, L A; Aparisi, T

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films from patients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping.

  13. Computational simulation of radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Elicardo A. de S.; Santos, Marcio H. dos; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Oliveira, Luis F. de

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a radiographic film gives its values of speed, spatial resolution and base density. The technical knowledge allows to predict how a film with a known composition works, and simulate how this film will work with changes in composition and exposure. In this paper, characterization of films composed by different emulsions was realized, in a way to know the characteristic curve, and to study how the format, organization and concentration of silver salt crystals set the radiographic film images.This work aims to increase an existing simulator, where parallel programming was used to simulate X-ray fluorescence processes. The setup of source and X-ray interactions with objects stills the same, and the detector constructed in this work was placed to form images. At first, considering the approach that the film is a square matrix where each element has a specific quantity of silver grains, that each grain fills a specific area, and that each interaction to radiation transforms a salt silver grain in to metallic silver grain (black grain), we have a blackening standard, and it should show how is the behavior of a optic density in a specific area of the film. Each matrix element has a degree of blackening, and it is proportional to the black grains area. (author)

  14. Stepped scanner radiographic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The imaging system includes a radiographic camera, a bed for supporting a subject in view of the camera, and a display system. The camera provides X and Y coordinate signals of each radiographic event. The position of the bed relative to the camera is altered sequentially by drive means, between each of a sequence of images provided by the camera. The sequentially occurring images are presented on the display system, each image being positioned on the display in correspondence with the location of the bed relative to the camera. The coordinates of each image point presented on the display is equal to the sum of the respective X and Y coordinate signals from the camera with X and Y coordinate signals provided by a timer which controls the drive means and defines the location of the bed relative to the camera. The camera is electronically decoupled from the display by a gate during movement of the bed relative to the camera from one location to the next location to prevent any smearing effect within the composite image presented on the display. (author)

  15. Digital processing of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  16. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  17. Radiographic localization of unerupted mandibular anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S G

    2000-10-01

    The parallax method and the use of 2 radiographs taken at right angles to each other are the 2 methods generally used to accurately localize teeth. For the parallax method, the combination of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph is recommended. This combination involves a vertical x-ray tube shift. Three case reports are presented that illustrate: (1) how this combination can accurately localize unerupted mandibular anterior teeth, (2) how a deceptive appearance of the labiolingual position of the unerupted tooth can be produced in an occlusal radiograph, (3) how increasing the vertical angle of the tube for the occlusal radiograph makes the tube shift easier to discern, (4) why occlusal radiographs are preferable to periapical radiographs for tube shifts, and (5) how localization can also be carried out with 2 radiographs at right angles to each other, one of which is an occlusal radiograph taken with the x-ray tube directed along the long axis of the reference tooth.

  18. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  19. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...

  20. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  1. Phantom development for radiographic image optimization of chest, skull and pelvis examination for nonstandard patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Duarte, S.B.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Morceli, J.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the adapted patient equivalent phantom (APEP) to simulate the X-ray scattering and absorption by chest, skull and pelvis of nonstandard patient in conventional radiographic equipment is presented. This APEP system is associated to the pre-existing realistic-analytic phantom (RAP) [Pina, D.R., Duarte, S.B., Ghilardi Netto, T., Trad, C. S., Brochi, M.A.C., Oliveira, S.C. de, 2004. Optimization of standard patient radiographic images for chest, skull and pelvis exams in conventional X-ray equipment. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N215-N226] forming the coupled phantom (RAP-APEP), which is used to establish an optimization process of radiographic images of chest, skull and pelvis for nonstandard patients. A chart of the optimized radiographic technique is established covering a wide range of nonstandard patient thickness, and offering a dose reduction in comparison with those techniques currently used. Different validation processes were applied to confirm the improving of the radiographic image quality when techniques of the established chart are used

  2. Radiographic Detectability of Retained Neuropatties in a Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wangjian Thomas; Almack, Robert; Mawson, John B; Cochrane, David Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Counts are the commonest method used to ensure that all sponges and neuropatties are removed from a surgical site before closure. When the count is not reconciled, plain radiographs of the operative site are taken to determine whether the missing patty has been left in the wound. The purpose of this study was to describe the detectability of commonly used neuropatties in the clinical setting using digital technologies. Neuropatties were implanted into the anterior and posterior cranial fossae and the thoracolumbar extradural space of a mature male cadaver. Four neuropatty sizes were used: 3 × 1 in, 2 × ½ in, ½ × ½ in, and ¼ × ¼ in. Neuropatties, with size and location chosen at random, were placed in the surgical sites and anteroposterior/posterior-anterior and lateral radiographs were taken using standard portable digital radiographic equipment. Six clinicians reviewed the digital images for the presence or absence of neuropatties. The readers were not aware of the number and size of the patties that were included in each image. The detectability of neuropatties is dependent on the size of the neuropatty's radiopaque marker and the operative site. Neuropatties measuring 2 × ½ in and 3 × 1 in were detected reliably regardless of the operative site. ¼ × ¼ in neuropatties were poorly detected by neurosurgeons and radiologists in all three operative sites. Readers of various experience and background were similar in their ability to detect neuropatties under these conditions. Under simulated operating room conditions and using currently available neuropatties and plain radiograph imaging technology, small ¼-in and ½-in neuropatties are poorly visible/detectable on digital images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental radiographic study on the dilantin induced osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yung Gul; You, Dong So [Department of radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul Nation University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    Radiographic measurements on the which of mandibular cortical plate and the lamina dura and on the root length were done in 42 patients who were in long-term Dilantin medication. Osteoporosis and root abnormalities were also investigated. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The number of male patients was greater than that of female patients. 2. The width of mandibular cortical plate was thinner in patient group than in control group. 3. There was no significant change in the width of lamina dura between the patient group and control group. 4. The root length of patient group was generally shorter than that of control group. 5. There were evidence of generalized mandibular osteoporosis and alteration in mandibular canal wall in 8 patients. (19%) 6. In Dilantin induced osteomalacia, the radiographic changes of mandibular canal wall and mandibular cortical plate were prominent, but that of lamina dura was not significant.

  4. Dental radiographic study on the dilantin induced osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yung Gul; You, Dong So

    1983-01-01

    Radiographic measurements on the which of mandibular cortical plate and the lamina dura and on the root length were done in 42 patients who were in long-term Dilantin medication. Osteoporosis and root abnormalities were also investigated. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The number of male patients was greater than that of female patients. 2. The width of mandibular cortical plate was thinner in patient group than in control group. 3. There was no significant change in the width of lamina dura between the patient group and control group. 4. The root length of patient group was generally shorter than that of control group. 5. There were evidence of generalized mandibular osteoporosis and alteration in mandibular canal wall in 8 patients. (19%) 6. In Dilantin induced osteomalacia, the radiographic changes of mandibular canal wall and mandibular cortical plate were prominent, but that of lamina dura was not significant.

