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Sample records for radioaktivnykh otkhodov aehs

  1. Results of complex studies in radiation state of temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the Chernobyl estrangement zone.; Rezul`taty kompleksnykh issledovanij radiatsionnogo sostoyaniya punktov vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledenev, A I; Ovcharov, P A; Mishunina, I B; Antropov, V M [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Describing complex studies in radiation state of temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the nearest Chernobyl NPP zone, the paper provides results of these studies as well as results of inspection of radioactive waste hidden in 1990 - 1994.

  2. Estimation of safety of radionuclide localization in temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the Chernobyl estrangement zone.; Otsenka nadezhnosti lokalizatsii radionuklidov v punkte vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishunina, I B; Ledenev, A I; Khvesik, O V [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Preliminary estimation of soil water contamination as a result of radionuclide migration from burials is described. The studies necessary to make trustworthy prediction of soil water contamination are outlined.

  3. On the problem of classification of radioactive waste.; K voprosu o klassifikatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachev, O M; Ermolin, G A [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    The available classification of radioactive waste, classification problems on processing, storage and burial technology have been considered. Complex classification of radioactive waste with regard for the state of aggregation, activity, radiation kind, half-life period, processing technology, storage terms and storehouse types has been suggested.

  4. Containerization problems for radioactive waste of low and middle activity.; Problemy kontejnerizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov nizkoj i srednej aktivnosti.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolin, G A; Saverskij, S Yu [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Problems of containerization, basic principles and requirements to containers and radioactive waste prepared to burial have been determined, classification of containers and technical decisions on certain types of containers have been suggested. Development of the parametric series of containers for solid radioactive waste permits standardizing the types of containers and applying unified equipment for transportation, processing and burial of waste.

  5. Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Krause, Daniel; Herder, Eelco

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Krause, D., & Herder, E. (2008). Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies. In W. Nejdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (Eds.), Proceedings Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems 5th International Conference, AH 2008 (pp. 410-415). July 29-August, 1, 2008, Hannover, Germany:

  6. Estimation of the state of Chernobyl radioactive waste storage in the Kiev region.; Otsenka sostoyaniya khranilishch radioaktivnykh otkhodov chernobyl`skogo proiskhozhdeniya v Kievskoj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolenko, V M; Ledenev, A I; Kashirnyj, A N [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents results obtained from examination of exiting radioactive waste collection areas (RWCAs) constructed in the Kiev Polesie after the Chernobyl disaster. It also provides information on the hydrogeological structure of the territory, RWCA interior, radiological state of burials, as well as on the effect that RWCAs exert on soil waters.

  7. Bilayered container << stone-concrete >> to store toxic materials and radioactive waste.; Dvukhslojnyj kontejner << kamen` - beton >> dlya khraneniya toksichnykh materialov i radioaktivnykh otkhodov.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagin, V V; Koltunov, B G; Kurylo, D A; Kosyak, A T; Izotov, Yu L [Dnepropetrovskij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A design of a universal container providing for the storage of toxic and radioactive waste with the hydrogen index from 2 to 12 pH has been developed. The construction is based on the lining of stone casting with high density and corrosion-resistance indices ensuring leak-proofness and operation reliability of the container under long terms of storage of agressive materials.

  8. Scalable Coupling of Multi-Scale AEH and PARADYN Impact Analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valisetty, Rama; Cheung, Peter; Namburu, Raju

    2004-01-01

    .... An asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) based micro-structural code available for modeling micro-structural aspects of modern armor materials is coupled with PARADYN, a parallel explicit Lagrangian finite element code...

  9. Scalable Coupling of Multiscale AEH and PARADYN Analyses for Impact Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valisetty, Rama R; Chung, Peter W; Namburu, Raju R

    2005-01-01

    .... An asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH)-based microstructural model available for modeling microstructural aspects of modern armor materials is coupled with PARADYN, a parallel explicit Lagrangian finite-element code...

  10. Economical study on the choice of the methods for processing radioactive waste with regard for their further burial.; Ehkonomicheskie issledovaniya po vyboru sposobov pererabotki radioaktivnykh otkhodov s uchetom ikh dal`nejshego zakhoroneniya.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, O K; Lyakhov, V F [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Results of economical studies in the field of rational application of different methods of processing of low- and middle-active RAW are presented. They are as follows: burning, compaction, metal decontamination by chemical treatment and remelting, hardening of RAW. It is shown that efficient use of the processes of burning, supercompaction, chemical and pyrodecontamination of metal may be achieved only when processing considerable amounts of waste under conditions of a single Centre for processing and burial of RAW.

  11. Choice of the type of a storage for the centre of processing and burial of RAW in Ukraine.; Vybor tipa khranilishch dlya Tsentra pererabotki i zakhoroneniya radioaktivnykh otkhodov v Ukraine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korchagin, P A; Avdeev, O K; Bogachev, O M [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Variants of arrangement of the Centre of processing and burial of low-and middle-active RAW and a design of storages have been considered. Types of burials and kinds of tanks have been determined with regard for the properties providing for both safety and economical storage of RAW and depending on radionuclide composition of waste placed to them.

  12. Testing-ground investigations of radionuclide migration in temporary area for radioactive waste localization << Ryzhy Les >>.; Poligonnye issledovaniya migratsii radionuklidov na uchastke punkta vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov << Ryzhij les >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhepo, S P; Skal` skij, A S; Bugaj, D A; Gudzenko, V V; Mogil` nyj, S A; Proskura, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk; [Admyinyistratsyiya zoni vyidchuzhennya, Chernobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental investigations carried out on testing grounds have permitted studying hydrogeological and geochemical conditions, contamination levels of ground waters and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in the areas of radioactive waste burial in sector 2.1 of temporary area for radioactive waste localization << Ryzhy Les >>. Distribution coefficients for {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr as well as chemical forms of sorbed radionuclides have been determined under in situ conditions. Lateral rates of radionuclide migration in ground waters are estimated.

  13. Creation of a mobile plant for hardening low volumes of liquid radioactive waste with low specific activity at the sport of their formation.; Sozdanie peredvizhnoj ustanovki dlya otverzhdeniya malykh ob`emov zhidkikh radioaktivnykh otkhodov nizkoj udel`noj aktivnosti v mestakh ikh obrazovaniya.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, V N; Petrichenko, V S [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A device and a principle of work of an experimental prototype of a mobile plant intended for immediate hardening of low volumes (to 10 l) of liquid radioactive waste with low level of activity at the enterprises have been described.

  14. Use of radioactive tracers in studying the transport of solids in watercourses; Emploi de traceurs radioactifs pour l'etude du transport solide dans les cours d'eau; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya peremeshcheniya tverdykh chastits v vodnykh potokakh; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para el estudio del transporte de solidos en las corrientes de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Jaeery, P; Heuzel, M [Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique de Chatou (France)

    1962-01-15

    aplicacion de los indicadores radiactivos a los estudios sobre modelos a escala reducida con el doble proposito de: a) disponer de un procedimiento de investigacion comun para los estudios efectuados sobre el terreno y en los modelos a escala reducida, con el objeto de poder controlar la fidelidad del modelo durante los ensayos de calibracion; b) aprovechar las ventajas que ofrecen los modelos a escala reducida en cuanto a facilidad de observacion y mediciones directas, para estudiar las posibilidades de mejorar el metodo de los indicadores, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la obtencion de datos cuantitativos. (author) [Russian] Natsional'naya gidravlicheskaya laboratoriya, vyrabotavshaya v sotrudnichestve s TSentrom yadernykh issledovanij v Sakle pribory i metody izucheniya dvizheniya donnykh otlozhenij pri pomoshchi metoda radioaktivnykh indikatorov, prilagaet v nastoyashchee vremya usiliya k tomu, chtoby osushchestvit' dejstvitel'no kolichestvennyj sposob issledovanij. Za poslednee vremya bylo provedeno dva opyta v prirodnykh usloviyakh v rekakh; pervyj iz nikh byl posvyashchen izucheniyu uvlecheniya gal'ki vodami Rony, a drugoj - izucheniyu peremeshcheniya peska v reke Niger. Parallel'no s poslednim opytom byli provedeny identichnye ispytaniya na makete reki Niger, sozdannom v laboratorii v SHatu. V ehtikh opytakh bylo ispol'zovano izluchenie margantsa-56 i natriya-24, vyzvannoe neposredstvennoj aktivatsiej tolchenoj kostochki abrikosa, izobrazhavshej v ispytaniyakh na makete prirodnye donnye otlozheniya Nigera. Sovmestnye usiliya laboratorii v SHatu i TSentra yadernykh issledovanij v Sakle napravleny v nastoyashchee vremya na primenenie metoda radioaktivnykh indikatorov k opytam na maketakh s dvojnoj tsel'yu: a) Vyrabotat' odinakovye metody issledovaniya v prirodnykh usloviyakh i na makete dlya proverki tochnosti maketa v stadii opytov po ehtalonirovaniyu; b) Ispol'zovat' legkost' vedeniya nablyudenij i proizvodstva neposredstvennykh izmerenij na maketakh dlya

  15. Positive and negative aspects of the Kozloduy NPP; AEhS Kozloduy - plyusy i minusy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzmanov, K [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    This opening address delivered by the Kozloduy NPP General Director summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of the Kozloduy NPP. It is emphasized that the plant supplies 40% of the national electricity demand and has been running without any accidents or environmental contamination. The production cost of the electricity produced is between two and three times less than the one from thermal stations. Among the disadvantages are: great initial investments; the need to handle and store properly the radioactive waste; the need for modernization and reconstruction in order to improve safety.

  16. Non-destructive control at the Kozloduy NPP; Nerazrushayushchij kontrol` v AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhovsky, M [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Skordev, A [SIME-CONTROL, Sofia (Bulgaria); Nichev, V; Tsokov, P; Popova, N [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    A program for technical diagnostics using non-destructive methods is being carried out at the Kozloduy NPP. The main target is to test mechanical equipment integrity (metal control, mechanical stress control, etc.) as well as electrical equipment. Computer methods and simulation are widely used in program implementation. Non-destructive testing is based on methods involving optical, radiation, ultrasonic and magnetic processes. Control procedures are standardised in special technological documents and one of them is described as an example. It refers to ultrasonic control of the austenitic steel welds of the WWER-440 piping system (DU-500). Graphic representing the microstructure of the welds, the distribution of surface ultrasonic wave and the longitudinal and vertically polarised perpendicular waves are presented. 6 refs. 8 figs.

  17. Kozloduy NPP - its 20 years operational experience; AEhS `Kozloduy`: 20-letni opyt ehksploatatsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankov, M; Grizanov, I; Sabinov, S [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The main technical and economic results of 20 year operation of the Kozloduy NPP are summarised. The total electricity produced amounts to more than 200 billions KWh. The energy produced by the plant accounts for more than 40% of the national electricity output since 1993. Details of electricity production in different years by all 6 units are given. The efficiency of units 1-4 (WWER-440) is 29-30% and of units 5-6 (WWER-1000) is 29-33%. The Unit 6 has best characteristics. Since 1989 a safety test is being carried out in cooperation with the IAEA. Units 1 and 2 have been reconstructed in order to enhance safety and reliability. 1 tab.

  18. Preliminary experiments on the use of radioactive indicators in macromolecular chemistry; Experiences preliminaires sur l'utilisation des indicateurs radioactifs en chimie macromoleculaire; Predvaritel'nye opyty ispol'zovaniya radioaktivnykh indikatorov v makromolekulyarnoj khimii; Ensayos preliminares sobre el empleo de indicadores radiactivos en quimica macromolecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brouckere, L; Van Leemput, R; Stein, R [Laboratoire de Chimie Generale II, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1962-03-15

    concentracion; c) la cantidad de polimero que se difunde depende de la permeabilidad de la membrana; d) se observa una adsorcion practicamente irreversible del polimero en la membrana (30 a 40 {mu}g cm{sup 2}). (author) [Russian] Pri izuchenii osmoticheskikh yavlenij s ispol'zovaniem vysokikh polimerov osoboe znachenie predstavlyayut dve prichiny oshibok: a) diffuziya nizkomolekulyarnykh polimerov cherez membranu; b) adsorbtsiya polimera na membrane. Dlya issledovaniya oboikh ehtikh yavlenij metod radioaktivnykh indikatorov predstavlyaet nesomnennye preimushchestva nad obychnymi i gorazdo menee chuvstvitel'nymi vesovymi metodami. V provedennykh avtorami doklada opytakh byl ispol'zovan geterodispersnyj obrazets polimera (poli)-khlorobutilakrilata, kotoryj byl khlorirovan s pomoshch'yu Cl{sup 36} posredstvom ionizatsii, iskhodya iz obraztsa (poli)-butilakrilata. Ehtot polimer rastvo- ryaetsya v atsetone. Byli postroeny diffuzionnye kamery, analogichnye dvuyacheechnym osmometram. Rastvor otdelyalsya ot rastvoritelya tselofanovymi membranami, obrabotannymi tak, chtoby davat' pronitsaemost' ot 6,7 x 10{sup -5} ch{sup -1} do 30,6 x 10{sup -5} ch{sup -1} Bylo najdeno, chto: a) s nashim oborudovaniem ponadobilos' okolo 200 chasov dlya togo, chtoby v opytakh diffuzii dostich' ravnovesiya ili ustojchivogo sostoyaniya; b) dolya polimera, diffundiruyushchaya cherez membranu v opredelennyj promezhutok vremeni, ne zavisit ot kontsentratsii; c) kolichestvo diffundiruyushchego polimera zavisit ot pronitsaemosti membrany; d) nablyudalas' pochti neobratimaya adsorbtsiya polimera na membrane (30-40 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  19. Metabolism of fission products in man: Marshallese experience; Metabolisme des produits de fission radioactifs chez l'homme: donnees recueillies aux iles Marshall; Metabolizm radioaktivnykh produktov deleniya v organizme cheloveka. (dannye obsledovaniya zhite- lej marshal'skikh ostrovov); Metabolismo de productos de fision radiactivos en el hombre: datos obtenidos en los habitantes de las islas Marshall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S. H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1963-02-15

    gracias a estos estudios. Presenta los resultados de un tratamiento con la sal calcico-disodica del EDTA, que se efectuo poco despues de la contaminacion con el proposito de modificar la velocidad de eliminacion de las mezclas de productos de fision en los habitantes de las islas Marshall. Tambien discute el metabolismo de los radionuclidos y su relacion con la radiactividad ambiente en aquella zona. (author) [Russian] Meditsinskoe'obsledovanie zhitelej Marshal'skikh ostrovov, sluchajno podvergshikhsya dejstviyu mestnykh radioaktivnykh osadkov v 1954 godu, yavlyaetsya unikal'nym v tom smysle, chto ono, naryadu s obsledovaniem yaponskikh rybakov, daet vozmozhnost' poluchit' edinstvennye v ehtoj oblasti dannye po metabolizmu smeshannykh produktov deleniya v organizmakh lyudej. Rannyaya diagnostika vnutrennego radioaktivnogo zarazheniya osushchestvlyalas' s pomoshch'yu radiokhimicheskogo analiza vydelenij obluchennykh lyudej i metodami radiokhimicheskogo analiza tkanej zhivotnykh obluchennykh odno-vremenno. Na nachal'noj stadii bol'shuyu chast' vnutrennej dozy radiatsii sostavlyali strontsij-89, barij-140, jod-131, ikh bolee korotkozhivushchie dochernie produkty i ryad redkozemel'nykh ehlementov. Cherez god osnovnymi radioizotopami byli strontsij-90, tsezij-137 i tsink-65. Pozdnee periodi- cheski izmeryalas' aktivnost' ehtikh radioizotopov, a eshche pozdnee i kobal'ta-60. Nachinaya s 1958 goda gamma-spektry u zhitelej Marshal'skikh ostrovov poluchayut s pomoshch'yu portativnogo schetchika dlya izmereniya aktivnosti vsego tela. V doklade obsuzhdayutsya dannye ehtikh issledovanij za prshedshie vosem' let. Privodyatsya rezul'taty rannikh popytok izmenit' skorost' udaleniya smeshannykh produktov deleniya iz organizma s pomoshch'yu dvunatrievogo kal'tsiya EDTA. Obsuzhdaetsya takzhe metabolizm radioizotopov i svyaz'ikh s urovnyami v okruzhayushchej srede. (author)

  20. Nuclear power plants with reactors WWER-1000 type: today and tomorrow; AEhS s WWER-1000: nastoyashchee i budushchee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanov, V; Biryukov, G; Novak, K [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    There are currently 19 NPP units based on WWER-1000 reactors working in Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria. They are of four types: V-187, V-302, V-338, V-320. The design principles of these reactors comply with regulations of the eighties, and it is necessary to introduce improvements according to the new regulations and to the operation experience gained. Two approaches for safety and efficiency enhancement are described: AS-91 and AS-92. AS-91 implies gradual improvement of the base WWER-1000/V-320 design by incorporation of new design solutions avoiding the need of building large scale models. AS-92 refers to entirely new design which require experimental research by building a full scale models or by using natural stands. The latter approach will be used for NPP projects to be built after year 2000. The main new feature of AS-92 is the addition of passive safety systems to the active ones in order to protect the fuel from damage.

  1. Safety culture in an RBMK perspective; Sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya sistemy povysheniya kul`tury bezopasnosti AEhS Rossii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porokhin, V G [Rosenergoatom, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation discusses the following issues: state and perspectives of the development of the system on Russia NPP safety culture enhancement; steps of Rosehnergoatom on development of system on Russia NPP Russia NPP safety culture enhancement, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the safety culture, the nearest perspectives on safety culture enhancement in Russia.

  2. Promotion of a good safety culture at Ignalina RBMKs; Vnedrenie kul`tury bezopasnosti na Ignalinskoj AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevaldin, V [Ignalina NPP, Visaginas (Lithuania)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation discusses the following issues: politics of Ignalina nuclear power plant in the area of safety and quality assurance; check of safety conditions; the activities of the Safety committee at the Ignalina NPP.

  3. Use of Radioactive Tracers in the Study of Insect-Plant Relationships; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude des relations insecte-plante; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya vzaimnoj svyazi mezhdu nasekomymi ch rasteniyami; Empleo de marcadores radiactivos para estudiar las relaciones insecto-planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr., D. A. [Radiation Ecology Section, Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-09-15

    habian pasaco la hibernacion de los adultos nuevos, porque la eliminacion del cesio en los primeros era mas rapida. En los estudios sobre poblaciones formadas por varias especies, la relacion entre el tamano del insecto y el indice de eliminacion sirvio para calcular el periodo medio biologico para la eliminacion del radiocesio por insectos harbivoros en una zona tratada con {sup 137}Ce. Este periodo medio y los datos sobre las masas biologicas vegetales e insectiles y sobre las concentraciones de radiocesio han permitido calcular el consumo de vegetales de una poblacion entera de insectos. Del mismo modo, se ha podido calcular el consumo de insectos de los artropodos depredadores basandose en las concentraciones estacionarias de radiocesio en los depredadores y en las victimas, las masas biologicas y el indice medio de eliminacion. (author) [Russian] Pri bolee rannem ispol'zovanii radioaktivnykh indikatorov v ehkologicheskikh issledovaniyakh nasekomykh-vreditelej ikh rasseyaniya i migratsii izuchalis' pri pomoshchi radioizotopov, kotorymi markirovalis' otdel'nye nasekomye. V poslednee vremya poluchilo rasprostranenie ispol'zovanie radioizotopov dlya izucheniya biologicheskoj assotsiatsii nasekomykh i rastenij, a takkhe khishchnykh nasekomykh i ikh dobychi, iskhodya iz opredeleniya potrebleniya imi pishchi. Biologicheskoe vydelenie radioizotopov, kotoroe meshaet izucheniyu rasseyaniya nasekomykh, ispol'zuetsya v nastoyashchee vremya dlya izmereniya kolichestva potrebleniya pishchi. Kak v polevykh issledovaniyakh, tak i v laboratornykh ehksperimentakh nasekomym daetsya vozmozhnost' dostich' v protsesse pitaniya sostoyaniya ustojchivoj kontsentratsii radioizotopov. V ehtikh usloviyakh temp pogloshcheniya dannogo radioizotopa raven tempu ego vydeleniya: (temp pogloshcheniya) = (velichine ustojchivogo sostoyaniya) x (skorost' poteri); Izmereniya tempov vydeleniya (biologicheskogo poluraspada) pozvolyayut perevodit' sostoyaniya ustojchivoj kontsentratsii v funktsii tempov

  4. Radiotracer Approaches to Carbamate Insecticide Toxicology; Emploi des radio indicateurs pour l'etude de la toxicologie des insecticides a base de carbamates; Primenenie radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya toksikologii karbamatnykh insektitsidov; Estudio con radioindicadores de la toxico logia de los insecticidas a base de carbamatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casida, J. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1963-09-15

    5-[3-metil-2-dimetilcarbamil]- pirazolina) y un compuesto comparable indican tambien que el ataque oxidante forma derivados N-metilo y N-metilol. Faltan todavia muchos datos sobre la relacion entre esas reacciones de desintaxicacion y el mecanismo de resistencia, la accion de las sustancias sinergicas, la toxicidad selectiva de este grupo de insecticidas, y la naturaleza y el significado de los residuos. Es probable tambien que el metabolismo del Sevin inyectado en las plantas sea oxidativo mas que hidrolitico, pero no se ha establecido todavia la naturaleza de los productos y el mecanismo enzimatico. (author) [Russian] Metilkarbamaty yavlyayutsya odnoj iz glavnykh grupp insektitsidov. Mnogie nerazreshennye problemy toksikologii ehtikh veshchestv mogut byt' legko izucheny pri pomoshchi radioaktivnykh indikatorov. Byli izgotovleny N, N-dimetidkarbamaty, karbonilovaya gruppa kotorykh metilas' C{sup 14}, a takzhe N-metilkar- bamaty, metilovaya, karbonilovaya gruppa i kbl'tsa kotorykh byli mecheny C{sup 14}. Farmakologicheskoe dejstvie ehtikh slozhnykh soedinenij, veroyatno, svyazano s tormozheniem atsetilkholinesteraehy i mozhet vklyuchat' karbamilatsiyu. Mechenie karbonilovoj ili metilovoj gruppy karbamatov daet vozmozhnost' v ikh reaktsiyakh s ochishchennoj kholinesterazoj ili s drugimi ehsterazami kriticheski izuchit' reaktsiyu karbamida tsii, a takzhe legkost' samoproizvol'noj ili vyzvannoj reaktivatsii ili dekarbamilatsii. Fiziologicheskoe znachenie tormozheniya kholinesterazy mozhet byt' izucheno pri pomoshchi vvedeniya mechennogo C{sup 14} atsetata i analiza mechenogo atsetilkholina, nakopivshegosya v nervnykh tkanyakh, ili zhe putem ispol'zovaniya atsetil-C{sup 14}-kholina v kachestve substrata dlya opredeleniya In vitro stepeni tormozheniya kholiya- esterazy v tkanyakh otravlennykh zhivotnykh pri minimal'nom rastvorenii vo vremya analiza ingibitorov i fermentov.Nekotorye'uspekhi byli dostignuty pri pomoshchi mechennykh radioizotopami veshchestv v issledovanii

  5. The Radioisotopic Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Currents in Natural Waters. Surface Collection of Radioactive Fall-Out on a Large Alpine Lake; Determination par detection nucleaire des coefficients de diffusion et des courants dans les eaux naturelles. Evolution de la surface de collection d'un grand lac alpin pour les retombees radioactives; Opredelenie koehffitsienta diffuzii i skorosti techeniya estestvennykh vod pri pomoshchi yadernogo detektirovaniya. Ehvolyutsiya poverkhnosti sbora radioaktivnykh osadkov na bol'shom al'pijskom ozere; Determinacion por deteccion nuclear de los coeficientes de difusion y de las corrientes en las aguas naturales evolucion de la superficie de captacion de un gran lago alpino para las precipitaciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R.; Nordemann, D. [Service d' Electronique Physique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Dussart, B. [Centre de Recherches Hydrobiologiques, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-08-15

    precipitacione s radiactivas debidas a las explosiones nucleares en la atmosfera (octubre de 1961-enero de 1962). Midieron diariamente la radiactividad en muestras de agua del lago Leman tomadas a 0, 10 y 20 m de profundidad y en un colector de precipitaciones atmosfericas secas y humedas. A pesar de la complejidad del regimen de aportaciones en funcion del tiempo, la inter- pretacion de los diagramas obtenidos puede contribuir a resolver el problema del destino de los productos radiactivos en las condiciones de difusion y de corriente que reinan en la practica. La difusion de productos radiactivos en cantidad muy pequena, unida a la utilizacion de diversas tecnicas de deteccion nuclear de alta sensibilidad, permitiran obtener mas datos sobre la difusion in situ y el movimiento de las masas de aguas naturales. (author) [Russian] Na pervom ehtape avtory vyzvali diffuziyu ''in situ'' na radioaktivnom izluchatele, natrii-22, v vide Na{sup +}, s aktivnost'yu nizhe 1 millikyuri. Zakony diffuzii, primenennye v ehtom sluchae, legko pozvolyayut predvidet' skorost' ''radioaktivnogo Oblaka'' vo vremya diffuzii. Takim obrazom, registratsiya aktivnosti v zavisimosti ot vremeni, izmerennaya s pomoshch'yu dvukh nadlezhashchim obrazom raspolozhennykh gamma- detektorov, privela k otsenke koehffitsienta diffuzii dlya ispol'zuemogo izluchatelya i k izmereniyu skorosti techeniya v toj tochke, gde proizvodilos' izmerenie (v dannom sluchae ozero Leman). Na vtorom ehtape v sootvetstvii s geofizicheskim issledovaniem obshchej problemy radioaktivnogo vypadeniya, avtory ispol'zovali nakoplenie radioaktivnykh osadkov, voznikshikh v rezul'tate yadernykh ispytanij, provedennykh v atmosfere v oktyabre 1961 - yanvare 1962 g. Kazhdyj den' bralis' proby vody Lemanskogo ozera na glubinakh O, 10 i 20 m, a takzhe sukhikh i vlazhnykh atmosfernykh vypadenij. Nesmotrya na slozhnost' rezhima nakopleniya v zavisimosti ot pogody, tolkovanie poluchennoj-diagrammy mozhet sposobstvovat' razresheniyu problemy vypadeniya

  6. Localization of decontamination waste in the territory of Ukraine.; Lokalizatsiya otkhodov dezaktivatsionnykh rabot na territorii Ukrainy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodin, L P; Zhivotenko, A N [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Various environmental conditions in decontamination waste storage areas in the Zhitomir, Kiev, Chernigov, Rovno, Cherkassy, Sumy Regions of Ukraine are analyzed. Typical designs and basic parameters of decontamination waste storage areas implemented in 17 contractor designs are described. Theoretical grounds of safe storage of decontamination waste in the areas are discussed.