  5. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

  6. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  7. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  8. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  9. Radiographic techniques for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Katsuhei

    2007-01-01

    Since the differences in X-ray absorption between various breast tissues are small, a dedicated X-ray system for examination of the breast and a high-contrast, high-resolution screen/film system (SFM) (light-receiving system) are employed for X-ray diagnosis. Currently, however, there is a strong trend toward digital imaging in the field of general radiography, and this trend is also reflected in the field of mammographic examination. In fact, approximately 70% of facilities purchasing new mammography systems are now selecting a digital mammography system (DRM). Given this situation, this report reviews the differences between SFM and DRM and discusses the radiographic techniques and quality assurance procedures for digital mammography. (author)

  10. Gout: radiographic findings mimicking infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, I.; Raymond-Tremblay, D.; Cardinal, E.; Beauregard, C.G.; Braunstein, E.M.; Saint-Pierre, A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe radiographic features of gout that may mimic infection. Design and patients: We report five patients with acute bacterial gout who presented with clinical as well as radiological findings mimicking acute bacterial septic arthritis or osteomyelitis. Three patients had delay in the appropriate treatment with the final diagnosis being established after needle aspiration and identification of urate crystals under polarized light microscopy. Two patients underwent digit amputation for not responding to antibiotic treatment and had histological findings confirming the diagnosis of gout. Conclusion: It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the radiological manifestations of acute gout that can resemble infection in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and delay in adequate treatment. The definitive diagnosis should rely on needle aspiration and a specific search for urate crystals. (orig.)

  11. Radiographic study of the odontoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author studied clinically and radiologically 55 cases which had been diagnosed as odontoma in SNUDH. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In sex distribution, there was no prevalence in both sexes. And the incidence was the highest in the 2nd decade (16 patient, 29%). 2. There were 42 cases of compound odontoma (76%) and 13 cases of complex odontoma (24%). In most cases, compound odontoma was located at the anterior portion (34 cases, 81%) and complex odontoma at the posterior portions (9 cases, 69%). 3. There was no apparent clinical symptom in compound odontoma (83%), but in complex odontoma, 80% of cases show swelling. 4. The adjacent root resorption was not observed in any case. 5. Five cases radiographically diagnosed as cystic odontoma were not confirmed histopathologically.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of hallux valgus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Hansen, S.T.; Kilcoyne, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the common preoperative and postoperative findings in hallux valgus, a common foot disorder of multiple etiologies, which can lead to significant foot pain and deformity. Little has been published in radiologic literature about the proper initial radiographic workup and the postoperative follow-up of this very common and very treatable cause of foot pain. Besides the primary findings of varus angulation of the first metatarsal and valgus angulation of the great toe, one may also see dorsal slaying of the first metatarsal head. As increased weight is borne by the central metatarsals, they may develop hyperostosis and stress fractures. Angular deformities of the hallux sesamoid joint and lesser toes may also be seen

  13. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  14. Dental Radiographs Ordered by Dental Professionals: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Even in resource limited settings dental caries is still the regular indication for taking dental radiographs, and periapical views are the most frequent type of radiograph ordered. Maxillary central incisors and mandibular molars were types of teeth commonly x-rayed mainly due to the aesthetic importance of the ...

  15. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, A.; Karanicolas, P.J.; Bhandari, M.; Ring, D.; Kampen, A. van; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  17. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  18. Influence of radiographic contrast media on phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, F.; Georgsen, J.; Grunnet, N.; Aalborg Sygehus

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of radiographic contrast media (CM) on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML), the ability of these cells to ingest latex particles after in vitro exposure to five different radiographic contrast media was investigated. All CM inhibited the phagocytic properties of PML. The inhibition was dose dependent. The inhibitory effect was partly due to hyperosmolality but CM specific inhibition was also evident. (orig.)

  19. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  20. Radiographic Arthrosis After Elbow Trauma: Interobserver Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David; Allan, Cristopher; Axelrod, Terry; Baratz, Mark; Beingessner, Daphne; Cassidy, Charles; Coles, Chad; Conflitti, Joe; Rocca, Gregory Della; van Dijk, C. Niek; Elmans, L. H. G. J.; Feibe, Roger; Frihagen, Frede; Gosens, Taco; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Grosso, Elena; Harness, Neil; van der Heide, Huub; Jeray, Kyle; Kalainov, David; van Kampen, Albert; Kawamura, Sumito; Kloen, Peter; McCormac, Bob; McKee, Michael; Page, Richard; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Peters, Anil; Petrisor, Brad; Poolman, Rudolf; Richardson, Martin; Seiler, John; Swiontkowski, Marc; Trumble, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Zalavras, Charalampos; Zura, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Methods Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  1. An observational study based on the interaction between the paediatric patient and radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Davis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The practice of paediatric radiography requires a completely different skill set to that of adult radiography. Often, obtaining a paediatric patient's cooperation is the most difficult aspect of the role. Ensuring that a child cooperates for the examination can make positioning easier, thereby potentially providing a more diagnostic image. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the interaction between the paediatric patient and the radiographer and to uncover techniques used by the radiographer to help alleviate any fear or stress that the child might have had. Method: A direct observational method was conducted, after both the radiographer and the child's guardians provided full written consent. The actions of the radiographer and resultant reactions from the child were recorded on an observational checklist designed for paediatric examinations. Results: Seventy-nine patients aged between three months to fifteen years and thirteen radiographers with no specific paediatric training other than experience were observed. Examinations observed included lower limb, upper limb, pelvis, abdomen and chest projections. The data gathered were the result of radiographer actions when interacting with both happy and sad children. Conclusions: Successful methods of alleviating a child's fear and anxiety whilst in the X-ray room included the use of child friendly equipment such as colourful lead protection and posters on the wall, a simple explanation of what the equipment is before moving it, offering rewards such as stickers and praise and showing the child their image after the examination. When time was short and the workload was high, it was observed that radiographers were less likely to spend time calming the child down and instead were more focused on completing the examination as quickly as possible. - Highlights: • Seventy-nine patients and thirteen radiographers were observed in this study. • The use of child-friendly equipment and

  2. Prototype radiographic system for emergency and intensive care units: Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype radiographic system has been developed for use in bedside examinations in multibed trauma or intensive care units and emergency rooms. The system features a single-phase, high-frequency 30-kW ceiling-mounted generator with an x-ray tube extending from a long counterbalanced arm. All movements are servo-assisted for ease of operation. Based on initial experience, the unit allows easier access to the patient around resuscitation and monitoring equipment, occupies less floor space, and yields better quality images than do standard mobile radiographic units

  3. Preoperative thoracic radiographic findings in dogs presenting for gastric dilatation-volvulus (2000-2010): 101 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jaime L; Cimino Brown, Dorothy; Agnello, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    To identify the incidence of clinically significant findings on preoperative thoracic radiographs in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) and to determine if those findings are associated with survival. Retrospective study from 2000 to 2010. Urban university small animal teaching hospital. One hundred and one dogs diagnosed with GDV that had thoracic radiographs obtained preoperatively, and medical records available with the following information available: signalment, time of presentation, respiratory status, plasma lactate, presence of cardiac arrhythmias, reason for thoracic radiographs, radiographic findings, and outcome. None. Findings on preoperative thoracic radiographs included small vena cava (40%), esophageal dilation (39%), microcardia (34%), aspiration pneumonia (14%), cardiomegaly (5%), pulmonary nodule (4%), pulmonary edema (2%), sternal lymphadenopathy (1%), and pulmonary bullae (1%). Eighty-four percent of dogs (85 out of 101) survived to discharge. Dogs without cardiomegaly on presenting thoracic radiographs had a 10.2 greater odds of surviving to discharge. The most common findings on preoperative thoracic radiographs include esophageal dilation, microcardia, and a small vena cava while the incidence of pulmonary nodules was low. A negative association between survival and presence of cardiomegaly on preoperative thoracic radiographs in dogs with GDV supports the need to obtain these images for prognostic information in spite of the emergency surgical nature of the GDV. The main limitations of this study include the possibilities of type I and type II errors, the retrospective nature of the study, and the lack of well-defined criteria for obtaining thoracic radiographs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  4. Validity of radiographic assessment of ankylosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvik, A.; Beyer-Olsen, E.; Aabyholm, F.; Haanaes, H.R.; Gerner, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy and sensitivity of radiographic assessments of reactive processes in dental tissues were evaluated by comparison of radiographs and histologic sections. Experimental lesions inflicted on the roots of 10 monkey incisors had been observed by means of serially obtained radiographs over a period of 315 to 370 days. The material was used for evaluation of radiographic assessment of ankylosis. For comparative purposes, assessment of the experimental lesion penetrating to the pulp and periapical radiolucency was added. True and falsely positive or negative recordings formed the basis for calculation of the accuracy and sensitivity of the radiographic assessment. The sensitivity, or the obsevers ability to detect the actual changes, was high for pulp penetration, intermediate for inflammation, and low for ankylosis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  6. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  7. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  8. Radiographic identification of ingested disc batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maves, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the hazards by posed the accidental ingestion and impaction of small disc batteries have been widely publicized in the medical and lay press. These foreign bodies, when lodged in the esophagus, leak a caustic solution of 26 to 45% sodium or potassium hydroxide which can cause a burn injury to the esophagus in a very short period of time. Because of the considerable clinical morbidity and mortality from this foreign body, it becomes imperative for the radiologist to quickly and accurately identify disc batteries on plain radiographs. This communication offers a series of radiologic signs important in the identification of disc batteries demonstrate a double density shadow due to the bilaminar structure of the battery. On lateral view, the edges of most disc batteries are round and again present a step-off at the junction of the cathode and anode. These findings are differentiated from the more common esophageal foreign body of a coin which does not have a double density on frontal projection, has a much sharper edge and no visible stepoff. (orig.)

  9. The radiographic acromiohumeral interval is affected by arm and radiographic beam position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, Edward V.; Rosipal, Charles E.; Rhodes, David A.; Lauder, Anthony J.; Feschuk, Connie A.; Mormino, Matthew A.; Hartigan, David E. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Omaha, NE (United States); Puumala, Susan E. [Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The objective was to determine whether arm and radiographic beam positional changes affect the acromiohumeral interval (AHI) in radiographs of healthy shoulders. Controlling for participant's height and position as well as radiographic beam height and angle, from 30 right shoulders of right-handed males without shoulder problems four antero-posterior (AP) radiographic views each were obtained in defined positions. Three independent, blinded physicians measured the AHI to the nearest millimeter in 120 randomized radiographs. Mean differences between measurements were calculated, along with a 95% confidence interval. Controlling for observer effect, there was a significant difference between AHI measurements on different views (p<0.01). All pair-wise differences were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (all p values <0.01). Even in healthy shoulders, small changes in arm position and radiographic beam orientation affect the AHI in radiographs. (orig.)

  10. Reduced medical and occupational exposures by optimizing working procedures in fluoroscopy equipment in the University Hospital of Santa Maria (RS); Reducao de exposicao medicas e ocupacionais pela otimizacao de procedimentos de trabalho em equipamento de fluoroscopia no Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria (RS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Guilherme L.; Claus, Thiago V.; Baumhardt, Tadeu, E-mail: glweis@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Shuch, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2013-08-15

    This work seeks to reduce medical (patient) and occupational (workers) exposure by standardizing resources available in fluoroscopy equipment used in interventional procedures. Such procedures use transportable surgical arch type fluoroscopy equipment, with applications in orthopedics, angiography and pacemaker implantation. Improper use of these devices generates excessive radiation doses in both patients and the medical staff. It is observed that the equipment after being connected to the grid, is pre-selected to work in continuous fluoroscopy and no additional filtration, producing higher doses of radiation. For specific applications, changes in protocols should be undertaken according to medical indication. This work used a fluoroscopy equipment Shimadzu Active Opescope two radiation monitoring equipment, brand Radcal, models 9010 and 9015, two ionization chambers, of 60 cc and 180 cc and a low contrast phantom and a catheter, information that simulate the human body. Incidences were performed by changing the conditions of exposure as frame rates (fps - frames per second) and additional filtration. For each composition parameters was generated and filed an image, with the extent of their respective doses. These images were evaluated by radiologists. In more extreme cases we obtained a reduction of a factor 25 in occupational exposure (medical personnel) using the pulsed with the greatest 2 fps additional filter (0.3 mm Cu) compared to continuous system without any additional filtration. In medical exposure (of patients), decreased by a factor 39, the same conditions described above. With these arguments it is justified the optimization and standardization of the equipment used in fluoroscopy, which besides providing a dose reduction the patient and the medical personnel, increases the life of the X-ray tube while maintaining the quality of medical diagnosis. (author)

  11. Digital subtraction radiographic evaluation of the standardize periapical intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    1993-01-01

    The geometrically standardized intraoral radiographs using 5 occlusal registration material were taken serially from immediate, 1 day, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after making the bite blocks. The qualities of those subtracted images were evaluated to check the degree of reproducibility of each impression material. The results were as follows: 1. The standard deviations of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were 4.9 for Exaflex, 7.2 for Pattern resin, 9.0 for Tooth Shade Acrylic, 12.2 for XCP only, 14.8 for Impregum. 2. The standard deviation of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were grossly related to those of the localized horizontal line of interest. 3. Exaflex which showed the best subtracted image quality had 15 cases of straight, 14 cases of wave, 1 case of canyon shape. Impregum which showed the worst subtracted image quality had 4 cases of straight, 8 cases of wave, 18 cases of canyon shape respectively.

  12. Quality assurance applied to mammographic equipments using phantoms and software for its evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Patricia, E-mail: p.mayo@titaniast.co [Titania Servicios Tecnologicos S.L., Grupo Dominguis, Apartado 46015, Valencia (Spain); Rodenas, Francisco [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 46022, Valencia (Spain); Manuel Campayo, Juan [Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, Apartado 46017, Valencia (Spain); Verdu, Gumersido [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    The image quality assessment in radiographic equipments is a very important item for a complete quality control of the radiographic image chain. The periodic evaluation of the radiographic image quality must guarantee the constancy of this quality to carry out a suitable diagnosis. Mammographic phantom images are usually used to study the quality of images obtained by determined mammographic equipment. The digital image treatment techniques allow to carry out an automatic analysis of the phantom image. In this work we apply some techniques of digital image processing to analyze in an automatic way the image quality of mammographic phantoms, namely CIRS SP01 and RACON for different varying conditions of the mammographic equipment. The CIRS SP01 phantom is usually used in analogic mammographic equipments and the RACON phantom has been specifically developed by authors to be applied to acceptance and constancy tests of the image quality in digital radiographic equipments following recommendations of international associations. The purpose of this work consists in analyzing the image quality for both phantoms by means of an automatic software utility. This analysis allows us to study the functioning of the image chain of the mammographic system in an objective way, so an abnormal functioning of the radiographic equipment might be detected.

  13. Quality assurance applied to mammographic equipments using phantoms and software for its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Patricia; Rodenas, Francisco; Manuel Campayo, Juan; Verdu, Gumersido

    2010-01-01

    The image quality assessment in radiographic equipments is a very important item for a complete quality control of the radiographic image chain. The periodic evaluation of the radiographic image quality must guarantee the constancy of this quality to carry out a suitable diagnosis. Mammographic phantom images are usually used to study the quality of images obtained by determined mammographic equipment. The digital image treatment techniques allow to carry out an automatic analysis of the phantom image. In this work we apply some techniques of digital image processing to analyze in an automatic way the image quality of mammographic phantoms, namely CIRS SP01 and RACON for different varying conditions of the mammographic equipment. The CIRS SP01 phantom is usually used in analogic mammographic equipments and the RACON phantom has been specifically developed by authors to be applied to acceptance and constancy tests of the image quality in digital radiographic equipments following recommendations of international associations. The purpose of this work consists in analyzing the image quality for both phantoms by means of an automatic software utility. This analysis allows us to study the functioning of the image chain of the mammographic system in an objective way, so an abnormal functioning of the radiographic equipment might be detected.