  7. Radioactive rare earths from fallout for study of particle movement in the sea; Etude du mouvement des particules dans la mer a l'aide de terres rares radioactives provenant de retombees; Ispol'zovanie osazhdayushchikhsya pri vypadenii radioaktivnykh redkikh zemel' dlya issledovaniya dvizheniya chastits v more; Estudio del movimiento de las particulas en el mar con ayuda de tierras raras radiactivas procedentes de las precipitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Thomas T [Clark University, Worcester, MA (United States); Bowen, Vaughan T [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1962-01-15

    poverkhnosti vody, chem izotopy, izvestnye kak rastvorimye. EHto zamechanie sovmestno s chastym nablyudeniem obogashcheniya redkimi zemlyami na glubine privodit nas k predpolozheniyu, chto redkie zemli bystro perenosyatsya v vertikal'nom napravlenii, blagodarya prilipaniyu k osedayushchim chastitsam. EHto predpolozhenie vpolne veroyatno v svete ''radiokolloidal'nogo'' povedeniya, obychno nablyudaemogo dlya redkikh zemel' pri rN morskoj vody. Delaetsya popytka istolkovat' nastoyashchee issledovanie v svyazi s obshchej kartinoj morskoj geokhimii trivalentnykh kationov, a takzhe podcherknut' isklyuchitel'nye i obychno poleznye aspekty opytov izucheniya vypadeniya pri pomoshchi radioaktivnykh indikatorov. (author)

  8. The use of radiotracer techniques to study lubrication and wear in large diesel engines; Emploi des indicateurs radioactifs pour l'etude de la lubrification et de l'usure dans les moteurs diesel de grande puissance; Ispol'zovanie metodov radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya smazki i iznosa bol'shikh dizel'nykh motorov; Aplicacion de los indicadores radiactivos al estudio de la lubricacion y desgaste de los motores diesel de gran potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Jr, J E; Braun, W J; Sunderman, D N [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1962-01-15

    resultados tecnologicos. Han determinado el consumo de lubricante y el desgaste de las camisas de cilindro en funcion de las condiciones de funcionamiento de motores diesel de potencia del orden de 1000 C.V. Idearon metodos para marcar 200 galones (756 litros) de lubricante con 60 milicuries de zinc-65 y determinar el consumo de lubricantes tomando muestras de los gases de escape durante el funcionamiento del motor en condiciones diversas. Lograron medir en diez minutos la velocidad con que se consume el aceite, en vez de las 24 a 48 horas que se precisaban antes. Han perfeccionado tecnicas de irradiacion para activar con neutrones la parte inferior de una camisa de cilindro de 48 pulgadas (120 cm) de longitud y 8 pulgadas (20 cm) de diametro. Gracias a una proteccion adecuada contra los neutrones termicos, consiguieron producir manganeso-54 de 300 dias; por consiguiente, los estudios sobre el desgaste de las camisas de cilindro pueden llevarse a cabo durante un tiempo de seis a ocho veces mas prolongado que en el caso de una camisa similar, pero activada con neutrones termicos a fin de producir hierro-59. El hecho de que se puedan estudiar motores diesel con cantidades tan considerables de sustancias radiactivas en instalaciones de investigacion corrientes abre perspectivas totalmente nuevas a las aplicaciones de los indicadores radiactivos. La activacion selectiva y el empleo acertado de protecciones contra los neutrones termicos aumentan las posibilidades de utilizacion de los indicadores radiactivos, ya que permiten limitar las mediciones a las zonas de interes, reducir la cantidad total de sustancia radiactiva necesaria para los estudios sobre el desgaste de piezas de gran tamano y efectuar las mediciones simultaneas del desgaste de distintas piezas de identica composicion quimica. (author) [Russian] Metody radioaktivnykh indikatorov byli primeneny v usloviyakh polnoj bezopasnosti i s isklyuchitel'no uspeshnymi tekhnologicheskimi rezul'tatami k izucheniyu smazki i

  9. Safety problems of nuclear power plants with reactors of new generation; Voprosy bezopasnosti v proehktakh AEhS novogo pokoleniya s WWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V; Rogov, M; Biryukov, G [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Modernization schemes for safety enhancement of WWER-1000 reactors are proposed. In the case of WWER-1000/V-392 it is based on introduction of additional safety systems and overall design improvement. For WWER-1100 (1000-1100 MW) the safety is enhanced by passive systems built from two-stage heat exchangers. For WWER-500/600 the use of passive safety system is extended to emergency cooling of the active zone and removal of the residual heat emissions from the reactor. The technical characteristics of the three reactors are compared. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Safety and upgrading of nuclear power plants with WWER-440/V-230; Voprosy bezopasnosti i modernizatsii AEhS s WWER-440 (V-230)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Modernization of WWER-440/V-230 reactors is considered according to the WANO project `Proposal for reconstruction of WWER-440/V-230 reactors` (1990). The main technical measures to be taken relate to: 1. Expanding the considered spectrum of design basis accidents; 2. Provision of first loop integrity; 3. Safety system structure and components reliability enhancement; 4. Reduction o initiating events probability; 5. Enhancement of hermeticity and integrity of the area surrounding the first loop; 6. Fire fighting system upgrade; 7. Radiation control system upgrade; 8. Provision of seismic resistance. Details of the recommended technical steps for some NPPs are presented. 1 tab.

  11. Malignant neoplasm rate in inhabitants of the Kozloduy NPP area; Zabolevaemost` zlokachestvennymi novoobrazovaniyami sredi naselenya v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, P [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Illness incidence of malignant formations in lungs, mammary gland, thyroid gland, lymph and blood producing tissues is investigated in the 30 km area around Kozloduy and compared to data from two other locations in Bulgaria. The number of malignant growth in the lungs, mammary or thyroid gland on 100 000 persons is lower than the average number for the country as a whole. The number of malignant formations in lymph and blood producing tissues is higher than the average number for the country but the difference is statistically insignificant. Thyroid gland diseases occur with very small frequency for the investigated period (1985-1990). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in the Kozloduy NPP environment; Soderzhanie 137Cs i 90Sr v obektakh okruzhayushchej sredy v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaivanova, R; Totseva, R; Badulin, V; Zlatanova, R; Fajtondzhieva, K [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radioactivity status of soil and plant samples collected in the 12 km controlled zone surrounding Kozloduy has been investigated in the period 1990-1993. The average annual concentrations of Sr-90 and Cs-137 are compared to the values taken at 40 km distance. Cs-137 has in general higher concentrations in soil samples from the NPP close surroundings - e.g. 50-55 Bq/kg in 1992 versus 2-2.5 Bq/kg for Sr-90. Radionuclide concentrations in grass do not differ significantly from the data at 40 km distance. It is concluded that the average annual doses follow the radionuclide dynamics in the global fallout and the effect of Kozloduy operation can not be separated from the background radioactivity status. 4 refs., 21 figs.

  13. Structure of roofing cover for NPP reactor compartment in India. Ustrojstvo krovel'nogo pokrytiya reaktornogo otdeleniya AEhS v Indii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movchan, S V

    1990-04-01

    Technology of fabrication of the roofing cover for NPP reactor compartments in India is briefly described. The cover is two-layer. The underlying thermal-hydroinsulating layer with the thickness of 100 mm is produced of beaten brick on lime-sand mortar. Facing layer of ceramic tile is applied to it.

  14. Hazard of radioactive releases resulted from coal burning; Opasnost` vysvobozhdeniya radioaktivnykh produktov pri szhiganii uglya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbard, V

    1995-09-01

    Consideration is given to the data, pointing to the fact, that coal-burning power plants release of radioactive substances, contained in gaseous wastes, is not less, than the same one of nuclear power plants. The necessity of regulating emission of these substance in atmosphere by analogy with nuclear power industry is shown. 1 fig.

  15. AEhLT-1-type image scanner for nuclear-physics and applied problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The design of the AELT-1 automatic scanner intended for measuring 35 mm photographs is presented. The photographs are scanned by the ''flying spot'' method, i.e. by transillumination of a photograph being measured and detection, with the help of a photomultiplier, of instants at which the CRT light spot meets different darkenings (nuclear particle tracks, etc.) available on it. On the CRT scope the light spot moves along lines the position (number) of which is controlled by a computer. Coordinates are measured by means of a special system of reference gratings on which with the aid of semitransparent mirrors a part of the CRT light is directed. Codes of the beginning and end of measured darkenings are fed to the computer for processing. In the process of scanning the computer controls the output signal discrimination level in the film channel. Based on the AELT-1 automatic scanner in JINR a system for processing photographs from a wide gap spark chamber during experiments aimed at studying the secondary electroproduction of pions is developed and put into operation in 1973. The tracks have a small length (1 mm), and the bulk of them has low contrast range. The capacity of the developed processing system is 70 thousand events per year for single shift operation

  16. Decay schemes of the radioactive nuclei A = 225 to 229. Skhemy raspada radioaktivnykh yader A = 225 - 229

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhelepov, B S; Ivanov, R B; Mikhailova, M A

    1976-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to properties of atomic nuclei with mass numbers A = 225 to 229. The book collects and systematizes all of the experimental data characterizing properties of radioactive isotopes: information concerning masses of nuclei, magnetic and electric moments, lifetimes of nuclear states, the most reliable information on characteristics of radiations, quantum characteristics of levels and other properties of the studied nuclei. On basis of a critical analysis of the totality of information, decay schemes of radioactive nuclei with mass numbers A = 225 to 229 were constructed, as well as the series of excited states of the isotopes which lie in this region of nuclei.

  17. Methodical installations for fast resource testing of reliability of electrotechnical components intended for NPP equipment; Metodicheskie ustanovki dlya uskorennykh roesursnykh ispytanij na nadezhnost ` ehlektrotekhnicheskikh komplektuyushchikh, vkhodyashchikh v sostav oborudovaniya AEhS i yadernykh ustanovok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, V S

    1994-12-31

    Installations for testing the electrotechnical equipment, microswitches for mechanical bend tests of cables as well as for high voltage tests of electrotechnical equipment are developed and described.

  18. Influence of dose rate of ionizing radiation on working capacity of the oil-filled electrical equipment for NPP; Vliyanie moshchnosti dozy ioniziruyushchego oblucheniya na rabotosposobnost` maslonapolnennogo ehlektrooborudovaniya dlya AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutnev, A P [and others

    1994-12-31

    Dependence of radiation electric conductivity transformer oil on the gamma radiation absorbed dose rate and on the energy proton flux is investigated. It is ascertained that the electrical reliability of oil and oil-barrier insulation does not depend on the absorbed dose rate up to the maximum achieved values of 200 rad/s.

  19. Study on radiation resistance of electro insulating materials used in high-voltage equipment at Chernobylsk NPP; Issledovanie radiatsionnoj stojkosti ehlektroizolyatsionnykh materialov, primenyaemykh v vytsfsokovol`tnom oborudovanii na Chernobyl`skoj AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizunov, S D [and others

    1994-12-31

    Investigations into the radiation resistance of the transformer oil and electro insulating cardboard during emergency irradiation at the NPP in 1986 are conducted. It is shown that as a result of transformer oil irradiation it is decomposed with the release of hydrogen, ethane, ethylene, ethane and other gases.

  20. Safety systems I/C reliability analysis of the Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6; Analiz nadezhnosti KIP i sistem bezopasnosti pyatogo i shestogo bloka AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, B [Risk Engineering Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the analysis is to assess the safety systems I/C equipment reliability of the Kozloduy-5 and the Kozloduy-6 reactors. The assessment of quantitative and qualitative effect of control systems unavailability on the safety systems unavailability is performed. The analysis is limited to the following systems: sprinkler management, low pressure emergency spray, emergency injection of boric acid, hydro accumulators, pressure compensator and compressed air. The code for probabilistic safety assessment PSAPACK has been used in analysis. Fault trees for all analysed safety systems have been constructed. Results indicates a high reliability of the safety systems management.

  1. Nitrided steel 38CrN3MAFA for supporting elements in nuclear power plants; Vysokoazotistaya stal` tipa 38HN3MAFA dlya krepezhnikh detajlej reaktorov AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasheva, I; Argirov, Kh; Stojchev, T [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite

    1996-12-31

    Nitride doping of steel at different concentrations is achieved by counter-pressure casting in nitrogen ambience. A new type of steel is developed containing 0.05-0.2% N{sub 2}. It is compared to a standard 34NiCrMoV145 steel (DIN). The mechanical properties are improved significantly after a two-stage thermal treatment and are as follows: fluidity limit R{sub 0}.2>=1045 MPa, relative elongation A>=15%, relative shortening Z>=62%, impact viscosity KCU >= 1 MJ/m{sup 2}. The quench hardening consists of heating to 800-850{sup o} C in oil and cooling to 600{sup o} C in air. The steel is suitable for rotors, turbines, compressor shafts and reactor supporting elements in nuclear power plants. 3 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Determination of P, Cu, Cr, Va and Ti in samples of welded joint No.4 of Kozloduy-1 reactor pressure vessel; Opredelenie soderzhanya fosfora, medi, nikelya, khroma, vanadya i titana v struzhkakh 4 shva 1 bloka AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskaev, E [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Penev, I; Taskaeva, M [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika; Aleksieva, L [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Tsokov, P [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of reactor steel composition has been carried out in 1989 in order to determine metal embrittlement. The samples consist of shavings taken at 3-4 mm depth from the 4-th welded joint of Unit 1 of the Kozloduy NPP. The shavings have been gradually dissolved in a mixture of acids and the solution evaporated. Quantitative analysis has been carried out by spectrophotometry and by ICP emission spectroscopy. The following element concentrations have been found: P - from 0.0462 to 0.052% by weight; Ni - 0.25 - 0.26% (passport data 0.29%); Cr - 1.47 - 1.54 (passport 1.58%); V - 0.1% (passport 0.15%); Cu - 0.11-0.13% (passport 0.12); Ti - 0.002. The data have been used to calculate metal embrittlement. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Experience in scientific guidance during start-up and normal operation of NPPs with WWER reactors; Opyt nauchnogo rukovodstva puskom i soprovozhdeniya pri ehkspluatatsii ehnergoblokov AEhS s WWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abagyan, A; Kazakov, V; Kryakvin, L [All-Russian Inst. for NPP Operation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The experience gained in the All-Russian Research Institute of NPP Operation (RU) in improvement of reactor start-up and normal operation of NPPs has been reported. The work was carried out on NPPs in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. All scientific programmes applied use the system approach, modern methods of safety assessment and the principle of loss effect optimization. For the Kozloduy NPP the following projects have been implemented: design of accelerated unloading system for WWER-1000; refinement of water feeding unit for the WWER-1000 steam generator; response analysis of the safety anti-breakdown system of the second loop. The importance of technical substantiation in the process of decision making is stressed. 6 refs.

  4. Indicators of Chernobyl NPP personnel irradiation in 1986; Pokazateli obluchaemosti personala ChAEhS za 1986 g.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil` chenko, V N; Nosovskij, A V; Il` ichev, S V; Snisar, I B [Virobniche Ob` jednannya Chernobil` s` ka AES, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1996-12-31

    The results of retrospective evaluation of ChNPP personnel irradiation during Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation are presented. Only occupational doses received within 30-km exclusion zone are considered.

  5. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements. (Russian Edition); Pravila bezopasnoj perevozki radioaktivnykh materialov. Izdanie 2012 goda. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  6. Inhalation exposure control problems in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Problemy kontrolya ingalyatsionnogo oblucheniya v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhoruchkin, A K; Kazakov, S V; Marchenko, V I [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Space-time inequality of air contamination and rare high-active fuel aerosol causes different exposure of personnel. An increased content of {sup 137} Cs in the organism of people working in the 30 km zone restricts the possibility to detect incorporated transuranium nuclides by means of a whole-body radiation spectrometer.

  7. Plutonium in the wood of natural trees in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Plutonij v drevesine zhivykh derev`ev blizhnej zony ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopejkin, V A [VNIIGEOLNERUD, Kazan` (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    It was for the first time that the fact of radionuclides migration, particularly migration of plutonium in the wood of natural trees, was fixed in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP. The data obtained show considerably quicker process of radioactive fall-out penetration than it was considered before.

  8. Simulation of << Hot >> particles formation during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP.; Modelirovanie obrazovaniya << goryachikh >> chastits vo vremya avarii na ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashparov, V A; Ivanov, Yu A; Prister, B S; Zvarich, S I; Protsak, V P; Khomutinin, Yu V; Polyakov, V D; Gudkov, A N; Kurepin, A D; Pazukhin, Eh M [Yinstitut Syil` s` kogospodars` koyi Radyiologyiyi, Kyiv (Ukraine); [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Dispersal composition of fuel << hot >> particles formed after oxidation of real Chernobyl nuclear fuel in the air for 3-21 hours at 673-1173 K was obtained. Mechanism of ruthenium particles formation during the accident (with dispersion of nuclear fuel) as a result of ruthenium oxidation, its sublimation, condensation and restoration on materials, presented by the elements of iron group was modelled. Dynamics of relative release of fission products, as well as of transuranium and transplutonium elements from real and modeled << hot >> particles at their high temperature incineration (1273-2273 K) in the inert media was measured.

  9. Common problems of acquisition of reference data on radiation reliability of structural electro insulating materials used in NPP electrical equipment; Obshchie voprosy polucheniya spravochnykh dannykh po radiatsionnoj nadezhnos ti konstruktsionnykh i ehlektroizolyatsionnykh materialov, ispol`zuemykh v ehlektrooborudovanii AEhS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutnev, A P; Valeev, R S

    1994-12-31

    General principles of conducting accelerated radiation testings of electrotechnical products with regard to operation factors typical of NPPs are considered. Non-additivity of effect of these factors on the product and material parameters and parameter dependence on ionizing radiation dose rate are demonstrated.

  10. Probabilistic safety analysis of the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 (WWER-440/230) using independent emergency feedwater system; Veroyatnostnyj analiz bezopasnosti I-IV blokov AEhS `Kozloduy` s reaktorami tipa WWER-440 (V 230) pri vklyuchenii nezavisimoj sistemy avarijnoj podpitki PG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, B; Marinov, M; Dimitrov, B; Avdzhiev, K [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The safety of the Kozloduy NPP is being promoted by backfitting and improved operational practice. Special measures mitigating potential severe accidents consequences are needed because of some deficiencies in the original design of the four WWER-440 units. In conditions of a total LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) it is impossible to ensure decay heat removal using the existing safety system. In such cases an extra emergency feedwater system independent of the plant`s other systems has been introduced which offers a new alternative means of removing the residual heat from the reactor. A probabilistic safety analysis is carried out using the method of event trees. A comparison between the existing safety system and the newly proposed is made. The simulation results of the unit behaviour prove that the damage frequency of the active zone is lower with the new system. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Developing reports on safety analysis and probabilistic analysis of safety for operating power units at nuclear power stations with WWER reactors in Russia; Razrabotka otchetov po analizu bezopasnosti i VAB dlya ehkspluatiruyushchikhsya ehnergoblokov AEhS s WWEhR v Rossii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, A B; Morozov, V B [ATOMENERGOPROEKT Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-06-01

    Report presents the current state-of art in developing safety reports and probabilistic safety analyses for WWER NPPs operated in Russia. Development of these reports and implementation of PSA is done according to the requirements outlined in the basic document `General Statement on Ensuring safety (OPB). At present submitting safety reports to the regulatory authority GAN RF is mandatory for licensing NPPs. Current state of safety reports for the operating WWER type NPPs meets generally the effective Russian standard engineering documents which are approaching the international standards. A mechanism ensuring correspondence of the safety documentation to the current state of operating units is determined. Modernization of the operating units is underway, it is aimed to eliminate existing deviations from requirements of the modern standards in the field of NPP safety

  12. Physic status and working ability of the persons affected at the Chernobyl accident during recovery and short-term effects of acute radiation disease. Psikhicheskoe sostoyanie i trudosposobnost' postradavshikh pri avarii na Chernobyl'skoj AEhS v period vosstanovleniya i blizhajshikh posledstvij ostroj luchevoj bolezni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torubarov, F S; Chinkina, O V [Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR)

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the results of clinicopsychological investigation of persons developing ARS (1-3 degree of severity) as a result of the Chernobyl accident has shown that 4-6 mos. after the exposure the psychic status and mental working ability of the affected persons showed close correlation with a degree of ARS. In 12-18 mos. profession and adequate employment played a decisive role in the formation of unfavorable psychic conditions and limited working ability. Later on in 2.5-3 years after exposure a decrease in psychic working ability, the development of unfavorable psychic conditions was noted more frequently in patients with ARS of more severe types and in examinees of older age. At all stages of rehabilitation personality traits of the affected persons play an important role in the revival of working abilities.

  13. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'; Materialy II mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii 'Preodolenie posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl'skoj AEhS: sostoyanie i perspektivy'simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kapitonova, Eh K [eds.

    2004-04-01

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting.

  14. Production of Strontium-90 Thermal Power Sources; Fabrication de sources d'energie thermique au strontium-90; Proizvodstvo istochnikov ''teplovoj ehnergii iz Sr''9''0; Preparacion de fuentes de energia termica con estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J. S.; Bloom, J. L.; Schneider, A. [Martin Company, Nuclear Division, Baltimore 3, MD (United States)

    1963-11-15

    debido a su abundancia, a sus propiedades nucleares y a la relativa facilidad con que permite construir generadores compactos de calor. Se emplean ya generadores a base de estroncio-90 para suministrar energia a centrales meteorologicas automaticas y aparatos auxiliares para la navegacion, y se esta estudiando la posibilidad de emplear este isotopo como fuente de energia para vehiculos espaciales. Se estudiaron diversos compuestos de estroncio que podian servir para este fin y se eligio el titanato porque reune las propiedades mas adecuadas. El estronico-90 se separa del resto d e los productos brutos de fision y se purifica hasta el grado requerido en las instalaciones de Hanford de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos. Seguidamente se introduce en forma de carbonato en la ''celda caliente'' de la Martin Company, donde se transforma en pastilla, de titanato. Se sigue e l mismo proceso que en las tecnicas quimicas y ceramicas, pero adaptado para la manipulacion a distancia. Seguidamente las pastillas se encapsulan en recipientes de ''Hastelloy C'' para emplearlas en los generadores de energia termoelectrica. Estos procesos presentan problemas poco corrientes debido a que las grandes cantidades de estroncio-90 que se manejan (que podrian alcanzar millones de curies por ano) pueden originar gravisimos riegos radiologicos y de contaminacion. La memoria describe la instalacion, el equipo, el proceso y los criterios de seguridad. Describe tambien la experiencia adquirida recientemente al elaborar el combustilble para el generador SNAP-7 con los primeros 250 000 s de estroncio-90. Proporciona algunos detalles sobre los procedimientos de encapsulado, calorimetros, de descontaminacion y de evacuacion de desechos. (author) [Russian] Odnoj iz naibolee interesnykh oblastej primeneniya ogromnogo kolichestva radioaktivnykh otkhodov yavlyaetsya ispol'zovanie ikh v ustanovkakh s neposredstvennym preobrazovaniem ehnergii, prednaznachennykh dlya raboty v otdalennykh

  15. [Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: current state of knowledge and clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, V; Bertel, C; Tas, P; Bendavid, C; Rouquette, S; Foucher, F; Audrain, O; Bouriel, C; Levêque, J

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) increases with breast cancer screening. AEH is divided in three groups: atypical ductal hyperplasia, columnar cell lesions with atypia, lobular neoplasia. The management of women with AEH is not consensual because of uncertainty about their diagnosis related to the type of the biopsy sampling (core needle biopsy or surgical excision) and their controversial clinical signification between risk marker and true precursor of breast cancer. A systematic review of published studies was performed. Medline baseline interrogation was performed with the following keywords: atypical ductal hyperplasia, columnar cell lesions with atypia, lobular neoplasia, core needle biopsy, breast cancer, precursor lesion, hormonal replacement therapy. For each breast lesion, identified publications (English or French) were assessed for clinical practise in epidemiology, diagnosis and patient management. With immunohistochemistry and molecular studies, AEH seems to be precursor of breast cancer. But, epidemiological studies show low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH. AEH were still classified as risk factor of breast cancer. Because of high rate of breast cancer underestimation, surgical excision is necessary after the diagnosis of AEH at core needle biopsy. Surgical oncology rules and collaboration with radiologist are required for this surgery. A second operation was not required due to involved margins by AEH (except with pleiomorphic lobular neoplasia) because local control of breast cancer seems to be unchanged. Besides, hormonal replacement therapy for patient with AEH is not recommended because of lack of studies about this subject. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Certain results and problems of experimental retrospective radiation monitoring in the estrangement zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Nekotorye rezul`taty i problemy ehksperimental`noj retrospektivnoj dozimetrii v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar` yakhtar, V G; Bugaj, A A; Gajchenko, V A; Koval` , G N; Proskura, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Poluprovodnikov; [Admyinyistratsyiya zoni vyidchuzhennya, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental methods of retrospective radiation monitoring in the estrangement zone of the Chernobyl NPP are described. It is shown that the method of thermoluminescence of quartz particles as well as the method of electron paramagnetic resonance of tooth enamel may be applied both to verify theoretical designs and experimental estimates and to accumulate experimental data on the most interesting and typical cases of accidental irradiation.