  14. 47 CFR 18.203 - Equipment authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information already on file with the Commission. (2) A technical report pursuant to §§ 18.207 and 18.311. (b... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 18.203 Section 18.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT...

  15. Gamma radiographic exposure time indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1979-01-01

    In industrial radiography, with the proper selection of source and film, the radiographic quality depends very much on the exposure time, which in turn depends upon the source strength and the source to film distance. Conventional methods to arrive at correct exposure time involve time consuming calculations and in these methods the knowledge of the above mentioned parameters is imperative. An instrument to determine the required exposure time has been developed which indicates exposure times in about 30 secs. This covers two commonly used gamma radiography sources, viz., 192 Ir and 60 Co and six commonly used radiography films of different speeds. Knowledge of source strength and source to film distance is not required with the use of this instrument. With a knowledge of the total exposure required by the film to give the required sensitivity and by the measurement of radiation level at the film location, the correct exposure time is determined. The radiation level is measured by placing a GM counter behind the radiographic specimen at the film location. To match the responses of the film and the GM counter, the counter is incorporated in a suitably designed probe. In this instruments, an integrator to integrate the GM-pulses and a constant current integrator (timer) are started simultaneously. The voltage at the GM-pulse integrator is compared with a preselected voltage, (selected on the basis of film type, source, source strength and order of object thickness) by a comparator. The comparator is so adjusted that when the GM-pulse integrator voltage exceeds the preselected voltage, it switches its state and stops the integration of constant current. The constant current integrator output which is proportional to the time taken for the GM-pulse integrator to reach the preselected voltage, is read on a meter graduated in terms of exposure time. The instrument can measure exposure times from 5 minutes to 10 hours read in two ranges, the range-changing being automatic

  16. Should the lateral chest radiograph be routinely performed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Fatuma; Williams, Imelda

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chest x-ray is one of the most common plain film radiographic examinations performed. Inclusion of the lateral chest radiograph varies internationally and nationally across radiology departments and states in Australia. Search strategy: A search strategy of the databases Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline/Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct was conducted. The results were restricted to those published between 1985 and 2013 and those published in English. The following search terms were used: ‘lateral chest’, ‘radiograph’, ‘digital radiography’, ‘chest x-ray’, ‘plain film radiography’, ‘ionising radiation’. The results were restricted to publications with these terms in the title, abstract and/or keywords. Main findings: There are few national or international guidelines pertaining to the inclusion of the lateral chest x-ray as routine. Primary concerns are the increased radiation dose associated with the additional chest view and reduction of medical imaging services cost. Modern digital imaging systems result in a lower radiation dose. The diagnostic yield of the lateral chest x-ray is highly dependent on the clinical indications of the patient. Further research into the routine inclusion of the lateral chest x-ray is recommended. Conclusion: Review of the literature suggests that the lateral chest radiograph should not be performed routinely unless clinically indicated

  17. Characterization of the Ljubljana TRIGA thermal column neutron radiographic facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Glumac, B.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the neutron beam of the existing neutron radiographic facility in the thermal column of the Ljubljana Triga Mark II research reactor is in progress. Neutron beam characteristics are needed to determine the effect of various neutron and gamma radiation on the neutron radiographic image. Commercially available medical scintillator converter screens based on Gd dioxy sulphite as well as Gd metal neutron converters are used to record neutron radiographic image. Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured using Au and In activation detectors and cadmium ratio is determined. Neutron beam flux profiles are measured by film densitometry and by Au activation detector wires. By exposing films shielded by boral or lead plates individual contributions of thermal, epithermal neutrons and gamma radiation are estimated by densitometric measurements. By recording images of neutron image quality indicators BPI (Beam Purity Indicator) and SI (Sensitivity Indicator) produced by Riso, standard neutron radiography image characteristic are established. In gamma dosimetric measurements thermoluminescent detectors (CaF 2 Mn) are used. (author)

  18. 21 CFR 866.4830 - Rocket immunoelectro-phoresis equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents... equipment for clinical use is a device used to perform a specific test on proteins by using a procedure...

  19. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  20. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der; Spruijt, R.J.; Mosekilde, L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach's α>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  1. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spruijt, R.J. [Div. of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosekilde, L. [Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach`s {alpha}>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  2. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Jenna; Maddison, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  3. Low-silver radiographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskii, V.A.; Novikov, I.A.; Nikitin, V.F.; Krasnyi-Admoni, L.V.; Valevich, M.I.; Belyi, N.G.; Grom, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray films and screens with low silver content for use in weld radiography are reviewed and tested. Properties examined include image graininess, brightness, and sensitivity to x radiation. Results are given for radiography of steel 08Kh18N10T, St20, AMG-6, copper, and titanium welds. Processing techniques for low-silver films are discussed. It is established that films and screens containing little silver can replace many x-ray films containing much more silver. Monitoring methods were developed for the new materials to cover items in classes 3-7 on GOST 23075-78 when used with equipment of RUP-150/300-10 type or classes 4-7 with pulsed x-ray equipment

  4. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  5. The radiographic anatomy of the normal ovine digit, the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jennifer S; Singer, Ellen R; Devaney, Jane; Oultram, Joanne W H; Walby, Anna J; Lester, Bridie R; Williams, Helen J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a detailed, accessible set of reference images of the normal radiographic anatomy of the ovine digit up to and including the metacarpo/metatatarsophalangeal joints. The lower front and hind limbs of 5 Lleyn ewes were radiographed using portable radiography equipment, a digital image processer and standard projections. Twenty images, illustrating the normal radiographic anatomy of the limb were selected, labelled and presented along with a detailed description and corresponding images of the bony skeleton. These images are aimed to be of assistance to veterinary surgeons, veterinary students and veterinary researchers by enabling understanding of the normal anatomy of the ovine lower limb, and allowing comparison with the abnormal.

  6. Unicystic Jaw Lesions: A Radiographic Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unilocular radiolucencies remain the topic of much interest for the clinicians and histhopathologists for decades. Adequate use of diagnostic aids and careful observation will clinically help the dentist to arrive at a proper diagnosis and renders quality treatment to patients. Despite of the development of various cross-sectional imaging modalities, the radiograph still remains as the first and most important investigation. Jaw bone lesions, especially unilocular ones, are difficult to diagnose radiologically because of their similar radiographic appearance. It is, thus, very important for the clinician to have a sound knowledge of various radiographic features of the tooth and its supporting structures.

  7. A case of a found radiographic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucelj, B.; Korun, M.; Kavsek, D.; Kreft, Z.; Krizman, M.; Martincic, R.; Rosman, M.; Sutej, T.

    1996-01-01

    High dose-rate levels were detected outdoors in the vicinity of a bunker used for storage of radiographic sources in a plant which manufactures metallic products. The investigation revealed that radiation was due to a buried sealed radiographic source, containing 28 GBq of 137 Cs. A special republic radiological emergency team removed the source in a carefully planned operation. There was no evidence for overexposure of the population or of radiographic and other workers of the plant. The highest dose to the recovery team was 50 μSv

  8. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  9. Radiographic observation for tuberculous spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Se; Jung, Marn Kyoon; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Busan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-04-15

    Radiographic observation of 152 cases of tuberculous spondylitis selected from total 194 cases of tuberculous arthritis during the past 6 years and 8 months, was carried out to study. 1. The youngest one was 15 months old male infant of active tuberculous spondylitis. The active tuberculous spondylitis under 10 years of age were 50 percent (28 cases). 2. The ratio of male to female was 1.5:1 3. The most common site of involvement was the lumbar spine which was 44.1 percent of the total tuberculous spondylitis. The next were thoracic spine (33.6%), and thoraco-lumber spine (13.1%). 4. The most common roentgenographic findings are bony destructions of the vertebral bodies which were 97.4 percent. The next were joint space narrowing (93.4%), osteoporosis (79.6%), kyphosis (34.2%), fusion deformity of the vertebral body (25.7%), and cold abscess shadow (16.4%). 5. The most of patients (88.8%) had or have been pulmonary tuberculous lesions. 6. In annual incidence, the number of patients were not changed greatly.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  11. Digital radiographic scanning installation with multiwire proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, E.A.; Baru, S.E.; Khabakhpashev, A.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Savinov, G.A.; Shekhtman, L.I.; Sidorov, V.A.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    A digital radiographic installation for medical diagnostics is described. Distribution of X-ray intensity in horizontal direction is measured by a one-coordinate MWPC with a 1.2 mm channel. A two-dimensional image is produced by mechanical scanning with 1 mm channel width in vertical direction. The number of pixels in the image is 320x256. The MWPC works in count mode with quantum efficiency 25% (50 keV) and count rate capability 600 kHz/channel. Results of testing a prototype with 64 channels 0.6 mm width are also presented. (orig.)

  12. Computer-assisted instruction and diagnosis of radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D; Butler, C; Hodder, R; Allman, R; Woods, J; Riordan, D

    1984-04-01

    Recent advances in computer technology, including high bit-density storage, digital imaging, and the ability to interface microprocessors with videodisk, create enormous opportunities in the field of medical education. This program, utilizing a personal computer, videodisk, BASIC language, a linked textfile system, and a triangulation approach to the interpretation of radiographs developed by Dr. W. L. Thompson, can enable the user to engage in a user-friendly, dynamic teaching program in radiology, applicable to various levels of expertise. Advantages include a relatively more compact and inexpensive system with rapid access and ease of revision which requires little instruction to the user.

  13. Radiographic examination protocol and patient dose in lateral cephalometric radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo

    2010-01-01

    To survey the radiographic examination protocol for lateral cephalometric radiographic examinations and to measure their patient doses in Korea and to compare the dose according to the size of hospital, the type of image receptor system, and the installation duration. The radiographic examination protocols (kVp, mA, and exposure time) for lateral cephalometric radiography were surveyed with 61 cephalometric radiographic equipments and their patient dose-area product (DAP) measured with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for 51 cephalometric radiographic equipments. The radiographic examination protocols and patient doses were compared according to the size of hospital (university dental hospital, dental hospital, and dental clinic), the type of image receptor system (film-based, DR and CR type) and the installation duration, respectively. SPSS 12.0.1 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) was used for independent t-test and ANOVA test. The average protocols were 77.0 kVp, 12.7 mA, 6.2 second for cephalometric radiography. The average patient dose (DAP) was 128.0 mGy cm2 and 3rd quartile dose (DAP) 161.1 mGy cm2 for cephalometric radiography for adult male. There was no statistically significant difference at average patient DAP according to the size of hospital, the type of image receptor system, and the installation duration, respectively. The average patient dose was 128.0 mGy cm2 and the third quartile patient dose 161.1 mGy cm2 for lateral cephalometric radiography for adult male in Korea.

  14. Evaluation of underexposed conventional radiographs after digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Inadequate exposure of analogue radiographs is reported in the literature to occur in 5-25% of cases. Therefore, the present study was performed to test whether selective image processing after digitization could reveal diagnostic details on underexposed radiographs. In addition, the minimal exposure values required for diagnostic purposes after adequate image processing were studied. Phantom studies, organ preparations and measurements of physical parameters with decreasing exposure values were performed. The detection of anatomic and pathologic (nondisplaced fracture lines, microcalcification and renal stones) structures were evaluated by 12 readers. Radiographs with exposure values 20-40% lower than 'ideal' values can provide adequate diagnostic images after digital processing. The diagnostic information is significantly impaired with values under 50% of the correct exposure values. In conclusion, this method is adequate to save underexposed radiographs for diagnostic purposes and to avoid repeated examinations. (orig.) [de

  15. Radiographic features of appendiceal colic in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisgall, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of appendiceal colic was introduced in 1980 to explain the common problem of recurrent crampy abdominal pain (RAP) in children. Children with appendiceal colic often have inspissated casts of stool as foreign bodies of the appendix. The radiographic findings of 115 children operated upon for appendiceal colic have been reviewed. The radiographic features of this syndrom have included: filling defects of the appendix (83% incidence of inspissated casts of stool within the appendix); partial filling of the appendix (44% incidence of fecal casts); retained barium behind 72 h (92% incidence of fecal casts blocking egress of barium); non-visualization of the appendix (42% incidence of fecal casts); and distention of the appendix (100% incidence of fecal casts). The correlation of radiographic and operative findings will be presented. A rational approach to the radiographic workup of a child with RAP will be presented. (orig.)

  16. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  17. Radiographers and radiologists reporting plain radiograph requests from accident and emergency and general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.D.; King, D.G.; Hahn, S.; Crowe, M.; Williams, P.; Rutter, P.; Crane, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess selectively trained radiographers and consultant radiologists reporting plain radiographs for the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) and general practitioners (GPs) within a typical hospital setting. METHODS: Two radiographers, a group of eight consultant radiologists, and a reference standard radiologist independently reported under controlled conditions a retrospectively selected, random, stratified sample of 400 A and E and 400 GP plain radiographs. An independent consultant radiologist judged whether the radiographer and radiologist reports agreed with the reference standard report. Clinicians then assessed whether radiographer and radiologist incorrect reports affected confidence in their diagnosis and treatment plans, and patient outcome. RESULTS: For A and E and GP plain radiographs, respectively, there was a 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 5) and 4% (95% CI -1 to 8) difference in reporting accuracy between the two professional groups. For both A and E and GP cases there was an 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their diagnosis based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 2% and 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their management plans based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 1% and 11% difference in effect on patient outcome of radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. CONCLUSION: There is the potential to extend the reporting role of selectively trained radiographers to include plain radiographs for all A and E and GP patients. Further research conducted during clinical practice at a number of sites is recommended

  18. Radiographic study of the hepatomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Soo [Busan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    The author studied, with emphasis on the various radiographic projections, the 99 cases of liver enlargement, which underwent the barium meal upper gastrointestinal examinations for the purpose of pursuit of significance of liver enlargement and, at the same time were confirmed by other clinical and pathological methods at Busan National University Hospital for about 2 years from November 1977 to September 1979. The following results were obtained: 1. The incidence of liver enlargement was 63.3% (62 cases) in the 5th decade, which was most prevalent, 18.2% (18 cases) in the 3rd decade, 15.2% (15 cases) in the group over 60, and 3.0% (3 cases) in the age group below 20. Male to female sex ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The causes of the liver enlargement confirmed by the final diagnosis are as follows: Primary hepatic cancer 39 cases (39.3%), liver cirrhosis 30 cases (30.3%), chronic hepatitis 12 cases (12.1%), cancer of the biliary tract 6 cases (6.1%), hepatic fluke 6 cases (6.1%), metastatic tumors 3 cases (3.0%), and hepatic congestion 3 cases (3.0%) 3. In the prone view, the displacement of the duodenal bulb appeared in 18 cases (18.2%). 4. In the routine radiographs, the displacement of the stomach to the left and the pressure indentation of the lesser curvature were noted in 69 cases (69.7%) out of 99 cases. 5.In the left lateral recumbent view, the pressure indentation of the anterior border of the gastric body was seen in 96 cases (97.0%) among the 99 cases, the straightening in 30 cases (27.3%), the marked depression in 30 cases (30.3%), the moderate in 27 cases (27.3%), the minimal in 9 cases (9.1%). 6. Comparing the incidences of the roentgen findings of the liver enlargement in the various projections respectively, the displacement of the duodenal bulb was noted in 18 cases (18.3%) in the prone position. The erect position revealed the displacement of the stomach to the left and the pressure indentation in 57 cases (57.6%), the prone position in 51 cases (51