  17. Composition and structure of solid-phase carriers of activity in soils of the exclusion zone.; Stroenie i sostav tverdofaznykh nositelej aktivnosti v pochvakh Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Dolin, V V; Val` ter, A A; Tikhanov, Eh K [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov; [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    From four different soils in the exclusion Chernobyl zone 35 << hot >> particles were picked out, their radionuclide and substance composition was investigated. To estimate a specific quantity of solid-phase carriers of activity we have calculated a ratio of activities of {sup 144} Ce and {sup 137} Cs in soils to the particles. Substance composition of the << hot >> particles investigated by the methods of electronic microscopy.

  18. Distribution of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs in vertical soil sections of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.; Raspredelenie form nakhozhdeniya {sup 90} Sr i {sup 137} Cs po vertikal`nym pochvennym razrezam Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Kononenko, L.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov

    1994-12-31

    Water-soluble, exchangeable and acid-soluble (IM HCI) forms of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs were determined in 15 layer-by-layer (1 cm) samples of podzolis and peaty soils from the Chernobyl exclusion zone taken in 1991 and 1992. Positions of centers of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr supply as well as their water-soluble and exchangeable forms were estimated. The data obtained testify to deceleration of vertical migration of {sup 137} Cs in soils till the early 90th. The conclusion is made on evolution of dominating mechanisms of vertical migration of radionuclides. It consists in a decrease of the lessivage significance.

  19. Cytohematological indices of cattle adaptation to the chronic radiation effect in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Tsitogematologicheskie pokazateli adaptatsii u krupnogo rogatogo skota pri khronicheskom radiatsionnom vozdejstvii v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchenko, N A; Filimonov, I S; Zagorujko, E E; Gashchak, S P; Korisheva, A P [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine); [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Peripheral blood cells have been examined in cattle from the experimental farm in the 10 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP. With that aim 25 animals of different age groups and generations were investigation. Appearance of heteropholic granulocytes and << specific >> basophilic cells which heterogeneity is explained by their morphological and functional attribution has been observed.

  20. System approach for evaluation of soil contamination by nitrogen containing pollutants in the 30-km zone power nuclear plant; Sistemnyj podkhod dlya otsenki zagryazneniya okruzhayushchej sredy azotsoderzhashchimi pollyutantami v 30-km zone aehs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, O. V.; Zhigunova, L. N.; Makovskaya, N. A.; Pavlovich, E. L. [Ob' ' edinennyj institut ehnergeticheskikh i yadernykh issledovanij – Sosny NAN Belarusi, Minsk(Belarus)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the results of studies of the nitrogen-containing chemical pollutants of the soil 30 km zone nuclear power plant in order to evaluate the chemical carcinogenic risk to public health. As a result of this work the least amount of NDMA fixed at 0,83 × 10{sup -4} mg/kg, the highest - 128,29 × 10{sup -4} mg/kg, which is 0,83 and 128,3 %, respectively, of Madman established in the Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan, the content of NDMA precursors - nitrite ions varies from 0,07 to 4,43 mg/kg. Found that most of the compounds reported in agricultural land. Calculate the total carcinogenic risk for the population living in the region - the set value corresponds to the maximum risk tolerance, i. e. the upper limit of acceptable risk. These levels are subject to continuous monitoring. (authors)

  1. State of the art in acoustic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Khan, Farid; Izhar

    2015-02-01

    For portable and embedded smart, wireless electronic systems, energy harvesting from the ambient energy sources has gained immense interest in recent years. Several ambient energies exist in the environment of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that include thermal, solar, vibration and acoustic energy. This paper presents the recent development in the field of acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs). AEHs convert the acoustic energy into useful electrical energy for the operation of autonomous wireless sensors. Mainly, two types of AEHs (electromagnetic and piezoelectric based) have been developed and reported in literature. The power produced by the reported piezoelectric AEHs ranges from 0.68 pW to 30 mW however, the power generation of the developed electromagnetic AEHs is in the range of 1.5-1.96 mW. The overall size of most of the developed piezoelectric and electromagnetic AEHs are quite comparable and in millimeter scale. The resonant frequencies of electromagnetic AEHs are on the lower side (143-470 Hz), than that of piezoelectric AEHs (146 Hz-16.7 kHz).

  2. State of the art in acoustic energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2015-01-01

    For portable and embedded smart, wireless electronic systems, energy harvesting from the ambient energy sources has gained immense interest in recent years. Several ambient energies exist in the environment of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that include thermal, solar, vibration and acoustic energy. This paper presents the recent development in the field of acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs). AEHs convert the acoustic energy into useful electrical energy for the operation of autonomous wireless sensors. Mainly, two types of AEHs (electromagnetic and piezoelectric based) have been developed and reported in literature. The power produced by the reported piezoelectric AEHs ranges from 0.68 pW to 30 mW; however, the power generation of the developed electromagnetic AEHs is in the range of 1.5–1.96 mW. The overall size of most of the developed piezoelectric and electromagnetic AEHs are quite comparable and in millimeter scale. The resonant frequencies of electromagnetic AEHs are on the lower side (143–470 Hz), than that of piezoelectric AEHs (146 Hz–16.7 kHz). (topical review)

  3. Real-World Impact of Neurocognitive Deficits in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24277439

  4. Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Ludivine; Racin, Adelaïde; Brousse, Susie; Beltjens, Françoise; Cauchois, Aurélie; Levêque, Jean; Coutant, Charles; Lavoué, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) of the breast is considered benign histological lesions with breast cancer risk. This review focuses on clinical signification and management of AEH that remains controversial. A review of published studies was performed using medline database. In this review, we fully describe the current evidence available. In particular, we describe 1) data from immunohistochemistry and molecular studies that suggest AEH is a precursor of breast cancer; 2) epidemiological studies demonstrate low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH; 3) surgical excision is necessary after diagnosis of AEH, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia, on core needle biopsy; 4) although current recommendations are evolving to fewer (if not no) excisions for flat epithelial with atypia and classic lobular neoplasia found on percutaneous biopsy (without radiologic indications for excision). Expert commentary: HEA management steel need prospective evidences, but recent retrospective data give some clue for less invasive management for some of HEA.

  5. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Guo, Zhengdong; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Ainong

    2013-10-03

    Hericium erinaceus, as a commonly used medicine or food, has attracted much attention due to its health effects when used as a home remedy for some diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus (AEHE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (55 mg/kg BW.) intraperitoneally. AEHE (100 and 200 mg/kg BW.) was administered for a period of 28 days. The effects of AEHE on glucose, insulin, and lipid files in blood, and oxidative stress parameters in the liver were evaluated. The body weights of rats were recorded at day 0, 14 and 28th days. The administration of AEHE for 28 days in STZ diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in serum glucose level and a significant rise in serum insulin level. AEHE treatment attenuated lipid disorders. In addition, AEHE administration increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px, and GSH level, and reduced MDA level in the liver tissue significantly. Our results suggest that AEHE possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties in STZ-induced diabetes rats.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome: early diagnosis and intervention are necessary for fertility preservation in young women with endometrial cancer under 35 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yoshinori; Saito, Fumitaka; Takaishi, Kiyomi; Motohara, Takeshi; Honda, Ritsuo; Ohba, Takashi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a significant risk factor for premenopausal endometrial cancer (EC) and/or atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH). The aim was to elucidate the clinical background and detailed menstrual history of EC and/or AEH in young women with PCOS. From January 2001 to December 2013, women under 35 years of age who had been diagnosed with EC and/or AEH and who had been treated at Kumamoto University Hospital, Japan, were recruited. The patients' clinical characteristics, clinical stages of EC and/or AEH, medication and operation methods, endocrine profiles, and menstrual history were assessed retrospectively. Of all the cases of EC and/or AEH, 25 (4.6%) were under 35 years of age. The mean age was 29.0 years and all the patients were nulligravida. The clinical stages of EC and/or AEH that were identified included: AEH (five cases), stage IA (18 cases), IB (one case), and IIIA (one case). Fourteen (56%) cases met the criteria for PCOS. Both the Body Mass Index and Homeostatic Model Assessment-insulin resistance were significantly higher in the patients with PCOS than in the patients without PCOS. Medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy was not effective for the patients with PCOS and they underwent a hysterectomy more often than the patients without PCOS. All the patients with PCOS exhibited irregular menstruation or amenorrhea, the mean duration of which was 13.1 years before PCOS and EC and/or AEH were diagnosed. Although both the patients with and without PCOS had irregular menstruation, the patients with PCOS were less likely to have fertility-sparing surgery than the patients without PCOS because they had more advanced disease or failed to respond to medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy.

  7. Determination of Fallout Radionuclides in Environmental Samples by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry; Mesure Spectrometrique Gamma des Radionucleides de Retombee Presents dans des Echantillons du Millieu; Opredelenie radioizotopov radioaktivnykh osadkov v probakh iz okruzhayushchej sredy pri pomoshchi spektrometrii gamma-luchej; Determinacion, por Espectrometria Gamma, de los Radionuclidos de Precipitaciones en Muestras del Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G. M.; Johnson, J. E.; Wilson, D. W. [Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1965-10-15

    From May 1962 to date, many environmental samples have been collected from the University farm to study the passage of {sup 137}Cs through an important part of man's food chain. All samples were of low specific activity and determinations were made in a low level gamma-ray spectrometer system consisting of an 8-in diam., 4-in-thick Nal(Tl) crystal that was shielded from background by a 5-in-thick steel walled chamber and connected to a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Air filter pads and large samples (1 kg) of dried forage, grains and bovine faeces were counted directly in a constant geometry. Precipitation samples were concentrated by passing through Dowex-50 cation exchange columns. Milk, meat, and urine Vere counted in large annular Lucite containers. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 131}I and Ba-{sup 14}'0La are the only gamma-ray emitting radionuclides found in milk, meat and urine, since these are the only fission products absorbed in appreciable amounts. In addition, the other samples contained {sup 141,} {sup 144}Ce, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 103,106}Ru, Zr-{sup 95}Nb and {sup 54}Mn. In these samples, which were collected in 1962 and 1963, only Zr-{sup 95}Nb (because of its relative abundance) could be determined reliably by gamma-ray spectrometry during a period of about six months after collection. Photopeaks of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn and were completely obscured and lower energy nuclides ({sup 141}, {sup 144}Ce and {sup 103}Ru) had large Compton contributions from higher energy nuclides. Spectrum stripping is not reliable if the photopeaks are not apparent. When interference makes the direct determination of {sup 137}Cs and other nuclides impossible, storage of the samples until decay of Zr-{sup 95}Nb (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 65 d) and {sup 103}Ru (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 40 d) makes possible identification of the photopeaks of the remaining nuclides. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn can be separated chemically by digesting samples in concentrated NaOH (fallout {sup 137}Cs is completely soluble only in strong bases) and filtering, which removes about 93% of the Zr-{sup 95}Nb. Elution of rainwater concentrate from columns with 1 M MN{sub 4}NO{sub 3}; quantitatively removed {sup 137}Cs and effectively separated the Zr-{sup 95}Nb and {sup 54}Mn activity. When all the photopeaks were apparent, either by decay or chemical separation, quantitative estimation of each radionuclide was possible by calibration with each nuclide and calculation of the Compton effects of each. The resultant equations were solved with an IBM 1620 computer and a programme prepared to solve for the concentration of each of the nine nuclides mentioned above. The same programme was used to solve for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K content of milk, meat and Urine, which is simpler and the errors are smaller. (author) [French] Depuis mai 1962, de nombreux echantillons du milieu sont recueillis sur la ferme de l'Universite, pour etudier le passage de {sup 137}Cs a travers une partie importante de la chaine alimentaire de l'homme. Tous les echantillons mesures avaient une faible activite specifique et les mesures ont ete faites avec un ensemble spectrometrique pour rayons gamma de faible energie, muni d'un cristal Nal(Tl) de 20 cm de diametre et de 10 cm d'epaisseur protege contre le mouvement propre par une chambre a parois d'acier de 12,5 cm d'epaisseur et branche sur un analyseur d'amplitude a 400 canaux. Les auteurs ont procede au comptage direct, selon une geometrie constante de tampons de filtres a air, d'importants echantillons (1 kg) de fourrages, de cereales et de bouse seches. Ils ont concentre des echantillons de precipitations en les faisant passer dans des colonnes d'echange de cations Dowex-50. Le lait, la viande et l'urine ont ete places pour le comptage dans de grands recipients annulaires en lucite. Les seuls radionuclides emetteurs gamma trouves dans ces matieres sont {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 131}I et {sup 141}0 Ba-La; ils sont en effet les seuls seuls produits de fission absorbes en quantite appreciable. Les autres echantillons contenaient {sup 144}Ce, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 103,106}Ru, Zr-{sup 95}Nb et {sup 54}Mn. Dans ces echantillons, qui ont ete preleves en 1962 et 1963, seul {sup 95}-Nb a pu, en raison de son abondance relative. Etre mesure de facon sure par la spectrometrie gamma pendant environ six mois apres le prelevement. Les cretes photoelectriques de {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn et {sup 125}Sb ont ete completement obscurcies et a l'activite des nucleides de faible energie ({sup 141,} {sup 144}Ce et {sup 103}Ru) venait s'ajouter l'effet Compton provenant des nucleides d'energie plus elevee. On ne peut pas se fier a la methode de separation spectrale si les cretes photoelectriques ne sont pas apparentes. Lorsque l'interference rend impossible la mesure directe de {sup 137}Cs et d'autres nucleides, i l faut stocker jusqu'a desintegration de {sup 95}Zr-Nb (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 65 j) et {sup 103}Ru (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 40 j), ce qui permet l'identification des cretes photoelectriques des nucleides restants. On peut separer chimiquement {sup 137}Cs et {sup 54}Mn en digerant les echantillons dans NaOH concentree ({sup 137}cs provenant des retombees n'est completement soluble que dans les bases fortes) et en les filtrant, ce qui permet d'enlever environ 95% de {sup 95}Zr-Nb. Par elution du concentre d'eau de pluie des colonnes avec une solution molaire de NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, les auteurs ont elimine quantitativement {sup 137}Cs et separe de facon efficace les activites de {sup 95}Zr-Nb et de {sup 54}Mn. Lorsque toutes les cretes photoelectriques sont devenues apparentes, du fait de la desintegration ou a la suite de la separation chimique, il a ete possible de doser chaque radionucleide en procedant a un etalonnage pour chaque nucleide et en calculant l'effet Compton de chacun d'entre eux egalement. Les equations resultantes ont ete resolues avec un ordinateur IBM 1620 et un programme prepare pour la solution correspondant a la concentration de chacun des neuf nucleides mentionnes ci-dessus. Les auteurs ont utilise le meme programme pour resoudre la question de la teneur en {sup 137}Cs et en {sup 40}K du lait, de la viande et de l'urine, cette methode etant plus simple et les marges d'erreur plus reduites. (author) [Spanish] Desde mayo de 1962 los autores han venido reuniendo gran nfimero de muestras del medio ambiente en la granja de la Universidad del Estado de Colorado, a fin de estudiar el paso del {sup 137}Cs por una parte importante de la cadena alimentaria del hombre. Todas las muestras eran de baja actividad especffica y las determinaciones se hicieron con un especttometto de rayos gamma provisto de un cristal de Nal(Tl) de 8 pulg de diametro y 4 pulg de espesor, protegido de la actividad ambiente por una camara de paredes de acero de 12,7 cm de espesor y conectado a un analizador de amplitud de impulsos de 400 canales. Los autores procedieron al recuento directo, empleando una geometria constante, de la actividad de filtros de aire del tipo de almohadilla y de grandes muestras (1 kg) de forraje, grano y heces desecadas de bovidos. Las muestras de las precipitaciones se concentraron haciendolas pasar por columnas con resinas de intercambio cationico Dowex-50. Tambien se procedio al recuento de la actividad de muestras de leche, carne y orina contenidas en grandes recipientes anulares de Lucite. El {sup 137}Cs, el {sup 40}K, el {sup 131}I y el {sup 140}Ba-La fueron los unicos radionuclidos emisores de rayos gamma hallados en dichas muestras, ya que son los unicos productos de fision absorbidos en cantidades apreciables. Por otra parte, las demas muestras contenfan {sup 141,144}Ce, {sup 135}Sb, {sup 103,106}Ru, {sup 95}Zr-Nb y {sup 54}Mn. En estas muestras, reunidas en 1962 y 1963, solo era posible determinar con seguridad, por espectrometria gamma y durante un perfodo de unos 6 meses despues de recogida la muestra, el {sup 95}Zr-Nb, gracias a su relativa abundancia. Los fotopicos correspondientes al {sup 131}Cs, el {sup 54}Mn y el {sup 125}Sb aparecfan totalmente obscurecidos, y en la representacifin de los nueclidos de eneigias mas bajas ({sup 141,144}Ce y {sup 103}Ru) influfan considerablemente los efectos Compton de nuclidos que emiten radiaciones de energia mas elevada. Hay que tener en cuenta que la separacifin del espectro no ofrece garantfas si los fotopicos no aparecen bien visibles. Cuando las interferencias impiden la determinacion directa del {sup 137}Cs y de otros nuclidos, el almacenamiento de las muestras hasta que se desintegran el {sup 95}Zr-Nb (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 65 d) y del {sup 103}Ru (T{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 40 d) permite identificar los fotopicos de los nuclidos restantes. El {sup 137}Cs y el {sup 54}Mn pueden separarse qufmicamente digiriendo las muestras en NaOH concentrado (el {sup 137}Cs de las precipitaciones sfilo se disuelve enteramente en bases fuertes) y filtrando el liquido, con lo que se separa el 95% aproximadamente del {sup 95}Zr-Nb. La elucion del concentrado de agua de Uuvia de las columnas con NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} 1 M eliminfi cuantitativamente el {sup 137}Cs y separo eficazmente las actividades correspondientes al {sup 95}Zr-Nb y al {sup 54}Mn. Una vez que se hicieron visibles todos los fotopicos, bien por desintegracion o bien por separacifin qufmica, fue posible evaluar cuantitativamente cada radionuclido por calibracion individual y calculo de los efectos Compton respectivos. Las ecuaciones resultantes se resolvieron con ayuda de una calculadora electronica IBM 1620 y de un programa preparado para hallar la concentracion de cada uno de los 9 nuclidos anteriormente mencionados. Ese mismo programa se utilize para determinar el {sup 137}Cs y el {sup 40}K contenidos en la leche, la carne y la orina, determinacion mas sencilla y que, por ello, entrana margenes de error mas estrechos. (author) [Russian] S maja 1962 goda i do nastojashhego vremeni na universitetskoj ferme sobrali znachitel'noe kolichestvo prob iz okruzhajushhej sredy dlja izuchenija dvizhenija cezija-137 v znachitel'noj chasti pishhevoj ce- pochki cheloveka. Vse proby imeli maluju udel'nuju aktivnost', i izmerenija proizvodili pri pomoshhi spektrometricheskogo ustrojstva dlja gamma-luchej nizkogo urovnja, sostojashhego iz kristalla NaJ (T1) diametrom 8 i tolshhinoj 4 djujma, prichem jetot kristall byl zashhishhen ot fona stal'noj kameroj s tolshhinoj stenok 5 djujmov i soedinen s 400-kanal'nym anali- zatorom amplitudy impul'sov. Otschet nabivok vozdushnyh fil'trov i krupnyh prob ( 1kg) suhogo furazha, zerna i pometa krupnogo rogatog o skota proizvodili neposredstvenno v postojannoj geometrii. Proby osadkov koncentrirovali propuskaniem ih cherez kationo- obmennye kolonki, zapolnennye doveksom-50. Radioaktivnost' moloka, mjasa i mochi pod- schityvali v bol'shih kol'ceobraznyh kontejnerah iz ljucita. V moloke, mjase i moche ob- naruzhivajutsja v chisle gamma-izluchajushhih radioizotopov lish' cezij-137, kalij-40, jod-131, barij-140 i lantan-140, poskol'ku oni javljajutsja edinstvennymi produktami delenija, po- gloshhaemymi v znachitel'nyh kolichestvah. Pomimo jetogo, drugie proby soderzhali cezij-141, cezij-144, sur'mu-125, rutenij-103, rutenij-106, cirkonij-95, niobij-95 i marganec-54. V probah, sobrannyh v 1962 i 1963 godah, pri pomoshhi'gamma-spektrometrii udalos' oprede- lenno obnaruzhit' lish' cirk{sup n}ij-95 i niobij-95 vvidu ih otnositel'nogo obilija; jeto bylo prodelano priblizitel'no za 6 mesjacev posle sbora prob. Fotopiki cezija-137, marganca-54 i sur'my-125 byli sovershenno rasplyvchatymi, a radioizotopy bolee malyh jenergij (cezij-141, cezij-144 i rutenij-103) imeli znachitel'nye komptonovskie vklady ot radio- izotopov bolee vysokih jenergij. Pri nedostatochno jasnyh fotopikah posledovatel'noe vydelenie produktov delenija iz spektrov ne javljaetsja nadezhnym. Kogda vlijanie drugih radioizotopov delaet nevozmozhnym neposredstvennoe opredelenie cezija-137 i drugih radioizotopov, to hranenie prob do raspada cirkonija-95 i niobija-95 (T1/2 - 65 sutok) i rutenija-103 (T1/2 - 40 sutok) daet vozmozhnost' opoznat' fotopiki ostavshihsja radioizotopov. Cezij-137 i marganec-54 mogut byt' otdeleny himicheskim sposobom putem rastvorenija prob v koncentrirovannom rastvore NaOH (cezij-137 iz radio- aktivnyh osadkov rastvorjaetsja polnost'ju tol'ko v sil'nyh shhelochnyh rastvorah) i fil'tro- vanija, chto daet vozmozhnost' udalit' okolo 95% cirkonija-95 i niobija-95. Vymyvanie koncentratov dozhdevoj vody iz kolonki pri pomoshhi odnomoljarnoj NH4 N03 kolichestvenno vydeljaet cezij-137 i jeffektivnym obrazom otdeljaet aktivnost' cirkonija-95 i niobija-95 ot aktivnosti marganca-54. Posle togo, kak vse fotopiki oyli vyjavleny lioo posredstvom raspada, lioo po- sredstvom himicheskogo otdelenija, dal'nejshee kolichestvennoe opredelenie kazhdogo radio- izotopa stanovitsja vozmozhnym posredstvom kalibrovki pri pomoshhi k a zh d o g o izotopa i podscheta komptonovskogo jeffekta kazhdogo iz nih. Poluchennye uravnenija byli resheny na schetno-reshajushhem ustrojstve IBM 1620, i byla sostavlena programma dlja razreshenija problemy koncentracii kazhdogo iz devjati upomjanutyh vyshe radioizotopov. Ta zhe samaja programma byla ispol'zovana dlja opredelenija soderzhanija cezija-137i kalija-40 v moloke, mjase i moche, chto predstavljaetsja bolee prostym sposobom i osushhestvimo s men'shimi po- greshnostjami. (author)

  8. The Possibility of Making a Quantitative Study of the Precipitin Reaction by Gamma-Radioactive Tracers; Possibilite d'une Etude Quantitative de la Reaction de Precipitation par Marquage a l'Aide d'Emetteurs Gamma; Vozmozhnost' kolichestvennogo opredeleniya reaktsii osazhdeniya s pomoshch'yu gamma-radioaktivnykh indikatorov; Estudio Cuantitativo de la Reaccion de Precipitacion con Ayuda de Indicadores Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonev, L.; Todorov, S.; Robev, S. [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Radiologii i Radiacionnoj Bezopasnosti, Sofija (Bulgaria)