  19. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected

  20. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  1. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Lillian M. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lachman, Ralph S. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); University of California, International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  2. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Lillian M.; Lachman, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  3. Radiographic manifestations of arthritis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Z.S.; Norman, A.; Solomon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to familiarize the radiologist with a newly discovered association between arthritis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic findings in 31 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection referred to their rheumatology clinic with musculoskeletal complaints. The patients carried a wide range of clinical diagnosis including Reiter syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, undifferentiated seronegative arthritis, isolated enthesopathies, rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis. Radiographs were available in 24 of the 31 patients, and in 20 they showed radiographic features of arthritis, which included soft-tissue swelling periarticular osteoporosis, synovial effusions, sacroiliitis, periosteal reaction, joint space narrowing, marginal erosions, and osteonecrosis. Although the radiographic abnormalities were frequently mild, they were significant, given the short duration of disease in many of their patients (weeks to months) at the time radiographs were obtained. The range of radiographic findings in their series was varied and paralleled the wide range of clinical diagnoses. No findings were pathognomonic for HIV-associated arthritis. Nevertheless, HIV infection needs to be considered in any patient belonging to a recognized risk group who presents with musculoskeletal disease. This is particularly important since immunosupressive drugs used for the treatment of arthritis can be detrimental to patients with HIV infection

  4. Radiation protection education and training of radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsakkers, P.

    1995-01-01

    The International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technicians (ISRRT) is an international non-governmental organisation in official relationship with the World Health Organization. Over 50 countries are members of the ISRRT. The ISRRT encourages and facilitates communication between radiographers throughout the world. The ISRRT has produced several documents, e.g. ''The Role of the Radiographer in Europe''. The ISRRT has also done research and developed initiatives to analyse the quality of training of radiographers in the different member states of the EC. Research was done in the member states to analyse the efforts in the field of quality control. An extended study was performed on the current level of education in radiation protection in the European member states. The ICRP recommends in its publications the need of good training and continuing education for all radiographers. An important part of the basic training of radiographers should focus on the performance of radiation protection and quality control tests. Good daily practice can decrease patient dose in many ways. (Author)

  5. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  6. Radiographer performed single contrast small bowel enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert L.; Slack, Nicola; Harvey, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the technical success and reporting sensitivity of radiographer performed small bowel enteroclysis (SBE) undertaken by a specialist radiographer according to a standard technique [Nolan DJ, Cadman PJ. The small bowel enema made easy. Clinical Radiology 1987;38(3):295-301]. Methods: Patients (1413) had 1646 SBE in 10 years from May 1992 to April 2002. The original request card and the separate radiographer and consultant radiologist reports were reviewed. Where the radiology reports were discordant or inconclusive, the clinical notes were also reviewed. Results: Patients (1022) X-ray films were available. Nine hundred and forty-three (93.3%) SBEs had been successfully completed. Radiographer and consultant radiologist reporting had a 99.3% concordance. There was a 98.4% sensitivity for Crohn's disease (181 of 184 cases where Crohn's disease was the clinical final diagnosis). Overall reporting sensitivity was 93.7% although correct 'probably normal and abnormal' reporting bias suggests a sensitivity of 96.9%. Sixty of 943 (6.4%) reports were inconclusive. Of 1022 patients, 68 (6.6%) of small bowel intubations were not achieved, or else consent was withdrawn at the time of the procedure. Conclusion: Specialist radiographers can perform small bowel enteroclysis with a reporting sensitivity equal to that of a consultant radiologist. Radiographers accustomed to providing an SBE service become skilled at passing fine bore feeding tubes into the small bowel and can provide this service also

  7. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  8. Are We Using Abdominal Radiographs Appropriately in the Management of Pediatric Constipation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinvogl, Beate; Sabharwal, Sabina; McSweeney, Maireade; Nurko, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    To identify the reasons why pediatric gastroenterologists obtain abdominal radiographs in the management of pediatric constipation. This was a prospective study surveying providers regarding their rationale, interpretation, resultant change, and confidence in their management before and after obtaining KUBs in patients seen for suspected constipation. Demographics and clinical findings were obtained from medical records. A total of 24 providers were surveyed after 72 patient encounters. Reasons for obtaining an abdominal radiograph included evaluation of stool burden (70%), need for a clean out (35%), fecal impaction (27%), cause of abdominal pain (24%), demonstration of stool burden to families (14%), assessment of response to therapy (13%), or encopresis (10%). The plan was changed in 47.6% of cases based on radiographic findings. In cases in which a plan was outlined before obtaining the radiograph (69%), the initial plan was implemented on average in 52.5%. In cases with no plans before obtaining the radiograph, previously unconsidered plans were implemented in 8.7%. Provider confidence in the management plan increased from 2.4 ± 2.7 to 4.1 ± 1.8 (P abdominal radiograph. Abdominal radiographs commonly are obtained by pediatric gastroenterologists in the evaluation and management of constipation. The majority used it to make a diagnosis, and nearly one-half changed their management based on the imaging findings. Overall, they reported an improved confidence in their management plan, despite evidence that radiographic findings poorly correlate with clinical severity. This study highlights the need for further provider education regarding the recommendations delineated in existing constipation guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of corrosion by radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ashraf, M.M.; Khurshid, U.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing technologies are playing an increasing role during manufacturing and subsequent use of everyday products. These technologies are now well established and are extensively practiced in industries, to ensure quality and safety of machinery. Corrosion reduces the operational life of the component, its efficiency and helps generate waste. There is an increasing need to detect and characterize the formation of corrosion in industrial components and assemblies at an early stage. Radiation methods and techniques are applied worldwide to examine defects and corrosion-formation in industrial components. For safety and economic reason, appropriate monitoring of the machinery and industrial components would help reduce accidental risks during operation and avoid production-losses. In the present study, X-ray and neutron-radiography techniques were applied for the inspection and evaluation of corrosion in metallic samples for thickness values of the order of 5 mm or less. Relative contrast at various degrees of metal corrosion product loss was computed theoretical and also measured experimentally by applying radiographic techniques. The relative contrast-sensitivity was also measured in two different ways by X-ray and neutron radiography, to compare the visibility of coarse and fine features. Thick metallic areas, free from sealant and variable paint thickness, were imaged with thermal neutrons beam. Low KV X-rays were also applied for imaging corrosion in metallic components. To optimize exposure-time at low KV in X-ray radiography, a medical film/screen combination was used. X-ray radiography approved to be the more promising technique for imaging of corrosion, as compared to neutron radiography. (author)

  10. Fecal impaction: a cause of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigian, Drew A.; Levine, Marc S.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs in patients with colonic fecal impaction and also to elucidate the cause of this finding. Methods: A computerized search of radiology files revealed 515 patients with colonic fecal impaction on abdominal radiographs. The radiologic reports described isolated small bowel dilatation not related to other known causes of ileus or obstruction in 18 (3.5%) of the 515 patients. The films were reviewed to determine the distribution of fecal impaction and the degree and extent of small bowel dilatation. In 16 cases, medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical presentation, treatment, and course. Finally, follow-up radiographs were reviewed in four cases to determine the response to treatment of the impaction. Results: All 16 patients with available medical records had abdominal symptoms. The average diameter of the dilated small bowel on abdominal radiographs was 3.7 cm. Fourteen patients (78%) had a diffuse colonic fecal impaction (nine) or a predominantly right-sided fecal impaction (five) that involved the cecum, and the remaining four (22%) had a left-sided colonic fecal impaction. All 12 patients with clinical follow-up had resolution of symptoms and all four with follow-up radiographs had resolution of small bowel dilatation after treatment of the underlying impaction. Conclusion: Fecal impaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs, as treatment of the underlying impaction usually produces a dramatic clinical response with resolution of the small bowel dilatation on follow-up radiographs

  11. Esophageal Lichen Planus: Clinical and Radiographic Findings in Eight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschecker, Andreas M; Levine, Marc S; Whitson, Matthew J; Tondon, Rashmi; Rubesin, Stephen E; Furth, Emma E; Metz, David C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the clinical and radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus. A search of computerized medical records identified 15 patients with pathologic findings of esophageal lichen planus on endoscopic biopsy specimens. Three other patients had presumed esophageal lichen planus, although no biopsy specimens were obtained. Twelve of these 18 patients (67%) had double-contrast esophagography performed at our institution; for eight of the 12 patients (67%), the studies revealed abnormalities in the esophagus. These eight patients constituted our study group. The barium esophagrams and medical records of these eight patients were reviewed to determine the clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings of esophageal lichen planus as well as the treatment and patient outcome. All eight patients were women (median age, 66.5 years), and all eight presented with dysphagia (mean duration, 3.2 years). Four patients had previous lichen planus that involved the skin (n = 1), the oral cavity (n = 2), or both (n = 1), and one patient later had lichen planus that involved the vagina. Five patients had a small-caliber esophagus with diffuse esophageal narrowing. The remaining three patients had segmental strictures in the cervical (n = 1), upper thoracic (n = 1), and distal thoracic (n = 1) esophagus. Esophageal lichen planus typically occurs in older women with longstanding dysphagia and often develops in the absence of extraesophageal disease. Barium esophagrams may reveal a small-caliber esophagus or, less commonly, segmental esophageal strictures. Greater awareness of the radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus hopefully will lead to earlier diagnosis and better management of this condition.

  12. Incidence of Radiographic Cystic Lesions Associated With Unerupted Teeth in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Sam G; Krakowski Volker, Mary; Luskin, Ira R

    2016-12-01

    Medical records and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed over a 3-year period (2012-2015) from dogs presented to a private dental referral practice. Medical records were evaluated for the diagnosis of impacted or embedded teeth. The identified dogs' radiographs were reviewed for the presence of radiographically significant cystic lesions that were associated with the impacted or embedded teeth. Radiographic criteria were established by the authors for the purposes of identifying cystic lesions in dogs of different breeds and sizes, using established indices from human dental pathology as a basis. When histopathology results were available, they were reviewed and reported. In this study, 136 dogs ranging in age from 3 months to 17 years were diagnosed with 213 unerupted teeth during the study period. There were 62 (29.1%) of the 213 radiographically apparent cystic lesions identified based on the criteria proposed in this study. In this study, 146 (68.5%) of the 213 unerupted teeth were identified as mandibular first premolar teeth. Histopathology was obtained on 28 (45.1%) of the 62 diagnosed cystic lesions. Dentigerous cysts accounted for 20 (71.4%) of the 28 cystic lesions. Brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented in this study. Boxer, pug, Shih Tzu, and Boston terrier dogs were most likely to present with cystic lesions associated with unerupted teeth. Seventeen (85%) of the 20 cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of dentigerous cyst were found within these 4 brachycephalic breeds.

  13. Radiographic reference limits for cardiac width in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.; Shaik, S.; Ali, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2011, Vol. 238, No. 11, Pages 1459-1463 doi: 10.2460/javma.238.11.1459 Radiographic reference limits for cardiac width in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) Johannes T. Lumeij, DVM, PhD; Muneer A. S. Shaik, BVSc, AH; Mohammed

  14. Evaluation of the composition of filters additional of equipment radiological intraoral by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Alana Caroline; Torres, Catarina A.M.P.; Rocha, Ana S.S.; Deniak, Valeriy; Lara, Alessandro L.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fernandes, Angela; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The need for high quality standards for radiographic images in order to make a diagnosis assertive, and being the additional filtration required in the intraoral X-ray equipment show the need of evaluating these filters. This study aims to examine the influence of the elemental composition of the filters of X-ray of dental intraoral equipment in the radiographic images quality. The filters analysis were performed by using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF). Ten conventional filters were analysed. In this study, 33 radiographic exposures were performed using films: twenty radiographs in the incisor region and ten in the molar region, three exposures were also made in the same regions with same conditions without using filter. After radiographs development, optical density was measure and all radiographs were submitted to subjective evaluation by dental radiologists. Data obtained were correlated to effects evaluation of the elemental composition of all filters in the quality of the radiographic images. The elements found were: aluminum, cobalt, copper, sulfur, iron, manganese, titanium, zinc, and zirconium. The images obtained were identified in groups: Molars to 0.3 s; Incisors to 0.2 s; Incisors to 0.3 s, and for the group without filters. From the results obtained it was concluded that both unclear radiographs and ideal radiographs were produced by using filters of elementary common. Therefore, conventional filters evaluated were an acceptable option to produce quality images in dental radiology, despite differences in the composition of the alloys. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the composition of filters additional of equipment radiological intraoral by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Alana Caroline; Torres, Catarina A.M.P.; Rocha, Ana S.S.; Deniak, Valeriy; Lara, Alessandro L.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: alanacarolinef@gmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial; Fernandes, Angela; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique, E-mail: angelafernandes@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias da Saude

    2013-07-01

    The need for high quality standards for radiographic images in order to make a diagnosis assertive, and being the additional filtration required in the intraoral X-ray equipment show the need of evaluating these filters. This study aims to examine the influence of the elemental composition of the filters of X-ray of dental intraoral equipment in the radiographic images quality. The filters analysis were performed by using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF). Ten conventional filters were analysed. In this study, 33 radiographic exposures were performed using films: twenty radiographs in the incisor region and ten in the molar region, three exposures were also made in the same regions with same conditions without using filter. After radiographs development, optical density was measure and all radiographs were submitted to subjective evaluation by dental radiologists. Data obtained were correlated to effects evaluation of the elemental composition of all filters in the quality of the radiographic images. The elements found were: aluminum, cobalt, copper, sulfur, iron, manganese, titanium, zinc, and zirconium. The images obtained were identified in groups: Molars to 0.3 s; Incisors to 0.2 s; Incisors to 0.3 s, and for the group without filters. From the results obtained it was concluded that both unclear radiographs and ideal radiographs were produced by using filters of elementary common. Therefore, conventional filters evaluated were an acceptable option to produce quality images in dental radiology, despite differences in the composition of the alloys. (author)

  16. Principles of interfacing computers to medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J L; Martin, T R

    1990-12-01

    Table 3 shows a comparison of the interface standards considered. RS232 has the advantages of availability, flexibility and low cost. Variants on the standard overcome its limitations in data-rate and distance. The Centronics parallel standard is available on most personal computers and is particularly suitable for high data-rates over short distances. Other PC standards such as SCSI are special-purpose interfaces and therefore more difficult to use. GPIB is a robust and well-specified standard often used for the control of laboratory instruments.