    1965-10-15

    The paper presents the first results of the quantitative determination of the precipitin reaction (formation of an antigen-antibody complex) by labelling the precipitating components with gamma-radioactive tracers which do not chemically interact with albuminous molecules. As tracers it is possible to use chrome-manganese and nickel-copper compounds, whose tendency to hydrolyze permits the fixation of the radioactive tracer on the antigen and antibody respectively. The radioactivity of the components is determined by a multichannel pulse-height analyser. The results obtained show that the precipitation curve, plotted on the basis of radiometric data, closely corresponds to the curve plotted by the well-known quantitative methods used to determine albumin. The paper discusses the possibilities of using the method described. (author) [French] Les auteurs communiquent les premiers resultats d'une etude quantitative qu'ils ont faite de la reaction de precipitation (formation du complexe antigene-anticorps) en marquant les composants du precipites avec des emetteurs gamma qui ne reagissent pas chimiquement avec les molecules d'albumine. Pour le marquage, on peut utiliser des composes de chrome/manganese ou de fer qui subissent facilement l'hydrolyse et assurent de ce fait la fixation de la substance radioactive sur l'antigene et, partant, sur l'anticorps. La radioactivite des composants est determinee a l'aide d'un selecteur d'amplitudes a plusieurs canaux. Les resultats montrent que la courbe de precipitation obtenue avec les donnees radiometriques concorde parfaitement avec celle que l'on obtient par les methodes quantitatives connues servant au dosage de l'albumine. Les auteurs discutent les possibilites d'application de la methode etudiee. (author) [Spanish] Los autores presentan los primeros resultados de un estudio cuantitativo de la reaccion de precipitacion (formacion del complejo antigeno-anticuerpo) que efectuaron marcando los componentes de precipitacion con indicadores gamma que no reaccionan quimicamente con las moleculas de albumina. Como indicadores pueden utilizarse ciertos compuestos de cromo, manganeso y hierro que, por su teridencia a hidrolizarse, permiten fijar el indicador radiactivo en el antigeno y en el anticuerpo, respectivamente. La radiactividad de los componentes se determino con ayuda de un analizador multicanal de amplitud de impulsos. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la curva de precipitacion, trazada sobre la base de los datos radiometricos, concuerda con la que se obtiene por los metodos cuantitativos corrientemente empleados en la valoracion de la albumiRa. Los autores examinan las posibilidades de aplicacion del metodo descrito. (author) [Russian] Soobshhajutsja pervye rezul'taty kolichestvennogo opredelenija reakcii osazhdenija (obrazovanija kompleksa antigen-antitelo) posredstvom mechenija precipitacionnyh komponentov gamma-radioaktivnymi indikatorami, ne vstupajushhimi v himicheskoe vzaimodejstvie s belkovymi molekulami. V kachestve indikatorov mogut byt' ispol'zovany hromomargancevye soedinenija i soedinenija zheleza, sklonnost' kotoryh k gidrolizu obespechivaet fiksaciju radioaktivnogo indikatora na antigene sootvetstvenno i na antitelo. Opredelenie radioaktivnosti komponentov proizvoditsja posredstvom mnogokanal'nogo amplitudnogo analizatora. Poluchennye rezul'taty pokazyvajut, chto precipitacionnaja krivaja, postroennaja na osnovanii radiometrichnyh dannyh, nahoditsja v blizkom sootvetstvii s krivoj, postroennoj izvestnymi kolichestvennymi metodami, sluzhashhimi dlja opredelenija belka. Rassmatrivajutsja vozmozhnosti primenenija jetogo metoda na praktike. (author)

  9. Some possible uses of radioisotopes in the rubber industry; Certaines possibilites d'emploi des radioisotopes dans l'industrie du caoutchouc; Nekotorye vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v rezinovoj promyshlennosti; Algunas posibilidades de utilizacion de los radioisotopos en la industria del caucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimorda, J; Mozhishek, M; Klimanek, L; Staroba, J [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Tekhnologii Reziny i Plastmass (NIITRP), Gorod Gotval' dov, Chekhoslovatskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (Czech Republic)

    1962-01-15

    A method is described for using beta-emitters (Tl{sup 204} and S{sup 35}) for measuring the wearing qualities of motor-vehicle tyres, checking the homogeneity of tyre rubber, and non-contact thickness-gauging of rubberized fabrics. (author) [French] Le memoire expose une methode permettant d'employer des emetteurs beta ({sup 204}Tl et {sup 35}S) pour la mesure de la resistance des pneumatiques d'automobiles, le controle de l'uniformite du caoutchouc des pneus et la mesure sans contact de l'epaisseur des tissus caoutchoutes. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen un metodo de utilizacion de emisores {beta} ({sup 204}Tl y {sup 35}S) para la medicion de la resistencia al desgaste de los neumaticos de automovil para la verificacion de la homogeneidad del caucho destinado a la fabricacion de neumaticos y para la medicion a distancia del espesor de las telas cauchutadas. (author) [Russian] Opisana metodika ispol'zovaniya beta-izluchatelej (Tl{sup 204} i S{sup 35}) dlya izmereniya velichiny iznosostojkosti avtomobil'nykh shin, dlya kontrolya gomogennosti shinnykh rezin i dlya beskontaktnogo izmereniya tolshchiny obrezinennykh tkanej. (author)

  10. Absolute Measurement of Radioactive Materials at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; Mesure absolue des substances radioactives a l'Institut federal de physique appliquee; Absolyutnoe izmerenie radioaktivnykh veshchestv v fiziko-tekhnicheskom federal'nom institute; Determinacion absoluta de la actividad de sustancias radiactivas en el Instituto Federal de Fisica Aplicada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, H M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1960-06-15

    A short report is given about the routine methods of standardization of radionuclides. The measurements are done by 4 {pi} {beta} proportional counters, 4 {pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting and for secondary standardization of {gamma} emitters by 4 {pi} {gamma} ionization chamber. The equipments used and the procedures of source preparation are described. (author) [French] L'auteur presente un rapport succinct sur les methodes courantes de normalisation des radionuclides. Les mesures sont effectuees au moyen de compteurs proportionnels 4 {pi} {beta}, par voie de comptage par coincidences 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} et, en ce qui concerne la normalisation secondaire des emetteurs de rayons {gamma}, au moyen d'une chambre d'ionisation 4 {pi} {gamma}. Le memoire contient une description du materiel utilise et des procedes employes pour la preparation des sources. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describen brevemente los metodos corrientes de calibracion de radionuclidos. Las mediciones a que se refiere se han efectuado con contadores proporcionales {beta} 4 {pi}, contadores de coincidencias {beta}-{gamma} 4{pi}l; para la calibracion secundaria de emisores {gamma} se ha utilizado una camara de ionizacion {gamma} 4 {pi}. Se describen los aparatos empleados y los procedimientos de preparacion de las fuentes. (author) [Russian] Privoditsya kratkij doklad po obychnym metodam standartizatsi i radioizotopov. Izmereniya osushchestvlyalis {beta}-proportsional'nym i schetchikami na 4 {pi}, schetchikami {beta}-{gamma} sovpadenij i {gamma}-ioniziruyushche j kameroj na 4 i dlya vtorichnoj standartizatsi i {gamma}-izluchatelej . Privoditsya opisanie, ispol'zuemogo oborudovaniya i protsedura podgotovki istochnika. (author)

  11. Radio-tracer techniques in the study of corrosion by molten fluorides; Etude, a l'aide d'indicateurs radioactifs, de la corrosion provoquee par les fluorures fondus; Primenenie metodov radioaktivnykh indikatorov nrn izuchenii korrozii, prichinyaemoj rasplavlennymi ftoristymi soedineniyami; Estudio con indicadores radiactivos de la corrosion ocasionada por fluoruros fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, W R; Watson, G M; DeVan, J H; Evans, R B [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    When Inconel or Inor-8 alloys are exposed to a molten fluoride mixture containing reducible material, chromium is selectively oxidized and removed from the alloy. By the use of radio-tracer Cr{sup 51}, the self-diffusion coefficients for chromium in Inconel and Inor-8 and the applicability of these values to alloys under corrosive conditions have been evaluated. Overall coefficients have been obtained (1) by measuring depletion of Cr{sup 51} (charged as CrF{sub 2}) for non-corrosive fluoride melts in alloy capsules and (2) by comparison of measured total radioactivity of exposed alloy specimens with that of the salt to which they were exposed. In addition, coefficients were obtained from measurement of tracer concentration profiles through successive electropolishings of the specimens. The overall coefficients and those obtained from electropolishing experiments agree very well for Inconel at high temperatures and for Inor-8 at all temperatures. For temperatures below 750{sup o}C, coefficients obtained by electropolishing Inconel specimens are higher than the overall values; the bulk diffusion process is not uniform for this case. In all cases, good agreement was found between the overall diffusion coefficients and those extrapolated from published data at higher temperature with generally similar Cr-Ni alloys. Duplicate, polythermal loops of Inor-8 were used to circulate a non-corrosive fluoride melt containing Cr{sup 51} (as CrF{sub 2}). One of these loops was sacrificed to evaluate take-up of Cr{sup 51} by the alloy; the second was used to circulate a melt containing FeF{sub 2} to obtain measurable removal of Cr from the alloy. Good agreement between observed behaviour and that predicted from the measured diffusion coefficients was obtained; this agreement suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient for Cr is insensitive to changes in chromium content of the Inor-8 alloy. (author) [French] Lorsqu'on soumet les alliages Inconel ou Inor-8 a l'action d'un melange de fluorures fondus contenant, des substances reductibles, le chrome est oxyde selectivement et elimine de l'alliage. En utilisant comme radioindicateur le chrome-51, les auteurs du memoire ont evalue les coefficients d'autodiffusion du chrome dans l'Inconel et l'Inor-8 et verifie dans quelle mesure les valeurs obtenues sont applicables aux alliages exposes a la corrosion. Les auteurs ont calcule les coefficients globaux: 1) en mesurant le passage du chrome-51 (employe sous forme de CrF{sub 2}) des capsules d'alliage aux fluorures non corrosifs fondus; 2) en comparant la radioactivite totale mesuree des echantillons d'alliage exposes avec celle du sel auquel ils avaient ete exposes. Ils ont calcule en outre des coefficients en mesurant les profils de concentration de l'indicateur par polissages electrolytiques successifs des echantillons. Les coefficients globaux et ceux qui ont ete obtenus par polissage electrolytique concordent parfaitement pour l'Inconel a des temperatures elevees et pour l'Inor-8 a toutes les temperatures. Pour les temperatures inferieures a 750{sup o}C, les coefficients obtenus par polissage electrolytique de l'Inconel sont superieurs aux coefficients globaux; dans ce cas, le processus de diffusion dans la masse n'est pas uniforme. Il y a toujours concordance satisfaisante entre les coefficients globaux de diffusion et les coefficients obtenus par extrapolation des donnees publiees au sujet d'alliages Cr-Ni generalement analogues, a des temperatures plus elevees. Les auteurs se sont servis de deux anneaux polythermiques d'Inor-8 pour faire circuler une masse de fluorures fondus non corrosifs contenant du chrome-51 (sous forme de CrF{sub 2}). Ils ont sacrifie l'un des circuits pour evaluer la quantite de {sup 51}Cr absorbee par l'alliage, et utilise l'autre pour faire circuler un melange fondu contenant du FeF{sub 2} et mesurer l'elimination du chrome de l'alliage. Les resultats obtenus concordent assez, bien avec les donnees fournies par les coefficients de diffusion mesures experimentalement; il est permis d'en conclure que le coefficient d'autodiffusion du chrome est insensible aux modifications de la teneur en chrome de l'alliage Inor-8. (author) [Spanish] Si se someten el Inconel o el Inor-8 a la accion de una mezcla de fluoruros fundidos, que contenga sustancias reducibles, el cromo sufre una oxidacion selectiva y es extraido de la aleacion. Con ayuda del indicador radiactivo {sup 51}Cr, los autores han evaluado los coeficientes de autodifusion del cromo en el Inconel y en el lnor-8, y han comprobado que los datos obtenidos son validos para las aleaciones expuestas a la corrosion. Han calculado los coeficientes globales 1) midiendo el paso del {sup 51}Cr de las capsulas de aleacion (empleado en forma do CrF{sub 2}) a los fluoruros no corrosivos fundidos, y 2) comparando la radiactividad total medida en las muestras de aleacion expuestas con la radiactividad de la sal a cuya accion fueron sometidas. Ademas, calcularon los coeficientes midiendo los perfiles do concentracion del indicador por pulidos electroliticos sucesivos de las muestras. Los coeficientes globales y los obtenidos por pulido electrolitico concuerdan satisfactoriamente para el Inconel a temperaturas elevadas, y para el lnor-8 a todas las temperaturas. Los valores obtenidos por pulido electrolitico del Inconel tratado a temperaturas inferiores a 760{sup o} C superan a los valores globales; en este caso, el proceso de difusion masica no es uniforme. Los coeficientes medios de difusion encontrados concuerdan siempre con los que se calculan por extrapolacion de los valores publicados, que fueron obtenidos con aleaciones de Cr-Ni similares, a temperaturas mas elevadas. Los autores se sirvieron de un par de buees politermicos de Inor-8 para hacer circular una masa de fluoruros no corrosivos fundidos que contenian {sup 51}Cr (en forma de CrF{sub 2}). Sacrificaron uno de estos bucles para evaluar la cantidad de {sup 51}Cr absorbida por la aleacion; el segundo se utilizo para hacer circular una mezcla fundida quo contenia FeF{sub 2} y medir la eliminacion del cromo de la aleacion. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan satisfactoriamente con los que se calculan con ayuda de los coeficientes de difusion determinados experimentalmente; esta concordancia indica que el coeficiente de autodifusion del Cr no es afectado por las variaciones de la concentracion de cromo en la aleacion Inor-8. (author) [Russian] Kogda ''inkonel'' ili ''inor-8'' podvergayutsya dejstviyu rasplavlennykh ftoristykh smesej, soderzhashchikh vosstanavlivayushchie veshchestva, khrom izbiratel'no okislyaetsya i udalyaetsya iz splava. S pomoshch'yu radioaktivnogo indikatora Cr{sup 51} byli ustanovleny koehffitsienty samodiffuzii khroma v ''inkonsle'' i ''inore-8'', a takzhe byla izuchena primenimost' znachenij ehtikh koehffitsientov k splavam v korrozijnykh usloviyakh. Summarnye koehffitsienty byli polucheny putem sleduyushchikh zamerov: 1) obedneniya v Cr{sup 51} (zagruzhennogo v vide CrF{sub 2}) nekorrozijnykh ftoristykh rasplavov v legirovannykh kapsulakh i 2) sootnosheniya mezhdu izmerimoj obshchej radioaktivnost'yu obrabotannykh sol'yu obraztsov splava i radioaktivnost'yu soli, dejstviyu kotoroj obraztsy byli podvergnuty. Pomimo ehtogo, koehffitsienty byli polucheny putem zamera grafika kontsentratsii indikatora pri posledovatel'noj ehlektropolirovke obraztsov. Summarnye koehffitsienty, a takzhe koehffitsienty, poluchennye opytami ehlektropolirovki, ochen' blizko sovpadayut dlya ''inkonelya'' pri vysokikh temperaturakh i dlya ''inora-8'' pri vsekh temperaturakh. Dlya temperatur nizhe 750{sup o} C koehffitsienty, poluchetshe pri pomoshchi ehlektropolirovki obraztsov ''sinkonelya'' prevyshayut znacheniya summarnykh koehffitsientov; v ehtom sluchae protsess diffuzii v masse ne odnoobrazen. Vo vsekh sluchayakh nablyudalos' khoroshee sovladenie mezhdu summarnymi koehffitsientami diffuzii i koehffitsientami, poluchennymi putem ehkstrapolyatsii dannykh, opublikovannykh obychno dlya analogichnykh splavov khroma i nikelya pri bolee vysokikh temperaturakh. Dvojnye politermicheskie petli ''inora-8'' byli ispol'zovany dlya tsirkulyatsii nekorrozijnogo ftoristogo rasplava, soderzhashchego Cr{sup 51} (v vide CrF{sub 2}). Odna iz ehtikh petel' byla pozhertvovana dlya opredeleniya usvoeniya Cr{sup 51} ehtim splavom; vtoraya petlya byla ispol'zovana dlya tsirkulyatsii rasplava, soderzhashchego FeF{sub 2}, dlya polucheniya izmerimogo ustraneniya Cr iz splava. Bylo polucheno khoroshee sovpadenie mezhdu fakticheski nablyudavshimisya yavleniyami i prognozom, sdelannym na osnovanii izmerennykh koehffitsientov diffuzii. Iz ehtogo sovpadeniya mozhno zaklyuchit', chto koehffitsient samodiffuzii khroma nechuvstvitelen k izmeneniyam soderzhaniya khroma v splave ''inor-8''. (author)

  12. A Scintillation Camera for Kinetic Studies of the Distribution of Radioactive Nuclides in the Brain; Chambre a Scintillation pour des Etudes sur la Cinetique de la Repartition des Radionucleides dans le Cerveau; Stsintillyatsionnaya kamera dlya kineticheskogo issledovaniya raspredeleniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v tkani mozga; Camara de Centelleo para Estudiar la Cinetica de la Distribucion de Radionuclidos en el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, W. [Radiological Research Laboratory, Department Of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Schlesinger, E. B.; De Boves, S. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    1964-10-15

    A scintillation camera specifically designed for the study of the kinetics of the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the brain has been developed. This device employs two banks of 3/4 in x 1 in sodium iodide-thallium activated crystals, 63 crystals per bank arranged in a 7 x 9 close-packed array on 1-in centres. These banks can be placed so that both lateral views or one lateral and one P-A or A-P view can be obtained simultaneously. The field of view of each crystal is limited by a collimator consisting of nineteen tapered holes whose axes are all parallel. This design gives a response of nearly equal full-width at half height to a simulated tumour source at all distances up to 4 in from the front of the collimator. This response is sufficiently wide to avoid significant ''dead'' areas and yet narrow enough to permit accurate observation of the activity distribution within a very few minutes using normal tracer doses of iodine-131. Each crystal is optically coupled to its own photomultiplier in an integral package. The output pulses of the photomultipliers are analysed by discriminators and the information stored in digital form in a quarter of the memory of a 512-channel pulse-height analyser. Time coincident pulses from the various detectors can be accepted by this equipment so that losses are negligible. Read-out in several forms is available. In digital form either a typewritten record or punched paper tape can be obtained. The latter may be read back into the equipment for review. Analogue read-out is made on a large screen oscilloscope. The scope beam is defocused and two 63 point display rasters generated to correspond to the spatial location of the scintillation counters. Intensity modulation of the oscilloscope beam as well as background erasure is used to assist in visualizing the activity distribution. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont mis au point une chambre a scintillation specialement concue pour des etudes sur la cinetique de la repartition des radionucleides dans le cerveau. Ce dispositif utilise deux series de cristaux Nal(Tl) de 1,8 cm sur 2,5 cm, chaque serie comprenant 63 cristaux disposes sur 7 rangs de 9 cristaux selon un quadrillage de 2,5 cm de cote. Il est possible de placer les deux series de maniere a pouvoir obtenir simultanement, soit les vues sur les deux cotes, soit une vue laterale et une vue postero-anterieure (ou antero-posterieure). Le champ de vision de chaque cristal est limite par un collimateur a 19 orifices coniques dont les axes sont tous paralleles. Ce montage donne une reponse a une source continue dans une tumeur simulee, dont la largeur complete a mi-amplitude est presque egale pour toutes les distances jusqu'a 10 cm a partir de la face anterieure du collimateur. Cette reponse est suffisamment large pour eviter des zones 'mortes' significatives, tout en etant assez etroite pour permettre de faire une observation precise de la repartition de l'activite en quelques minutes, si l'on emploie des doses normales d'iode-131. Chaque cristal est optiquement couple a son propre photomultiplicateur. Les impulsions des photomultiplicateurs a la sortie sont analysees au moyen de discriminateurs; l'information est emmagasinee sous forme numerique dans un quart de la memoire d'un analyseur d'amplitude a 512 canaux. Cet ensemble peut accepter des impulsions coiencidant dans le temps et provenant des divers detecteurs; les pertes sont donc negligeables. La lecture peut se faire sous plusieurs formes. Sous une forme numerique, on peut obtenir, soit une feuille dactylographiee, soit une bande perforee en papier. Celle-ci peut etre repassee dans l'appareil aux fins de controle. Sous forme analogique, la lecture se fait sur un oscilloscope a grand ecran. On defocalise le faisceau de l'oscilloscope et on produit deux series de 63 images dont chacune correspond a un cristal. La modulation de l'intensite du faisceau de l'oscilloscope et l'elimination du bruit de fond facilitent la visualisation de la repartition de l'activite. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han construido una camara de centelleo especialmente concebida para el estudio de la cinetica de la distribucion de radionuclidos en el cerebro. Este dispositivo contiene dos series de cristales de yoduro de sodio activados por talio, de 3/4 x 1 pulg; cada serie comprende 63 cristales dispuestos en 7 filas de 9 cristales con una distancia de 1 pulg entre los centros. Las dos series pueden colocarse de modo que sea posible obtener vistas-simultaneas de dos caras laterales, o de una cara lateral y una posteroanterior (anteroposterior). El campo de vision de cada cristal esta limitado por un colimador de 19 canales conicos cuyos ejes son paralelos entre sf. Este montaje da una respuesta practicamente uniforme a todas las distancias hasta 4 pulg desde el frente del colimador, para una fuente contenida en un tumor simulado. Esta respuesta es suficientemente amplia para evitar zonas 'mu ertas' significativas y ,al mismo tiempo,bastante estrecha para poder observar con exactitud la distribucion de la actividad en unos pocos minutos si se emplean dosis normales de yodo-131 como indicador. Cada cristal esta acoplado opticamente a su propio fotomultiplicador, constituyendo una unidad. Los impulsos de salida de los fotomultiplicadores son analizados mediante discriminadores; la informacion se almacena en forma numerica en una cuarta parte de la memoria de un analizador de amplitud de impulsos de 512 canales. Como este aparato puede aceptar impulsos coincidentes en el tiempo o procedentes de varios detectores, las perdidas son despreciables. La lectura puede efectuarse de distintas maneras. En forma numerica puede obtenerse ya sea un regristro dactilografiado o una cinta de papel perforado. Esta ultima puede introducirse en el aparato para una nueva lectura. En forma analogica, la lectura se hace en un osciloscopio de gran pantalla. Se desenfoca el haz del osciloscopio y se producen dos reticulados de 63 puntos para corresponder a la situacion espacial de los contadores de centelleo. La modulacion de la intensidad del haz del osciloscopio y la supresion de la actividad de fondo facilitan la visualizacion de la distribucion de actividad. (author) [Russian] Razrabotana scintil- ljacionnaja kamera, special'no prednaznachennaja dlja izuchenija kinetiki raspredelenija radioaktivnyh izotopov v tkani mozga. Jetot pribor sostoit iz dvuh grupp, aktivirovannyh talliem kristallov NaJ razmerom 1,8 X 2,5 sm , prichem 63 kristalla kazhdoj gruppy soboany v porjadok 7 x 9 na 2 ,5 -sm centrah. Jeti gruppy m ogut byt' raspolozheny takim o'razom, chtoby odnovremenno poluchat' ob e bokovye proekcii ili odnu bokovuju i odnu za dne-perednjuju ili peredne-zadnjuju proekciju. Pole zrenija kazhdogo kristalla ogranicheno kollimatorom, so stojashhim iz 19 suzhivajushhihsja kanalov s parallel'nymi osjam i. Jeta konstrukcija imeet chuvstvitel'nost' pochti ravnuju polnoj shirote na polovine rasstojanija douslovnogo istochnika opuholi po vsem rasstojanijam do 10 cm ot perednej chasti kollimatora. Jeta chuvstvitel'nost' dostatochno shiroka, chtoby izbezhat' neradioaktivnyh zon , i v to zhe vremja dostatochno uzka , chtoby pozvolit' tochnoe nabljudenie raspredelenija aktivnosti v techenie neskol'kih minut, pri ispol'zovanii normal'nyh indikatornyh doz j o d a -131. Kazhdyj kristall opticheski s o edinen so svoim fotoumnozhitelem v obshhej upakovke. Vyhodnye impul'sy fotoumnozhitelej analizirujutsja s pomoshh'ju diskriminatorov i informacija hranitsja v cifrovoj forme v chetverti zapominajushhego ustrojstva 512-kanal'nogo analizatora vysokih impul'sov. Sovpadajushhie po vremeni impul'sy iz razlichnyh d e tektorov mogut prinimat'sja v jetoj ust anovke s neznachitel'nymi p ot er jam i . Schityvanie dannyh vozmozhno v neskol'kih formah. Mozhno poluchit' dannye v cifrovoj forme, v mashinopisnoj forme ili v vide perfokart. Poslednie mozhno vvesti obratno v pribor dlja povtornogo izuchenija. Analogichnoe schityvanie proizvoditsja na oscilloskope s bol'shim jekranom. Puchok na jetom pribore defokusiruetsja, i voznikajut dve indikatornye setki s 63 tochkami, sootvetstvujushhimi p rostranstvennomu raspolozheniju scintilljacionnyh schetchikov. Modulirovanie plotnosti puchka oscilloskopa, a takzhe stiranie fona ispol'zujutsja dlja togo, chtoby oblegchit' vizual'noe nabljudenie raspredelenija aktivnosti. (author)

  13. In vitro synergistic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in combination with standard antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Berchová, Kateřina; Majerová, Michaela; Pokorná, Marie; Švajdlenka, Emil

    2016-09-01

    Context The increasing problem of drug-resistant strains has led to the failure of current treatment regimens of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Recently, a new treatment strategy has been developed to overcome the problem by using natural products in combination with antibiotics to enhance the treatment efficacy. Objective The antimicrobial combinatory effect of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) (AEHS) with antibiotics (clarithromycin, CLA; amoxicillin, AMX; metronidazole, MTZ) has been evaluated in vitro against HP strains. Materials and methods Hibiscus calyces (35 g) were brewed in 250 mL of boiled water for 30 min, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution method. The checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial combinatory effect according to the sum of fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC) indices. Results In this study, AEHS exerted remarkable bacteriostatic effect against all HP strains tested with MICs values ranging from 9.18 to 16.68 μg/mL. Synergy effect of AEHS with CLA or MTZ was obtained against four of seven HP strains tested with ∑FIC ranging from 0.21 to 0.39. The additive effect of AEHS with AMX was obtained against five of seven HP strains tested with ∑FIC ranging from 0.61 to 0.91. Conclusion This study presents AEHS as a potent therapeutic candidate alone, or in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of HP infection.

  14. Contributed Review: Recent developments in acoustic energy harvesting for autonomous wireless sensor nodes applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Khattak, Muhammad Umair

    2016-02-01

    Rapid developments in micro electronics, micro fabrication, ultra-large scale of integration, ultra-low power sensors, and wireless technology have greatly reduced the power consumption requirements of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) and make it possible to operate these devices with energy harvesters. Likewise, other energy harvesters, acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs), have been developed and are gaining swift interest in last few years. This paper presents a review of AEHs reported in the literature for the applications of WSNs. Based on transduction mechanism, there are two types of AEHs: piezoelectric acoustic energy harvesters (PEAEHs) and electromagnetic acoustic energy harvesters (EMAEHs). The reported AEHs are mostly characterized under the sound pressure level (SPL) that ranges from 45 to 161 dB. The range for resonant frequency of the produced AEHs is from 146 Hz to 24 kHz and these produced 0.68 × 10-6 μW to 30 mW power. The maximum power (30 mW) is produced by a PEAEH, when the harvester is subjected to a SPL of 161 dB and 2.64 kHz frequency. However, for EMAEHs, the maximum power reported is about 1.96 mW (at 125 dB and 143 Hz). Under the comparable SPLs, the power production by the reported EMAEHs is relatively better than that of PEAEHs, moreover, due to lower resonant frequency, the EMAEHs are more feasible for the low frequency band acoustical environment.

  15. The use of radioactive inserts in the study of metal deformation during tube-making processes; Emploi de fils metalliques radioactifs pour l'etude des deformations des metaux pendant la fabrication de tubes; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnykh vtulok dlya izucheniya deformatsii metallov pri protsesse izgotovleniya trub; Empleo de insertos radiactivos en el estudio de la deformacion de los metales durante la fabricacion de tubos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, W H.T. [Tube Investments Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    This paper reports on the use of radioactive inserts in studying the deformation of steel in hot rotary piercing for tube making. Iron or steel wires are activated in the pile, inserted in tubes drilled in iron or steel billets, which are then processed under normal production conditions. Careful monitoring shows that the radiation exposures and contamination of the plant are quite negligible. On cooling, the billets are scanned in the laboratory, using a collimated scintillationcounter mounted normal to the surface of the pierced billet, and isodose curves show the shape of the deformed insert normal to the tube surface. A similar scan of a section normal to the axis of the tube gives a second plot; from a combination of the two plots, a three-dimensional picture is obtained. Some results are quoted, but the main emphasis of the paper is on the experimental technique, which has quite general applicability to metal deformation studies. The insert must be located within a millimeter or thereabouts, for which a higher resolution is required than is normal in medical scanning techniques. The problems of achieving this are discussed in terms of {gamma}-energy, collimator design and energy discrimination. (author) [French] Le present memoire traite de l'emploi de fils metalliques radioactifs pour l'etude de la deformation de l'acier durant le forage rotatif a chaud en vue de la fabrication des tubes. Des fils de fer ou d'acier sont actives dans un reacteur et places dans des cavites tabulaires menagees a l'interieur de billettes de fer ou d'acier que l'on transforme ensuite dans les conditions de fabrication normales. Un controle radiologique minutieux montre que les dangers d'irradiation et de contamination dans l'usine sont pratiquement negligeables. Apres refroidissement, les billettes sont examinees en laboratoire au moyen d'un compteur a scintillations avec collimateur de faible ouverture, monte de facon que l'axe soit perpendiculaire a la surface de la billette foree; les courbes isoactives montrent les deformations du fil radioactif dans la direction normale a la surface du tube. Un examen analogue d'une section perpendiculaire a l'axe du tube dorme un deuxieme diagramme; en combinant les deux diagrammes, on obtient une representation a trois dimensions. Les auteurs du memoire mentionnent quelques resultats obtenus, mais ile s'attachent surtout a exposer la technique experimentale qui trouve une application tres etendue dans l'etude de la deformation des metaux. Le fil metallique radioactif doit etre localise a un millimetre pres, ce qui exige un pouvoir de resolution superieur a celui qui est normalement necessaire pour les explorations medicales au moyen de radioisotopes. Les auteurs analysent l'influence de l'energie y, de la construction du collimateur et de la discrimination energetique sur les problemes a resoudre pour obtenir ce pouvoir de resolution. (author) [Spanish] La memoria informa sobre el empleo de insertos radiactivos en la investigacion de las deformaciones del acero durante la fabricacion de tubos por punzonado rotatorio en caliente. Se irradian en el reactor alambres de hierro o de acero y se insertan en orificios tubulares taladrados en tochos de los mismos materiales, que luego son tratados con arreglo a metodos normales de produccion. Un monitoraje meticuloso demuestra que se pueden despreciar el grado de exposicion a las radiaciones y la contaminacion de la planta. Una vez frios, se exploran los tochos en el laboratorio, utilizando un contador de centelleo con colimador, montado perpendicularmente a la superficie del tocho perforado. Las curvas isodosicas indican la configuracion del inserto deformado en un plano perpendicular a la superficie del tubo. Una exploracion similar de un corte perpendicular al eje del tubo da un segundo diagrama; combinando los dos diagramas se obtiene una representacion tridimensional. Se indican algunos resultados, pero la memoria trata principalmente de la tecnica experimental, que es aplicable a los estudios sobre deformacion de los metales en general. En este metodo es preciso localizar el inserto radiactivo con un error no mayor de un milimetro, lo que exige un poder de resolucion superior al que requieren normalmente las tecnicas de exploracion medica. Se examinan los problemas correspondientes en terminos de energia gamma, diseno del colimador y discriminacion de energias. (author) [Russian] V nastoyashchej rabote rassmatrivaetsya vopros ob ispol'zovanii radio- aktivnykh vtulok pri izuchenii deformatsii stali v pirsing-protsesse s pomoshch'yu goryachego rotatsionnogo metoda. ZHeleznaya ili stal'naya provoloka aktiviruetsya v reaktore, pomeshchaetsya v truby, pro- sverlennye v zheleznykh ili stal'nykh zagotovkakh, kotorye zatem podvergayutsya obrabotke v normal'nykh proizvodstvennykh usloviyakh. Tshchatel'noe nablyudenie pokazyvaet, chto radiatsionnoe obluchenie i zagryazneniya ustanovki sovershenno neznachitel'ny. Posle okhlazhdeniya zagotovki podvergayutsya analizu v laboratorii putem primeneniya kollimirovannogo stsintillyatsionnogo schetchika, raspolozhennogo perpendikulyarno k poverkhnosti prosverlennoj zagotovki; krivye izodoz pokazyvayut formu deformiro- vannoj radioaktivnoj vtulki, raspolozhennoj pod pryamym uglom k poverkhnosti truby. Drugoj grafik poluchaetsya ot podobnogo roda razvertki uchastka, nakhodyashchegosya pod pryamym uglom k osi truby; pri pomoshchi dvukh poluchennykh grafikov poluchaetsya kartina v trekh izmereniyakh. V dokumente privodyatsya nekotorye rezul'taty, no osnovnoe vnimanie v nem udelyaetsya metodam provedeniya ehksperimentov, kotorye shiroko ispol'zuyutsya pri izuchenii defor- matsii metallov. Vtulki dolzhny byt' raspolozheny na rasstoyanii millimetra ili okolo ehtogo, dlya chego trebuetsya bolee vysokaya razreshayushchaya sposobnost' po sravneniyu s normal'nymi metodami issledovaniya, primenyaemymi v meditsine. Problemy dostizheniya ehtogo ras- smatrivayutsya v nastoyashchem doklade v zavisimosti ot ehnergii gamma-izlucheniya, konstruk- tsii kollimatora i diskriminatsii ehnergii. (author)

  16. Influence of Aerosol Properties and the Respiratory Pattern upon Hazards Evaluation following Inhalation Exposure; Influence des Caracteristiques des Aerosols et du Regime de la Respiration sur l'Evaluation des Risques, a la Suite d'une Exposition par Inhalation; Vliyanie svojstv aehrozolej i obraztsa respiratora na otsenku opasnosti oblucheniya pri vdykhanii radioaktivnykh veshchestv; Influencia de las Propriedades de los Aerosoles y de su Esquema Repiratorio en la Evaluacion de los Riesgos Consecutivos a una Exposicion por Inhalacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. G. [Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1964-10-15

    There are three important biological parameters which are necessary in evaluating the hazards from compounds entering the body by any route. These are (1) the amount deposited in-the body; (2) the distribution and translocation kinetics within the body; and (3) the rate of excretion of the material. Sufficient quantitative data on these points are generally lacking in the case of an accidental exposure. This paper deals with experimental animal studies correlating different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled particles with the three biological variables mentioned above. Values for the amount and location of deposited material as a function of the particle size inhaled is presented for a tissue soluble compound (caesium chloride) and for a tissue ''insoluble'' compound (thorium chloride). Evidence is also given to substantiate the variations which occur in tissue distribution and excretion of an element, depending upon its physical and chemical state when breathed. Data from experiments with aerosols of many compounds, including those already mentioned, is used to show a unique correlation between body burden and faecal excretion during the first few post-exposure days. The advantages in performing analyses on both urine and faeces for bioassay purposes is demonstrated. The fallacies in current methods of practical hazard assessment from air sampling and bioassay techniques are stressed throughout, using the above data as examples. (author) [French] Pour evaluer les risques dus aux composes qui penetrent dans l'organisme par une voie quelconque, il faut tenir compte de trois parametres biologiques importants: 1. Quantite deposee dans l'organisme; 2. Cinetique de la repartition et de la translocation a l'interieur de l'organisme; 3. Vitesse de l'excretion de la matiere consideree. Dans le cas d'une exposition accidentelle, on manque generalement de donnees quantitatives suffisantes sur ces parametres. Le memoire a trait a des etudes experimentales qui ont ete faites sur des animaux en vue d'etablir une correlation entre, d'une part, certaines caracteristiques physiques et chimiques des particules inhalees et, d'autre part, les trois parametres biologiques mentionnes ci-dessus. L'auteur indique des valeurs de la quantite deposee, selon les emplacements et en fonction de la dimension des particules inhalees, pour un compose soluble dans le tissu (chlorure de cesium) et pour un autre qui ne l'est pas (chlorure de thorium). Il se base sur certaines donnees pour expliquer les variations que subissent la repartition tissulaire et l'excretion d'un element, selon l'etat physique et chimique dans lequel il se trouve lors de l'inhalation. Il se sert de donnees provenant d'experiences sur des aerosols de nombreux composes, y compris ceux qui ont deja ete mentionnes, pour montrer qu'il existe une correlation exceptionnelle entre la charge corporelle et l'excretion dans les matieres fecales durant les quelques premiers jours qui suivent l'exposition. Il indique quels sont, aux fins des dosages biologiques, les avantages qu'il y a a analyser a la fois les urines et les matieres fecales. En prenant comme exemple les donnees susmentionnees, l'auteur souligne dans tout le memoire les erreurs que comportent les methodes couramment utilisees pour evaluer les risques par les procedes d'echantillonnage et d'analyse biologique de l'air. (author) [Spanish] Para evaluar los riesgos derivados de la penetracion de sustancias radiactivas en el organismo por una via cualquiera, son tres los parametros biologicos importantes que es preciso conocer: 1) la cantidad depositada en el organismo, 2) la cinetica de distribucion y translocacion dentro del organismo, 3) la velocidad de eliminacion de la sustancia por excrecion. Por lo general, en el caso de una exposicion accidental, se carece de datos cuantitativos suficientes sobre estos puntos. En la memoria se describen los estudios realizados con animales de laboratorio para correlacionar las diferentes caracteristicas fisicas y quimicas de las particulas inhaladas y las tres variables biologicas antes mencionadas. Se presentan datos acerca de la cantidad y localizacion de la sustancia depositada, determinados en funcion del tamano de las particulas inhaladas, en el caso de un compuesto soluble en los tejidos (cloruro de cesio) y en el caso de un compuesto insoluble en los tejidos (Cloruro de torio). Asimismo, se facilita informacion encaminada a explicar las variaciones que se producen en la distribucion de un elemento en los tejidos y en su excrecion, segun su forma fisicaca y quimica al ser inhalado. Se exponen datos proporcionados por los experimentos realizados con aerosoles de muchas sustancias, entre ellas las ya mencionadas, para poner de manifiesto la peculiar correlacion existente entre la carga corporal y la excrecion por via fecal durante los primeros dias consecutivos a la exposicion. Se demuestra la ventaja de efectuar a la vez analisis de orina y de heces para determinaciones biologicas. Utilizando los anteriores datos como ejemple, se ponen de relieve los errores inherentes a los actuales metodos de evaluacion practica de riesgos, basados en el analisis de muestras de aire y de sustancias biologicas. (author) [Russian] Imeetsja tri vazhnyh biologicheskih parametrov, neobhodimyh dlja ocenki opasnosti v rezul'tate popadanija soedinenij v organizm ljubym putem. K nim otnosjatsja: 1) kolichestvo otlozhivshegosja v organizme veshhestva; 2) raspredelenie i kinetika peremeshhenij v organizme; 3) skorost' vyvedenija veshhestva. Pri sluchajnom obluchenii v celom otsutstvujut dostatochnye kolichestvennye dannye po jetim punktam. V doklade izlagajutsja dannye jeksperimental'nyh issledovanij na zhivotnyh, pokazyvajushhie sootnoshenie mezhdu razlichnymi fizicheskimi i himicheskimi harakteristikami vdyhaemyh chastic i upomjanutymi vyshe tremja biologicheskimi peremennymi. Predstavleny dannye o kolichestve i lokalizacii otlozhivshegosja materiala kak funkcii razmera vdyhaemyh chastic dlja rastvorimogo v tkanjah soedinenija (chlorid cezija) i dlja ''nerastvorimogo'' v tkanjah soedinenija (hlorid torija). Privedeny takzhe dokazatel'stva variacij raspredelenija jelementa v tkanjah i vydelenija v zavisimosti ot ego fiziko-himicheskogo sostojanija pri vdyhanii. Dannye, poluchennye v rezul'tate provedenija jeksperimentov s ajerozoljami mnogih soedinenij, v tom chisle upomjanutyh vyshe, ispol'zovany dlja pokaza unikal'nogo sootnoshenija mezhdu soderzhaniem soedinenij v organizme i vydeleniem s jekskrementami v techenie neskol'kih dnej posle obluchenija. Pokazany preimushhestva odnovremennogo provedenija dlja biologicheskih celej analiza mochi i kala. Na primere jetih dannyh pokazany pogreshnosti, voznikajushhie pri ispol'zovanii primenjaemyh v nastojashhee vremja metodov prakticheskoj ocenki opasnosti obluchenija na osnovanii otbora prob vozduha i metodik biologicheskogo analiza. (author)

  17. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    realizando investigaciones con generadores alimentados por mezclas de productos de fision. Estas seran menos costosas que los radioisotopos puros, pues se suprimen los gastos de separacion y purificacion de isotopos. En la actualidad funcionan o estan a punto de funcionar generadores termoelectricos prototipo, alimentados con estroncio-90 y cesio-137, en estaciones meteorologicas, dispositivos auxiliares de navegacion y aparatos de vigilancia de las profundidades del mar. En el espacio funcionan generadores termoelectricos de plutonio-238 como fuentes de energia electrica del satelite TRANSIT de la Marina de los Estados Unidos. Se estan construyendo asimismo generadores para los proyectos espaciales de la National Aeronautics and Space Administration de dicho pais. La elevada radiactividad inherente a las fuentes radioisotopicas de energia exige que se preste especial atencion a la seguridad de las mismas. Se han establecido rigurosas normas de proteccion y se han ejecutado ensayos muy avanzados para poder emplear estos dispositivos sin originar riesgos inaceptables. (author) [Russian] Programma ispol'zovaniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v kachestve ehnergeticheskogo syr'ya, razrabotannaya Komissiej po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA, privela k sozdaniyu sovershenno novoj tekhnologii primeneniya radioizotopov v kachestve istochnikov ehnergii v generatorakh ehlektroehnergii. Sistema radioizotopnykh ehnergeticheskikh stantsij osobenno nuzhna tam, gde vvidu krajnej otdalennosti trebuyutsya dolgovechnye, nadezhnye i malogabaritnye silovye ustanovki. Sposobnye udovletvoritel'no funktsionirovat' v tyazhelykh usloviyakh, naprimer pri dejstvii temperatur, solnechnogo sveta i ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya, takie ''atomnye batarei'' yavlyayutsya zamanchivymi istochnikami ehnergii dlya ustanovok, sobirayushchikh informatsiyu na rasstoyanii, dlya upravlyayushchikh sistem, dlya iskustvennykh sputnikov i drugikh kosmicheskikh ob{sup e}ktov. Radioizotopy, primenyayushchiesya v kachestve goryuchego

  18. Acetobacter turbidans α-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase. How a Single Mutation Improves an Antibiotic-Producing Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Thomas R.M.; Polderman-Tijmes, Jolanda J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Williams, Christopher; Wybenga, Gjalt; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2006-01-01

    The α-amino acid ester hydrolase (AEH) from Acetobacter turbidans is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis and synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. The crystal structures of the native enzyme, both unliganded and in complex with the hydrolysis product D-phenylglycine are reported, as well as

  19. Learning To Hope: A Study of the Adult Education for the Homeless Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel; Koloski, Judy

    A comprehensive study of the Adult Education for the Homeless Program (AEH) was conducted using data from the following sources: program files; focus groups conducted with state project administrators; site visits to 9 local programs in 3 states; surveys of 32 state projects, 230 local programs, 588 service delivery sites, and 2,943 program…

  20. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Shin-Aeh Lee1 Seung-Gon Lee1 Kyoung-Oh Cho2 Changbaig Hyun1. Section of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200 701, Korea; Institute of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Kwangju 500 757, ...

  1. Non-traumatic spontaneous acute epidural hematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serarslan, Yurdal; Aras, Mustafa; Altaş, Murat; Kaya, Hasan; Urfalı, Boran

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (SCD) was referred to our hospital after two days of hospitalization at another hospital for a headache crisis. This headache crisis was due to a raised intracranial pressure; these symptoms were noted and included in her comprehensive list of symptoms. There was an acute drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The cranial CT scan demonstrated a left fronto-parietal acute epidural hematoma (AEH) and a calvarial bone expansion, which was suggestive of medullary hematopoiesis. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma. There were no abnormal findings intra-operatively apart from the AEH, except skull thickening and active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries. Repeated CT scan showed a complete evacuation of the hematoma. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. In addition to the factors mentioned in the relevant literature, any active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries on the separated surface of the dura from the skull could have contributed to the expanding of the AEH in our patient. Neurosurgeons and other health care providers should be aware of spontaneous AEH in patients with SCD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH, Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice ( Mus musculus were divided into four groups ( n = 10, which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg –1 b.w. for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage.

  3. Main research results in the field of nuclear power engineering of the Nuclear Reactors and Thermal Physics Institute in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trufanov, A.A.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Sorokin, A.P.; Chernonog, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The main results of scientific and technological activities for last years of the Nuclear Reactors and Thermal Physics Institute FSUE SSC RF - IPPE in solving problems of nuclear power engineering are presented. The work have been carried out on the following problems: justification of research and development solutions and safety of NPPs with fast reactors of new generation with sodium (BN-1200, MBIR) and lead (BREST-OD-300) coolants, justification of safety of operating and advanced NPPs with WWER reactor facilities (WWER-1000, AEhS 2006, WWER-TOI), development and benchmarking of computational codes, research and development support of Beloyarsk-3 (BN-600) and Bilibino (BN-800) NPPs operation, decommissioning of AM and BR-10 research reactors, pilot scientific studies (WWER-SKD, ITER), international scientific and technical cooperation. Problems for further investigations are charted [ru

  4. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 3. Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on Software Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Distributed Computing Systems impact DrnwrR - aehR on Sotwar Quaity. PERFORMING 010. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOW) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT "UMBER(*)IS ThomasY...C31 Application", "Space Systems Network", "Need for Distributed Database Management", and "Adaptive Routing". This is discussed in the last para ...data reduction, buffering, encryption, and error detection and correction functions. Examples of such data streams include imagery data, video

  5. Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization for Multiscale Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations can benefit by utilizing high-fidelity models running at a lower length scale. Lower length-scale models provide a detailed view of the material behavior that is used to determine the average material response at the macroscale. These lower length-scale calculations may provide insight into material behavior where experimental data is sparse or nonexistent. This multiscale approach is especially useful in the nuclear field, since irradiation experiments are difficult and expensive to conduct. The lower length-scale models complement the experiments by influencing the types of experiments required and by reducing the total number of experiments needed. This multiscale modeling approach is a central motivation in the development of the BISON-MARMOT fuel performance codes at Idaho National Laboratory. These codes seek to provide more accurate and predictive solutions for nuclear fuel behavior. One critical aspect of multiscale modeling is the ability to extract the relevant information from the lower length-scale sim- ulations. One approach, the asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) technique, has proven to be an effective method for determining homogenized material parameters. The AEH technique prescribes a system of equations to solve at the microscale that are used to compute homogenized material constants for use at the engineering scale. In this work, we employ AEH to explore the effect of evolving microstructural thermal conductivity and elastic constants on nuclear fuel performance. We show that the AEH approach fits cleanly into the BISON and MARMOT codes and provides a natural, multidimensional homogenization capability.

  6. Angioedema recorrente – caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrina Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Angioedema hereditário (AEH é uma causa rara de angioedema recorrente, resultante de um defeito a nível do gene que codifica o inibidor do C1 esterase (C1 -INH. O edema envolve predominantemente os tecidos da face, membros, trato gastrointestinal e área genital. O envolvimento da laringe, apesar de menos frequente, constitui a expressão clínica mais grave, sendo potencialmente fatal. Caso clínico: Descreve -se o caso clínico de uma criança do sexo feminino de oito anos de idade referenciada à consulta de pediatria por episódios recorrentes de angioedema. O estudo efetuado revelou tratar -se de um caso de AEH. Discussão: O diagnóstico, estabelecido com base no quadro clínico, estudo do complemento e história familiar, é de importância fundamental considerando que o AEH é potencialmente fatal e exige uma terapêutica específica.

  7. Production of C{sup 14}-labelled compounds from C{sup 14}O{sub 2} accelerated in an electric field - Physico-chemical analysis of some radioactive compounds obtained; Production de composes marques au {sup 14}C a partir de {sup 14}CO{sub 2} accelere dans un champ electrique - Analyse physico-chimique de quelques composes radioactifs obtenus; Proizvodstvo mechennykh uglerodom-14 soedinenij iz C{sup 14}O{sub 2}, uskorennogo v ehlektricheskom pole - Fiziko-khimicheskij analiz neskol'kikh poluchennykh radioaktivnykh soedinenij; Obtencion de compuestos marcados con {sup 14}C a partir de {sup 14}CO{sub 2} acelerado en un campo electrico - Analisis fisicoquimico de algunos de los compuestos radiactivos obtenidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, M [Universite de Liege, Belgique (Belgium)

    1962-03-15

    This paper describes a method of labelling which is based on the acceleration by an electric field of C{sup 14}O{sub 2}, which can then react with an organic target in its path. The discharge cell described operates at 500 Y, 150 {mu}A, and the organic products to be labelled are exposed to this field for about three hours with CO{sub 2} having a specific activity of 24mc/mmole. The maximum yield remains low (about 6%), and 60% of the C{sup 14}O{sub 2} is destroyed. This maximum activity is obtained only for aliphatic chains (50 {mu}c/g for glutaric acid) or for aromatic substances with an aliphatic chain (acetyl-salicylic acid). (author) [French] Le present memoire expose une methode de marquage basee sur l'acceleration par un champ electrique de {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, qui est alors susceptible d'entrer en reaction avec une cible organique se trouvant dans sa trajectoire. La cellule a decharge decrite fonctionne sous 500 V, 150 {mu}A, et les produits organiques a marquer sont soumis a ce champ pendant environ trois heures, avec du CO{sub 2} d'activite specifique 24 mc/mmole. Le rendement maximum obtenu reste faible (6% environ), et 60% du {sup 14}CO{sub 2} est detruit. Ce rendement maximum n'est obtenu que pour les chaines aliphatiques (50 {mu}c/g pour l'acide glutarique) ou pour des substances aromatiques presentant une chaine aliphatique (acide acetylsalicylique). (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe un metodo de marcacion que consiste en acelerar {sup 14}CO{sub 2} en un campo electrico para que pueda reaccionar con blancos constituidos por sustancias organicas colocadas en su trayectoria. La celda de descarga que describe la memoria funciona a 500 V y 150 {mu}A, y los productos organicos que se desean marcar se exponen al campo asi creado durante unas tres horas a CO{sub 2} de una actividad especifica de 24 mc/mmol. El rendimiento maximo obtenido es bajo (aproximadamente 6%) y el 60% del {sup 14}CO{sub 2} queda destruido. Este rendimiento maximo solo se alcanza con cadenas alifaticas (50 {mu}c/g para el acido glutarico) o con moleculas ciclicas que presenten una cadena alifatica (acido acetilsalicilico). (author) [Russian] V dannoj rabote izlagaetsya metod mecheniya, osnovannyj na uskorenii ehlektricheskim polem C{sup 14}O{sub 2}, kotoryj v ehto vremya poddaetsya vstupleniyu v reaktsiyu s organicheskoj mishen'yu, nakhodyashchejsya na ego traektorii. Opysyvaemaya razryadnaya kamera dejstvuet pod napryazheniem 500 v, 150 mka, a podlezhashchie mecheniyu organicheskie veshchestva vvodyatsya v ehto pole i nakhodyatsya tam okolo 3 chasov vmeste s CO{sub 2} udel'noj aktivnosti v 24 mkyuri/mmol'. Maksimal'nyj vykhod poluchennykh produktov ostaetsya slabym (okolo 6%), a 60% C{sup 14}O{sub 2} - razrusheno. EHtot maksimal'nyj vykhod poluchaetsya tol'ko dlya alifaticheskikh tsepej (50 mkkyuri/r dlya glutarovoj kisloty) ili dlya aromaticheskikh veshchestv, predstavlyayushchikh alifaticheskuyu tsep' (atsetilgalitsilovuyu kislotu). (author)

  8. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces extracts with simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showande, S J; Adegbolagun, O M; Igbinoba, S I; Fakeye, T O

    2017-12-01

    Increasing number of patients use herbs with their medications. Such practice may result in beneficial or harmful herb-drug interactions. A recent survey reported that some participants co-administered Hibiscus sabdariffa, a widely used beverage, or tea, with their antihyperlipidaemic medications. This study therefore evaluated the effect of concomitant administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces' extracts with simvastatin on hyperlipidaemia and pharmacokinetics of the drug in vivo. Factorial experimental designs were used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and interactions between simvastatin and aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) on lipid profile parameters in hyperlipidaemia-induced Wistar rats. Different combinations of low (AEHS 250 mg/kg; simvastatin 10 mg/kg) and high doses (AEHS 500 mg/kg; simvastatin 20 mg/kg) were administered individually and concurrently daily for 2 and 4 weeks. Lipid profile parameters were assessed at these treatment periods. Subsequently, the effect of aqueous beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (ABHS) on the pharmacokinetics of single-dose 40 mg simvastatin was also evaluated in six healthy human volunteers using two-period randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 24 hours. The plasma obtained was analysed for simvastatin using RP-HPLC/UV method. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa reduced total cholesterol (T c ) better than simvastatin (P = .031). Low-dose AEHS and low-dose simvastatin used concomitantly caused 38.3% and 57.4% reductions in T c and triglyceride levels, respectively, compared with low-dose simvastatin (P Hibiscus sabdariffa lowered T c better than simvastatin and enhanced the antihyperlipidaemic activity of the drug when co-administered at low doses in an animal model. However, aqueous beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa caused a significant herb-drug interaction resulting in overall reduction in exposure to simvastatin in humans. Caution should

  9. Kinetic parameters of nitridation of molybdenum and niobium alloys with various structure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodkin, G.A.; Bulgach, A.A.; Likhacheva, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of preliminary plastic strain under rolling on kinetic parameters of nitridation of VN-2AEh, VN-3 niobium alloys and molybdenum alloy with hafnium is investigated. Extreme character of dependence of kinetic parameters of nitridation on the degree of reduction under rolling is determined. Preliminary plastic strain at negligible reduction is shown to accelerate growth of the zone of internal nitridation and decelerates growth of the nitride zone. Nitrogen atom removal from the surface to the centre is retarded at the increase of the degree of reduction up to 50% and higher. The degree of deformations is the higher the lower nitridation temperature is

  10. Influencia del tipo de hormigón y de acero, y de las características geométricas de la estructura, en los costes de materiales y en la superficie ocupada por los pilares en estructuras de edificios de hormigón armado con forjado unidireccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Hermoso, J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The project and construction experience of building structures permit to affirm that greatest part of this structures usually are concrete frames with one way slab. This is the reason to develop this systematic study about the influence that concrete and steel used have in this structures. The aim is to give some criteria to geometric structure definition and the materials choice. We have calculated 80 structure buildings modified the height (small, intermediate and tall, with 5,12 and 20 tipical flats over ground, respectively, the concrete class (HI 75, H200, H250, H300, H400 y H500, the steel types (AEH400 and AEH500, the distance between columns (short and long, 5,00 and 6,00 m, respectively and the slab depth (24. 26 and 29 cm. When the calculation results were obtained (as shown on a set of tables and graphs, we made an analysis of materials cost (concrete and steel and the surface occupied for the columns.

    La experiencia en el proyecto y ejecución de estructuras de edificación permite afirmar que, en un porcentaje muy elevado de ocasiones, se encuentran constituidas por pórticos de hormigón armado y forjados unidireccionales. Este hecho ha sido la causa fundamental que ha motivado el desarrollo de este estudio sistemático sobre la influencia que en estas estructuras puede tener el tipo de hormigón y acero utilizados, persiguiendo como objetivo final facilitar unos criterios para la definición geométrica de la estructura y la elección de materiales. Se ha procedido al cálculo de 80 edificios clasificados en función de la altura (bajo, medio y alto, con 5, 12 y 20 plantas tipo sobre rasante, respectivamente, el tipo de hormigón (H175, H200, H250, H300, H400 y H500, el tipo de acero (AEH400 y AEH500, la luz entre pilares (corta y larga, con 5,00 y 6,00 m, respectivamente y el canto del forjado (24, 26 y 29 cm, siendo la viga plana. Tras la obtención de los resultados (presentados en una serie de tablas y gráficos, se

  11. Indicadores económicos ganaderos de los sistemas agropecuarios extensivos del partido de Saavedra (Buenos Aires)

    OpenAIRE

    Gargano, Alfredo O.; Saldungaray, María C.; Chimeno, Patricia; Conti, Viviana P.; Adúriz, Miguel A.

    2004-01-01

    p.227-236 El objetivo fue determinar los resultados económicos ganaderos de los agrosistemas del partido de Saavedra (Buenos Aires) y compararlos con los de la agricultura. Se calcularon los ingresos netos (IN), costos directos (CD), márgenes brutos (MB) y la relación IN-CD. Los MB de los conglomerados, subsistemas ganaderos y estratos por superficie tuvieron mayor dependencia de los IN que de los CD. Los MB de los conglomerados, promedios de las áreas edáficas homogéneas (AEH), oscilaron ...

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA, have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL−1, respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL−1. This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  13. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil; Berchová-Bímová, Kateřina

    2017-04-30

    For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA), have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC 50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL -1 , respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC 50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL -1 . This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  14. Evaluation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis and by autohydrolysis in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Lizett González-Félix

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine bioprocessing industry offers great potential to utilize byproducts for fish meal replacement in aquafeeds. Jumbo squid is an important fishery commodity in Mexico, but only the mantle is marketed. Head, fins, guts and tentacles are discarded in spite of being protein-rich byproducts. This study evaluated the use of two jumbo squid byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis (AEH and by autohydrolysis (AH as ingredients in practical diets for shrimp. The hydrolysates were included at levels of 2.5 and 5.0% of the diet dry weight in four practical diets, including a control diet without hydrolysate. Shrimp growth and survival were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Postharvest quality of abdominal muscle was evaluated in terms of proximate composition and sensory evaluation. Significantly higher crude protein was observed in the muscle of shrimp fed the highest hydrolysate levels, AH 5% (204.8 g kg- 1 or AEH 5% (201.3 g kg- 1. Sensory analysis of cooked muscle showed significant differences for all variables evaluated: color, odor, flavor, and firmness. It was concluded that Jumbo squid byproducts can be successfully processed by autohydrolysis or acid-enzymatic hydrolysis, and that up to 5.0% of the hydrolysates can be incorporated into shrimp diets without affecting growth or survival.

  15. On the effect of brazing thermal cycle on the properties of niobium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.; Cherkasov, A.F.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of the main parameters of the soldering thermal cycle on the properties of Nb and its alloys was studied by heating the samples under modelled conditions of soldering. The studies were made on commercial VN-niobium, alloys of the Nb-Mo-Zr system VN2A, VN2AEHM) and alloys of the Nb-Mo-Zr-C system (VN5AEH,VN5A). The degree of a preliminary plastic deformation of samples 0.3 to 0.8 mm thick made up 60 to 80%. The heating was made in vacuum (10 -4 to 5x10 -5 mm Hg) or in argon by passing the electric current across the samples. After heating a metallographic study and X-ray electron-probe analysis were made. The studies have shown that the changes in the heating rate result in a proportional change in the recrystallization initiation temperature. At a heating rate 300 deg C/s the recrystallization initiation temperature of commercial Nb is 930 to 960 deg as soon as the heating rate increases up to 900 deg/c the recrystallization initiation temperature rises up to about 1200 deg C. The heating temperature effect on the mechanical characteristics of commercial Nb and alloys VN2, VN2AEH and VN5AEH is shown. It is found that soldered joints of Nb and its alloys could be made of good quality when observing the thermal cycles ensuring the minimum softening of the base material. The main factors affecting the properties of Nb and alloy-VN2 are the heating temperature and the extent of a preliminary cold deformation. In a more deformed material the annealing results in the activation of the recrystallization processes. The production of high-strength soldered joints of commercial Nb is possible at the soldering temperature equal to 1100 deg C, but of Nb-Mo-Zr alloys-at 1200 to 1300 deg C and hold-up periods not exceeding one hour. A heterophase structure of alloys of the Nb-Mo-Zr-C system and the presence of Mo- and Zr-carbide phases in them result in a considerable hardening of the alloys and the increase in their recrystallization temperature. The usage of alloys

  16. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  17. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  18. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas e invasoras. Un hallazgo relevante fue el papel de

  19. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  20. Brincar no hospital: estratégia de enfrentamento da hospitalização infantil Playing in the hospital: coping strategy in child hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Brunoro Motta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdicas possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos, em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital, contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção.Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possible playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital, consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly

  1. Phase II study of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus metformin as a fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, A; Sato, Y; Kiyokawa, T; Koshizaka, M; Hanaoka, H; Shozu, M

    2016-02-01

    Metformin, widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduces the risk of cancer and relapse after treatment. Fertility-sparing treatment for endometrial cancer (EC) with progestin is associated with a high chance of disease regression, and the high relapse rate continues to be a problem. We assessed the efficacy of metformin in preventing recurrence after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) as fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and EC. This phase II study enrolled 17 patients with AEH and 19 patients with EC limited to the endometrium (age, 20-40 years). MPA (400 mg/day) and metformin (750-2250 mg/day) were administered for 24-36 weeks to achieve a complete response (CR). Metformin was administered until conception, even after MPA discontinuation. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS) after remission. We analyzed all efficacy end points in the full analysis set. The body mass index was ≥25 kg/m(2) in 27 patients (mean, 31 kg/m(2); range, 19-51 kg/m(2)), and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index was ≥2.5 in 24 patients (mean, 4.7; range, 0.7-21). Two patients showed progression at 12 weeks [6%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2-18]. At 36 weeks, 29 (81%; 95% CI 65-90) patients achieved CR, and 5 (14%; 95% CI 6-29) patients achieved partial response. During a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-66 months) after remission, relapse was confirmed in three of the patients who had achieved CR (relapse rate, 10%). The 3-year estimated RFS rate was 89%. No patients experienced severe toxicity. Metformin inhibited disease relapse after MPA therapy. The combination of metformin and MPA in EC treatment should be studied further. UMIN 000002210. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Assessment of cellular responses to oxidative stress using MCF-7 breast cancer cells, black seed (N. Sativa L.) extracts and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O

    2005-12-01

    Black seed (N. Sativa L) is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example) to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H[2]O[2] as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE) and ethanol (AE) extracts of N. sativa and H[2]O[2] was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 mug/ml in descending potency for H[2]O[2]+AE to the mix of 3). In contrast, H[2]O[2] alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H[2]O[2], WE+H[2]O[2], AE+WE, and WE+AE+H[2]O[2]. Mixtures other than AE+H[2]O[2] showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro) in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the

  3. Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L. Extracts and H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Farah

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Black seed (N. Sativa L is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE and ethanol (AE extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3. In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer

  4. Localized Failure Promoted by Heterogeneous Stresses in Tectonic Mélanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    Within the shallow (PLC) toolbox developed at the University of Maine, which uses Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization (AEH) over a finite element mesh to determine the instantaneous stress distributions in a multiphase system. We model the shale matrix mélange to be deforming through a modified flow law for viscous creep based on coupled frictional sliding and pressure solution, where at a strain rate of 10-12 s-1 the flow stress is 10 MPa under the temperature (190 ºC) and pressure ( 100 MPa) conditions during deformation, and describe the behaviour of the basaltic blocks using experimentally-derived power law flow laws. The results show that at the strain rates calculated based on plate-rate motion, differential stresses high enough to cause comminution of the basalts ( 300 MPa) correspond strongly to areas around the blocks with basalt derived cataclasites. Within the basalt derived cataclasites, thin zones of ultracataclasite record localized slip. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous stress distributions within subduction mélanges: 1) fractures the strong basalt thereby facilitating weakening through fluid-rock interactions, and 2) promotes localized slip (and occasionally seismicity) within these zones of altered basalt along the margins of strong intact basalt.

  5. 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), and NASA Headquarters on November 22, 2013 (list of participants is in Section IX of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Alterations in Host-Microorganism Interactions (Host Microbe Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Health Effects of Exposure to Dust and Volatiles during Exploration of Celestial Bodies (Dust Risk). Overall, the SRP was impressed with the strong research plans presented by the scientists and staff associated with the SHFH Element. The SRP also thought that the updated research plans were thorough, well organized, and presented in a comprehensive manner. The SRP agrees with the changes made to the Host Microbe Risk and Food Risk portfolios and thinks that the targets for Gap closure are appropriate.

  6. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  7. Seismic anisotropy from compositional banding in granulites from the deep magmatic arc of Fiordland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprych, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.

    2017-11-01

    We present calculated seismic velocities and anisotropies of mafic granulites and eclogites from the Cretaceous deep lower crust (∼40-65 km) of Fiordland, New Zealand. Both rock types show a distinct foliation defined by cm-scale compositional banding. Seismic properties are estimated using the Asymptotic Expansion Homogenisation - Finite Element (AEH-FE) method that, unlike the commonly used Voigt-Reuss-Hill homogenisation, incorporates the phase boundary network into calculations. The predicted mean P- and S-wave velocities are consistent with previously published data for similar lithologies from other locations (e.g., Kohistan Arc), although we find higher than expected anisotropies (AVP ∼ 5.0-8.0%, AVS ∼ 3.0-6.5%) and substantial S-wave splitting along foliation planes in granulites. This seismic signature of granulites results from a density and elasticity contrast between cm-scale pyroxene ± garnet stringers and plagioclase matrix rather than from crystallographic orientations alone. Banded eclogites do not show elevated anisotropies as the contrast in density and elastic constants of garnet and pyroxene is too small. The origin of compositional banding in Fiordland granulites is primarily magmatic and structures described here are expected to be typical for the base of present day magmatic arcs. Hence, we identify a new potential source of anisotropy within this geotectonic setting.

  8. Forensic applications of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in tracing nitrate sources in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S.R.; Ging, P.B.; Lee, R.W.; Ebbert, J.C.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Inkpen, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground and surface waters in urban areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination from septic systems, leaking sewer lines, and fertilizer applications. Source identification is a primary step toward a successful remediation plan in affected areas. In this respect, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate, in conjunction with hydrologic data and water chemistry, have proven valuable in urban studies from Austin, Texas, and Tacoma, Washington. In Austin, stream water was sampled during stremflow and baseflow conditions to assess surface and subsurface sources of nitrate, respectively. In Tacoma, well waters were sampled in adjacent sewered and un-sewered areas to determine if locally high nitrate concentrations were caused by septic systems in the un-sewered areas. In both studies, sewage was identified as a nitrate source and mixing between sewage and other sources of nitrate was apparent. In addition to source identification, combined nitrogen and oxygen isotopes were important in determining the significance of denitrification, which can complicate source assessment by reducing nitrate concentrations and increasing ??15N values. The two studies illustrate the value of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate for forensic applications in urban areas. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  9. Effects of Incorporated Radioactivity and External Radiation on Heterogeneous Catalysis; Effets de la radioactivite incorporee et des rayonnements externes sur la catalyse heterogene; Vliyanie vvedennoj radioaktivnosti i vneshnego oblucheniya na geterogennyj kataliz; Efectos de la radiactividad incorporada y de la irradiacion externa sobre la catalisis heterogenea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, N. A.; Wymer, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States)

    1963-11-15

    aktivirovannykh alyumokhromovykh katalizatorakh. Izucheny ehffekty vvedeniya v katalizator radioaktivnykh izotopov i predvaritel'nogo gamma-oblucheniya ot istochnika Co''6''0. Sud'fatmagnievyj katalizator i katalizator smeshannogo tipa sul'fat magniya + sul'fat natriya, soderzhashchie do 45,5 mkkyuri (S''3''5)/r, pri raschete na edinitsu poverkhnosti menee aktivny, chem katalizatory togo zhe sostava, no ne soderzhashchie radioaktivnykh izotopov. Oslablenie kataliticheskoj aktivnosti sokhranyalos' dazhe posle togo, kak radioaktivnost' sushchestvenno pala, dalee, pri obluchenii rentgenovskimi luchami, kotoroe provodilos' v protsesse reaktsii, nikakikh izmenenij v kataliticheskoj aktivnosti ne nablyudalos'. Na osnovanii ehtikh dannykh sdelan vyvod, chto ehmissiya beta-chastits iz katalizatora v protsesse ego ispol'zovaniya ne okazyvaet nikakogo vliyaniya. Soobshcheniya ob usilenii kataliticheskoj aktivnosti sleduet otnesti za schet togo, chto pri prigotovlenii katalizatorov u tekh iz nikh, kotorye soderzhali radioaktivnye izotopy, vozmozhno poluchalas' bol'shaya ploshchad' poverkh- nosti, chem u tekh, kotorye ne soderzhali radioaktivnykh izotopov. Ehto obstoyatel'stvo ne bylo prinyato vo vnimanie. Predvaritel'noe gamma-obluchenie ot istochnika Co''6''0 dozoj 10''1''1 erg/g ne okazalo vliyaniya na kataliticheskuyu aktivnost'. S drugoj storony, predvaritel'noe obluchenie gamma-luchami ot istochnika Co{sup 60} alyumokhromovykh katalizatorov dozoj 4,2 x 10{sup 11} erg/g usililo kataliticheskuyu aktivnost' pochti na 34%, pri 485{sup o}C. V to zhe vremya vvedenie v katalizator do 148 mkkyuri (Pm{sup 147} )/g katalizatora ne okazyvalo pochti nikakogo vozdejstviya. V ehtom sluchae ne nablyudalos' skol'ko-nibud' zametnogo vliyaniya izlucheniya na ploshchad' poverkhnosti ili na kazhushchuyusya ehnergiyu aktivatsii. (author)

  10. Study with radio-sulphur of the kinetics of the process SO{sub 2} + 0.5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3} in a state of chemical equilibrium on a platinum catalyst; Etude, a l'aide du soufre radioactif, de la cinetique de la reaction SO{sub 2} + 0,5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3} en equilibre chimique, en presence d'un catalyseur de platine; Issledovanie pri pomoshchi radioaktivnoj sery kinetiki protsessa SO{sub 2} + 0,5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3}, nakhodyashchegosya v sostoyanii khimicheskogo ravnovesiya, na platinovom katalizatore; Estudio, con ayuda de azufre radiactivo, de la cinetica de la reaccion SO{sub 2} + 0,5 O{sub 2} {r_reversible} SO{sub 3} en equilibrio quimico en presencia de un catalizador de platino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojter, V A; Stukanovskaya, N A; Kornejchuk, G P

    1962-03-15

    The authors describe an attempt to use radioisotopes in the study of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic processes in a state of equilibrium. The investigation was carried out by the circulation method. After establishment of equilibrium, a small amount of S{sup 35}O{sub 2} was introduced into the system as a tracer and its conversion rate into S{sup 35}O{sub 3} was measured. From that rate the speed of the direct and inverse processes of oxidation of SO{sub 2} on the catalyst was calculated. Possible sequence patterns for the process are suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Le memoire expose un essai d'application des radioisotopes a l'etude de la cinetique des reactions catalytiques heterogenes en equilibre chimique. Les recherches ont ete effectuees par la methode a circulation. Apres etablissement de l'equilibre, on a introduit comme indicateur une petite quantite de {sup 35}SO{sub 2} et mesure la vitesse de sa transformation en {sup 35}SO{sub 3}. En partant de cette vitesse, on a calcule celle du processus d'oxydation directe et inverse du SO{sub 2} sur le catalyseur. Les auteurs proposent et etudient differentes formules selon lesquelles la reaction peut se derouler. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen un experimento sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de la cinetica de procesos cataliticos heterogeneos en estado de equilibrio. La investigacion se llevo a cabo por el metodo de circulacion. Una vez establecido el equilibrio, se introdujo en el sistema una pequena cantidad de {sup 35}SO{sub 2} como trazador y se midio su indice de conversion en {sup 35}SO{sub 3}. De dicho indice se dedujo la velocidad de los procesos directo e inverso de oxidacion del SO{sub 2} en presencia del catalizador. Los autores proponen y examinan diversos tipos posibles de cinetica para el proceso. (author) [Russian] Izlagaetsya opyt primeneniya radioaktivnykh izotopov dlya izucheniya kinetiki geterogennykh kataliticheskikh protsessov, nakhodyashchikhsya v

  11. Salmonella Typhi-specific multifunctional CD8+ T cells play a dominant role in protection from typhoid fever in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-03-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major public health problem worldwide. Development of novel vaccines remains imperative, but is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the immune responses that correlate with protection. Recently, a controlled human infection model was re-established in which volunteers received ~10(3) cfu wild-type S. Typhi (Quailes strain) orally. Twenty-one volunteers were evaluated for their cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Ex vivo PBMC isolated before and up to 1 year after challenge were exposed to three S. Typhi-infected targets, i.e., autologous B lymphoblastoid cell-lines (B-LCL), autologous blasts and HLA-E restricted AEH B-LCL cells. CMI responses were evaluated using 14-color multiparametric flow cytometry to detect simultaneously five intracellular cytokines/chemokines (i.e., IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a and MIP-1b) and a marker of degranulation/cytotoxic activity (CD107a). Herein we provide the first evidence that S. Typhi-specific CD8+ responses correlate with clinical outcome in humans challenged with wild-type S. Typhi. Higher multifunctional S. Typhi-specific CD8+ baseline responses were associated with protection against typhoid and delayed disease onset. Moreover, following challenge, development of typhoid fever was accompanied by decreases in circulating S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T effector/memory (TEM) with gut homing potential, suggesting migration to the site(s) of infection. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or no changes in circulating S. Typhi-specific TEM. These studies provide novel insights into the protective immune responses against typhoid disease that will aid in selection and development of new vaccine candidates.

  12. Elusive Role of the CD94/NKG2C NK Cell Receptor in the Response to Cytomegalovirus: Novel Experimental Observations in a Reporter Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Pupuleku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection promotes the differentiation and persistent expansion of a mature NK cell subset, which displays high surface levels of the activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor, together with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. The mechanisms underlying the development of adaptive NK cells remain uncertain but some observations support the involvement of a cognate interaction of CD94/NKG2C with ligand(s displayed by HCMV-infected cells. To approach this issue, the heterodimer and its adaptor (DAP12 were expressed in the human Jurkat leukemia T cell line; signaling was detected by transfection of a reporter plasmid encoding for Luciferase (Luc under NFAT/AP1-dependent control. Engagement of the receptor by solid-phase bound CD94- or NKG2C-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs triggered Luc expression. Moreover, reporter activation was detectable upon interaction with HLA-E+ 721.221 (.221-AEH cells, as well as with 721.221 cells incubated with synthetic peptides, which stabilized surface expression of endogenous HLA-E; the response was specifically antagonized by soluble NKG2C- and HLA-E-specific mAbs. By contrast, activation of Jurkat-NKG2C+ was undetectable upon interaction with Human Fetal Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFFF infected with HCMV laboratory strains (i.e., AD169, Towne, regardless of their differential ability to preserve surface HLA-E expression. On the other hand, infection with two clinical isolates or with the endotheliotropic TB40/E strain triggered Jurkat-NKG2C+ activation; yet, this response was not inhibited by blocking mAbs and was independent of CD94/NKG2C expression. The results are discussed in the framework of previous observations supporting the hypothetical existence of specific ligand(s for CD94/NKG2C in HCMV-infected cells.

  13. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal: A possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, G. K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA sediments. We present evidence here that native coal may have been prematurely dismissed, because BRCF coals do not adequately represent the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation. Contrary to previous thought, Kulthieth Formation coals east of the BRCF have much higher PAH: TOC ratios, and the patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals suggest a possible genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analyses of low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal indicate the low maturity coal is a significant source of PAH. Source apportionment models that neglect this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the regional background hydrocarbon signature. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  14. 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 14 - 15, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (MicroHost Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). During the meeting, the SRP also met with the vehicle engineers to discuss possible food storage options. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Oubre and Dr. Douglas for their detailed presentations, as well the frank, refreshing, and comprehensive engineering presentation. This gave much needed perspective to the food storage issues and reassured the committee about NASA's approach to the problem. In terms of critiques, the SRP remains unconvinced about the rationale for probiotic use other than for specific applications supported by the literature. It is not clear what gap or problem is being addressed by the use of probiotics, and the rationale for their use needs to be clearly rooted in the available literature. The SRP thinks that if low-Earth orbit is associated with immune system impairment, then there may additional risks linked with the use of probiotics. It is not clear to the SRP how NASA will determine if probiotics are having their intended beneficial effect. A similar concern is raised as to what gaps or problems are being addressed by "functional foods". Mixed infections, rather than single species infections, which can augment severity of disease, also represent a significant concern. Overall, the SRP considers this to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data.

  15. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radicals scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH; showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ±0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic, alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol, theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.

  16. Radioactive thickness gauge; Jauge d'epaisseur radioactive; Radioaktivnyj tolshchinomer; Calibrador radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizerix, J [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, Grenoble (France)

    1962-01-15

    traves del material que se desea medir y luego una fuente testigo de la misma naturaleza; la separacion de las radiaciones en el tiempo se efectua con ayuda de un obturador absorbente, con sectores llenos y huecos alternados. Despues del tubo fotomultiplicador se separan las corrientes que corresponden a cada una de las fuentes mediante un detector sincronizado con el movimiento de rotacion del obturador. A continuacion, se obtiene el cociente de ambas con ayuda de un potenciometro registrador de tipo clasico. Gracias a este montaje, el valor medio de la respuesta, que es del tipo G = f(I{sub 1}/I{sub 2}), no resulta afectado por el decrecimiento de las fuentes radiactivas; ademas, las variaciones de la alta tension, de la temperatura o de las propiedades del aire en el intervalo comprendido entre la fuente y el detector solo ejercen una reducida influencia sobre el valor obtenido. El autor expone las caracteristicas de funcionamiento de este calibrador. (author) [Russian] Avtor opisyvaet tolshchinomer, v kotorom stsintillyatsionnyj kristall-detektor poperemenno ''prosmatrivaet'' radioaktivnyj istochnik cherez izmeryaemyj material, a zatem sravnitel'nyj istochnik takogo zhe kharaktera; razdelenie izluchenij osushchestvlyaetsya inogda pri pomoshchi zaslonki segmentnogo poglotitelya poperemenno polnogo i pologo. Toki, sootvetstvuyushchie oboim istochnikam, razdelyayutsya posle trubki fotoumnozhitelya sinkhronnym detektorom pri pomoshchi vrashcheniya zaslonki. Zatem vychislyayut koehffitsient ehtikh oboikh tokov s pomoshch'yu obychnogo kontrol'nogo potentsiometra. Iz ehtogo polozheniya vytekaet, chto srednee znachenie otveta, kotoroe sleduet iz formuly G = f(I{sub 1}/I{sub 2}) ne uchityvaetsya pri raspade radioaktivnykh istochnikov i chto ono malo chuvstvitel'no k izmeneniyam vysokogo napryazheniya, temperatury ili atmosfernykh svojstv, imeyushchikh mesto v promezhutke mezhdu istochnikom i detektorom. Privodyatsya rezul'taty ehtogo izmeritelya. (author)

  17. A Quick Method of Measuring and Analyzing {beta} Emitters in Solution of Very Low-Level Specific Activity; Remarques sur une technique rapide de mesure et d'analyse d'emetteurs {beta} en solution de tres faible activite specifique; Zamechaniya o bystroj tekhnike izmereniya i analize izluchatelej {beta}-chastits v rastvore s ochen' slaboj spetsificheskoj aktivnost'yu; Observaciones sobre un metodo rapido de medicion y analisis de emisores {beta} en soluciones de muy baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y; Grinberg, B; Thenard, M [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-06-15

    vaina de contadores conectados en anticoincidencia con los primeros. 2. Ademas enumeran las posibilidades y campos de utilizacion del metodo que: a) especialmente en el caso de los emisores {beta} blandos, permite medir actividades especificas mucho mas bajas que cuando se utilizan contadores para liquidos; b) permite descubrir las sustancias radiactivas presentes como impurezas en determinados radioelementos (por ejemplo, 2/10 000 de P{sup 32} en S{sup 35}); c) para la mayor parte de los radioelementos permite medir, sin necesidad de proceder a una concentracion previa, actividades especificas de igual orden de magnitud que los limites de tolerancia actualmente admitidos. (author) [Russian] 1. Opisanie mekhanizma izmereniya so slabym fonom prednaznachennog o dlya izmereniya radioaktivnykh produktov v zhidkom sostoyanii, kotoryj sostoit v osnovnom iz dvukh ploskikh schetchikov s odnim oknom i odnogo ploskogo schetchika s dvumya oknami, raspolozhenny kh parallel'no drug k DRUGU i izolirovanny kh vnutri zashchitnoj obolochkoj schetchikov, vstavlen- nykh takim obrazom, chtoby oni ne sovpadali s pervymi. 2. Vozmozhnosti i oblasti ispol'zovaniya metoda: a) ehtot metod pozvolyaet izmerit' gorazdo bolee slabuyu spetsificheskuyu aktivnost', chem ehto vozmozhno s zhidkotnymi schetchikami, v chastnosti s izluchatelyami ne zhestkikh {beta}-chastits; b) ehtot metod pozvolyaet obnaruzhivat' radioaktivnye primesi vnutri radioehlementa (napr. 2/10 OOO R{sup 32} v S{sup 35}); s) ehtot metod pozvolyaet dlya bol'shinstva radioehlemento v izmeryat' bez predvaritel'no j kontsentratsii spetsificheskuyu aktivnost' sootvetstvenno ravnuyu prinyatym v nastoyashchee v nastoyashchee vremya predel'nym dopuskam. (author)

  18. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  19. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control; Emploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements dans la lutte contre les insectes nuisibles aux plantes et aux animaux; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov i radiashchi v bor'be s nasekomymi-vreditelyami rastenij i zhivotnykh; Utilizacion de los radioisotopos y de las radiaciones en la lucha contra los insectos nocivos para las plantas y los animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, S. V.; Martens, B. K.; Samojlova, V. A.; Molchanova, Z. I. [Vsesoyuznyj Institut Zashchity Rastenij, Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-09-15

    plagas de insectos. La accion esterilizadora y letal de las radiaciones ionizantes puede ser muy eficaz en la lucha contra las plagas de insectos. Utilizando rayos gamma se han establecido las dosis esterilizadoras para toda una serie de insectos nocivos para los productos agricolas almacenados (Calandra granaria L., Acanthoscelides Obtectus Say, Pectinophora Malvella Hb., Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say, Chloridea obsoleta F.) y los cultivos. Los datos obtenidos con esas investigaciones serviran de base para elaborar y perfeccionar los metodos de lucha contra los insectos daninos para la agricultura. (author) [Russian] Problema bor'by s vreditelyami sel'skokhozyajstvennykh kul'tur imeet krupnoe narodnokhozyajstvennoe znachenie. Pri razreshenii ehtoj problemy osoboe znachenie priobretaet ispol'zovanie poslednikh dostizhenij nauki. V tselyakh ratsionalizatsii i povysheniya ehffektivnosti sushchestvuyushchikh metodov bor'by s vrednymi nasekomymi byli ispol'zovany radioaktivnye izotopy i izlucheniya. Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnykh izotopov i izluchenij yavlyaetsya moguchim sredstvom ratsionalizatsii i'povysheniya ehffektivnosti sushchestvuyushchikh metodov bor'by s vrednymi nasekomymi. Razrabotka ehtikh metodov vyzyvaet neobkhodimost' detal'nogo izucheniya voprosov bioehkologii, toksikologii i t.d. V oblasti bioehkologii ves'ma perspektivnym yavlyaetsya metod radiomarkirovki nasekomykh. Primenenie radioizotopov dlya markirovki nasekomykh vreditelej zernovykh kul'tur (Eurygaster integriceps Put, Hadena sordida Skh.) i ikh parazitov (Meniscus agriatus Crow, Psendogonia cinerascens Rond.) pozvolilo ustanovit' razmery migratsij ikh, opredelit' mesta rezervatsij, chislennost' populyatsij i izuchit' voprosy pitaniya ukazannykh parazitov vrednykh nasekomykh. Ehtim khe metodom byla ustanovlena dinamika rasprostraneniya karantinnogo ob{sup e}kta kartofel'nogo khuka (Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say), chto pozvolilo poluchit' neobkhodimye dannye dlya provedeniya istrebitel'nykh meropriyatij

  20. Distribution and removal of transuranic elements and cerium deposited by the inhalation route; Distribution et elimination des transuraniens et du cerium deposes par l'intermediaire des voies respiratoires; Raspredelenie transuranovykh ehlementov i tseriya, otkladyvayushchikhsya v rezul'tate vdykhaniya i ikh udalenie; Distribucion y eliminacion de elementos transuranicos y de cerio depositados por inhalacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W. J.; Tombropoulos, E. G.; Park, J. F. [Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1963-02-15

    , parasimpatominmeticos, parasiinpatoliticos y antihistamfnicos. El agente de quelacion, acido dietilentriaminopentaacetico.administ'rado en forma de aerosol o por via intraperitoneal elimina rapidamente el {sup 144}Ce-{sup 144}Pr de los pulmones y del organismo por excrecion urinaria. Un mes despues de ser expuestos a la accion del {sup 144}CeO{sub 2}, las ratas y perros tratados retienen una cantidad de {sup 144}Ce-{sup 144}Pr inferior al 10% de la retenida por los animales no tratados. (author) [Russian] Raspredelenie v tkanyakh i vydelenie vdykhaemykh radioaktivnykh izotopov menyaetsya vmeste s khimicheskoj formoj i razmerom chastits aehrozolej. U sobak cherez tridtsat' dnej posle vdykhaniya 70% nitrata plutoniya bylo obnaruzheno v legkikh, 10% - v, pecheni i 15% - v kostyakh skeleta. Posle vdykhaniya aehrozolya P{sup 239} O{sub 2} s vyschityvaemym srednim diametrom chastits (VSD), ravnym 0,12 mikron, 71% ehtogo veshchestva v organizme bylo skontsentrirovano v legkikh, 3% - v bronkhial'nykh limfaticheskikh uzlakh, 4,4% - v myshtsakh, 1,3% - v kostyakh skeleta i 20% bylo ravnomerno raspredeleno v ostal'nykh tkanyakh. Posle vdykhaniya aehrozolya P{sup 239} O{sub 2} s VSD chastits v intervale 0,3 - 0,6 mikron v legkikh soderzhalos' 98% veshchestva, v bronkhial'nykh limfaticheskikh uzlakh - okolo 1% i v ostal'nykh tkanyakh - 1%. Ehti dannye i issledovaniya mochi i isprazhnenij ukazyvayut na otnositel'nuyu vazhnost' trekh putej, po kotorym vdykhaemye radioaktivnye izotopy vyvodilis' iz legkikh, a imenno cherez trakheyu v rezul'tate dvizheniya resnichen s posledueshchem vydeleniem s isprazhneniyami, cherez al'veolyarnuyu membranu i pereraspredelenie v drugikh lgkanyakh s postepennym vydeleniem s mochoj i, nakonets, putem peremeshcheniya v bronkhial'nye limfaticheskie uzly, kotorye nakoplyayut vdykhaemye nerastvorimye veshchestva. Byli oprobovany terapevticheskie sredstva, kotorye, kak mozhno bylo ozhidat', povyshayut ochishchenie legkikh ot radioaktivnykh izotopov takimi putyami, pri

  1. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows

  2. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows the

  3. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans; La centrale nucleaire de Shippingport, experience de son fonctionnement et plans pour l'avenir; Shippingportskaya atomnaya ehlektrostantsij, opyt ehkspluatatsii, usovershenstvovaniya i plany na budushchee; Central nucleoelectrica de Shippingport; experiencia adquirida con su explotacton y programa de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinroth, H. [Division of Reactor Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Oldham, G. M. [Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Duquesne Light Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stiefel, J. T. [Bettis Atomic Power.Labora Tory, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    elevada densidad de potencia, el denominado cuerpo No. 2. Con una potencia nominal bruta de 150 MW(e) y una duracion equivalente a 10 000 h de funcionamiento a plena potencia, el cuerpo No. 2 dara una produccion de energia 5,5 mayor que la del cuerpo No. 1 y su potencia especifica sera el doble de la de este ultimo. Se describen las caracteristicas de diseflo del cuerpo No. 2 y se resumen los principales adelantos en materia de fisica de reactores, metalurgia, transmision de calor, circulacion de fluidos, y elaboracion de elementos combustibles. Por ultimo, se describen los planes para la descontaminacion de la central nuclear y para introducir en la misma las modificaciones exigidas por la instalacion del cuerpo No. 2, de mayor potencia. (author) [Russian] Daetsya otsenka pyati godam ehkspluatatsii i ispytanie Shippingportskoj ehlektrostantsii, a takzhe rassmatrivayutsya poslednie tekhnicheskie usovershenstvovaniya i programma na budushchee. Ehta programma napravlena na usovershenstvovanie osnovnoj tekhnologii reaktorov na obychnoj vode s tem; chtoby sozdat' osnovu dlya umen'sheniya v budushchem stoimosti yadernoj ehlektroehnergii. Shippingportskaya reaktornaya ustanovka, ehkspluatirovavshayasya pyat' let, priznana godnoj dlya legkogo podklyucheniya k sisteme ehnergosnabzheniya v kachestve ustanovki dlya bazovoj ili pikovoj nagruzok. Rabota komponentov ustanovki byla nadezhnoj. Ne voznikalo problem, svyazannykh s zagryazneniem ili udaleniem otkhodov. Dostup k komponentam pervichnoj sistemy okhlazhdeniya dlya ikh obsluzhivaniya 'byl khoroshim, chto pokazyvaet tselostnost' toplivnykh ehlementov. Kazhdaya iz trekh operatsij po zamene topliva v reaktore s momenta ego puska trebovala vse men'she i men'she vremeni. Nedavno byla ustanovlena tret'ya zapal'naya sborka, na chto potrebovalos' 32 rabochikh dnya, t.e. okolo odnoj chetverti vremeni, potrachennogo na pervuyu zamenu topliva. Opisany ofitsial'nye trebovaniya v otnoshenii podgotovki personala, pis

  4. Radioactive preparation of defects in solids; Creation de defauts dans les solides au moyen de radioisotopes; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnosti dlya obrazovaniya defektov v tverdykh telakh; Creacion de deiectos en los solidos mediante radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambe, J [Physics Department, Ford Motor Company, Scientific Laboratory, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1962-01-15

    zaklyuchaetsya prosto v izgotovlenii po vozmozhnosti chistogo materiala, i vvedenii v nego kakikh libo postoronnikh radioaktivnykh atomov. Pri raspade ehtikh atomov dochernie produkty obrazuyut znachitel'noe kolichestvo defektov. V kachestve prostogo sposoba proverki osushchestvimosti takogo metoda on byl ispol'zovan dlya zakhvata atomov tritiya v kristall tverdogo molekulyarnogo tritiya. EHti opyty pokazyvayut, chto nastoyashchij metod osushchestvim i dolzhen najti sebe osoboe shirokoe primenenie v poluchenii svobodnykh radikalov v organicheskikh veshchestvakh, imeyushchikh dostatochnuyu stojkost' protiv radiatsii. (author)

  5. Self-diffusion in volume and at the grain-boundaries of gamma-iron of high purity (99.99%); Autodiffusion en volume et aux joints de grains du fer gamma de haute purete (99,99 %); Ob'emnaya samodiffuziya i samodiffuziya na poverkhnosti granul zheleza u vysokoj chistoty (99,99%); Autodifusion en volumen y en los limites intergranulares del hierro gamma de elevada pureza (99,99 por ciento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, P; Guiraldenq, P; Leymonie, C [Centre de Recherches Metallurgiques, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Paris (France)

    1962-01-15

    1260 Degree-Sign y 918 Degree-Sign C, y de las constantes de autodifusion en las uniones intergranulares entre 1020 Degree-Sign y 918 Degree-Sign C. (author) [Russian] Vvidu trudnostej, s kotorymi vstretilis' pri tochnom izmerenii koehffitsientov samodiffuzii kak vnutri, tak i mezhdu samimi granulami v nekotorykh intervalakh temperatury, kogda sosushchestvuyut oba yavleniya, my byli vynuzhdeny pribegnut' k obychnomu metodu deleniya na chasti. V samom dele my uzhe ustanovili, chto dlya vyazkogo polutverdogo tela posle diffuzii kontsentratsiya radioaktivnykh atomov c (x{sub n}) na rasstoyanii x{sub n} ot pervonachal'nogo radioaktivnogo osadka yavlyaetsya prostoj funktsiej obshchej aktivnosti, kotoraya ostaetsya v obraztse posle abrazii na glubinu x{sub n}. EHtot vyvod yavlyaetsya rezul'tatom obobshcheniya formuly Gruzina, kotoraya do nastoyashchego vremeni primenyalas' tol'ko v ob{sup e}mnoj diffuzii. Takim obrazom my pokazali, chto mozhno putem izmereniya obshchej aktivnosti, ostayushchejsya v zavisimosti ot glubiny proniknoveniya razlichat' dolyu aktivnosti, kotoraya proiskhodit iz-za ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii ot aktivnosti, proiskhodyashchej iz-za mezhgranulovoj samodiffuzii. Odnako tsennost' metoda zaklyuchaetsya v tom, chtoby prosledit' dal'she na tom zhe samom obraztse perekhod ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii v mezhgranulovuyu samodiffuziyu. My primenili ehtot novyj metod dlya izmereniya konstant ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii v zheleze u pri temperature 1260 Degree-Sign i 980 Degree-Sign C, a takzhe samodiffuzii na poverkhnosti granul pri temperature 1020 Degree-Sign i 918 Degree-Sign C. (author)

  6. The production of radioisotopes with a betatron using an internal bombarding technique; Production de radioisotopes par bombardement interne dans un betatron; Proizvodstvo radioizotopov s pomoshch'yu betatrona s ispol'zovaniem metoda vnutrennej bombardirovki; Obtencion de radioisotopos por bombardeo interno en el betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinaga, H [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1962-01-15

    pueden servir para la obtencion de isotopos. Con frecuencia es conveniente emplear isotopos de periodo corto debido a su rapida desintegracion, al hecho de que emitan radiaciones de alta energia y a la facilidad con que pueden obtenerse incluso sin necesidad de poseer conocimientos especiales. (author) [Russian] Razrabotan i uspeshno ispol'zuetsya novyj metod proizvodstva radioizotopov s vysokoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu s pomoshch'yu betatrona. Podvergaemye aktivatsii materialy pomeshchayutsya vnutr' vakuumnoj kamery betatrona v kontse slepogo tsilindra, ustanovlennogo izvne; takim obrazom, proby podvergayutsya bombardirovke pri odnoj atmosfere neposredstvenno za mishen'yu tormoznogo izlucheniya, gde intensivnost' radiatsii chrezvychajno vysoka. Aktivnost' pri nasyshchenii Cu{sup 62}, vyzvannaya v nebol'shoj chastitse medi, prevyshala 1 millikyuri, i poluchaemaya naivysshaya udel'naya aktivnost' priblizitel'no v 500 raz prevyshala aktivnost', vyzvannuyu v obychnom ustrojstve. Do sikh por ehtot metod vnutrennej misheni ispol'zuetsya tol'ko dlya rabot v oblasti yadernoj spektroskopii; bylo ustanovleno vosem' novykh vidov radioaktivnykh izotopov (Co{sup 63}, Ga{sup 75}, As{sup 81}, In{sup 121}, In{sup 123}, Tm{sup 173}, Tm{sup 175} i Ac{sup 231}). Gibkost' takogo metoda bombardirovki otkryvaet novye vozmozhnosti, t.k. meditsinskij, promyshlennyj, a takzhe issledovatel'skij betatrony mogut ispol'zovat'sya dlya proizvodstva izotopov. Korotkozhivushchie izotopy, kotorye chasto yavlyayutsya bolee udobnymi pri razlichnykh vidakh primeneniya vsledstvie ikh bystrogo raspada i obychno vysokoj ehnergii radiatsii, mogut byt' bystro polucheny bez kakogo-libo dopolnitel'nogo umeniya. (author)

  7. A modification of the method for determining current efficiency of aluminium electrolytic cells; Modification de la methode permettant de determiner le rendement des cuves dans la production d'aluminium par electrolyse; Izmenenie metoda opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v alyuminievykh ehlektroliticheskikh bakakh; Modificacion del metodo para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas utilizadas en la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradzynski, A [Institute of Basic Technical Problems, Polish Academy of Sciences. Warsaw (Poland); Orman, Z [Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Gliwice (Poland)

    1962-01-15

    alyuminievykh pechakh, opisannyj vpervye REMPELEM i dr., byl usovershenstvovan BOZUKI i dr. pri pomoshchi ispol'zovaniya radioaktivnogo izotopa zolota Au{sup 198}. Pri provedenii upomyanutogo issledovaniya byli izgotovleny obraztsy splavov alyuminiya s zolotom Au{sup 198}, i proby ehtikh obraztsov s vysokoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu byli izmereny pri pomoshchi schetchika Gejgera-Myullera so svintsovym poglotitelem, vstavlennym mezhdu schetchikom i proboj. Udel'naya aktivnost' obraztsa splava byla izmerena posle razbavleniya ego opredelennym kolichestvom chistogo alyuminiya. Takim obrazom proby razbavlennogo splava i proby, vzyatye iz ehlektroliticheskogo baka, imeli udel'nuyu aktivnost' togo zhe poryadka velichiny i mogli izmeryat'sya bez vsyakogo poglotitelya. Dlya togo, chtoby oblegchit' primenenie ehtogo metoda na alyuminievom zavode i vo izbezhanie vsyakikh ogranichenij i opasnosti, svyazannykh s obrashcheniem s otkrytymi radioaktivnymi istochnikami vne osobykh laboratorij, prednaznachennykh dlya issledovaniya radioaktivnykh izotopov, byl ispol'zovan radioaktivatsionnyj analiz. K obraztsu splava, a takzhe i v nakhodyashchuyusya v ehlektroliticheskom bake plavil'nuyu vannu bylo dobavleno neaktivirovannoe zoloto. Kontsentratsiya zolota kak v obraztsakh splava, tak i v plavil'noj smesi byla zatem izmerena posle oblucheniya prob v yadernom reaktore. (author)

  8. Method of obtaining concentrated preparations of Cl{sup 36} and Br{sup 82} by recoil nuclei under exposure to high-density neutron fields; Preparation de composes du chlore-36 et du brome-82 de haute activite specifique, par exposition de noyaux de recul a des champs neutroniques intenses; Poluchenie kontsentrirovannykh preparatov Cl{sup 36} i Br{sup 82} metodom yader otdachi pri obluchenii v nejtronnykh polyakh vysokoj plotnosti; Obtencion de compuestos de cloro-36 y de bromo-82 de alta actividad especifica por retroceso de nucleos en campos neutronicos intensos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurchatova, L N; Kurchatov, B V

    1962-01-15

    resultado de la superposicion de toda una serie de procesos : formacion de atomos de cloro radiactivo, separacion radiolitica del haluro, difusion de los productos obtenidos en la red cristalina del carbono, su sorcion en la superficie y su recombinacion en distintos centros. La extraordinaria variedad de condiciones en que se forman e interaccionan los productos de irradiacion con el esqueleto carbonico y su superficie depende de un gran numero de factores, a saber : la estructura ultramicroscopica, la naturaleza de los nuevos compuestos, que estan relacionados con el tipo de compuestos superficiales, la existencia en la superficie del carbono de centros con un espectro continuo de energia de sorcion, la probable formacion de diversos centros estacionarios de recombinacion por irradiacion del carbono, etc. Por ello, las tecnicas utilizadas ofrecen la posibilidad de realizar una gran variedad de experimentos a fin de establecer las condiciones optimas de enriquecimiento. (author) [Russian] Klassicheskij metod polucheniya kontsentrirovannykh radioaktivnykh preparatov Stsilarda-CHalmersa obychno rassmatrivaetsya kak malo ehffektivnyj pri ispol'zovanii bol'shikh integral'nykh potokov nejtronov iz-za znachitel'nogo razlozheniya obluchaemogo soedineniya pod dejstviem radiatsii. Avtorami najdeny soedineniya broma i khlora s uglerodom, pozvolyayushchie poluchat' sushchestvennoe obogashchenie radioaktivnymi izotopami khlora i broma metodom yader otdachi pri obluchenii v nejtronnykh potokakh poryadka 10{sup 13} nejtr./sek-cm{sup 2}. EHti soedineniya otvechayut formule C{sub n}X, gde X-Cl ili Br, N = 10 + 20 dlya soedineniya khlora i 25 + 70 -dlya soedinenij broma. Oni dostatochno ustojchivy termicheski i khimicheski. Soedinenie sostava C{sub 30}Br vyderzhivaet nagrevanie do 300{sup o}C v atmosfere argona bez otshchepleniya broma; ono razlagaetsya polnost'yu pri temperature 600{sup o}C. Ukazannoe soedinenie broma s uglerodom prakticheski ustojchivo k vozdejstviyu vodnykh rastvorov

  9. Research Applications of Beta-Particle Techniques: Back-Scattering and X-Ray Excitation; Applications de l'irradiation beta dans la recherche: retrodiffusion et excitation de rayons X; Primenenie metodov beta-chastits v issledovatel'skoj rabote: obratnoe rasseyanie i vozbuzhdenie rentgenovskikh luchej; Aplicacion de la irradiacion beta en la investigacion: retrodispersion y excitacion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R H [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-01-15

    tecnicas confirman la opinion de que los radioisotopos encierran enormes promesas en el terreno cientifico y tecnico. Por lo que se refiere a las fuentes de rayos X, puede decirse que todo cuanto se realiza en el terreno de la tecnologia de los rayos X, salvo la determinacion de la estructura de los cristales, puede hacerse con mayor sencillez recurriendo a los medios citados. Es mas, si se emplearan fuentes de muchos curies, puede que incluso llegue a ser posible efectuar esas determinaciones. (author) [Russian] Prozvedennye v ehtoj laboratorii za poslednie sem', let issledovaniya ustanovili tochnye usloviya obratnogo rasseyaniya beta-chastits, i ehti metody byli dopolneny metodami ispol'zovaniya vozbuzhdennykh izotopami rentgenovskikh luchej. Vozbuzhdennye takim sposobom rentgenovskie luchi privlekli .shirokoe vnimanie vo vsem svete i vo mnogikh sluchayakh oni revolyutsionizirovali metody promyshlennoj kalibrovki. V nastoyashchem doklade razbirayutsya primeneniya k tochnoj abzorbtsiometrii, izmereniyu tolshchiny plenok, opoznovaniyu i kolichestvennomu opredeleniyu veshchestv putem izmereniya absorbtsii po krayam, a takzhe k bumazhnoj khromatografii. V poslednem sluchae, khromato grammy mogut izuchat'sya posredstvom beta-absorbtsii, absorbtsii rentgenovskimi luchami ili vozbuzhdeniem rentgenovskikh luchej v razlichnykh zonakh bombardirovkoj beta-luchami. Sravnivayutsya i otsenivayutsya ehti razlichnye podkhody. Byl izuchen tselyj ryad mikrokhimicheskikh metodov i libo posredstvom beta-absorbtsii, libo posredstvom vozbuzhdeniya rentgenovskikh luchej beta-chastitsami mogut byt' opoznany i opredeleny nebol'shie kolichestva veshchestv. Nizshie predely detektsii ne tak:maly, kak ehto dostizhimo metodom radioaktivnykh indikatorov, no imeetsya ryad drugikh preimushchestv, glavnoe iz kotorykh zaklyuchaetsya v tom, chto operatsii proizvodyatsya s zadelannymi istochnikami, chto pochti sovershenno isklyuchaet vozmozhnost' radioaktivnogo zarazheniya. Na osnovanii ehtikh dannykh byli

  10. Tritium Studies in the United States. Geological Survey; Le tritium dans les etudes entreprises par le Service Geologique des Etats-Unis; Izuchenie tritiya v svyazi s geologicheskim obsledovaniem ssha; El tritio en los estudios del Servicio Geologico de los Estados Unidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlston, C W; Thatcher, L L [United States Geological Survey, Washington, DC (United States)

    1962-01-15

    'yu uluchsheniya vosproizvodimosti i otsenki koeffitsientov otdeleniya v raznoobraznykh usloviyakh. Byla vyrabotana sistema, obespechivayushchaya pri obychnoj rabote 75-protsentnoe vosstanovlenie tritiya. Glavnye proekty na mestakh predstavlyayutsya v sleduyushchem vide: 1) Issledovanie pri pomoshchi ritiya pribrezhnoj doliny N'yu-Dzhersi pokazyvaet, chto nizhe gorizonta gruntovykh vod proiskhodit rassloenie vody v zavisimosti ot ee vozrasta. 2) V dvukh razlichnykh geologicheskikh gruntakh byli proizvedeny issledovaniya dlya opredeleniya sud'by radioaktivnykh osadkov tritiya posle ispytaniya termoyadernoj bomby v 1958 godu. 3) Tritij ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya vosstanovleniya vodnykh apasov v tretichnykh peschanikakh podpochvennykh plastov polupustynny h loskogorij Novoj Meksiki. 4) Proizvoditsya issledovanie soderzhaniya tritiya v podpochvennykh vodakh doliny reki Snejk v Ajdakho dlya polucheniya svedenij otnositel'no vozrasta ehtoj vody, skorosti ee techeniya i ego napravleniya. 5) Iskusstvennyj tritij ispol'zuetsya v vide indikatora dlya opredeleniya emkosti podpochvennogo vodonosnogo bassejna vblizi Karlsbada, v Novoj Meksike. (author)

  11. Diffusion, recrystallization and phase transformations; Diffusion, recristallisation et changements de phase; Diffuziya, rekristallizatsiya i fazovye prevrashcheniya; Difusion, recristalizacion y cambios de fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokshtejn, S Z; Gubareva, M A; Kishkin, S T; Moroz, L M

    1962-01-15

    estructura del metal sufre modificaciones importantes despues de la recristalizacion, asi como despues de la transformacion polimorfica {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma}, los atomos situados en los limites de los granulos iniciales no experimentan desplazamientos considerables. De manera analoga, los atomos de un aditivo (carbono radiactivo) situados en los limites de los granulos iniciales no migran a traves de los limites de los nuevos granulos del metal recristalizado. En cambio, la deformacion plastica va acompanada de migraciones considerables de los atomos situados en los limites de los granulos. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que la migracion de los limites de los granulos durante la recristalizacion y subsiguiente formacion de los granulos esta relacionada con un mecanismo especifico distinto del habitual mecanismo de difusion. Los autores han demostrado que las transformaciones estructurales que ocurren en las aleaciones a temperaturas elevadas pueden modificar la velocidad de los proceseos de autodifusion y heterodifusion. Basandose en el estudio de los procesos de difusion en el titanio y sus aleaciones en relacion con el estado polimorfico, los autores han comprobado que la velocidad de los procesos difiere notablemente en las distintas variedades cristalinas del titanio. Con ello desaparece la contradicion que existia entre el elevado punto de fusion del titanio y la energia de activacion del proceso de difusion en este elemente, que es relativamente baja. (author) [Russian] Razrabotana metodika, pozvolyayushchaya s pomoshch'yu radioaktivnykh izotopov issledovat' povedenie granits zeren v protsesse plasticheskoj deformatsii i posleduyushchej rekristallizatsii. Pokazano, chto rekristallizatsiya zheleza pri sravnitel'no malykh (15%) i bol'shikh (50-70%) stepenyakh deformatsii ne privodit k sushchestvennomu izmeneniyu mestopolozheniya atomov osnovnogo metalla, nakhodyashchikhsya na granitse iskhodnykh zeren. Pri znachitel'nom izmenenii struktury metalla posle

  12. Techniques of Large Scale Processing of Counting Data; Les techniques d'exploitation a grande echelle des donnees de comptage; Tekhnika obrabotki dannykh izmerenij, provodyashchejsya v bol'shikh masshtabakh; Tecnicas de tratamiento en gran escala de los datos obtenidos en el recuento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manov, G G; Eads, D L [Reactor Monitoring Center, Tracerlab Inc., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1960-06-15

    . (author) [Russian] Problemy, s kotorymi stalkivaetsya lyubaya laboratoriya, vypolnyayushchaya v god okolo 10 000 analizov radioaktivnykh izotopov, trebuyushchikh vysokoj stepeni tochnosti, krome neobkhodimost i priderzhivat's ya absolyutnoj standartizatsii, vyzyvayut spetsial'nuyu potrebnost' v materialakh, otnosyashchikhsya k nakopleniyu i obrabotke dannykh izmerenij. Tipichnye izmereniya vklyuchayut: izluchateli a{alpha}-chastits i mnogokanal'ny j amplitudnyj analizator impul'sov, otschet{beta}-izluchenij na 2 {pi} i 4 {pi}, registratsiyu sovpadenij {beta}-{gamma} izluchenij. Poleznoe ispol'zovanie priborov dlya izmereniya aktivnosti maloj moshchnosti dostigaetsya s pomoshch'yu tekhniki perekhoda na mnogokratnost ' s nakopleniem na magintnoj lente i s pomoshch'yu fotoehlementa. Arifmeticheski e oshibki i osobenno te, kotorye svyazany s perestanovkoj tsifr, fakticheski ustranyayutsya s pomoshch'yu ehlektronnykh schetnykh priborov. V odnoj iz tipichnykh operatsij v otneshenii smesi izvestnykh izotopov dannye po izmereniyam napravlyayutsya na mashinu, kotoraya pechataet otvet na ehlektricheskoj pishushchej mashinke. Sootvetstvenn o rezul'taty, esli oni dayutsya so spektrometra, mogut avtomaticheski nanosit'sya na osi koordinat dlya dal'nejshego analiza. Daetsya blok-skhema, illyustriruyushchaya posledovatel'nost ' predprinimaemy kh operatsij. Popravki na raspad mogut legko byt' sdelany posredstvom primeneniya dlya podschetov vmesto goda po Gregorianskom u kalendaryu takogo goda, v kotorom schet dnej nachinaetsya v polnoch' s 31 dekabrya na 1 yanvarya po grinvicheskomu standartnomu vremeni. Naprimer: 17-mu iyulya 1959 goda, 3 chasam 05 min. dnya po tikhookeanskom u dnevnomu vremeni po takoj sisteme budet sootvetstvovat ' 198, 920 dnya, a 2 ch. 30 m. dnya 16-go oktyabrya 1959 goda po Venskomu vremeni budet sootvetstvovat ' 289, 854 dnya. Ochevidny preimushchestva takogo metoda podscheta vsledstvie poyavlyayushchejsya vozmozhnosti skladyvat', vychitat', umnozhat' i delit

  13. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4

  14. A reward semi-Markov process with memory for wind speed modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. The primary goal of this analysis is the study of the time history of the wind in order to assess its reliability as a source of power and to determine the associated storage levels required. In order to assess this issue we use a probabilistic model based on indexed semi-Markov process [4] to which a reward structure is attached. Our model is used to calculate the expected energy produced by a given turbine and its variability expressed by the variance of the process. Our results can be used to compare different wind farms based on their reward and also on the risk of missed production due to the intrinsic variability of the wind speed process. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and backtesting procedure is used to compare results on first and second oder moments of rewards between real and synthetic data. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic gen- eration of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind speed time series at Tangiers, Morocco, Re- newable Energy 29 (2004) 1407-1418. [3] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling of wind using first-order Markov chain and Weibull distribu- tion, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1787-1802. [4]F. Petroni, G. D'Amico, F. Prattico, Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling. To be submitted.

  15. Application of radioisotopes to the investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of reactions of some inorganic complex compounds; Application des radioisotopes a l'etude de la cinetique et du mecanisme des reactions de certains complexes inorganiques; Primenenie radioizotopov k issledovaniyam kinetiki i mekhanizma reaktsij nekotorykh neorganicheskikh slozhnykh soedinenij; Aplicacion de los radioisotopos al estudio de la cinetica y del mecanismo de las reacciones de algunos complejos inorganicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Gordon M [Department of Chemistry, University of Buffalo, Buffalo 14, NY (United States)

    1962-03-15

    atomnym vesom, kak naprimer ugleroda-14, mozhet sluzhit' izuchenie v sootvetstvuyushchikh reaktsiyakh ravnovesiya ili kineticheskogo izotopnogo vozdejstviya. Tak, naprimer, na osnovanii izmereniya ravnovesiya vozdejstviya izotopov v reaktsiyakh obmena karbonatov predstavilos' vozmozhnym istolkovat' razlichie v mekhanizme obmena svyazyvayushchikh karbonatov Coen{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup +} i Cotn{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup +}. Podobnym zhe obrazom dannye o kineticheskom vozdejstvii izotopov pri kislotno-katalizirovannoj gidratatsii ionov Co (NH{sub 3}){sub 4}CO{sub 3}{sup +} podtverdili vyvody otnositel'no kharaktera ehtikh reaktsij v stadii razryva svyazi, opredelyayushchej skorost' reaktsij. Nakonets, opyty s primeneniem radioaktivnykh indikatorov chasto oblegchayut izuchenie traektorii nekotorykh atomov ili radikalov v neorganicheskikh reaktsiyakh, pri kotorykh prikhoditsya delat' vybor mezhdu dvumya vozmozhnymi ob{sup y}asneniyami. Primerom ehtogo mozhet sluzhit' dokazatel'stvo togo, chto, po-vidimomu, pri okislenii tiotsionatovykh ionov perekis'yu vodoroda tsianidy ne yavlyayutsya sredoj bystrogo obmena, khotya oni i yavlyayutsya vazhnym konechnym produktom. (author)

  16. Radioactive Metrology Methods in the USSR; Methodes de metrologie de la radioactivite en URSS; Metody metrologii radioaktivnosti v SSSR; Metodos de Metrologia de la Radiactividad Aplicados en la Union de Republicas Socialistas Sovieticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglintsev, K K; Bochkarev, V V; Grablevskij, V N; Karavaev, F M

    1960-06-15

    actividad de estos patrones son 10{sup -11} y 5 equivalentes gramo del Ra, respectivamente . Las fuentes {gamma} de control se preparan partiendo de los mismos radionuclidos que las fuentes y modelo. Sus actividades abarcan un intervalo muy amplio y las fuentes presentan formas y dimensiones sumamente diversas. Por ultimo, se utilizan dos clases de fuentes neutronicas modelo Ra-{alpha}-Be (con un contenido de 1 a 1000 mg de Ra) y Pu-{alpha}-Be (conteniendo de 0.01 a 15 g de Pu). Las fuentes Ra-{alpha}-Be consisten en una mezcla comprimida de RaBr{sub 2} y de Be en polvo, siendo la razon ponderal Ra/Be igual a 1/6. En cuanto a las fuentes Pu-{alpha}-Be, se preparan con una aleacion (PuBe{sub 13}) de estos dos metales. (author) [Russian] Avtory opisyvayut metody, primenyaemye v SSSR, i, v chastnosti, v institute metrologii im. Mendeleeva (Leningrad) dlya vosproizvodstv a pri pomoshchi standartnykh apparatov edinits izmereniya, ispol'zuemykh v radioaktivnosti (kyuri, gramm-ehkvivalen t radiya, rentgen, rad). Dlya radionuklido v v Sovetskom Soyuze proizvodyatsya istochnikiehtalony dvukh vidov: 1. Model'nye istochniki dlya sravnitel'nog o ehtalonirovani ya drugikh radioaktivnykh preparatov, a takzhe dlya kalibrovki radiometricheski kh priborov i kontrol'nykh priborov za izlucheniem; 2. Kontrol'nye istochniki, sluzhashchie isklyuchitel'n o dlya proverki raboty i kontrolya za vosproizvodimost' yu ukazanij izmeritel'ny kh priborov. Model'nye a-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya pri pomoshchi ehlektrolitiche - skogo osazhdeniya na platine dolzhnym obrazom vybrannykh izluchatelej (estestvennyj uran, uran-233, plutonij-239, ameritsij-241). EHti istochniki mogut obespechivat' aktivnost' ot do 10{sup 6} raspadov v minutu. Kontrol'nye {alpha}-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya putem ehlektroliticheskog o osazhdeniya plutoniya-239 v vide sloya s plotnost'yu ot 3 X 10-{sup 9} do 0,7 mg/em2, chto sootvetstvuet aktivnosti ot 10 do 10{sup 8} raspadov v minutu. Model'nye {beta

  17. Low-Level {beta} and {gamma} Counting in the Region 0-10 Disintegrations Per Minute; Comptage {beta} et {gamma} d'echantillons de faible activite (0 a 10 desintegrations par minute); Izmerenie {beta}- i {gamma}-izlucheniya maloj moshchnosti (0-10 raspadov v minutu); Recuento {beta} y {gamma} de muestras de baja actividad (0 a 10 desintegraciones por minuto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manov, George G [Tracerlab Inc. (United States)

    1960-06-15

    materiales, preferentemente de origen anterior a la segunda guerra mundial. Para el recuento de las radiaciones procedentes de muestras de baja actividad es condicion primordial la estabilidad del sistema electronico utilizado, especialmente a fin de evitar el recuento de impulsos parasitos. Se describe un procedimiento que consiste en alimentar el sistema electronico con impulsos generados a un ritmo determinado, que pasan por el amplificador y se des- cuentan del numero bruto de impulsos registrado. En general, los circuitos equipados con transistores, inclusive en los preamplificadore s y en las fuentes de tension, son mas satisfactorios que los dispositivos clasicos basados en el empleo de valvulas electronicas. (author) [Russian] Izmerenie radioaktivnost i na urovne v oblasti, soderzhashchej ot 0-10 raspadov v minutu, stanovitsya vse bolee poleznym pri standartizatsii radioaktivnykh izotopov, a takzhe v takikh drugikh otraslyakh nauki, kak geologiya i meditsina naprimer. CHasto poyavlyaetsya neobkhodimost' v podschete izluchenij maloj moshchnosti v oblasti biologii i pri issledovanii metodom mechenykh atomov, v chastnosti, v tekh sluchayakh, kogda ispol'zovanie radiatsii bol'shoj moshchnosti mozhet izmenyat' khod raboty apparata ili okazyvat' vliyanie na izuchaemyj protsess. CHasto takogo roda izmereniya dolzhny provodit'sya v usloviyakh, kogda obraztsy obladayut aktivnost'yu, prevyshayushchej obychnyj neehkranirovanny j fon radiatsii lish' na 1%. V drugikh sluchayakh poyavlyayutsya dopolnitel'ny e trebovaniya vsledstvie togo, chto radioaktivnye izotopy mogut imet' ochen' korotkij period poluraspada. Imeyutsya tri osnovnykh puti uvelicheniya nadezhnosti izmerenij radiatsii maloj moshchnosti: bolee sovershennye schetchiki, men'shie popravki na fon i bolee nadezhnye svobodnye ot pomekh ehlektronnye sistemy. V dannom dokumente opisyvayutsya sravnitel'ny e ehksperimenty svyazannye s izucheniem otnositel'ny kh kachestv trekh razlichnykh tipov zashchishchennykh schetchikov

  18. Some Uses of Radioisotopes and Radiations in Entomology; Quelques emplois des radioelements et des rayonnements en entomologie; Nekotorye vidy primeneniya radioehlementov i oblucheniya v ehntomologii; Algunas aplicaciones de los radioelementos y de las radiaciones en entomologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Lecomte, J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station de Recherches sur l' Abeille et les Insectes Sociaux, Bures-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-09-15

    muravejnikakh radioaktivnykh veshchestv iz osadkov. V period slabykh osadkov opredelyali estestvennuyu radioaktivnost', svyazannuyu s nalichiem K{sup 40}, i ee ispol'zovali dlya opredeleniya soderzhaniya kaliya v organizme murav'ev i pchel. Byla predprinyata popytka mecheniya saranchovykh nasekomykh. Privodyatsya poluchennye rezul'taty. Nakonets, bylo provedeno issledovanie raspredeleniya nekotorykh radioizotopov (R{sup 32} i S{sup 35}) v organizme, pchel s pomoshch'yu metoda avtoradiografii. (author)

  19. Adsorption studies at ionized surface layers by means of hot atoms; Etude, a l'aide d'atomes excites, de l'adsorption dans des couches superficielles ionisees; Issledovanie pri pomoshchi goryachikh atomov adsorbtsii na ionizirovannykh poverkhnostnykh sloyakh; Estudios, con ayuda de atomos excitados, de la adsorcion en capas superficiales ionizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrahami, Menashe; Steiger, Naftali H [Department of Chemistry, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1962-03-15

    adsorcion de las especies ionizadas, fue posible seguir las reacciones superficiales por las que los aniones organicos adsorbidos inicialmente pasan al estado no ionico. Los autores pudieron deducir la formacion de un jabon acido no ionizado en la superficie y llegar a conclusiones sobre la formacion de micelas en la masa de la solucion, en diversas condiciones experimentales. (author) [Russian] S pomoshch'yu goryachikh atomov mozhno neposredstvenno issledovat' yavleniya adsorbtsii ionov na poverkhnosti rastvorov aktivnykh veshchestv s ionizirovannoj poverkhnost'yu. K takim rastvoram dobavlyayutsya chrezvychajno malye kolichestva sootvetstvuyushchikh radioaktivnykh ionov ili ionov, mogushchikh podvergnut'sya na meste navedennym yadernym pre- obrazovaniyam: ehti iony zamenyayut obychnye sluzhashchie dlya otscheta iony, adsorbirovannye vmeste s pervichnymi organicheskimi ionami. Goryachie atomy s ehnergiej priblizitel'no ot 100 kehv i vplot' do neskol'kikh ehlektronvol't dayut v vode sloi tolshchinoj priblizitel'no ot 1000 angstremov i vplot' do odnomolekulyarnykh. EHto delaet ikh prigodnymi dlya izucheniya chuvstvitel'nogo poverkhnostnogo sloya. Goryachie atomy, vytalkivaemye s poverkhnosti, sobirayutsya i podvergayutsya otschetu. Sredi otdach, ispytyvayushchikh al'fa-raspad, okazalas' podkhodyashchej sistema Bi-212/Tl-208. Putem dal'nejshej razrabotki ehtogo metoda mogli byt' polucheny tsennye svedeniya otnositel'no uslovij adsorbtsii na poverkhnostnykh sloyakh sernokislogo natriya dodetsilovoj kisloty. Kinetika adsorbtsii byla izuchena nablyudeniem vo vremeni za aktivnost'yu sobrannoj otdachi, vyzvannoj adsorbtsiej ionov vismuta. Byli zamereny izotermy adsorbtsii ionov vismuta v funktsii ot massovoj kontsentratsii poverkhnostnogo aktivnogo veshchestva v razlichnykh usloviyakh ionnoj intensivnosti, a takzhe rN i aktivnost' Bi-212. Putem sopostavleniya ehtikh izoterm s izotermami, poluchennymi izmereniem poverkhnostnogo napryazheniya rastvorov i putem podscheta

  20. Radioautography in the Study of Radioisotopically-Tagged Substances in Insect Control; L'autoradiographie dans l'etude de substances marquees au moy en de radioisotopes utilisees dans la lutte contre les insectes; Primenenie radioavtografii pri izuchenii substantsij, mechennykh radioizotopami, v bor'be s nasekomymi; La autorradiografia en el estudio de las sustancias marcadas con radioisotopos utilizadas en la lucha contra los insectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joftes, D. L. [New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1963-09-15

    ''4 (kotorye zhelatel'ny, poskol'ku pochti kazhdyj insektitsid budet soderzhat' uglerod i vodorod) imeyut to preimushchestvo, chto dayut radioavtogrammy s vysokoj razreshayushchej sposobnost'yu i imeyut bol'shoj period poluraspada i poehtomu ne voznikaet trudnostej v tekh sluchayakh, kogda neobkhodim ochen' dlitel'nyj srok ehkspozitsii. Prodolzhitel'naya ehkspozitsiya mozhet potrebovat'sya, kogda predpolagaetsya nalichie ochen' nebol'shikh kolichestv radioaktivnykh veshchestv dazhe pri vysokoj udel'noj aktivnosti insektitsida. Neobkhodimo byt' uverennym v tom, chto insektitsid popadaet v tu chast' molekuly, gde radioaktivnyj indikator ostaetsya svyazannym s toj polovinoj, kotoruyu zhelatel'no izuchit'. Posle togo kak insektitsid pogloshchen ili vveden, podgotovka preparata osushchestvlyaetsya obychnymi gistologicheskimi metodami fiksatsii, zalivki, prigotovleniya srezov i nalozheniya na predmetnoe steklo. Zatem tkani mogut byt' deparafinirovany i gidratirovany, posle chego oni gotovy dlya pokrytiya yadernoj fotoehmul'siej. Esli radioaktivnye,sostavlyayushchie v tkanyakh nakhodyatsya v rastvorimom sostoyanii, to dlya izbezhaniya poteri ili mobilizatsii radioizotopa mogut byt' primeneny metody sushki zamorazhivaniem. Dlya takikh preparatov mozhno primenyat' sukhie ehmul'sionnye plenki. Okraska mozhet proizvodit'sya kak do, tak i posle primeneniya yadernoj fotoehmul'sii, v zavisimosti ot kharaktera trebuyushchejsya okraski. V obshchem, predpochtitel'nee okrashivat' posle togo, kak fotoehmul'siya nanesena i proyavlena. Pri primenenii izotopov s dostatochnoj ehnergiej izlucheniya radioaatografirovaniyu mogut podvergnut'sya rasteniya ili ikh chasti tselikom, i v ehtom sluchae gistologicheskaya obrabotka mozhet byt' isklyuchena; ta chast', kotoraya dolzhna podvergnut'sya radioavtografii, prizhimaetsya k plenke v presse dlya rastitel'nykh obraztsov ili v drugom, prigodnom dlya ehtogo ustrojstve. Naibolee udobnym metodom primeneniya yadernykh fotoehmul'sij dlya gistolicheskikh

  1. Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R. S. [Radiobiological Research Council, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    el suero inmediatamente despues de una inyeccion endovenosa o una administracion por via oral, pero desaparece con rapidez. Es probable que una vez que el rutenio sea absorbido en una forma que difunde libremente, parte del mismo reaccione con las proteinas del suero y que en un primer momento permanezca confinado en el espacio vascular; una parte es eliminada sin demora por los rinones y otra se difunde rapidamente en el espacio extravascular y en los tejidos. Esta ultima fraccion puede, bien reaccionar con el tejido y quedar retenida o difundirse de nuevo a la sangre, bien ser excretada. Despues de los primeros dias, la concentracion de rutenio en el suero disminuye a una velocidad que guarda una relacion estrecha con la velocidad de degradacion de las seroproteinas. Es posible que la retencion del rutenio en otros tejidos se rija tambien por su velocidad catabolica. (author) [Russian] Dva radioaktivnykh izotopa ruteniya, rutenij-103 (T1/2 = 40 dnej) i rutenij-106 (T1/2 = 1 god) obrazuyutsya v otnositel'no bol'shom kolichestve v rezul'tate rasshchepleniya urana-235. Pochti ket informatsii otnositel'no metabolizma ruteniya v organizme cheloveka, i privodimye soobrazheniya osnovyvayutsya ka issledovaniyakh krys i krolikov. KHarakter i razmer opasnosti, vyzyvaemoj radioruteniem, zavisit ne tol'ko ot uslovij zarazheniya, no i ot fizicheskogo i khimicheskogo sostoyaniya ruteniya. Rutenij-106, prinyatyj vnutr' v vide dvuokisi, vsasyvaetsya iz zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta v neznachitel'noj stepeni, kogda on prisutstvuet v forme chastits s nositelem, no pri vvedenii v vide kolloida bez nositelya pogloshchenie ego pochti takoe zhe, kak posle vvedeniya khlorida (3 - 5%). Nitratoproizvodnye nitroehila ruteniya mogut vsasyvat'sya eshche v bol'shej stepeni (u krolikov v srednem vsasyvaetsya okolo 13%). Vsasyvanie u negolodavshikh krys zakanchivaetsya v techenie odnogo chasa i ogranicheno vnutrizheludochnoJ dozoj. Ogranichennyj period vsasyvaniya mozhet ob'yasnyatsya skorost