  17. X-ray equipment in medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document sets out requirements for the safe use of radiation emitting devices. Included in this code are sections for the specific guidance of the radiologist, the physician, the operator, and the health physicist

  18. Medical Equipment at Home After the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or intestines. Gavage feeding helps babies get enough food when they can’t get enough food by mouth through breastfeeding or a bottle. For ... a lung disorder called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD can cause lung damage ... distress syndrome (RDS) and needed long treatment with breathing ...

  19. A hybrid approach based on ANP, ELECTRE and SIMANP metaheuristic method for outsourcing manufacturing procedures according to supply chain risks - Case study: A medical equipment manufacturer company in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays enterprises should consider seeking to reduce the supply chain risks as a crucial part of their activities in order to improve their competitiveness in the international context. Choosing the suitable strategy in connection with assigning some parts of the production process to outside the organization is a complex multi-criteria decision making problem and it gets more complicated when supply chain risk factors as the factors to select the strategy as well as dependence and the close ties between these criteria also be considered. In this paper, after the identification of risks in the supply chain of a medical equipment manufacturer company, dependence and ties between criteria in line with choosing the best strategy among existing alternatives has been examined in the form of a combined ANP-ELECTRE method. This combined model is of high performance to give a solution to the problem considered in this paper. But given the complex and time consuming nature of the AHP and ELECTRE, in this study a meta-heuristic algorithm is developed called SIMANP that despite the simplicity of computing and high-speed, is good in the terms of precision and efficiency. The results of comparing SIMANP algorithm and the proposed ANP - ELECTRE method are presented at the end.

  20. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  1. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  2. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  3. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on the development of total evaluation research laboratory system for the medical welfare equipment technology research and development project; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project yo sogo hyoka kenkyu rabo system kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    A laboratory system named above has been developed to propel forward efficiently the efforts to develop medical welfare technologies through close coordination between medicine and engineering. Six laboratories are linked with each other in a network for the realization of an environment in which general support is extended to all the stages of equipment development from basic through clinical assessment. The biomedical engineering laboratory is constituted of various analyzing devices, and is capable of in vitro assessment of bioingredients. The therapeutic laboratory is provided with bioinformation/NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) measurement equipment, animal surgical operation equipment, etc., and performs the assessment of test animals at the first stage of clinical assessment. The diagnostic laboratory acquires various image data necessary for the development of medical equipment at the same level as that of the site of clinical diagnosis. The intelligent surgical operation room takes in real-time diagnostic images while a surgical operation is under way and, at the same time, assesses surgical devices in the same environment as that of the surgical operation room. The medical information laboratory accumulates medical and image data from the other laboratories, and integrates the accumulated data. The data management center manages the laboratories in a unified way and enables comprehensive assessment and research. (NEDO)

  5. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  6. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  7. Australian rural radiographers' perspectives on disclosure of their radiographic opinion to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squibb, Kathryn; Bull, Rosalind M.; Smith, Anthony; Dalton, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The role of Australian rural radiographers in radiographic interpretation, communication and disclosure of their radiographic opinion with a specific focus on plain film radiography was examined in a two phase, exploratory interpretive study. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews and analysed thematically. This reports one of the key themes identified in the thematic data analysis. ‘Disclosure of Radiographic Opinion to Patients’ comprises the three interrelated sub-themes Acting Ethically, Selective Disclosure and Filtered Truth. It is wholly concerned with the ways in which rural radiographers choose to disclose their radiographic opinion to patients. Without a clear picture of where they stand medico-legally, rural radiographers draw on experience and a strong ethical framework as the basis for these complex decisions. Rural radiographers frame their disclosures to patients in a manner that is governed by the diagnostic, therapeutic and emotional impact the information disclosed may have on the patient. Disclosure to patients was found to be selective, often diagnostically vague and ethically filtered

  8. Radiographic testing - optimum radiographs of plastics and composite materials with dosimeter control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wavelength radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  10. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo

    1980-01-01

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  11. Radiographers' preconditions for evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Liikanen, Eeva

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential in today's health care, but its establishment requires several preconditions from individuals and organizations (e.g. knowledge, understanding, attitudes, abilities, self-confidence, support, and resources). Previous studies suggest that radiographers do generate and use evidence in their work, but evidence-based radiography (EBR) is not yet used routinely as established practice, especially in terms of research utilization. This paper aims to describe radiographers' preconditions for EBR, and their participation in research activities. Main focus is on research utilization. Using an electronic questionnaire developed for this study, a survey was conducted: data collected from Finnish radiographers and radiotherapists (N = 438) were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. The final response rate was 39%. The results suggest radiographers' preconditions for EBR to consist of knowledge of research, significance of research activities, research-orientated way of working, and support. In addition, adequate resourcing is essential. Reading scientific journals, participation in research activities, a higher degree of education, and senior post seem to be significant promoters of EBR and research utilization. The results support the notion that EBR, and especially research utilization, are not yet well-established in Finland, and radiographers' viewpoints concerning the role and significance of research evidence and research activities still seem to vary.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the foot in the patient with diabetes mellitus is discussed in this paper. According to the author, it can only be of value when the soft tissue and bony and joint pathologic conditions, which occur more frequently in the diabetic patient are also considered and understood. Although not pathognomic for diabetes mellitus, neuroarthopathy, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, and some rheumatic disorders are present with greater frequency in diabetic populations than in non-diabetic populations. Frequently, edema, erythema, hyperthermia, and tenderness are present as nonspecific clinical findings, in which case radiographic evaluation is called upon to define the specific etiology of a particular patient's pathology. Unfortunately, many radiographic, computerized tomographic, and radionuclide studies demonstrate less than optimal positive and negative predictive values unless interpreted in view of clinical history and examination and integrated with the results of other laboratory data. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot may be utilized to establish the presence of disease, the extent of pedal involvement, and the response to therapy. The establishment of the nature of disease processes from radiographic findings alone, however, may be problematic. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis, for example, rests on the recovery of the offending microorganisms from bone aspiration or culture

  13. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  14. Radiographic assessment of pelvic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Assessment of pelvic fractures requires an understanding of the bony and soft-tissue anatomy of the pelvis. Pelvic injuries may be classified into major and minor groups. Minor fractures usually result from athletic trauma in the young or falls in the elderly and can generally be adequately evaluated with routine radiography. Major fractures are most often caused by motor vehicle accidents, falls from a height or industrial accidents and require more sophisticated examination. However, the investigation of injuries in either category should be directed by a knowledge of the history and physical findings. The classification of pelvic injuries used at Sunnbrook Medical Centre is based on mechanisms of injury

  15. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical kits...

  16. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment. ... Pan African Medical Journal ... Introduction: Objective: To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published ...

  17. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  18. Radiographic findings in tuberculosis of the calvarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patankar, T.; Varma, R.; Krishnan, A.; Prasad, S. [Dept. of Radiology, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Bombay (India); Desai, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India); Castillo, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We reviewed the pattern of involvement of the calvarium by tuberculosis (TB) in five patients and the role of imaging in its management. Four patients presented with localised scalp swelling and one with generalized seizures. Radiographs revealed lucent lesions with minimal surrounding sclerosis in the frontal (2), parietal (2) and occipital (1) bones. CT showed lesions involving the entire thickness of the calvarium and accompanying contrast-enhancing soft tissue. The patient presenting with seizures had a ring-enhancing lesion in the parietal lobe in addition to the extra-axial lesions. Although radiographs in all cases demonstrated calvarial TB, CT showed the extent of the defect, involvement of adjacent soft tissues, and in one case an intra-axial lesion. Radiographs suffice for follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  19. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  20. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities