WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioaktiv markierter blutbestandteile

  1. Application of radioactive substances in research in nuclear medicine: current trends and radiation exposure to the study subjects; Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe in der nuklearmedizinischen Forschung: aktuelle Trends und Strahlenexposition der Probanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, V.; Schwarz, E.R.; Bauer, B.; Nosske, D.; Erzberger, A.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Abt. fuer Medizinische Strahlenhygiene, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    the studies showed, for the period of evaluation, an overall trend towards reduction. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Im Rahmen dieser Studie wurde die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe am Menschen in der nuklearmedizinischen Forschung und die damit fuer die Probanden verbundene Strahlenexposition analysiert. Methodik: Hierzu wurden die zwischen 1997 und 1999 vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz zusammen mit dem Bundesinstitut fuer Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte begutachteten Antraege nach paragraph 41 Strahlenschutzverordnung ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Der Schwerpunkt der begutachteten Studien zur diagnostischen Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe hat sich seit 1998 von onkologischen auf neurologisch/psychiatrische Fragestellungen verlagert, wobei die Anzahl der PET-Studien stetig zunahm. Der Anteil der in diagnostische Studien einbezogenen gesunden Probanden ist von 7 auf 22% angestiegen. Therapeutische Anwendungen radioaktiver Stoffe nahmen seit 1997 um das Dreifache zu, wobei der Schwerpunkt im Bereich der Radioimmuntherapie und der endovaskulaeren Brachytherapie lag. Fuer bis zu 49% der untersuchten gesunden Probanden war die effektive Dosis hoeher als 5 mSv, fuer bis zu 6% dieser Probanden lag sie ueber 20 mSv. Bis zu 22% der Patienten erhielten im Rahmen diagnostischer Studien eine effektive Dosis von 20-50 mSv. Eine Ueberschreitung der 50-mSv-Grenze trat bei bis zu 3% der Patienten auf. Schlussfolgerungen: Trotz zunehmender Anwendung der PET behaelt die konventionelle Nuklearmedizin ihre Bedeutung in der medizinischen Forschung. Weiterentwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der Radiochemie und Molekularbiologie fuehrten zu einer zunehmenden Bedeutung der Radioimmuntherapie. Die Evaluierung neuer Radiopharmaka und die Erweiterung der biomedizinischen Grundlagenforschung resultierte in einem Anstieg des Anteils der in die Studien einbezogenen gesunden Probanden. Die studienbedingte Strahlenexposition der Probanden zeigte fuer den ausgewerteten Zeitraum insgesamt einen ruecklaeufigen Trend

  2. Messung des hadronischen Wirkungsquerschnitts doppelt markierter 2-Photon Ereignisse

    CERN Document Server

    Prange, Gerrit; Grupen, Claus

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of virtual photons has been investigated using double tagged γ*γ*-events with hadronic final states, taken by the ALEPH experiment at e+e- center-of-mass energies √See=189 - 208 GeV. The measured cross section is compared to the PYTHIA and PHOT02 Monte Carlo Model, a NLO QCD calculation and BFKL calculations. The NLO QCD prediction is largely consistent with the data. The LO BFKL predictions are ruled out by the data.

  3. Final storage of radioactive waste in Germany. Waste arisings and availability of a repository as seen by an electricity utility; Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland. Abfallaufkommen und Endlagerverfuegbarkeit aus EVU-Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeskamp, H.; Brammer, K.J.; Graf, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearservice, Essen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland an beruecksichtigt. Bereits 1957 wird in einem Memorandum der Deutschen Atomkommission der Hinweis auf die Notwendigkeit der sicheren Beseitigung der radioaktiven Abfaelle formuliert. Der Gesetzgeber hat diese Anregung aufgegriffen und schon im Atomgesetz vom 23.12.1959 Vorschriften zur schadlosen Verwertung radioaktiver Stoffe angelegt. Von der Bundesrepublik wurde in Zusammenhang mit dem Nuklearen Entsorgungszentrum auch nach einem geeigneten Endlagerstandort gesucht. Nach einer intensiven Standortsuche durch die Bundesregierung und das Land Niedersachsen benannte die Niedersaechsische Landesregierung 1977 Gorleben als Standort. Vorausgegangen war ein 3-stufiges Auswahlverfahren, in dem mehr als 140 Standorte betrachtet wurden. Die Arbeiten zur Erkundung des Standortes Gorleben begannen 1979 und wurden am 01.10.2000 zur Klaerung von konzeptionellen und sicherheitstechnischen Zweifeln der Bundesregierung unterbrochen. Vom BMU wird die Verfuegbarkeit eines (Hochaktiv-)Endlagers im Jahr 2030 angestrebt. Aus technischer Sicht ist eine Inbetriebnahme eines Endlagers fuer waermeentwickelnde Abfaelle in Gorleben ab dem Jahr 2025 noch erreichbar, sofern sich der Salzstock nach zuegigem Abschluss der Erkundungsarbeiten als geeignet erweist. Auf die absehbaren Problemfelder wird hingewiesen. Ein weiteres Projekt der Bundesregierung ist die Nutzung der Schachtanlage Konrad als Endlager fuer schwach- und mittelradioaktive Abfaelle. Der Planfeststellungsbeschluss wurde nach gut 20 Jahren im Mai 2002 erteilt und ist zurzeit noch beklagt. Aus den dargestellten Angaben zum erwarteten Abfallvolumen der nicht-waermeentwickelnden EVU-Abfaelle in Verbindung mit dem moeglichen Beginn des Einlagerungsbetriebs Konrad 2013 werden detaillierte Ergebnisse vorgestellt. (orig.)

  4. Approaches to the final storage of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany. Will responsibility be shifted to future generations?; Wege zur Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Wird die Verantwortung auf zukuenftige Generationen verschoben?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomauske, B. [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Power GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Einvernehmen darueber, dass - die Abfaelle in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland endgelagert werden sollen, - ein betriebsbereites Endlager bis 2030 verfuegbar sein soll und - die Endlagerung in tiefen geologischen Formationen erfolgen soll. Unterschiedliche Auffassungen bestehen dazu, - ob nur ein Endlager fuer alle Arten radioaktiver Abfaelle eingerichtet werden soll oder ob eine Aufteilung waermeentwickelnder und vernachlaessigbar waermeentwickelnder Abfaelle in verschiedenen Endlagern unter Sicherheits- und Bedarfsaspekten zweckmaessig ist, - ob ein erneutes Auswahlverfahren zur Findung eines geeigneten Standortes erforderlich ist, und ob ein solches Auswahlverfahren geeignet ist, die Zielsetzung zu erfuellen, bis 2030 ein betriebsbereites Endlager zu haben und - ob nach Abschluss des Gerichtsverfahrens das Endlager Konrad fuer vernachlaessigbar waermeentwickelnde Abfaelle umgeruestet werden soll. Die vorgestellte Analyse zeigt, dass die Zurverfuegungstellung eines betriebsbereiten Endlagers fuer waermeentwickelnde Abfaelle ausschliesslich mit der Fortfuehrung der Erkundung in Gorleben und nach Eignungsnachweis der Errichtung dieses Endlagers moeglich ist. Der Neubeginn einer Endlagersuche fuehrt zu einem Inbetriebnahmezeitpunkt, der nach 2050 liegt. Damit verfehlt ein solcher Ansatz das Ziel, die Entsorgungsfrage nicht auf zukuenftige Generationen zu verschieben. Verantwortlich handeln heisst, nach Abschluss des Gerichtsverfahrens zur Genehmigung zuegig das Endlager Konrad zu errichten und damit den Zubau weiterer Zwischenlager fuer vernachlaessigbar waermeentwickelnde Abfaelle zu vermeiden. Die weitere Erkundung von Gorleben ist der vereinbarungskonforme, gebotene Weg zur Bereitstellung eines Endlagers fuer hochradioaktive, waermeentwickelnde Abfaelle bis 2030. Hierzu sind die 'Zweifelsfragen' zuegig zu beantworten. (orig.)

  5. Final storage of radioactive waste; Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Cornelia [Redaktion ZNER, Bochum (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    As explained in the present article, operators of nuclear power plants are responsible for the safe final disposal of the radioactive wastes they produce on the strength of the polluter pays principle. To shift the burden of responsibility for safe disposal to society as a whole would violate this principle and is therefore not possible. The polluter pays principle follows from more general principles of the fair distribution of benefits and burdens. Instances of its implementation are to be found in the national Atomic Energy Law as well as in the European Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Directive. The polluters in this case are in particular responsible for financing the installation and operation of final disposal sites. The reserves accumulated so far for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and disposal of radioactive wastes, including the installation and operation of final disposal sites, should be transferred to a public-law fund. This fund should be supplemented by the polluters to cover further foreseeable costs not covered by the reserves accumulated so far, including a realistic cost increase factor, appropriate risk reserves as well as the costs of the site selection procedure and a share in the costs for the safe closure of the final disposal sites of Morsleben and Asse II. This would merely be implementing in the sphere of atomic law that has long been standard practice in other areas of environmental law involving environmental hazards.

  6. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  7. Funktionalisierte Linker für Metallorganische Gerüstverbindungen, deren postsynthetische Modifikation und polar markierte Schutzgruppen für terminale Alkine

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) form the class of porous materials with the highest surface areas. This characteristic property combined with the variability of both building blocks, the inorganic node and the organic linker, makes many scientists dream of materials with very special chemical, electronic, optic and/or magnetic properties. For individual applications both building blocks, but also possibly in the framework embedded guests, play a crucial role. This work describes the synthe...

  8. Untersuchung bergmaennischer und industrieller Rueckstandshalden auf eine moegliche Freisetzung natuerlicher radioaktiver Elemente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1985-01-01

    More than 350 deposits from mining and processing in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Lower Saxony were visited, measured radiometrically, assessed by a unified scheme and partly sampled. The highest local dose rates, up to 100 mSv/a, were found in the waste from uranium exploration, as expected. The values of these planned wastes were followed by waste from silver-cobalt mining dumped above ground, with dose rates up to 20 mSv/a. Fly ash and slag deposits had a dose rate of about 2 mSv/a, and are comparable with many porphyry and granite rocks. The higher values of slag deposits from iron ore smelting were clearly due to high thorium content. The lowest doses were from stone waste from the mining of hydrothermal lead-zinc and iron ores. The analyses of uranium, radium 226 and lead 210 confirmed the radiometric measurements. The analysis of waste seepage water and tunnel outlets gave only a low number of values which exceeded the drinking water concentration according to the Radiation Protection Order. (orig./RB) [de

  9. Research on the disposal of radioactive wastes; Forschung zur Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-15

    The report covers the following issues: Challenges of the nuclear disposal; actual state of knowledge: research and development on final disposal in salt rocks, clays, granite, general topics; research and development strategy: goals of the governmental project funding, strategic research objectives, research and development needs; research and development projects.

  10. Studies on the preparation of low-carrier Se-73,75 tracers for in vivo examinations; Untersuchungen zur Darstellung traegerarm 73,75Se-markierter Tracer fuer in vivo Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Andreas

    2013-04-03

    With the growing importance of positron emission tomography (PET) for in vivo imaging in diagnostic medicine there is great interest of developing new labelling methods for the positron emitter selenium-73. As attractive application an examination of a no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) preparation of the analogous tracer Sulindac Selenid and of the selenium containing compound Ebselen was examined with {sup 73,75}Se. First of all a labelling strategy for Sulindac Selenid based on a protected precursor was developed. This precursor should further be transformed into the corresponding standard compound for chomatographic identification of the n.c.a. product. This, however, was not possible. An alternative synthesis method also did not result in a product. Thus, a radioactive labelling in case of Sulindac Selenid was not indicated in spite of a successful synthesis of a precursor. The preparation of Ebselen was performed as earlier described by a sequential one-pot synthesis with a yield of 46 %. An adaption of the reaction parameters to a radiosynthesis with {sup 75}Se failed on the n.c.a. state and also after adding carrier to the reaction mixture. The desired product could, however, be prepared in a copper catalysed one-pot radiosynthesis for the first time under carrier-added conditions. Here, optimized conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 60 ± 18 %. A no-carrier-added product could finally be achieved using sulphur as nonisotopic carrier in the reaction mixture. After optimisation of reaction parameters n.c.a. [{sup 75}Se]Ebselen could be synthesized with radiochemical yields of 55 ± 7 % within 4 h. Furthermore the desired product could be separated by RHPL-chromatography from its co-produced sulfur-analogue. After transferring the conditions to radiosyntheses with the positron emitter {sup 73}Se, n.c.a. [{sup 73}Se]Ebselen could be achieved with a radiochemical yield of 22 ± 1 % and can now be used as a potential radiotracer in preclinical evaluation studies with respect to tracer application with PET. First in vitro distributions studies with slices of rat brain were already performed by autoradiography.

  11. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience; Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Rechtsvorschriften, Sicherheits- und Sicherungskonzept, Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-07-15

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  12. Use of bremsstrahlung information for the nondestructive characterization of radioactive waste packages; Nutzung von Bremsstrahlungsinformation zur zerstoerungsfreien Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallgebinde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmoser, Benjamin Paul

    2016-11-10

    In order to minimize pseudo activity whilst storage of radioactive waste packages it is required to determine the nuclide inventory as precisely as possible. The in Gamma spectra contained parts of bremsstrahlung can be used to identify and quantify certain beta nuclides. For this an analytical method has been developed. This was mainly tested with beta-emitter Sr-90 and Tm-170, as well as commonly present gamma-emitters in laboratory scale and actual 200 liter waste packages. As a result, non-destructive determination of radioactive wastes can be conducted more precisely.

  13. Some principles about microchemical examination of weak active waste water. Einige Grundlagen zur mikrochemischen Untersuchung schwach-radioaktiver Abwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loley, F

    1961-01-01

    By combination of the ring oven technique and autoradiographic methods it was possible to detect radioactive isotopes in waste water. The detection limit is about 10/sup -13/ gramm or 10/sup -9/ curie. Some milliliters of water are used. In case of a complex mixture a separation is necessary.

  14. Ethical aspects in connection with the disposal of radioactive wastes; Ethische Aspekte bei der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetsch, W.

    2003-07-01

    The progress of modern natural and technological science and their far-reaching consequences affecting the distant future require increasingly practice-oriented ethical concepts. In the discussions about responseable acting, the question of the ethical tenability of nuclear energy nowadays takes a special position. Above all the problem of the disposal of radioactive wastes - the effects of which on the distant future have to be prognosticated - is controversially discussed in society. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) commissioned Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) in the context of the project ''Disposal of radioactive wastes in the context of ethical objectives'' to summarise the current national and international status of ethical aspects in connection with the disposal of radioactive wastes. One aim of this report is to derive criteria to form the basis of a comprehensive discussion of the ethical aspects of the disposal of radioactive wastes. These criteria are to describe, as far as possible, all content-related aspects that result from radioactive waste disposal. The issues in this report resulting from the opinions, comments and publications presented are to serve as a basis for an experts' meeting at which the important ethical criteria concerning the responsible management of radioactive waste disposal are to be discussed at an interdisciplinary level with all those involved. The results of this report are based on an investigation which gathered the available national and international statements, principles, and criteria relating to the ethical aspects of the disposal of radioactive wastes and to sustainable development in the context of the technological impact assessment up to beginning of 2000. In the meantime, the debate in Germany has become somewhat more pragmatic, i. a. due to the work of the research group ''Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd)'' and as a result of the above-mentioned discussions that have been going on in the meantime. (orig.)

  15. Ultimate storage of radioactive waste - geotechnical challenge or routine task?; Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle - Herausforderung oder Routine fuer die Geotechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alheid, H.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear waste repositories require sophisticated design, high-tech technical implementation and reliable performance assessment studies. Geotechnical methods have been applied in many research projects and tailored to the high standards of nuclear waste disposal. Exemplary the development of methods for the characterization of excavation damaged zones (EDZ) is discussed in this paper. Well known geotechnical and geophysical methods have been adapted to fulfil the requirements of essential high resolution in space and the necessity of long term observations. The achieved improvements in measurement techniques and data processing allow to describe the properties of the EDZ in detail. Scientist have accepted the challenge and fulfilled the special requirements of measuring, monitoring and modelling in the field of nuclear waste disposal. The newly developed methods should be checked for their applicability to other geotechnical problems in order to achieve more detailed results than with standard methods. (orig.)

  16. Qualification of polysiloxanes for long-term storage of radioactive waste; Qualifizierung von Polysiloxanen fuer die langzeitstabile Konditionierung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharczyk, P.

    2005-12-15

    At present German policy envisages interim storage of all radioactive waste (for approximately 30 years) until a final repository is available. This therefore leads to higher standards for storage containers. Silicone elastomers (polysiloxanes), materials on the basis of silicon and oxygen with organic substituents, have various physical and chemical properties and seem to be suitable for the long-term storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of the present work is the qualification of a new coating material for storage containers. The use of polysiloxanes in other applications was also investigated. An important criterion for the coating is the simplicity of its application. Moreover, it should also have a high adhesion on steel as well as providing protection against corrosion. These properties were investigated for different polysiloxanes. The spraying tests showed that polysiloxane material with a viscosity of up to 45 000 mPas could be applied by the airless spraying method. An elastic coating was produced which could ensure protection against mechanical impacts. In the framework of water vapour experiments, a very high diffusion constant was determined. The corrosion test confirmed that the polysiloxane coating provided only insufficient corrosion protection if the sample was in contact with water and water vapour at the same time. This problem was solved by using an additional priming coat of 60 {mu}m zinc paint. The adhesion test showed that polysiloxanes have different levels of adhesion. The best adhesion was determined for condensation-cured silicones. The addition-cured materials had a lower adhesion, which was improved by the application of a priming coat. The outcome of these investigations is a wide spectrum of applications for polysiloxanes which can be used as firmly adhering coatings or removable decontamination layers. (orig.)

  17. Neuroendocrine tumors of the abdomen; Neuroendokrine Tumoren des Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M. [Klinikum Konstanz, Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Konstanz (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (GEP-NEN) are a heterogeneous group of complex tumors, which is often difficult to classify due to heterogeneity and varying locations. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) are available for the localization of NEN as well as for the staging. In particular, nuclear medical examination methods with somatostatin analogues are of great importance since radioactively labeled receptor ligands make tumors visible with high sensitivity. CT and MRT have high detection rates for GEP-NEN and have been further improved by developments such as diffusion weighted imaging. The nuclear medical methods, however, are superior in detection, especially in gastrointestinal NEN It is important for the radiologist to become acquainted with the NEN as they can occur ubiquitously in the abdomen and should be identified as such. Since GEP-NEN are predominantly hypervascularized, a biphasic examination technique is obligatory for contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. PET/CT with somatostatin analogs should be used for further diagnosis. (orig.) [German] Gastroenteropankreatische neuroendokrine Neoplasien (GEP-NEN) sind eine heterogene Gruppe komplexer Tumoren, deren Einteilung aufgrund der Heterogenitaet und unterschiedlichen Lokalisation haeufig schwerfaellt. Fuer die Lokalisation der NEN sowie zur Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und Metastasensuche stehen Ultraschalldiagnostik, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und die Positronenemissionstomographie-Computertomographie (PET-CT) zur Verfuegung. Insbesondere nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungsmethoden mit Somatostatinanaloga sind von hoher Wertigkeit, da sie ueber radioaktiv markierte Rezeptoliganden Tumoren mit hoher Sensitivitaet sichtbar machen. CT und MRT haben hohe Detektionsraten bei den GEP-NEN und konnten durch Weiterentwicklungen, wie Diffusionsbildgebung, weiter

  18. Radioactivity in sheep meat, cow and goat milk, 1988-2004; Radioaktiv forurensning i sauekjoett, ku- og geitemelk, 1988-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.

    2005-09-01

    The report summarizes the results of monitoring 137Cs in sheep, cow and goats milk from selected farms in 2004 and long-term effects from 1988-2004.The results give a basis for this years slaughter forecasts in 2004 and give information about the levels, variation and long-term effects of 137Cs in some of Norway's most important food chains. Sheep classification zones made clean feeding necessary wholly or partially in 34 municipalities in 2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in goat milk from Nord-Trondelag and Oppland were 9-10 years for the period 1989-2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in cow milk were 7 years in farms from Nordland county and 10 years in farms from Oppland county. Concentration of 137Cs in sheep meat from Oppland county measured in 1989-2004, showed an estimated effective ecological half-time of 10 years for ewes and 11 years for lambs. (Author)

  19. Determination of radioactive materials in men. Applications and techniques, in the past and today; Bestimmung radioaktiver Stoffe im Menschen. Anwendungen und Technik, damals und heute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstmann, U.C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2016-07-01

    The development of the two main applications of the determination of radionuclides in men - diagnostic nuclear medicine and incorporation monitoring since their beginnings are reviewed. Some less known applications are presented too.

  20. Inter- and transdisciplinarity as a precondition for final nuclear waste disposal; Inter- und Transdisziplinaritaet als Voraussetzung bei der Entsorgung radioaktiver Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudry, Saleem; Kuppler, Sophie; Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2016-03-15

    Searching for solutions for solving environmental problems, dissolves the boundaries between the several scientific disciplines. The disposal of radioactive waste requires such interdisciplinary solutions. A problem is described, which generates new problems, if one is solved. The interdisciplinary cooperation for the evaluation of a disposal solution is described. The point of view is a theoretical approach and a transdisciplinary combination of science and the public.

  1. Ethical aspects of radioactive waste disposal. Waste producer, responsible party, persons concerned; Ethische Aspekte der Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Verursacher, Verantwortliche, Betroffene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Georg [EA / European Academy GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the Gorleben memorandum the discussion on ethical aspects in connection with radioactive waste disposal has evolved. The controlled disposal includes the so called ''polluter pays principle''. Problems arise with the search for a final repository site with respect to future generations, the interests of Inhabitants and neighboring countries. A delayed decision might avoid overhasty compromises that could reduce adequate safety measures for future generations. The best possible precautions for safety and accident prevention are required.

  2. Non-medical application of radioactive materials or ionizing radiation. German legal regulations; Die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung ausserhalb der Medizin. Deutsche Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-medical imaging is regulated in Germany since the 2011 radiation protection law amendment and the simultaneous X-ray regulation amendment based on the Euratom guideline 96/29. The regulations contain lists with justified and non-justified activities.

  3. Valve which can be remotely handled and operated, particularly for the hot area of radioactive plants. Fernhantierbare und fernbedienbare Armatur, insbesondere fuer den heissen Bereich radioaktiver Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovan, G.; Sandling, M.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Blaseck, K.; Hoffmeister, L.; Westendorf, H.

    1986-12-11

    The valve is built up so that one replacement part contains all the wear parts of the valve, while the non-wearing parts and particularly the valve housing are solidly connected to the pipeline. The replacement part and the valve housing are fixed on alternate sides by a clamp. The replacement part has a central screw which can be moved relative to the other components, which is supported in both axial directions in a clamp which can be opened. The replacement part can thus be pressed into the valve housing and pulled out of it.

  4. Remotely handled and remotely operated valve, particularly for the hot part of radioactive plants. Fernhantierbare und fernbedienbare Armatur, insbesondere fuer den heissen Bereich radioaktiver Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovan, G.; Sandling, M.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Blaseck, K.; Hoffmeister, L.; Westendorf, H.

    1988-01-21

    The valve consists of a valve whose valve housing is built into a pipeline. The wear parts of the valve to be replaced, such as the valve body and valve seat, are combined into a replacement part. The replacement part and a clamp act together so that the replacement part is interlocked with the valve housing in the closed operating position. The exchange can be made by undoing a single central screw.

  5. Participation in the radioactive waste disposal procedure under consideration of the site selection law; Partizipation bei der Entsorgung radioaktiver Reststoffe - unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Standortauswahlgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich; Rossegger, Ulf [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2013-08-15

    The site selection law has passed the parliament. The history and the content of the law indicate the difficulties of an adequate public participation. The contribution describes and analyzes the relevant and interdisciplinary facets of the issue. The contribution is focused on the legal regulations concerning the participation trying a classification into higher ranking relations. For a final evaluation the further development has to be considered.

  6. Time for action. Disposal of radioactive wastes is a task regarding all of us; Zeit zum Handeln. Die Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle geht uns alle an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. In Switzerland the disposal of radioactive wastes is clearly regulated. The disposal programme describes the process according to which the long-term storage of radioactive wastes has to be implemented to guaranty safety for mankind and environment. The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories is a task of national importance. Until a deep repository can get into operation, several licence stages are necessary. After the overall licence given by the Federal Council is accepted by the parliament, it may still be the subject of an optional referendum. There are three different types of radioactive wastes: the low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW) and the high-level wastes (HLW). Two different deep geological repositories are needed, one for the L/ILW wastes and another one for the HLW wastes. Before the repositories begin operation, the wastes are stored on the ground in interim storage facilities. The general licence for the construction of the repositories is expected to be granted before 2020. Afterwards the construction of both repositories can be undertaken. The repository for L/ILW wastes will not start operation before 2030. The start of operation of the repository for HLW wastes is not expected before 2040. This repository will be designed in such a way that the spent fuel assemblies which are stored as HLW wastes, could be withdrawn even after the closure of the repository.

  7. Multi- and trans-disciplinarity in radioactive waste disposal. Fundamentals - examples - knowledge synthesis; Inter- und Transdisziplinaritaet bei der Entsorgung radioaktiver Reststoffe. Grundlagen - Beispiele - Wissenssynthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften; Kuppler, Sophie [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technikfolgenabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS); Chaudry, Saleem (ed.) [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Endlagerforschung

    2016-07-01

    The report covers the following issues: radioactive waste disposal - a multi- in trans- disciplinary challenge; political science and nuclear waste governance; interdisciplinary analysis of the radioactive waste disposal concepts - geochemistry bases analyses; radioactive waste disposal and robust jurisprudence; the contribution of geology to the underground storage of radioactive waste; ionizing radiation protection - interdisciplinary points; risk evaluation; possibilities and constraints of a standardization of scientific terms for interdisciplinary cooperation, safety case and interdisciplinarity; the concept of voluntariness in relation with site final repository selection a philosophical und juridical view; interdisciplinarity - engineers and philosophers; knowledge strategies on the way to radioactive waste disposal: scientific synthesis on radioactive waste disposal on the science platform ENTRIA.

  8. Investigation of radioactive pollution on land at Thule and assessment of radiation doses; Undersoegelse af radioaktiv forurening paa landjorden ved Thule og vurdering af straaledoser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    Risoe National Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area, Greenland, after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of this research are described in the report ''Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land''. Based on this report, the National Board of Health made an assessment of radiation doses and the risk for individuals in the Thule area. The results of the assessment are described in the report ''The Thule accident. Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination''. The present report is a summary of these two reports. (ln)

  9. Radioactive contamination in reindeer herders and other people in Kautokeino 1965-2010; Radioaktiv forurensning i befolkningen. Reindriftsutoevere og andre personer i Kautokeino 1965-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Skuterud, L.

    2012-07-01

    NRPA's measurements of radioactive caesium in reindeer herders and other people from Kautokeino in northern Norway were finalised in December 2010. This report summarises the monitoring program which was started in 1965.(Author)

  10. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for the non-destructive characterization of radioactive wastes; Prompt-Gamma-Neutronen-Aktivierungs-Analyse zur zerstoerungsfreien Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettler, John Paul Hermann

    2010-07-01

    In Germany, stringent official regulations govern the handling and final storage of radioactive waste. For this reason, the Federal Government has opted for final storage of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in deep geological formations. At present the Konrad mine in Salzgitter will be rebuilt as a final disposal, the start of operation is scheduled for 2014. Radioactive waste with negligible heat generation originates from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the medical sector or from research establishments. The requirements of the planning approval decision to build up the disposal Konrad, published on the 22{sup nd} of May 2002, obligate the waste producer to consider the limits for chemotoxic substances and to document the waste content. Before the radioactive waste can be stored in the final disposal, it is necessary to characterize the waste composition, relating to the concentration of water polluting substances. In particular for the wastes produced in the year before 1990, the so-called old wastes, there is a lack of documentation. The chemotoxicity of old wastes can mostly only characterized by time consuming and destructive methods. Furthermore these methods produce high costs, which depend on the arrangements to avoid contamination, to comply with the radiation protection and for the conditioning of the wastes. A prototype system, based on the Prompt-Gamma-Neutron-Activation-Analysis (PGNAA) with 14 MeV neutrons, has been developed in this work. This system allows the characterization of large samples, like 25 and 50 l drums. The signature of the element composition is in this processed by gamma-ray spectroscopy. This work was focused, in addition to the feasibility of the system, to the neutron and photon transport in large samples. Therefore the neutron and photon self-absorption in dependence of the sample composition were the main part of interest. Computer simulations (MCNP) and experiments were performed to understand this correlation. Several homogeneous and inhomogeneous sample drums were produced for the qualification of the prototype system. The sample drums were characterized with different systems and methods to verify the results of the PGNAA-Prototype-System. At the end of the present work, the detection limits of selected elements for different irradiation and measurement conditions were determined. The element compilation refers to relevant elements for the final disposal Konrad. The results of the measurements, which were realized with the PGNAA-Prototype-System, show, that a non-destructive characterization of large samples is possible. Furthermore a routine test procedure, based on the results of the present work, is in development to characterize 200 l drums. (orig.)

  11. Data base for a site specific migration analysis of radioactive elements from a final repository. Datenbasis fuer eine standortspezifische Ausbreitungsanalyse radioaktiver Elemente aus einem Endlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, J

    1981-11-01

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories. In a first step our plans are to calculate transport of radionuclides using data - as far as possible - for an undisturbed hydrogeology. Thereby a reference case is defined. In a later step, possible events and processes can be considered leading to a deviation from the reference case. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. We restrict ourselves to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the /sup 245/Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide /sup 237/Np. For the first time we are able to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. The well known fact that the data basis is extremely sparse is pointed out once more and concretized in detail.

  12. Comparative overview of dangers, protective measures and risks for the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Vergleichende Uebersicht der Gefahren, Schutzmassnahmen und Risiken einer Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the anticipated risks of geological disposal of radioactive wastes and to compare these to 'conventional' risks, which voluntarily or involuntarily are associated with human activities and have accompanied mankind for long times. Radioactive wastes which result from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear reactors as well as those originating from research, industrial and medical applications necessitate prolonged isolation from the biosphere to their long-lived, although decaying, toxicity. Chapter 2 of this report contains a survey of the nature and extent of the potential hazard of radioactive waste, drawing attention to the fact that the toxicity of radionuclides is comparable to that of nonradioactive chemical compounds. The possibility of adverse effects on the public cannot be ruled out for either kind of waste. Current plans aim at the safe and effective disposal of radioactive wastes in deep and stable geological formations which should serve as hosts for engineered final repositories. For a final repository to be suitable, the site chosen should be free from circulating groundwater or the free movement of the groundwater must be strongly restricted. In order to prevent radioactive substances migrating away from the final repository in which they have been placed, it is planned to utilise natural and man-made barriers which function largely independently from each other. Thorough knowledge of the properties of man-made barriers, is as important as knowledge of the natural barriers, which are determined by the geology and hydrogeology of the site of the final repository. This principle of protection is known as a 'multiple-barrier concept' and is considered capable of providing safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

  13. Synthesis of n.c.a. {sup 18}F-fluorinated NMDA- and D{sub 4}-receptor ligands via [{sup 18}F]fluorobenzenes; Traegerarme Synthese {sup 18}F-markierter, ausgewaehlter NMDA- und D{sub 4}-Rezeptorliganden durch Einsatz geeigneter [{sup 18}F]Fluorbenzolderivate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, T

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis new strategies were developed and evaluated for the no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) {sup 18}F-labelling of receptor ligands as radiodiagnostics for characterization of brain receptors using positron-emission-tomography (PET). Special emphasis was placed on the synthesis of n.c.a. ({+-})-3-(4-hydroxy-4-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenyl)-piperidin-l-yl)chroman-4,7-diol, a ligand with high affinity for the NR2B subtype of NMDA receptors and n.c.a. (3-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorphenoxy)propyl)-(2-(4-tolylphenoxy)ethyl)amine ([{sup 18}F]FPTEA) a dopamine D{sub 4} receptor ligand. In order to synthesize n.c.a. ({+-})-3-(4-hydroxy-4-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenyl)-piperidin-l-yl)chroman-4,7-diol the {sup 18}F-fluoroarylation method via metallorganic intermediates was modified and improved. The suitability of the organometallic {sup 18}F-fluoroarylation agents was proven with several model compounds. High radiochemical yields of 20-30% were obtained also with piperidinone-derivatives. The preparation of a suitable precursor for the synthesis of the NMDA receptor ligand, however, could not be achieved by synthesis of appropriate 1,3-dioxolane protected piperidinone derivatives. Further, the synthesis of n.c.a. ([{sup 18}F]fluoroaryloxy)alkylamines via n.c.a. 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenol was developed and evaluated. The synthesis of n.c.a. [{sup 18}F]fluoroarylethers with corresponding model compounds was optimized and led to a radiochemical yield of 25-60%, depending on the alkylhalide used. The preparation of n.c.a. 1-(3-bromopropoxy)-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzene proved advantageous in comparison to direct use of 4-[{sup 18}]fluorophenol for coupling with a corresponding N-protected precursor for the synthesis of n.c.a. [{sup 18}F]FPTEA. With regard to the radiochemical yields and the loss of activity during the synthesis and isolation of n.c.a. 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenol and n.c.a. 1-(3-bromopropoxy)-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzene, [{sup 18}F]FPTEA was obtained by reaction with 2-(4-tolyloxy)ethylamine in radiochemical yields of about 25-30% in ethanol or 2-butanone as solvent with a synthesis time of 30 minutes and a reaction temperature of 90-95 C. Thus, the utility of further {sup 18}F-synthon for labelling of electron rich arenes (i.e. [{sup 18}F]fluorophenolethers) with high specific activity could be documented. (orig.)

  14. Intraindividual comparison of gastric peristalsis after ingestion of a semiliquid and solid test meal; Intraindividueller Vergleich der Magenperistaltik nach Gabe von semiliquiden und festen Testmahlzeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Tatsch, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Muenzing, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Vorderholzer, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt; Schindlbeck, N. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-06-01

    radioaktiv markierter semiliquider sowie fester Testspeise eine konventionelle Magenfunktionsszintigraphie durchgefuehrt. Zusaetzlich zu der Standardauswertung mit Zeit-Aktivitaetskurven wurden fuer zwei festgelegte Zeitintervalle (Frueh- und Spaetphase) kondensierte Bildsequenzen erstellt, auf deren Grundlage mittels Fourier-Analyse Amplitude und Frequenz der Magenkontraktionen ermittelt wurden. Ergebnisse: Erwartungsgemaess wurde die Magenentleerung von der Konsistenz der Testspeise beeinflusst. Feste Speisen wurden langsamer entleert als die semiliquide Mahlzeit (p<0,01). Dagegen hingen Amplitude und Frequenz der Magenkontraktionen nicht von der Konsistenz der verabreichten Testspeise ab. Mit fortschreitender Untersuchungsdauer/Magenentleerung fand sich sowohl bei Studien mit semiliquider als auch fester Testspeise ein signifikanter Anstieg der Kontraktionsamplituden (p<0,05). Die Kontraktionsfrequenz zeigte keine zeitliche Abhaengigkeit. Schlussfolgerung: An intraindividuell erhobenen Vergleichsdaten liess sich belegen, dass, im Gegensatz zur Entleerungsrate, Amplitude und Frequenz der Magenkontraktionen nicht von der Konsistenz einer verabreichten Testspeise abhaengen. Aufgrund der deutlich kuerzeren Untersuchungszeit und einfacheren Zubereitung sind semiliquide Testspeisen in der Routinediagnostik zu bevorzugen. Aenderungen der Kontraktionsamplitude im zeitlichen Verlauf legen eine standardisierte Vorgehensweise bei der Datenaufzeichnung nahe. (orig.)

  15. Combined intraoperative and external irradiation of the celiac artery in the rabbit: Effects on gastric mucosal blood flow; Kombinierte intraoperative und externe Bestrahlung der Arteria coeliaca beim Kaninchen: Auswirkungen auf die Durchblutung der Magenschleimhaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie]|[GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kallfass, E. [GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Berg, D. [GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kummermehr, J. [GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    zwischen einer strahleninduzierten Minderdurchblutung und der Genese von Magenulzerationen dargestellt werden. Material und Methode: Die intraoperative Bestrahlung der Arteria coeliaca erfolgte mit 0 bzw. 30 Gy. Nach einer Pause von 14 Tagen wurde eine externe Bestrahlung des Oberbauches mit 3x4 Gy/Woche bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 40 Gy angeschlossen. Die Messung der Durchblutung der Magenschleimhaut wurde mittels intraventrikulaerer Injektion radioaktiv markierter Mikrophaeren (15 {mu}m) und Bestimmung der Aktivitaet in der Magenschleimhaut durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen erfolgten zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten zwei bis 63 Tage nach intraoperativer Bestrahlung. Ergebnisse: Die intraoperative Bestrahlung, auch die Scheinbestrahlung, fuehrt zu einer transienten Verminderung der Schleimhautdurchblutung bis zu etwa 50% des Normalwertes an Tag 7. Nach einer voruebergehenden Erholung bis zu Tag 14 tritt ab der sechsten Woche eine deutliche und anhaltende Minderdurchblutung ein. Dieser Zeitraum deckt sich mit dem Termin der Ulkusentstehung. Schlussfolgerungen: Es besteht ein zeitlicher Zusammenhang zwischen der Ausloesung von Magenulzerationen und eine Reduktion der Schleimhautdurchblutung durch kombinierte intraoperative und externe Strahlentherapie. Hierbei ist die mechanische Komponente der intraoperativen Radiotherapie besonders hervorzuheben. Die reduzierte Durchblutung laesst sich auch nach alleiniger intraoperativer Radiotherapie nachweisen, ohne dass hier jedoch Ulzera auszuloesen sind. Eine zusaetzliche direkte Schleimhautschaedigung durch die externe Bestrahlung ist somit fuer die Ausloesung von Magenulzerationen von Bedeutung. (orig.)

  16. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials; Mustergenehmigung zur ortsveraenderlichen Verwendung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe im Rahmen der zerstoerungsfreien Materialpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Niedersaechsisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz (Germany); Schumann, J. [Landesamt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Huhn, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  17. On the pathway towards disposal. The need for long-term interim storage of high-level nuclear waste; Auf dem Weg in die Endlagerung. Die Notwendigkeit der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung hoch radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budelmann, Harald; Koehnke, Dennis; Reichardt, Manuel [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (FFU)

    2017-09-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a still unsolved problem with social, ethical, economical, ecological and political dimensions. The stagnating decision process on the final repository concept in several countries has the consequence of the inclusion of long-term interim storage into the disposal concept. The contribution discusses several approaches. This opens the question whether the long-term interim storage is a matter of delaying tactic or a pragmatic solution on the way to a final repository.

  18. The final disposal of radioactive wastes. Are we nearing a solution to a decade-old conflict?; Die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Stehen wir vor der Loesung eines jahrzehntelangen Konflikts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Wolfram [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The present article describes how the recent decision to phase out nuclear energy has created an opportunity to gain public acceptance of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. Now that the phase-out has been finalised the amount of radioactive waste requiring disposal has become quantifiable. This has created clarity as to the magnitude of the environmental problem waiting to be solved. The longer it takes to get the final storage of radioactive wastes underway the greater will be the risk that in the end nobody is prepared to assume responsibility and the cheapest solution - in the literal sense of the word - is adopted, which is to export the wastes abroad. Since more than a year the political leadership has been struggling to work out the details of a law governing the search for a final repository. The recent approval given by the government of the federal state of Lower Saxony has come in time to throw the door wide open ahead of the federal elections for a procedure that can count on broad support among the political leadership. The chances are now good for a lasting resolution to a dispute that has been carried on in the German Federal Republic for decades, sometimes with ferocity, over the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy, and they must be grabbed.

  19. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report; Langzeitbeobachtung der Dosisbelastung der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten Weissrusslands. Korma-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-09-24

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Until now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  20. Focal points of future FuE work concerning the final disposal of radioactive wastes (2011-2014); Schwerpunkte zukuenftiger FuE-Arbeiten bei der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle (2011-2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The present Federal support concept is the basis for applied fundamental research concerning final disposal of heat generating radioactive wastes. The use-oriented fundamental research is aimed to the development of a scientific-technical basis for the realization of a final repository for heat-generating radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel, to the continuous advancement of the state of science and technology with respect to final waste disposal and a substantial contribution to the constitution, development and preservation of scientific-technological competence in the field of nuclear waste management in Germany. The concept includes research and development work concerning final disposal in the host rock salt, clays and crystalline rocks (granite). The research and development main issues are the final disposal system, the system behavior, further topics in relation to final disposal and nuclear materials surveillance.

  1. Materials characterization of radioactive waste forms using a multi-element detection method based on the instrumental neutron activation analysis. MEDINA; Stoffliche Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallprodukte durch ein Multi-Element-Analyseverfahren basierend auf der instrumentellen Neutronen-Aktivierungs-Analyse. MEDINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenith, Andreas Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste has to meet the specifications and acceptance criteria defined by national regulatory and management authorities for its intermediate and final storage. In Germany the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. Konrad is the disposal for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and is located near the city of Salzgitter and is currently under construction. It will start operation not before the year 2021. The waste-acceptance-requirements are derived from a site-specific safety assessment. They include specific requirements on waste forms, packaging as well as limitations to activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. The amount of chemically toxic elements in the waste is limited in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To comply with these requirements every waste package has to be characterised in its radiological and chemical composition. This characterisation can be performed on the basis of existing documentation or, if the documentation is insufficient, on further analytical analysis. Segmented or integral gamma-scanning as well as active or passive neutron counting are used worldwide as the standard measurement methods for the radiological characterisation and quality checking of radioactive waste. These techniques determine the isotope specific activity of waste packages, but they do not allow the detection of non-radioactive hazardous substances inside the waste packages. Against this background the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer (NET) at RWTH Aachen University and the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology at Forschungszentrum Juelich jointly develop an innovative non-destructive analytical technique called MEDINA - ''Multi-Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation'' for the identification and quantification of toxic elements in radioactive waste forms. The physical basis of MEDINA is the Prompt- and Delayed-Gamma-Neutron-Activation-Analysis (P and DGNAA). The neutron activation analysis of material samples in the gram range is state-of-the-art of science and technology under use of thermal or cold neutrons at research reactors. The thereof retrieved nuclear data and the results of the feasibility study for the characterization of large-volume samples up to a volume of 50 l /1-5/ are the scientific basis of the present dissertation. With a newly developed test facility and an innovative algorithms for a rotationally dependent analysis the element quantification of larger inhomogeneous samples can be performed by taking into account the gamma and neutron self-shielding for the first time. A test facility for the chemical characterisation of 200-l-drums was built and several homogeneous and inhomogeneous samples with a waste matrix of concrete were analysed to validate the measurement technique. The conceptual design of the MEDINA test facility is based on stochastic simulations studies with the computer code MCNP. For a measurement the drum of interest is positioned on a turntable inside an irradiation chamber made exclusively of graphite, acting as neutron moderator and reflector. The drum is irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons produced by a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron-generator operating in pulse mode. The prompt and delayed gamma rays, induced by neutron reactions occurring at different times after the neutron pulses, are measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector placed in a wall of the irradiation chamber perpendicular to the neutron generator. The HPGe detector signals are processed through an appropriate nuclear electronics. The gamma rays spectra are recorded for each discrete drum rotation, which allows to investigate the sample homogeneity. The developed algorithm for the element quantification is based on the activation with thermal and epithermal neutrons and includes the neutron and photon self-absorption in the drum filled with waste. The quantification algorithm takes into account whether an element is distributed homogeneously or spatially concentrated in a waste matrix. The required inputs for the element quantification are the recorded angle-dependent gamma spectra and the integral thermal neutron flux in the drum body. At the end of the thesis, the detection limits for standard irradiation and measurement conditions of selected elements are determined. In conclusion the suitability of MEDINA for the chemical characterisation relating to the declaration of harmful substances is presented. The test facility has the sensitivity to identify and quantify most toxic elements which have to be declared in the disposal procedure. If the documentation degree of radioactive waste is not adequate, MEDINA is a nondestructive measurement method to identify and quantify water pollutants inside waste forms packed in 200-l-drums.

  2. Politics and legislation related to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Socio-juridical case study on the Konrad ore mine; Politik und Recht der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Mit einer rechtssoziologischen Fallstudie ueber Schacht Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pape, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The energy revolution leads not only to build more wind turbines and the much-discussed circuit line from northern to southern Germany. Instead, the now old energy form of nuclear power needs to be handled. The disposal is one of the biggest unsolved issues of our time. In the conflict between energy and environment policies, the radioactive contamination of nuclear energy must be disposed of. The book is a highly topical compendium of legal and political aspects, which are not sufficiently taken into account because of their specialty in the public discourse. Based on the case study Konrad almost all legal and political priorities are treated very understandable.

  3. Transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. A contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem; Transmutation radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Kernkraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Verringerung der Endlagerproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, Manfred [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management

    2015-07-01

    The brochure on transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants - a contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem covers the following issues: What is transmutation? Nuclear power in Germany; energy density of fuels; time span of energy resources; CO{sub 2} emissions from different energy sources; types of nuclear power plants in Germany; cost of German electricity generation plants; nuclear power plants worldwide; wastes from nuclear electricity production; radiation from fission products; radiation effects on humans, the nuclear fuel cycle, direct final disposal of radioactive wastes; risk assessment of the direct final disposal; partitioning of actinides; transmutation of actinides.

  4. Search for a final repository site. How is the status of the preparation of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany?; Endlagersuche. Wie steht es um die Vorbereitung der Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.) [Evangelische Akademie Loccum, Rehburg-Loccum (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Naturwissenschaften, Oekologie und Umweltpolitik

    2017-07-01

    During the workshop on the status of the preparation of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany the following issues were discussed: socio-economic challenges two years after the final report of the commission for final disposal of radioactive wastes; the question of public participation - the difficult search for a repository site, experiences and intents of public participation during the work of the commission, interim storage of hear generating radioactive wastes, extended interim-storage, long-term interim storage facilities - opinion of the concerned public, how to establish a controlling and correcting surveillance of the process?.

  5. Neutron activation analysis with pulsed 14 MeV neutrons for the characterization of heterogeneous radioactive wastes; Neutronenaktivierungsanalyse mit gepulsten 14 MeV Neutronen zur Charakterisierung heterogener radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Frank

    2017-07-01

    For the transport, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste, it is assumed to have knowledge of the radioactive and non-radioactive inventory. In order to determine the radioactive inventory destructive (e.g. α-, β-, γ-measurements according to wet chemical sample preparation) and non-destructive (e.g. γ-scanning and neutron measurements) measurement methods are used. For the characterization of non-radioactive substances a prototype for the assay of small-volume (50 L) samples was constructed and parameterized using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) with a pulsed 14 MeV neutron source. Subsequently, the non-destructive analytical method called MEDINA (Multi Element Detection Based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) for 200 l waste drums was developed in a cooperation between RWTH Aachen University and Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and characterize heterogeneous mixed samples regarding their material composition as well as their inhomogeneous distribution. For this purposes, studies were carried out on 200 l steel drums with heterogeneous matrices using the NAA in the MEDINA facility. The samples are composed out of a mixture of concrete and polyethylene (PE) bodies. Due to its high hydrogen content, the PE can have a strong influence on the neutron moderation and neutron absorption and can thereby occur as a possible disturbance variable in the characterization of the non-radioactive inventory. For these studies a pulsed 14 MeV neutron source is used to record the prompt and delayed γ-rays between the neutron pulses, separately. Thus, the performance of the MEDINA method relating to strongly moderating mixed matrices and their characterization is studied. In order to optimize the measurement of delayed γ-rays without any appreciable interference of prompt γ-rays, the decay of thermal neutrons was studied and the thermal neutron die-away time was determined. It ranges between 2 and 5 ms according to the irradiated matrix. For the acquisition of the delayed γ-rays spectra a waiting time of about 12 ms after the end of the neutron pulses is needed. Furthermore, the influence of heterogeneity on the quantification of symmetrical and asymmetrical mixed samples made out of concrete and PE was investigated using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The results are consistent with the expected values with an uncertainty of ± 34 % (2σ) (symmetric samples) and ± 35 % (2σ) (asymmetric samples). The characterization in terms of the elemental composition of symmetrical mixed samples using the cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) showed that the results are in good agreement with the expected values with an uncertainty of �± 39 % (2σ). In this context the detection limits for selected chemotoxic substances were determined in symmetrical mixed samples. Depending on the PE content of the sample, detection limits ranging between 14 and 24 mg / kg for cadmium, 520 and 740 mg / kg for mercury and 5.5 and 53 g / kg for lead are achieved (measurement time approx. 30 minutes). In addition, the performance of the MEDINA method for the quantification of a local concentrated element mass (cadmium plate) in homogeneous samples and asymmetric mixed samples made out of concrete and PE was studied. For this purpose, a numerical model for localization and quantification of a local concentrated sample using the a priori information of the PGNAA has been developed and successfully tested. The results of this quantification using the cadmium plate as local concentrated element mass are consistent with the expected values with an uncertainty of ± 54 % (2σ) for the homogeneous samples. Furthermore, the influence of additional iron (local concentrated iron sample, homogeneous iron content and iron inliners of varied thickness) in the sample matrix were investigated according to the determination of the thermal neutron flux. Additional masses of iron can be identified and their influence on the determination of the thermal neutron flux can be corrected accordingly.

  6. Study on the safety during transport of radioactive materials. Pt. 4. Events during transport. Final report work package 6; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 4. Ereignisse bei der Befoerderung. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie

    2014-09-15

    This report presents the results from a data collection and an evaluation of the safety significance of events in the transportation of radioactive material by all modes on public routes in Germany. Systems for reporting and evaluation of the safety significance of events encountered in the transport of radioactive material are a central element in monitoring and judging the adequacy and effectiveness of the transport regulations and their underlying safety philosophy, this allows for revision by experience feedback (lessons learned). The nationwide survey performed covering the period from the mid 1990s through 2013 identified and analysed a total of 670 transport events varying in type and severity. The vast majority of recorded transport events relate to minor deviations from the provisions of the transport regulations (e.g. improper markings and error in transport documents) or inappropriate practices and operational procedures resulting in material damage of packages and equipment such as handling incidents. Severe traffic accidents and fires represented only a small fraction (ca. 3 percent) of the recorded transport events. Four transport events were identified in the reporting period to have given rise to environmental radioactive releases. Three transport events have reportedly resulted in minor radiation exposures to the transport personnel; in one case an exposure in excess of the statutory annual dose limit for the public seems possible. Based on the EVTRAM scale, with seven significance levels, the broad majority of transport events has been classified as ''non-incidents'' (Level 0) and ''events without affecting the safety functions of the package'' (Level 1). On the INES scale most transport events would be classified as events with ''no safety significance'' (Below Scale/Level 0). The survey results show no serious deficiencies in the transport of radioactive material, supporting the conclusion that a high level of safety and protection is ensured by the existing regulatory requirements. However, there is potential for improvement notably through avoiding common administrative deviations that could be rectified by training and qualification of the involved transport personnel. Otherwise, harmonising and consolidating of transport event reports would be a preferable future goal.

  7. Monitoring system with integrated measuring sensors for radioactively contaminated iron and non-iron scrap metal (MerEN). Final report; Ueberwachungssystem mit integrierter Messsensorik fuer radioaktiv belastete Eisen- und Nichteisenschrotte (MerEN). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celebic, Enis; Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb; Rutschmann, Michael; Goerisch, Uwe [Prof. Dr.-Ing. Uwe Goerisch GmbH Ingenieurbuero fuer Abfallwirtschaft, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wetzel, Ramona [Schrott Wetzel GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Radioactive sources are used in the industry, in nuclear medicine, the military, as well as in research. Accidents and losses rarely occur, a proper and responsible handling of those sources provided. Radioactive sources represent a risk when divulged, moved, passed on without authorization or lost. Time and again, radioactive sources are found at scrap yards and metal processing facilities. The supervision of these radioactive materials is gaining importance in the light of the worldwide import and export of ferrous and non-ferrous scrap. The aim of the project was to develop a space monitoring system for radioactively contaminated ferrous and non-ferrous scrap, so it can be removed from the operating range and to protect staff. The monitoring system combines technical and application-specific requirements. As part of the research project, the system was designed based on the operational framework conditions, technical and economic possibilities, and the findings from the experimental phase. The prototype mainly consists of a mainframe computer, stationary and mobile detection units, and the data transfer technology. This has successfully been tested at a scrap yard. The effects of vibrations that occur on scrapyards were investigated. This was necessary to obtain functionality of the hardware. The experimental phase was carried out based on a pre-defined set-up. The aim was to test the individual scenarios, processing and logging of the date as well to interpret the test results. In the event of radioactive sources being found in discarded metal, a standard sequence of actions was designed to protect the yard's processes and its personnel against further radioactive damage. For the first time, active radiation monitoring was performed on scrap-processing machines and in the working range of mobile devices. With this, scrap yard operators will have the opportunity to detect radioactively contaminated material at an early stage and before radiation sources are crushed and mixed with non-contaminated material.

  8. Treatment and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the oil and gas industry. A review; Behandlung und Deponierung natuerlicher radioaktiver Abfaelle (NORM) der Erdoel- und Erdgasindustrie. Ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ruediger B.; Schmuelling, Marcus [Bauer Emirates Environment, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Hosemann, Peter [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Engineering

    2014-07-01

    Concerning naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from the oil/ and gas industry most of the industrial countries were lacking clear regulatory frameworks in waste legislation for many years. In the meanwhile on several places in Europe, but also in some of the GCC states in the Middle East such as in the United Arab Emirates and in Oman specialized treatment facilities are either in the stage of construction or already in operation. In particular, pilot plants for the decontamination of NORM-contaminated equipment have been tested recently. The paper reflects on the generation and the technical characterization of NORM but also the legislation compared on international level. Particularly an overview was provided by comparing the common practice on disposal in the North American Countries in comparison to Germany, the UK but also Australia. In addition the successful treatment of produced water from crude oil separation in a ''Constructed Wetland'' in the Sultanate Oman is briefly highlighted.

  9. Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET. Calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68+; Entsorgung radioaktiv kontaminierter Reststoffe aus der Ga-68-PET. Berechnung eines Freigabewertes fuer Ge-68+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworksi, Lilli [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Stabsstelle Strahlenschutz und Abt. Medizinische Physik

    2017-05-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68 minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined.

  10. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus); Langzeitentwicklung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten des Kreises Korma (Belarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2009-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  11. Application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal. Final report; Anwendung und Weiterentwicklung von Modellen fuer Endlagersicherheitsanalysen auf die Freigabe radioaktiver Stoffe zur Deponierung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Larue, Juergen; Seher, Holger; Weiss, Dietmar

    2014-08-15

    The project of application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal is aimed to study the long-term safety using repository-specific simulation programs with respect to radiation exposure for different scenarios. It was supposed to investigate whether the 10 micro Sv criterion can be guaranteed under consideration of human intrusion scenarios. The report covers the following issues: selection and identification of models and codes and the definition of boundary conditions; applicability of conventional repository models for long-term safety analyses; modeling results for the pollutant release and transport and calculation of radiation exposure; determination of the radiation exposure.

  12. Malicious release of radioactive materials in urban area. Exposure of the public and emergency staff, protective measures; Boeswillige Freisetzung radioaktiver Stoffe in urbanen Bereichen. Exposition von Bevoelkerung und Einsatzpersonal, Schutzmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany). Bereich Aerosolforschung und Analytische Chemie; Lange, Florentin

    2016-07-01

    The preparedness for hypothetical radiological scenarios is part of the tasks for governmental authorities, safety and emergency organizations and the staff in case of the incident. The EURATOM guideline for radiation protection has to be implemented into national laws. According to the guidelines it is required that emergency planning has to be prepared for hypothetical radiological scenarios including terroristic or other maliciously motivated attacks using radioactive materials. The study includes assumptions on the released respirable radioactivity, restriction of the hazardous area, wind induced re-suspension of radioactive dusts and inhalation exposure, and mitigation measures.

  13. Implementation of standards at a research institute. Storage and keeping of radioactive materials following DIN 25422; Umsetzung von Normen in einem Forschungsinstitut. Sichere Aufbewahrung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe nach DIN 25422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeble, T.; Weinand, U. [Fraunhofer-INT, Euskirchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The secure storage and keeping of radioactive materials is increasingly important especially in times of a growing threat by terrorists. Authorities and users are jointly recommended to adapt the storage and keeping of radioactive materials to increasing security requirements. Here the different possibilities to fulfil the requirements regarding fire prevention and theft prevention which in Germany are set by DIN 25422 were determined for the radioactive materials and their storage and keeping places present in a research institute. The required measures were than agreed about with the relevant authority. Difficulties which are occurring due to the demanding combination of requirements out of the areas of radiation protection, fire prevention, and theft prevention are discussed. The storage and keeping of radioactive materials especially such of high activity requires a high level of security which must be continuously adapted to rising requirements.

  14. Determination and evaluation of the radiation dose to the population due to incorporation of natural radioactivity. Ermittlung und Bewertung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung, die durch Inkorporation natuerlicher radioaktiver Stoffe verursacht wird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloebel, B; Berlich, J; Keller, K D; Bauer, U; Andres, C; Zaeh, I; Malter, G; Fehrenz, K; Lehnen, H; Fehringer, F

    1989-03-01

    Of all natural radioactivity the uranium-radium and thorium decay chain each contribute essentially to the internal radiation exposure of human populations. The objective of the investigations carried out during the past years was on the one hand to determine the contents of the radionuclides {sup 3}H/uranium, radium, lead, polonium and thorium in the human body and furthermore to determine the relevant ingestion pathways as regards type and activity of the natural radioactive substances incorporated in foodstuffs and drinking water. For this purpose both human organ samples and environmental samples including foodstuffs and drinking water, essentially from the Saarland, but also from other regions of the FRG, were taken and analyzed. The methods used, as far as deviating from standard methods, are described. The measuring results are given and discussed. A concluding evaluation assigns the natural internal radiation exposure within the other risks of everyday life. The concentrations determined and the ingestion of the essential natural radionuclides are presented in tables. The radiation dose is estimated from the respective tissue concentration. (orig./HP).

  15. The final disposal of radioactive wastes as social, political and scientific project - an introduction; Ewigkeitslasten. Die ''Endlagerung'' radioaktiver Abfaelle als soziales, politisches und wissenschaftliches Projekt - eine Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear power production that was productive for two generations produces radioactive wastes that will be a hazardous and financial burden for many future generations. Science, politics, industry and the society are responsible to find a successful solution for the project of final disposal of radioactive wastes. With the fast development of renewable energies with the perspectives of sustainability and other advantages nuclear power will not have a remarkable future. The search for a final repository site is a tremendous governmental, economic and public challenge but can also be seen as a social chance. Democracy could be enforced by this process, public commitment, transparency, co-determination, confidence in political processes are indispensible premises.

  16. Radiation protection of radioactively contaminated large areas by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the contaminated plant residues (PHYTOREST); Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodsky, Daniel; Ollivier, Delphine; Merten, Dirk; Bergmann, Hans; Buechel, Georg [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Willscher, Sabine; Wittig, Juliane; Jablonski, Lukasz; Werner, Peter [Technische Univ. Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    2010-12-15

    Much progress has been achieved over the past 20 years in remediating sites contaminated by heavy metal. However, very large contaminated areas have presented major problems to this day because of remediation costs. Phytoremediation is a new, emerging, sustainable technique of remediating areas with low heavy-metal contamination. One advantage of phytoremediation is the comparatively low cost of the process, which may make it usable also on large areas with low levels of contamination. Besides extracting and immobilizing metals, respectively, phytoremediation among other things also contributes to improving soil quality in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology. Consequently, phytoremediation offers a great potential for the future. Research into phytoremediation of an area contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides is carried out on a site in a former uranium mining district in Eastern Thuringia jointly by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and the Technical University of Dresden in a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The project serves to promote the introduction of soft, biocompatible methods of long-term remediation and to develop conceptual solutions to the subsequent utilization of contaminated plant residues. Optimizing area management is in the focus of phytoremediation studies. (orig.)

  17. Die schwache Adjektivflexion im Dänischen und Deutschen. Eine Fingerübung in diachronischer Typologie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Heltoft, Lars

    2008-01-01

    als Ganze als [±definit] markiert – wobei die Adjektive gelegentlich an dieser Markierung mitwirken, gelegentlich aber auch nicht. Die schwache Flexion ist der reine Nominalgruppenkitt. Ein Vergleich mit anderen germanischen Sprachen und früheren Sprachstufen zeigt, dass Deutsch und Dänisch...

  18. QUEST. Qualification and testing of shock-absorbing structures and materials for the optimization/reduction of loads on packages for the disposal of radioactive residues from decommissioning and removal; QUEST. Qualifikation und Erprobung von stossdaempfenden Strukturen und Materialien zur Optimierung/Reduzierung der Beanspruchung von Verpackungen zur Entsorgung radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Stilllegung und Rueckbau.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    The safe enclosure of radioactive residues from decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be guaranteed using appropriated packaging. The container design has to consider accidental drops from different heights and on different ground conditions. For energy absorbing pine wood and polyurethane foams are possible, damping concrete for the underground is discussed. Optimization and reduction of mechanical loads on the containers a demonstration concept is planned. The project QUEST is aimed to study the materials behavior of pine wood, polyurethane foam and damping concrete under hypothetical boundary conditions of a drop accident. Appropriate numerical modeling had to be developed.

  19. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act; ''Transportare necesse est''. Zu den Versuchen in Deutschland, den Transport radioaktiver Stoffe zu unterbinden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des bremischen Hafenbetriebsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, U. [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  20. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review meeting in May 2018; Gemeinsames Uebereinkommen ueber die Sicherheit der Behandlung abgebrannter Brennelemente und ueber die Sicherheit der Behandlung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Bericht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die sechste Ueberpruefungskonferenz im Mai 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-15

    The joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management covers the following topics: historical development and actual status of the civil use of nuclear power, politics and the spent fuel management, inventories and listing, legislation and executive systems, other safeguard regulations, safety during spent fuel handling, safety during radioactive waste processing, transport across national borders, disused enclosed radioactive sources, general regulations for safety enhancement.

  1. Study on the safety during transportion of radioactive materials. Pt. 3. Coverage of the inspection conditions for packages. Final report work package 3; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 3. Abdeckungsgrad der Pruefbedingungen fuer Versandstuecke. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Holger; Eich, Patrick; Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie

    2014-08-15

    The report summarizes the state of science and technology and the inspection request according to the transport regulations SSR-6. The studies concerning different transport modes are evaluated with respect to accident data: air transport, maritime transport, rail transport and road transport. It has been shown that not enough appropriate information is available to quantify the accident probability. The IAEA transport regulations are considered to cover the thermal and mechanical loads to a large extent.

  2. Experiences from the exercise ''MERLIN'' for the detection of radioactive substances with the participation of special-purpose vehicles; Erfahrungen aus der Uebung ''MERLIN'' zur Detektion radioaktiver Stoffe unter Beteiligung verschiedenen Einsatzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesbach, M. [Hessisches Ministerium des Innern und fuer Sport, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Experiences of an exercise with hazardous goods, in particular with radioactive substances (measurements and taking environmental samples) are described. Several special-purpose vehicles with equipment and specially trained crews were used together with radiation protection experts according to the concept of Hesse. It has been the greatest exercise in Hesse with regard to hazardous goods and in particular with regard to ''incidents with radioactive substances''. (orig.)

  3. Calculation of radiological consequences of a radioactive matter release into the biosphere from a final repository using the code BioTREND; Berechnung radiologischer Konsequenzen der Freisetzung radioaktiver Stoffe aus einem Endlager in die Biosphaere mit dem Programm BioTREND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Tatiana; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2014-09-15

    The aim of the work was the development of a module for the code RepoTREND that allows the evaluation of radiation exposure in the biosphere. The selection of the characteristics relevant for the risk assessment is described. The program module bioTREND is based on the results of fission product release and dispersion calculations and a separate biosphere modeling. Exposure data (annual effective doses and organ doses) can be calculated for individuals and collectives. Optional is the calculation of radiotoxicity concentrations and radiotoxicity fluxes. Several recommendations for the improvement of the calculation module are included.

  4. Studies on the safety of the transport of radioactive materials. Part 1.1: Calculation of the limiting activity values - Q-model. Final report on the working package 4; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Teil 1.1. Berechnung von Aktivitaetsgrenzwerten - Q-Modell. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Uwe

    2014-08-15

    One aim of this project 3611R03300 was the analysis of the methods used in the Q system to establish a program for calculation of Q and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values. With this program not only the already known nuclides listed in the IAEA Transport Regulations SSR-6 should be recalculated, but one should also be able to calculate new radionuclides. For this reason a program was developed, using Microsoft Excel sheets and Excel VBA programming language. This report is the documentation of the development of this program and the used models for calculating Q and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values. In comparison with the Transport Regulations SSR-6 the results of this program are in good agreement for most of the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values. Furthermore, it is possible not even to recalculate Q and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values on the up to now used older data basis of ICRP 38 but also by using re-cent nuclide data presented in ICRP 107. Within the development of the calculation program many lacks of the documentation and problematic issues of the used so called Q system where found and are discussed in this report. At the end some points for a possible improvement of the Q system are presented.

  5. Investigations on the safety of radioactive materials transport. Pt. 1.2. Calculation of activity limits - permitted limits. Final report on the working package 4; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 1.2. Berechnung von Aktivitaetsgrenzwerten - Freigrenzen. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Cornelia; Eich, Patrick

    2014-09-15

    One aim of this project 3611R03300 was the analysis of the methods for the calculation of exemption values and the development of software for the calculation following the EU Principles and Methods of Radiation Protection 65 (RP 65). A program was devel-oped using Microsoft Excel-VBA. In this document, the development and underlying model is described. A comparison of the newly calculated values with the tabulated values of RP 65 shows a very good agreement. During the development a lot of deficiencies of the RP 65 documentation became evi-dent, precluding the expansion of the program for the calculation of new exemption values. Especially the methods for the calculation of nuclide specific parameters could not be reproduced partly.

  6. Measures for radiation prevention and remediation of islightly radioactive contaminated sites by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the loaded plant residues (PHYTOREST). Final report; Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, Sabine; Werner, Peter [TU Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Jablonski, Lukasz; Wittig, Juliane

    2013-12-30

    In the presented scientific research project, the radiation protection of soil surfaces impacted by former industrial utilization or mining was investigated. This radiation protection of the contaminated soil surfaces was carried out by bioremediation techniques. The soil surfaces include larger agricultural or forestry areas useful for the production of sustainable plant-based raw materials and renewable energies. The contaminated areas show a positive climatic water balance with a subsequent impact of SM/R contaminants onto the adjacent ground water. During this scientific research project, the introduction of sustainable, biosphere conserving methods for a long-term remediation of slightly to moderately HM/R- contaminated areas was investigated; these areas are characterized by a radiotoxic amplifying potential due to a continued occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals/ metalloids. The insights into transfer processes from the soil substrate over the mediating soil water phase and by microbes into the plant roots, into the shoots and the leaves of the plants represent necessary requirements for the control of SM/R transfer into the plants and its optimization. In this research project, considerable investigations were carried out for the understanding of binding of HM/R in the different plant compartments, also depending on different soil additives. The obtained first scientific results and their practical applicability were transformed onto experimental soil areas under natural field conditions. The transfer processes could be optimized and finally bioremediation efficiency could be enhanced due to the accompanying modifications (different soil additives of the field experiments). This new remediation method, further developed to a field application, represents a new tool for the stabilization / and extraction of HM/R on the field site and improves the efficiency of bioremediation processes. A pacification of the large areas with slightly to medium contaminated geosubstrates now can be carried out within the radiation protection regulations. Hence, the project provides a substantial contribution to the radiation protection of HM/R contaminated soils. Within the research project, ways for the utilization of HM/R- contaminated plant residuals were highlighted; this gives a substantial contribution for minimization of wastes, the winning of sustainable bioenergy and the recycling of materials. Here, different ways of solutions were investigated. The research project was carried out within the scientific funding program ''Closedown and decommissioning of nuclear facilities''. The results of the project will contribute to the development of a biologically benign, sustainable technique for the remediation of large contaminated areas that originate mostly from the legacy of the former U mining. As a general result of this comprehensive research project, a phytostabilization/ phytoextraction of such SM/R contaminated sites is feasible with a protection of ground water, and the plant crop from phytoremediation of the HM/R contaminated field site can be utilized for the winning of bioenergy (gaseous/ liquid products or thermal utilization). The beneficial combination of phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the biomass can be further developed to an innovative and sustainable remediation technology with national and international application potential.

  7. 25 lat polityki zjednoczonych Niemiec wobec Polski

    OpenAIRE

    Trzcielińska-Polus, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Im Artikel wird die Politik Deutschlands gegenüber Polen seit der Unterzeichnung des Vertrages über gute Nachbarschaft und freundschaftliche Zusammenarbeit am 17. Juni 1991 bis heute dargestellt. Der Vertrag markierte die historische Wende in den vielschichtigen deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen und eröffnete ein neues Kapitel. Man sprach damals von der Werte- und Interessengemeinschaft. Später aber war auch die Rede von einer Konflikt- und Streitgemeinschaft. Deswegen wurden die vergangenen 25 ...

  8. Exploratory simulations of multiphase effects in gas injection and ventilation tests in an underground rock laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra) and concluded in September 1989. 16 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  9. KONTEC 2013. 11{sup th} international symposium on 'Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning waste' and 11{sup th} BMBF status report on 'Decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities'; KONTEC 2013. 11. internationales Symposium 'Konditionierung radioaktiver Betriebs- und Stilllegungsabfaelle' einschliesslich 11. Statusbericht des BMBF 'Stilllegung und Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen'. Veranstaltungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    KONTEC 2013 was held in Dresden on 13 to 15 March 2013. The 11{sup th} event organized under this heading dealt with the subjects of 'Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Waste' and 'Decommissioning and Demolition of Nuclear Facilities' including the R and D Status Report by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) on the same subject. The conference was attended by an international audience from 19 countries. The program included plenary sessions on these 4 key topics: - Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning. - Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities. - Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes. - Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). These sessions were accompanied by poster sessions and short presentations under the heading of 'Kontec Direct.' The best presentations of the categories Plenary Session Presentation, Poster Presentation and Kontec-Direct have been awarded. In detail, 'Dismantling of Russian nuclear powered submarines' by Detlef Mietann, 'Requalification of 'Old Packages' for the Konrad Repository Described for the Model Case of Packages from Storage Annex A and Repackaging of Containers Holding Compacts in Hall 2 of the GNS Plant' by Martina Koessler, Sebastian Schwall and Pascal Budriks, and 'Electrochemical process development for cleaning organic, C-14-labelled waste solutions' by Hans-Juergen Friedrich. (orig.)

  10. Determination of the potential radiation exposure of the population close to the Asse II mine caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation using the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM); Ermittlung der potenziellen Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in der Umgebung der Schachtanlage Asse II infolge Ableitung radioaktiver Stoffe mit den abwettern im bestimmungsgemaessen Betrieb mittels des ''atmospaerischen Radionuklid-Transport-Modells'' ARTM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, D.; Wittwer, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    Between 1967 and 1978 125.787 packages filled with low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste were emplaced in the mining plant Asse II. Volatile radioactive substances like H-3, C-14 and Rn-222 are released from the emplaced waste. These substances reach the ventilated parts of the mine and are released with the discharge air. The potential radiation exposure of the population caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation is determined by the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM). As result the maximal deductions of volatile radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation of the Asse II mine lead to radiation exposure of the population, which is considerably lower than the permissible values of application rate.

  11. The new radiation protection ordinance from the viewpoint of the researcher in nuclear medicine; Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung aus der Sicht des in der Forschung taetigen Nuklearmediziners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Chr.; Lassmann, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    After the new radiation protection ordinance has come into effect with July 20th, 2001 the approval process for application of radiation substances or ionizing radiation in medical research changed considerably with respect to the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection as the approval authority, the participation of an approved ethic committee, the inclusion of an expert for medical physics for planning and execution of the study as well as stricter regulations for cover clause. On the contrary, existing regulations have been facilitated since the effective dose limit for volunteers has been increased from 10 to 20 mSv and a central procedure for approval of multicenter studies has been introduced. Moreover, the application of radioactive substances or ionizing radiation for research in people without or with restricted legal capacity is no more totally prohibited. At present, changes of the radiation protection ordinance and the atomic law cover clause ordinance with respect to medical research are in discussion. (orig.) [German] Nach In-Kraft-Treten der neuen Strahlenschutzverordnung vom 20.07.2001 ergeben sich wesentliche Aenderungen des Genehmigungsverfahrens fuer die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung in der medizinischen Forschung bezueglich der Zustaendligkeit des Bundesamts fuer Strahlenschutz als Genehmigungsbehoerde, der Einschaltung einer akkreditierten Ethikkommission, der Hinzuziehung eines Medizinphysik-Experten bei der Studien-Planung und -Anwendung sowie verschaerfter Regelungen zur Deckungsvorsorge. Eine gewisse Erleichterung bisher bestehender Regelungen ist in der Erhoehung des Grenzwerts der effektiven Dosis fuer Probanden von 10 auf 20 mSv sowie dem zentralen Genehmigungsverfahren fuer Multizenter-Studien zu sehen. Ausserdem ist eine Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung in der Forschung an geschaeftsunfaehigen und beschraenkt geschaeftsfaehigen Probanden nicht mehr voellig

  12. A task for generations. A commission plans for the future. Pt. 2. Public participation, time required, international comparison, past conflicts; Generationenaufgabe Endlagerung. Eine Kommission plant fuer die Zukunft. T. 2. Konzept zur Oeffentlichkeitsbeteiligung, Zeitbedarf, internationaler Vergleich, Konflikte der Vergangenheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Bernhard [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Jaeger, Gerd [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    German Federal and State governments have committed the political foundations for the disposal of high radioactive, heat-generating waste with the Repository Site Selection Act (StandAG). The act defines a new site selection procedure and the ''Kommission Lagerung hoch radioaktiver Abfallstoffe'' (Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste). The Commission should evaluate the site selection process criteria, processes and decision-making basis, evaluate the StandAG and make proposals for public participation and transparency. The commission presented its final report on 5 July 2016. atw spoke with the representatives of industry, Dr. Bernhard Fischer and Prof. Dr. Gerd Jaeger, on the commission work.

  13. A task for generations. A commission plans for the future. Pt. 1; Generationenaufgabe Endlagerung. Eine Kommission plant fuer die Zukunft. T. 1. Arbeit und Umgang in der Kommission, Entsorgungspfad, Beteiligung der Oeffentlichkeit, Entscheidungskriterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Bernhard [PreussenElektra GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Jaeger, Gerd [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    German Federal and State governments have committed the political foundations for the disposal of high radioactive, heat-generating waste with the Repository Site Selection Act (StandAG). The act defines a new site selection procedure and the ''Kommission Lagerung hoch radioaktiver Abfallstoffe'' (Commission Storage of High Radioactive Waste). The Commission should evaluate the site selection process criteria, processes and decision-making basis, evaluate the StandAG and make proposals for public participation and transparency. The commission presented its final report on 5 July 2016. atw spoke with the representatives of industry, Dr. Bernhard Fischer and Prof. Dr. Gerd Jaeger, on the commission work.

  14. Grimsel and planning of the nuclear waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, H.

    1997-01-01

    NAGRA (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle) was founded 25 years ago as a responsible for all preparatory work associated with the safe disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland. Extensive international R and D work has been carried out during the past 14 years at the GRIMSEL test site (GTS), one of the two underground rock laboratories headed by NAGRA. GTS is located approximately 450 meters beneath the crystalline rock in the Alps in the southern Central Switzerland. The rock lab is open for visitors not only to get acquainted with the research technology but also to admire the 16 million year old crystal cave at the place (author)

  15. Trace analysis of radionuclides in the environment - sense or nonesense?; Spurenanalyse von Radionukliden in der Umwelt - Sinn oder Unsinn?: Wozu Spurenanalyse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, H. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheitswesen (BAG), Fribourg (Switzerland). Sektion Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet

    1999-07-01

    Tracing and measuring very small concentrations of radionuclides in our environment, mostly far below any dangerous levels, is often considered today as an orchid science, causing only an unnecessary expenditure. The examples given here are nevertheless showing that the internationally existing measuring network meets two very important tasks. On the one hand, it serves for survey and recognition of illegal releases of radioactive substances, up to forbidden nuclear weapons testing. On the other hand, it enlarges our knowledge on meteorological distribution ways of radioactivity that could be of great importance for the precautions at major nuclear accidents. (orig.) [German] Das Aufspueren und Messen kleinster Konzentrationen von Radionukliden in unserer Umwelt, die meist weit unterhalb einer Gefaehrdungsgrenze liegen, gilt heute haeufig als eine Orchideenwissenschaft, die nur unnoetigen Aufwand treibt. Die hier zusammengestellten Beispiele fuer Methoden und Erfolge der Spurenanalyse zeigen jedoch, dass das international aufgebaute Messnetz zwei wichtige Aufgaben erfuellt. Es dient einerseits der Ueberwachung und Erkennung von illegalen Freisetzungen radioaktiver Stoffe bis hin zu verbotenen Nuklearwaffentests weltweit, und es vertieft andererseits die Erkenntnisse ueber die meteorologischen Ausbreitungswege radioaktiver Stoffe, die zur Vorsorge bei schwerwiegenden nuklearen Unfaellen aeusserst wichtig sein koennen. (orig.)

  16. Craniota, Wirbel- oder Schädeltiere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Zu den Craniota zählen alle Chordatiere, die eine dreiteilige Regionalisierung des Körpers in Kopf, Rumpf und Schwanz aufweisen. Der Kopf umfasst (1) das Neurocranium mit Gehirn und komplexen Sinnesorganen zur Wahrnehmung der Umgebung, (2) das Viscerocranium zur Nahrungsaufnahme und zur Ventilation der Kiemen bei den primär wasserlebenden Craniota und (3) das Dermatocranium (S. 38). Letzteres entsteht durch Verknöcherungen im Bindegewebe des Integuments, es dient dem Schutz des Kopfes und trägt im Mundbreich die Zähne. Zusammen bilden die drei Skelettstrukturen die funktionelle Einheit Schädel (Cranium). Außer der (somatischen) Rumpfmuskulatur und dem Axialskelett liegen im Rumpf Kreislauf-, Atmungs-, Verdauungs-, Exkretions- und Fortpflanzungsorgane. Der Schwanz, der Abschnitt hinter der Afteröffnung, die das Ende der Leibeshöhle markiert, dient mit Muskeln und Schwanzflosse der Fortbewegung.

  17. The Chernobyl reactor accident, ten years on. Teaching projects for mathematics instruction in interdisciplinary working groups; 10 Jahre nach Tschernobyl. Unterrichtsprojekte fuer den Mathematikunterricht in faecheruebergreifenden Kooperationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, H. [comp.; Delle, E. [comp.; Mies, K. [comp.; Warmeling, A. [comp.

    1996-10-01

    The booklet presents background information and addresses the following aspects: ionizing radiation and radiation effects; safety of German nuclear power plants; statistical evidence of radiation injuries; short-lived and long-lived ionizing radiation; radioactive waste; CO{sub 2} emissions as an argument in favour of nuclear power generation. The material presented is intended for use by a school project team interested in the subjects, or as a basis for collaborative, interdisciplinary teaching in working groups, and it offers information and problems for mathematics teaching. (HP) [Deutsch] Neben vielen Informationen behandelt die Broschuere: Strahlen und Strahlenwirkungen; Sicherheit deutscher Kernkraftwerke; statistischer Nachweis von Strahlenschaeden; Kurz- und Langfestigkeit der Strahlenbelastung; radioaktiver Abfall; CO{sub 2}-Problematik als Argument fuer die Kernenergie. Die Broschuere ist gedacht z.B. fuer eine Projektgruppe, einen Projekttag, fuer eine Lerngruppe in faecheruebergreifender Kooperation. Die Materialien sind ausgearbeitet fuer die Themembearbeitung im Mathematikunterricht mit Uebungsaufgaben. (HP)

  18. No need to change the steering course. Nuclear waste: Consensus about nuclear waste management strategy has to be based on a broad general acceptance; Der Kurs braucht keine Wende. Atommuell: Entsorgungskonsens muss sich um breite Akzeptanz bemuehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, A. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-02-08

    The nuclear waste management strategy continues to be confronted with harsh criticism, but so far the Government`s policy has been backed by judgments of the administrative and civil courts and by the Federal Constitutional Court. Resolving the nuclear waste problem in good time will need firm adherence to the strategy adopted, and all attempts of blockaders to bribe waste management policy into a stalemate are inacceptable. [Deutsch] Die Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle wird immer wieder kritisiert. Bisher wurden aber alle wesentlichen Entsorgungsschritte von den Verwaltungs- und Zivilgerichten sowie vom Bundesverfassungsgericht bestaetigt. Notwendig ist die konsequente Fortsetzung des eingeschlagenen Kurses zur zeit- und bedarfsgerechten Realisierung der Entsorgungseinrichtungen. Eine Erpressung ueber die Blockade notwendiger Entsorgungsschritte kann nicht hingenommen werden. (orig./HP)

  19. Device for applying organic chemicals to lysimeter surfaces; Applikationsvorrichtung fuer organische Chemikalien auf Lysimeteroberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenoekologie

    1999-02-01

    One of the aims of environmental research at the GSF Research Centre for the Environment and Health is to determine the behaviour of environmentally consequential chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems under as natural conditions as possible. The GSF lysimeter plant in Neuherberg permits studying the environmental behaviour of organic chemicals in different soils. Collaborators at GSF have developed a means of applying -14-marked substances in field lysimeters so as to be able to refind released chemicals, identify their conversion products and set up mass balances for the chemicals. [Deutsch] Ein Ziel der Umweltforschung im GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit ist es, das Verhalten von Umweltchemikalien in terrestrischen Oekosystemen unter moeglichst natuerlichen Bedingungen zu bestimmen. In der GSF-Lysimeteranlage Neuherberg kann das Umweltverhalten von Organika in verschiedenen Boeden untersucht werden. Zur Wiedererkennung der ausgebrachten Chemikalie bzw. zur Identifizierung aus ihr entstandener Umwandlungsprodukte und letztendlich auch zur Erstellung einer Massenbilanz fuer das ausgebrachte Praeparat wurde in der GSF die Moeglichkeit geschaffen, {sup 14}C-markierte Substanzen in Freilandlysimetern applizieren zu koennen. (orig.)

  20. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.

    2000-07-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular {sup 46}Sc was popular. (orig.) [German] 'Regierungskriminalitaet' kann man auch im deutschen Strahlenschutz finden. Anhand neuer Dokumentationen der so genannten Gauckbehoerden, ueber die auch schon fluechtig in der Presse berichtet und spekuliert wurde, lassen sich Einzelheiten ueber die Vorgehensweisen einfallsreicher Stasi-Mitarbeiter, die Stasi-eigene Strahlenschutzverordnung und Strahlenschutz-Kommission usw. rekonstruieren. Ueber 1.000 Personen, aber auch Gegenstaende, Dokumente, Geldscheine etc. wurden markiert, wobei unter einer Vielzahl der regelmaessig aus Rossendorf gelieferten Nukliden {sup 46}Sc besonders gern eingesetzt sowie in Dresden spezielle Nachweisgeraete entwickelt wurden. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotope-hydrological investigations of surface and crevice waters in the Grimsel area (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, A.

    1995-12-01

    The Grimsel rock laboratory (Hasli valley, Berner Oberland, Switzerland) has been used since 1984 by NAGRA (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle, Wettingen, Switzerland). It is about 450 metres deep under the Juchli ridge in the crystalline rock basement of the Aar massif. Within the framework of an international cooperation, a great many research topics in connection with the underground storage of radioactive waste are being studied at this location. Their focus is, inter alia, on the following: hydrogeological investigations of crevice water movement, investigations of geophysical structures and rock tension measurements, migration of radionuclides in an individual crevice. So far, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions have only been studied as far as they related to the needs of individual investigations, and systematic information on global waterways in the Juchli basement was scarce. By contrast, this work aimed at the chemical characterization of surface and spring waters in the catchment area of the rock laboratory as well as the crevice waters in the day-drift system, the description of the chemical development of the waters during their passage through the crevice system, and the assessment of the mean underground retention time of crevice waters by means of different stable and radioactive isotopes. In addition, hydrogeological mapping of the system of waters above ground and crevice water accesses underground was carried out. (orig./SR) [de

  2. Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Cramer, T.; Meier-Kortwig, J.; Diedenhofen, S.; Wotruba, H.

    2005-01-01

    The AST process is a device for the recycling of building rubble originating from the dismantling of nuclear installations. Due to the activity separation in the process, a major part of rubble which would have otherwise been radioactive waste can now be cleared. The AST process has been developed in the course of the combined research project ''Aufbereitung radioaktiver mineralischer Rueckstaede durch Aktivitaetsseparation (Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation)'' which was sponsored by the BMBF (Federal Ministry for Education and Research). The first step was to investigate the activity distribution between the various constituents of activated heavy concrete (additions: hematite, magnetite, iron cuttings), of contaminated heavy and normal concrete, as well as of composition floor. Heavy concrete with metal additions showed a selective activation of the various constituents. Contaminated rubble often exhibits a selective enrichment of the activity in the cement in contrast to the aggregate. The AST facility for activity separation was designed on the basis of these results. Trial operation with various types of building rubble was carried out using three methods for sorting, screening according to grain size, magnetic separation and radiometric sorting. The use of these three methods was adapted to the material. (orig.)

  3. The principle of proportionality in water pollution control during mine flooding; Gewaesserguetewirtschaftliche Beurteilungskriterien bei der Grubenflutung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reincke, H. [WEG Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Wismut remediation project comprised the sanitation of large surfaces of contaminated land in Saxony and Thuringia. About 1,400 km of underground mines and 56 shafts were flooded. The contribution presents a critical discussion of the potential and limits of the flooding process and its economic aspects in consideration of legal specifications. [German] Das Wismut-Sanierungsprojekt beinhaltet die Sanierung der grossflaechig radioaktiv kontaminierten Wismut-Altlasten in Sachsen und Thueringen mit dem Ziel die Uranerzbergbau- und -aufbereitungsbetriebe stillzulegen und die Betriebsflaechen zu sanieren, um sie wieder nutzbar zu machen. Ein wesentlicher Schwerpunkt besteht dabei in der Verwahrung und Flutung vorhandener Gruben, die fuer den untertaegigen Abbau der Erze genutzt wurden und aus rund 1.400 km offenen Grubenbauen und 56 Tagesschaechten bestehen. Dieses weitverzweigte untertaegige Netz von Stollen, Schaechten und Kammern sollte moeglichst rasch ausser Betrieb genommen und fuer die Flutung (Endverwahrung) vorbereitet werden. Dabei stellt die Flutung die umweltvertraeglichste, technisch sicherste und zugleich kostenguenstigste Sanierungsvariante dar. Die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen zur Beanspruchung der oeffentlichen Vorflut fuer die Grubenwaesser unter Wuerdigung oekonomisch vertretbarer Loesungen im wasserrechtlichen Vollzug werden im Folgenden einer kritischen Betrachtung unterzogen und zur Diskussion gestellt. (orig.)

  4. The Nagra-DOE Cooperative Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Levich, R.A.; Zuidema, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program was sponsored by the US DOE through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra). Scientists participating in this project explored the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Six joint tasks were defined and are described briefly. Task 1: Determination of fracture hydraulic parameters by means of fluid-logging in boreholes. Task 2: Development and application of new solutions for well test analysis in fractured media. Task 3: Interdisciplinary methodology for characterizing fracture hydrology. Task 4: Investigation of two-phase gas-liquid flow in fractured media. Task 5: Underground rock laboratory studies. Task 6:Coupling of transport and geochemistry. Tasks 1, 2, 3, and 5 were concerned with the characterization of fractured rock. Task 5 in particular was focused on investigations at the Grimsel Underground Lab. in the Swiss Alps. Tasks 2 and 6 focused on the phenomenology associated with storing radioactive waste underground. The accomplishments of the six tasks are summarized

  5. Environmental offenses in 1999. An evaluation of statistics; Umweltdelikte 1999. Eine Auswertung der Statistiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, M.; Werner, J.; Heinrich, M.

    2000-11-01

    A total of 43,382 known environmental offenses was recorded in 1999 as compared to 47,900 in 1998. There were 36,663 penal offenses (section 29 StGB), 48 penal offenses (section 28 StGB) and 6,671 offenses against other laws (BNatSchG, ChemG, etc.). This statistics covers chemical pollutants, radioactive materials, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, noise and explosions. It is estimated that a much higher number of offenses went unnoticed. [German] Mit insgesamt 43 382 bekannt gewordenen umweltrelevanten Straftaten ist die Umweltkriminalitaet im Jahre 1999 gegenueber 47 900 im Jahre 1998 gesunken. Die 43 382 Taten verteilen sich auf 36 663 Taten nach dem 29. Abschnitt des StGB (Straftaten gegen die Umwelt), 48 umweltrelevante Taten nach dem 28. Abschnitt des StGB (gemeingefaehrliche Straftaten) und 6 671 Straftaten nach dem Umweltnebenstrafrecht (BNatSchG, ChemG u.a.). Erfasst wurden alle Delikte bezueglich chemischer Schadstoffe, radioaktiver Stoffe, ionisierender und nichtionisierender Strahlen, Laerm und Erschuetterungen. Das Dunkelfeld bei Umweltstraftaten wird von den mit ihnen befassten Personen im Vergleich zu tatsaechlich angezeigten Umweltdelikten ueberwiegend als bedeutend groesser eingeschaetzt. (orig.)

  6. NET.EXCEL - a European thematic network for suggesting and prioritising future joint R and D projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svemar, C.; Brewitz, W.

    2004-01-01

    The NET.EXCEL project concerns the forming of a network of European end users for analysing the present status and future needs in research, technical development and demonstration (RTD) for the disposal of highly radioactive waste in the three classical rock media: salt, clay/clay sediments and crystalline rock. The aim is to generate values additional to that gained by the individual participants: Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden), Posiva Oy (Finland), Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (Spain), Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Germany), Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (France), Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle (Swizerland), Organisme National des Dechets Radioactifs et des Matieres Fissiles Enrichies (Belgium) and United Kingdom Nirex Limited (UK). The practical way to carry out the needed RTD-activities and the principles behind the process to establish priorities for the necessary RTD-work is quite similar among the participants. Common ground has been analysed for the role/responsibilities of the participating organisations, for the establishment of priorities for the RTD work and for the modus operandi of the organisations to carry out the RTD. The issue of prioritising the potential RTD activities and the factors taken into account by the participating organisations have been summarised and analysed with respect to the common denominator in the project. (orig.)

  7. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  8. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1997-12-31

    Neutronenstreuung liefern. Durch den Austausch des natuerlichen Wasserstoffs ({sup 1}H) gegen Deuterium ({sup 2}H) lassen sich Teilstrukturen des Komplexes fuer Neutronen kontrastieren und direkt in situ vermessen. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden solche deuterium-markierten Ribosomenpraeparate (E. coli) hergestellt und mit Neutronen analysiert. Die erforderlichen biochemischen Methoden wurden etabliert und zu einem allgemein anwendbaren Praeparationssystem zusammengefasst. Es koennen damit alle Komponenten des 70S-Ribosoms in beliebiger Kombination markiert werden. Auf der Grundlage einer systematischen Analyse der Protein- und RNA-Phasen konnte ein neues 70S-Ribosomenmodell entwickelt werden, das nicht nur die aeussere Form des Partikels beschreibt, sondern erstmals auch eine vermessene interne Protein-RNA-Verteilung und den Verlauf der Untereinheitengrenze angibt (Vierphasen-Modell; Aufloesung: 50 A). 70S-Ribosomenmodelle aus anderen Studien wurden anhand der gemessenen Streudaten beurteilt und gewichtet. Mit Hilfe einer neuen, besonders empfindlichen Neutronenstreutechnik, der Protonenspin-Kontrastvariation, gelang es ausserdem, einzelne markierte Proteine zu vermessen und zu lokalisieren. Mit den Positionen von S6 und S10 werden die ersten im 70S-Ribosom vermessenen Proteinschwerpunktskoordinaten vorgelegt. (orig.)

  9. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1998-12-31

    Neutronenstreuung liefern. Durch den Austausch des natuerlichen Wasserstoffs ({sup 1}H) gegen Deuterium ({sup 2}H) lassen sich Teilstrukturen des Komplexes fuer Neutronen kontrastieren und direkt in situ vermessen. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden solche deuterium-markierten Ribosomenpraeparate (E. coli) hergestellt und mit Neutronen analysiert. Die erforderlichen biochemischen Methoden wurden etabliert und zu einem allgemein anwendbaren Praeparationssystem zusammengefasst. Es koennen damit alle Komponenten des 70S-Ribosoms in beliebiger Kombination markiert werden. Auf der Grundlage einer systematischen Analyse der Protein- und RNA-Phasen konnte ein neues 70S-Ribosomenmodell entwickelt werden, das nicht nur die aeussere Form des Partikels beschreibt, sondern erstmals auch eine vermessene interne Protein-RNA-Verteilung und den Verlauf der Untereinheitengrenze angibt (Vierphasen-Modell; Aufloesung: 50 A). 70S-Ribosomenmodelle aus anderen Studien wurden anhand der gemessenen Streudaten beurteilt und gewichtet. Mit Hilfe einer neuen, besonders empfindlichen Neutronenstreutechnik, der Protonenspin-Kontrastvariation, gelang es ausserdem, einzelne markierte Proteine zu vermessen und zu lokalisieren. Mit den Positionen von S6 und S10 werden die ersten im 70S-Ribosom vermessenen Proteinschwerpunktskoordinaten vorgelegt. (orig.)

  10. Myocardial fatty acid utilisation during exercise induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, K.S. [First Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland); Nikkinen, P. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland); Lindroth, L. [Medix Diacor Lab. Services, Ltd., Espoo (Finland); Kuikka, J.T. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    Aim: Reversible or irreversible myocardial damage due to ischemia correlates with altered membrane functions of the cells. To compare myocardial free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism and flow during exercise induced ischemia we studied ten patients with coronary artery disease but without previous myocardial infarction. Methods: A series of post-exercise single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements was performed after injection of {sup 123}I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). Myocardial perfusion was estimated from the separately performed exercise-redistribution thallium study. Fatty acid metabolic rate, thallium uptake and washout were calculated for anterior, lateral, posterior and septal segments. Results: The more reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate (-63{+-}18%, mean {+-}1 SD) compared to flow (-36{+-}16%) was related to the severity of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormalities. Conclusion: In this small group of patients, the reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate tentatively suggests a parsimonious workload of the exercising myocardium by reducing oxygen consumption in patients with coronary artery disease. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei reversibler und irreversibler Myokardschaedigung infolge Ischaemie sind die Membranfunktionen der Zellen veraendert. Um myokardialen Metabolismus freier Fettsaeuren (FFA) und Durchblutung bei belastungsinduzierter Ischaemie zu vergleichen, untersuchten wir zehn Patienten mit Koronarinsuffizienz, aber ohne vorangegangenen Myokardinfarkt. Methoden: Nach Injektion von {sup 123}I-markierter Heptadekansaeure (HDA) wurde eine Serie von SPECT-Messungen nach Belastung aufgenommen. Die myokardiale Perfusion wurde abgeschaetzt durch die separat durchgefuehrte Thalliumverteilungsstudie nach Belastung. Fettsaeurestoffwechsel, Thallium-Uptake und -Washout wurden fuer die anterioren, posterioren und septalen Segmente berechnet. Ergebnisse: Eine eingeschraenktere FFA-Stoffwechselrate (-63{+-}18%, {+-}1 SD

  11. Analysis and interpretation of borehole hydraulic tests in deep boreholes: principles, model development, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, J.F.; Grisak, G.E.; Avis, J.D.; Belanger, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature on hydraulic testing and interpretive methods, particularly in low-permeability media, indicates a need for a comprehensive hydraulic testing interpretive capability. Physical limitations on boreholes, such as caving and erosion during continued drilling, as well as the high costs associated with deep-hole rigs and testing equipment, often necessitate testing under nonideal conditions with respect to antecedent pressures and temperatures. In these situations, which are common in the high-level nuclear waste programs throughout the world, the interpretive requirements include the ability to quantitatively account for thermally induced pressure responses and borehole pressure history (resulting in a time-dependent pressure profile around the borehole) as well as equipment compliance effects in low-permeability intervals. A numerical model was developed to provide the capability to handle these antecedent conditions. Sensitivity studies and practical applications are provided to illustrate the importance of thermal effects and antecedent pressure history. It is demonstrated theoretically and with examples from the Swiss (National Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle) regional hydrogeologic characterization program that pressure changes (expressed as hydraulic head) of the order of tens to hundreds of meters can results from 1 0 to 2 0 C temperature variations during shut-in (packer isolated) tests in low-permeability formations. Misinterpreted formation pressures and hydraulic conductivity can also result from inaccurate antecedent pressure history. Interpretation of representative formation properties and pressures requires that antecedent pressure information and test period temperature data be included as an integral part of the hydraulic test analyses

  12. Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Biopsie des Melanoms mittels Indocyaningrün und "FOVIS"-System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göppner, Daniela; Nekwasil, Stephan; Jellestad, Anne; Sachse, Alexander; Schönborn, Karl-Heinz; Gollnick, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Der Nachweis metastatischer Infiltrate im Sentinel-Lymphkoten (SLN) gilt als wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor des Melanoms. Alternativ zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau zum Goldstandard der SLN-Biopsie (SLNB) mittels Radiokolloid wird die fluoreszenzoptische Darstellung mit Hilfe von Indocyaningrün (ICG) und Nahinfrarot (NIR)-Kamerasystem kommuniziert. Im Vergleich zur konventionellen Methode wurde die Wertigkeit des ICG-/NIR-Verfahrens in Abhängigkeit vom Body-Mass-Index (BMI) des Patienten und der Konzentration von ICG bezüglich der Visualisierung des Lymphabstroms und des SLNs untersucht. An zehn Patienten wurde die SLNB mittels Technetium-99m, Patentblau und ICG durchgeführt. Die Fluoreszenz-Darstellung von Lymphbahnen und SLN erfolgte in Echtzeit mittels der NIR-Kameratechnik "FOVIS". Je nach erzielter Bildqualität wurde ICG in einer Dosis von 0,25 mg bis 2,5 mg intrakutan appliziert. Neun der zehn SLN wurden fluoreszenzoptisch identifiziert (90 %), alle zehn radioaktiv (100 %), nur acht (80 %) mittels ICG-Grünfärbung bzw. Patenblau-Markierung. Transdermal wurde ein SLN dargestellt (10 %). In Korrelation zum BMI waren höhere ICG-Mengen, bis zu 2,5 mg intrakutan absolut, in der Darstellung der Lymphbahnen von Vorteil. Die SLN-Fluoreszenzmarkierung mit dem ICG/NIR-Kamera-System "FOVIS" stellt eine sichere Alternative zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau ergänzend zur Radiokolloidmethode mit Technetium-99m dar. Weitere Studien zur optimalen Dosierung von ICG und transdermalen Bildgebung in Relation zum BMI sind notwendig. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  14. Final storage in Germany. Who is interested?; Endlagerung in Deutschland - Wer ist interessiert? Einige persoenliche Gedanken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, K. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2002-02-01

    The final storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany - who, in Germany, has any interest in this subject, especially now that the new Atomic Energy Act has been adopted, and who is going to read this article? The author, Professor Klaus Kuehn, examines this question, analyzing in his contribution the current situation and the points of view of those who may be interested in this topic. In Prof. Kuehn's opinion, the addresses in particular are these: - the federal government, - the opposition in the federal parliament, - the federal states, - the Federal Ministry for the Environment, - the Federal Ministry for Research, - the Federal Ministry of Economics, - the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, - the operators of nuclear power plants, - the Working Group Elaborating Procedures for Selecting Repository Sites (AkEnd). Klaus Kuehn concludes that there is little interest at the present time in the subject of Final Storage in Germany, for reasons explained in detail which result both from the political constellation and from existing constraints. (orig.) [German] Die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle: 'Wer in Deutschland interessiert sich eigentlich fuer dieses Thema? Insbesondere jetzt, nach der Verabschiedung des neuen Atomgesetzes? Wer wird diesen Artikel lesen?' Der Autor, Professor Klaus Kuehn, geht dieser Fragestellung nach und analysiert in seinem Beitrag die Sachlage und Standpunkte der moeglichen potenziellen Interessenten an dieser Thematik. Im Einzelnen sind die betrachteten und aus Sicht von K. Kuehn entscheidenden Adressanten; - die Bundesregierung - die Opposition im Bundestag - die Bundeslaender - das Bundesumweltministerium - das Bundesforschungsministerium - das Bundeswirtschaftsministerium - das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - die Kernkraftwerksbetreiber - der Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren von Endlagerstandorten (AkEnd). Klaus Kuehn kommt zu dem Schluss, dass derzeit aus dezidiert dargelegten Gruenden, die sich sowohl

  15. The new radiation protection ordinance from the viewpoint of the nuclear medicine technologist; Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung aus der Sicht der medizinisch-technischen Radiologieassistentin/des medizinisch-technischen Radiologieassistenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    The new radiation protection ordinance for the first time acknowledges the role of the nuclear medicine technologists for the technical assistance in the use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation with human beings in medicine. Therefore changes are required for the technologists in terms of their qualification and continuing education during their professional life and in the daily routine in a nuclear medicine department. The new ordinance clearly defines which group of people is allowed to work as nuclear medicine technologists and also which special knowledge in radiation protection is mandatory to make sure that nobody without this certified education is performing the work of a nuclear medicine technologist. The new effective dose limit for people working with radiation will not change the daily work, but new regulations for pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers working in nuclear medicine will bring dramatic changes. (orig.) [German] Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung beruecksichtigt zum ersten Mal ausdruecklich die Rolle des medizinisch-technischen Personals bei der 'technischen Mitwirkung bei der Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung am Menschen in der Heilkunde oder der Zahnheilkunde'. Dadurch ergeben sich fuer die MTRA neue Anforderungen in Bezug auf Ausbildungsvoraussetzungen, berufliche Fortbildung und auch auf die Ablaeufe in der taeglichen Routine. Der Personenkreis, der zur technischen Mitwirkung berechtigt ist, wurde genau definiert, ebenso wie dessen Fachkunde, mit der nun sichergestellt werden soll, dass keine Personen ohne Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz die Taetigkeiten der MTRA ausfuehren. Die neu festgelegte Obergrenze der effektiven Dosis fuer beruflich strahlenexponiertes Personal wird fuer das technische Personal keine merkbaren Auswirkungen mit sich bringen, dafuer aber die Neuerungen bezueglich der Beschaeftigung von Schwangeren und stillenden Frauen. (orig.)

  16. Freizeit beim Feind. US-amerikanische Soldaten in Ost-Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Eisenhuth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an almost forgotten type of ›border crosser‹ in the divided city of Berlin: the members of the American military community. To them (as well as to the members of the French and British forces, the Berlin Wall marked the front line of the Cold War. At the same time, though, they were allowed to cross the border and spend their free time in East Berlin. Especially in the 1970s and 1980s, when the dollar was tumbling, American families took advantage of the favourable exchange rate and crossed the border for cheap shopping, dining and entertainment. Due to Berlin’s status, the GDR government had to tolerate this kind of tourism, but nevertheless tried to prevent any personal contact between Americans and East Germans. The regime could also benefit financially from the Western tourists. This demonstrates the ambivalence of the Honecker era, the concurrence of an increased openness and internal erosion. The study is based on documents from the GDR’s Ministry for State Security, the West Berlin Senate Chancellery and the US Berlin Brigade as well as on contemporary newspaper articles. * * * Der Aufsatz widmet sich einer ungewöhnlichen Gruppe von Berliner Grenzgängern: den vor Ort stationierten US-Soldaten. Für sie (wie auch für die Soldaten der britischen und französischen Armee markierte die Mauer einerseits die Front des Kalten Krieges, andererseits durften sie diese ohne große Kontrollen passieren und ihre Freizeit in Ost-Berlin verbringen – was sie besonders in den 1970er- und 1980er-Jahren auch intensiv taten, denn in Zeiten der Dollarkrise versprach die östliche Stadthälfte viel Vergnügen, Restaurantbesuche und Einkaufsmöglichkeiten für wenig Geld. Die DDR-Regierung war genötigt, die Grenzgänge zu tolerieren. Von dieser Form des Tourismus konnte sie finanziell profitieren, versuchte konkrete Kontaktaufnahmen aber zu vermeiden. Der Umgang mit den Grenzgängen amerikanischer Soldaten und ihrer

  17. Lipiodol injections for optimization of target volume delineation in a patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, Marlen; Merten, Ricarda; Stojanovic, Andrea; Speer, Stefan; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Scherl, Claudia [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Schnittbildgebungen konnte der Tumor v. a. in kraniokaudaler Ausdehnung nicht sicher abgegrenzt werden. Die kranialen und kaudalen Tumorraender wurden pharyngoskopisch mit Lipiodol, einem jodhaltigem Kontrastmittel, markiert (vgl. Abb 3). In einem zweiten Planungs-CT konnte das GTV mit Hilfe der Lipiodolmarkierung abgegrenzt (vgl. Abb. 4) und die kleinvolumige Re-Bestrahlung (vgl. Abb. 5) durchgefuehrt werden. Es traten keine Lipiodol-assoziierten Nebenwirkungen auf. In diesem Fall konnte die Markierung der Tumorraender mit Lipiodol die GTV-Definition erleichtern. (orig.)

  18. Use of fracture mechanics in the US industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, J.D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2001-07-01

    The modern fracture mechanics technology began in the US in the 1960's. It was developed in response to failure problems that could not be explained by current technology. Some segments of the US industry were quick to embrace this new technology. The period of 1960 to middle 1980's marked a time of active fracture mechanics research in the US industry. From this various codes and assessment procedures have been developed to apply the fracture mechanics approach to evaluate the safety and reliability of critical structural components. This report discusses the US industry use of fracture mechanics. It considers the historical developments, some of the fracture mechanics tools that are available and present practices. Several different industry segments that have used the fracture mechanics approach are considered. These include aerospace, military, power generation, petrochemical and pipelines, metal producers, and construction/transportation. Their current use of the fracture mechanics methods involves the implementation of codes and procedures, the development of software packages, the use of outside consulting groups and some in-house research efforts. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung der modernen Bruchmechanik in den USA begann in den 1960er Jahren im Zusammenhang mit einer Reihe von Versagensfaellen, die auf konventionelle Weise nicht erklaert werden konnten. Die neuen Ansaetze wurden von einigen Branchen schnell aufgegriffen und weiterentwickelt. Die Periode von 1960 bis in die Mitte der 1980er Jahre markiert eine Zeit intensiver Forschungsarbeit in der amerikanischen Industrie. Eine Reihe von Codes und Vorschriften zur Bewertung der Sicherheit und Zuverlaessigkeit gefaehrdeter Strukturen hat ihren Ursprung in dieser Zeit. Der vorliegende Aufsatz thematisiert die Anwendung bruchmechanischer Methoden in der Industrie der USA anhand historischer Aspekte, des heute verfuegbaren Instrumentariums der Bauteilbewertung und der gaengigen Praxis bei der

  19. Quantitative perfusion imaging in magnetic resonance imaging; Quantitative Perfusionsbildgebung in der Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, F.G.; Gaa, T.; Zimmer, F. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Ong, M.M.; Riffel, P.; Hausmann, D.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Weis, M. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    markierte Wasserprotonen im arteriellen Blut als endogenen Tracer verwendet, erfolgt bei der DCE-MRT eine Injektion eines Kontrastmittels, ueblicherweise Gadolinium (Gd) als Tracer fuer die Berechnung haemodynamischer Parameter. Aus Studien werden das Potenzial und die Moeglichkeiten der MRT-Perfusionsbildgebung deutlich, sei es in Bezug auf die Diagnostik oder aber auch zunehmend im Bereich des Therapiemonitorings. Nutzung und Anwendung der MRT-Perfusionsbildgebung beschraenken sich jedoch auf spezialisierte Zentren wie Universitaetskliniken. Eine breite Anwendung der Technik ist bisher leider nicht erfolgt. Die MRT-Perfusionsbildgebung ist ein wertvolles Tool, das im Rahmen europaeischer und internationaler Standardisierungsbemuehungen fuer die Praxis zukuenftig einsetzbar werden sollte. (orig.)

  20. Staging of primary head and neck tumors and detection of recurrences; Staging und Rezidivdiagnostik von Tumoren im Kopf-Hals-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. [Klinikum der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Marienhospital, Herne (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum; Knecht, R. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Zentrum fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde; Hoer, G. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas represent the vast majority of all malignant tumors of the head and neck region. Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor affecting survival of patients with head and neck cancer. The effectiveness of surgical treatment depends on the complete excision of all tumor tissue and an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging is therefore mandatory. In comparison to positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET), morphological imaging modalities (CT, MRI) have been applied for the localization of primary head and neck tumors because of their better anatomical resolution. Metabolic tumor imaging using FDG PET is superior to morphological imaging by CT and MRI in the detection of small cervical lymph node metastases (Class 1a indication). Increased FDG utpake has also been observed in benign inflammatory lesions after radiation therapy, therefore detection of local recurrence with FDG PET can be problematic. To ensure a high diagnostic accuracy it is been suggested to perform FDG PET not earlier than 3 months after radiation therapy (Class 1a indication for the diagnosis of local recurrence). (orig.) [German] Plattenepithelkarzinome stellen mit 90% den ueberwiegenden Anteil von malignen Tumoren des Kopf-Hals-Bereiches dar. Ein wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor ist das Vorhandensein von Lymphknotenmetastasen. Die Entscheidung ueber das richtige therapeutische Vorgehen ist von der genauen Festlegung des primaeren Tumorstadiums abhaengig. Die Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) unter Verwendung von {sup 18}F-markierter 2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glukose (FDG) ist fuer das T-Staging gegenueber den morphologisch orientierten Verfahren (CT, MRT) im allgemeinen ohne klinischen Nutzen. Als funktionsorientiertes Verfahren ist die FDG-PET bei der Diagnostik von Lymphknotenmetastasen den anatomisch orientierten Untersuchungsverfahren ueberlegen (Klasse-1a-Indikation), da sie nicht alleine

  1. MR-guided percutaneous nephrostomy of the contrast-enhanced, nondilated upper urinary tract: initial experimental results; MR-tomographisch gesteuerte perkutane Nephrostomie des kontrastangehobenen, nicht dilatierten oberen Harntraktes: Erste experimentelle Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Buecker, A.; Neuerburg, J.M.; Adam, G.B.; Guenther, R.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Hunter, D.W. [Minnesota Univ. (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-06-01

    -tomographischer Steuerung sicher zum festgelegten Zielkelch vorfuehren. Auch leichte Abweichungen der Nadelspitze waren mit beiden MR-tomographischen Kontrollebenen problemlos nachzuweisen und konnten direkt korrigiert werden. Die erfolgreiche Punktion des Hohlsystems gelang jeweils bereits im ersten Versuch. Ueber einen Nitinol-Fuehrungsdraht wurde ein 5 F-Katheter eingefuehrt, dessen mit Dysprosium markierte Spitze innerhalb des kontrastangehobenen Nierenbeckens gut abzugrenzen war. Schlussfolgerungen: Die perkutane Nephrostomie unter MR-Kontrolle ist bei nicht dilatiertem Harntrakt gut moeglich und bietet Vorteile gegenueber den bisherigen Standardverfahren. (orig.)

  2. Plea for the peaceful use of nuclear power. From the plenary lecture of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety, Dr. Angela Merkel, May 21, 1996, Mannheim; Plaedoyer fuer die friedliche Nutzung der Kernenergie. Aus dem Plenarvortrag der Bundesministerin fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Dr. Angela Merkel, am 21.5.96 in Mannheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, A. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    diesen Laendern adaptiert. Oestliches Fachwissen sollte im Westen bei der Entwicklung neuer Reaktorlinien zunehmend genutzt werden. Technologie kann nur dann ins Ausland transferiert werden, wenn sie im eigenen Land Unterstuetzung und Akzeptanz findet. Die terroristischen Aktionen beim Transport radioaktiver Abfaelle aus La Hague nach Gorleben im April 1996 haben gezeigt, wie sehr die friedliche Nutzung der Kernenergie von der Friedenspflicht der Bevoelkerung abhaengt. Deshalb muessen die Entsorgungsfragen von weiteren Akzeptanzthemen entkoppelt werden und vordringlich geloest werden. Auch in der Entsorgung gilt das Verursacherprinzip, nach dem in deutschen Kernkraftwerken anfallende radioaktive Abfaelle im eigenen Land zwischen- und endgelagert werden muessen; ungeachtet einer zukuenftigen Internationalisierung des Back end des Kernbrennstoffkreislaufs. (orig.)

  3. Geochemical investigations into the retention of reactive carbon compounds for toxic heavy metals. Final report; Geochemische Untersuchungen zur Retention von reaktiven Kohlenstoffverbindungen fuer toxische Schwermetalle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, H.; Mansel, A.; Crustewitz, C.

    2003-03-01

    voraus. Durch den Einsatz radiochemischer Analysenmethoden, die im Rahmen der Projektbearbeitung weiter entwickelt wurden, wird es moeglich, diese Untersuchungen im Ultraspurenbereich durchzufuehren. Durch eine radioaktive Doppelmarkierung der NOM-Spezies sollte der molekulare Bezug zu den geochemsichen Rueckhaltebarrieren bezueglich der Depositebildung erbracht werden. Die Radiomarkierung identifizierter reaktiver Kohlenstoffverbindungen, z.B. mit {sup 131}I einerseits und der Einsatz radioaktiver Isotope der Schwermetalle ({sup 64}Cu, {sup 203}Pb, {sup 197}Hg) andererseits, laesst Speziationsuntersuchungen in den binaeren Systemen (Schwermetall + Geomatrix, Schwermetall + reaktive Kohlenstoffverbindungen, reaktive Kohlenstoffverbindungen + Geomatrix) und besonders im ternaeren System (Schwermetall + Geomatrix + reaktive Kohlenstoffverbindungen) unter definierten Bedingungen zu. Die speziellen Markierungsmethoden waren Voraussetzung fuer Verteilungsmessungen im naturnahen, niedrigen Konzentrationsbereich. (orig.)

  4. Demolition of the FRJ-1 research reactor (MERLIN); Abbau des Reaktorblocks des Forschungsreaktors FRJ-1 (MERLIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Zehbe, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Poeppinghaus, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearservice, Essen (Germany); Cremer, J. [SNT Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Reaktortankeinbauten einschliesslich des Ablassens des Reaktortankwassers. Im Anschluss wurde nach erteilter Genehmigung durch die zustaendige Behoerde im Oktober 2001 mit dem Abbau des Reaktorblocks, der zentralen Einrichtung des Forschungsreaktors, begonnen. In einem ersten Schritt wurden Reaktorbuehne und Reaktoranbauten durch das mit der Gesamtplanung und -durchfuehrung beauftragte Konsortium GNS/SNT entfernt. Dabei fielen ca. 50 Mg Schwerbeton und ca. 25 Mg Stahl an. Der Abbau des eigentlichen Reaktorblocks erfolgt in mehreren Teilschritten. Zum Einsatz kommen verschiedenste bewaehrte Trennverfahren. Es werden rund 170 Mg radioaktiver Abfaelle mit einer Gesamtaktivitaet von ca. 3,5.10{sup 11} Bq anfallen. Eine installierte Freimessanlage gewaehrleistet eine effektive und sichere radiologische Bewertung der anfallenden Abbaukomponenten, von denen ca. 750 Mg freigegeben werden koennen. Im 1. Halbjahr 2003 soll der Abbau des Reaktorblocks abgeschlossen werden. (orig.)

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility; Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik der Magenmotilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    ermoeglicht eine regelrechte Magenentleerung. Stoerungen der Magenmotilitaet koennen Beschwerden, wie Voellegefuehl, Blaehungen, epigastrische Schmerzen, Uebelkeit und Erbrechen verursachen. Als Ursache fuer eine Magenfunktionsstoerung kommen Stoffwechselerkrankungen (z.B. Diabetes mellitus), Kollagenosen, Gastritiden, Tumoren, Operationen, aber auch funktionelle Krankheitsbilder und Nebenwirkungen von Medikamenten in Betracht. Fuer eine differenzial- und artdiagnostische Beurteilung der Funktionsstoerung sollten Kenntnisse ueber die Magenentleerung und die peristaltische Aktivitaet des Magens vorliegen. Mit der Magenfunktionsszintigraphie koennen die entsprechenden Daten einfach und schnell erfasst werden. Untersuchungen mit radioaktiv markierten Testspeisen sind physiologisch und nicht-invasiv. Die Standardauswertung der Magenentleerung mittels Zeit-Aktivitaetskurven gibt Aufschluss darueber, ob eine regelrechte, beschleunigte oder verzoegerte Magenentleerung vorliegt. Eine zusaetzliche Analyse von schnellen, dynamischen Aufnahmesequenzen mittels Phasenanalyse oder kondensierten Bildern, auf deren Grundlage mittels Fourier-Analyse Amplitude und Frequenz der Magenkontraktionen ermittelt werden, liefert die notwendige Information ueber die Magenperistaltik. Je nach zugrundliegender Erkrankung bzw. Stoerung finden sich typische Befundkombinationen, die eine differenziale- und artdiagnostische Einordnung ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  6. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1996; Umweltpolitik. Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report is intended as information for the German Bundestag and Bundesrat as well as for the general population interested in issues of radiological protection. The information presented in the report shows that in 1996, the radiation dose to the population was low and amounted to an average of 4 millisievert (mSv), with 60% contributed by natural radiation sources, and 40% by artificial sources. The major natural source was the radioactive gas radon in buildings. Anthropogenic radiation exposure almost exclusively resulted from application of radioactive substances and ionizing radiation in the medical field, for diagnostic purposes. There still is a potential for reducing radiation doses due to these applications. In the reporting year, there were 340 000 persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Only 15% of these received a dose different from zero, the average dose was 1.8 mSv. The data show that the anthropogenic radiation exposure emanating from the uses of atomic energy or applications of ionizing radiation in technology is very low. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht ueber die `Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 1996` richtet sich an Bundestag und Bundesrat und darueber hinaus an alle an Fragen des Strahlenschutzes interessierte Buerger. Der Bericht belegt, dass die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung im Jahr 1996 gering war und insgesamt durchschnittlich 4 Millisievert (mSv) betrug. Dieser Wert war zu 60% auf natuerliche und zu 40% auf kuenstliche Strahlenquellen zurueckzufuehren. Den wesentlichen Beitrag zur natuerlichen Strahlenbelastung lieferte das radioaktive Gas Radon in Wohnungen. Die zivilisatorische Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung wurde fast ausschliesslich durch die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe und ionisierender Strahlen in der Medizin im Rahmen der Diagnostik hervorgerufen. Hier bestehen nach wie vor Moeglichkeiten zur Reduktion der Strahlenbelastung. Im Jahre 1996 waren 340 000 Personen beruflich

  7. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy of rectal carcinoma. Baseline hematologic parameters influencing outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodek, Miroslav; Sirak, Igor; Paluska, Petr; Kopecky, Jindrich; Petera, Jiri; Vosmik, Milan [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferko, Alexander; Oerhalmi, Julius [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Surgery, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hovorkova, Eva; Hadzi Nikolov, Dimitar [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Fingerland Department of Pathology, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-15

    praetherapeutischen Blutparameter ist bei vielen Krebsarten das klinische Gesamtergebnis nach Therapie moeglicherweise voraussagbar. Ziel dieser Studie ist die systematische Bewertung der Beziehung zwischen den Ausgangswerten im Blutbild und dem Therapieerfolg bei Patienten mit Rektumkarzinom, die praeoperativ mit Radiochemotherapie behandelt wurden. Zwischen den Jahren 2009 und 2015 wurden die Daten von insgesamt 173 Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenem Rektumkarzinom retrospektiv analysiert. Das Ausgangsblutbild wurde bei allen Patienten eine Woche vor dem Beginn der Radiochemotherapie erstellt. Die Tumorantwort wurde anhand der pathologischen Veraenderungen ermittelt. Die zellulaeren Blutbestandteile wie Erythrozyten (''red blood cells'', RBC), Leukozyten (''white blood cells'', WBC), Thrombozyten (''platelets'', PLT) und weitere Parameter wie Haemoglobin (Hb), der Neutrophilen-Lymphozyten-Quotient (''neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio'', NLR) und der Thrombozyten-Lymphozyten-Quotient (''platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio'', PLR) wurden im Zusammenhang mit Tumor-Downstaging, pathologisch kompletter Remission (''pathologic complete response'', pCR), dem Gesamtueberleben (''overall survival'', OS) und rezidivfreiem Ueberleben (''disease-free survival'', DFS) analysiert. Der Hb-Wert und das Ansprechen auf die Therapie wurde anhand der logistischen Regressionsanalyse in einen Zusammenhang gestellt: pCR (p = 0,05; OR: 1,04; 95 %-KI: 1,00-1,07); T-Downstaging (p = 0,006; OR: 1,03; 95 %-KI: 1,01-1,05); N-Downstaging (p = 0,09; OR: 1,02; 95 %-KI: 1,00-1,04); T- oder N-Downstaging (p = 0,007; OR: 1,04; 95 %-KI: 1,01-1,07); T- und N-Downstaging (p = 0,02; OR: 1,02; 95 %-KI: 1,00-1,04); Haemoglobin und RBC waren die Parameter mit dem staerksten Einfluss auf das OS; die Thrombozytenzahl war ein negativer prognostischer Faktor fuer das OS und

  8. Metastases in patients with malignant melanoma despite of negative sentinel lymph node: has the concept to be changed?; Metastasierung beim malignen Melanom trotz histologisch negativem Sentinel Lymph Node: muss das Konzept in Frage gestellt werden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.; Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Konz, B.; Schmid-Wendtner, M.H.; Sander, C.; Volkenandt, M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2000-11-01

    und des Abdomens, Roentgen-Thorax) erfolgte vierteljaehrlich. Ergebnisse: Trotz negativem SLN zeigten 8/162 Patienten nach einer Beobachtungszeit von 5/27 Monaten eine Metastasierung. Bei drei Patienten konnte eine Lymphknotenmetastasierung in der SLN-Region gesichert werden, bei einem Patienten liess sich der praeoperativ szintigraphisch markierte SLN intraoperativ nicht sicher mittels Sonde lokalisieren. Ein Patient zeigte Intransit- bzw. Hautmetastasen, bei einem weiteren zeigte sich ein Narbenrezidiv. In einem anderen Fall ist von einer mit dieser Methode nicht erfassbaren haematogenen Streuung (Leber) auszugehen. Bei einem weiteren Patienten lag die Metastasierung ausserhalb des durch diese Lokalisationsmethode erfassten lymphogenen Abflussgebietes (zervikal). Schlussfolgerung: In unserem Kollektiv zeigten 4,9% der Patienten trotz negativem SLN eine Metastasierung; demgegenueber finden sich in der Literatur Angaben bis zu 11% (Beobachtungszeitraum bis 35 Monate). Davon kam es lediglich bei 3 Patienten (1,9%) zu einer Melanomprogression in der SLN-Region. Unsere Daten unterstreichen, dass derzeit keine Notwendigkeit besteht das SLN-Konzept bei Patienten im klinischen Stadium I und II zu aendern. (orig.)

  9. G2-block after irradiation of cells with different p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoelzer, Friedo [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Department of Radiology, Toxicology and Civil Protection, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); University Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Medical Radiobiology, Medical Faculty, Essen (Germany); Jagetia, Ganesh [University Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Medical Radiobiology, Medical Faculty, Essen (Germany); Mizoram University, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Aizawl (India); Streffer, Christian [University Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Medical Radiobiology, Medical Faculty, Essen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Although it is clear that functional p53 is not required for radiation-induced G{sub 2} block, certain experimental findings suggest a role for p53 in this context. For instance, as we also confirm here, the maximum accumulation in the G{sub 2} compartment after X-ray exposure occurs much later in p53 mutants than in wild types. It remains to be seen, however, whether this difference is due to a longer block in the G{sub 2} phase itself. We observed the movement of BrdU-labeled cells through G{sub 2} and M into G{sub 1}. From an analysis of the fraction of labeled cells that entered the second posttreatment cell cycle, we were able to determine the absolute duration of the G{sub 2} and M phases in unirradiated and irradiated cells. Our experiments with four cell lines, two melanomas and two squamous carcinomas, showed that the radiation-induced delay of transition through the G{sub 2} and M phases did not correlate with p53 status. We conclude that looking at the accumulation of cells in the G{sub 2} compartment alone is misleading when differences in the G{sub 2} block are investigated and that the G{sub 2} block itself is indeed independent of functional p53. (orig.) [German] Obwohl klar ist, dass ein funktionelles p53-Protein fuer die Ausbildung des strahleninduzierten G{sub 2}-Blocks nicht zwingend erforderlich ist, gibt es experimentelle Befunde, die nahe legen, dass p53 in diesem Zusammenhang doch eine gewisse Rolle spielt. Zum Beispiel bestaetigen wir hier fruehere Berichte, dass die Akkumulation von Zellen im G{sub 2}-Kompartiment bei p53-Mutanten deutlich spaeter nach Bestrahlung ihr Maximum erreicht als bei p53-Wildtypen. Es bleibt jedoch zu klaeren, ob dieser Unterschied seinen Grund in einem laengeren Block der G{sub 2}-Phase selbst hat. Beobachtet wurde die Bewegung von BrdU-markierten Zellen durch G{sub 2} und M nach G{sub 1}. Aus der zeitlichen Veraenderung des Anteils markierter Zellen im G{sub 1}-Kompartiment des naechsten Zellzyklus konnte die

  10. Exponential relationship between DMIPP uptake and blood flow in normal and ischemic canine myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comans, E.F.I.; Lingen, A. van; Bax, J.J.; Sloof, G.W. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Visser, F.C. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cardiology; Vusse, G.J. van der [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Knapp, F.F. Jun. [Oak Ridge Lab., TN (United States). Nuclear Medicine Group

    1998-12-31

    In 10 open-chest dogs the left anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated and extracorporally bypass (ECB) perfused at reduced flow. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was assessed with Scandium-46 labeled microspheres. Forty minutes after i.v. injection of DMIPP, the heart was excised and cut into 120 samples. In each sample MBF (ml/g*min) and DMIPP uptake (percentage of the injected dose per gram: %id/g) were assessed. The relation between normalized MBF and DMIPP uptake was assessed using a linear, with a zero and with a non-zero intercept, and an exponential model function: A[1-e{sup -MBF/Fc}], where A and Fc are the amplitude and flow constant, respectively. The goodness of fit for all models was expressed as the standard error of estimate (SEE). In all individual dogs the relation between DMIPP uptake and MBF was significantly better (p<0.001) represented by an exponential model than a linear model with zero intercept. In 8 of 10 dogs the exponential model showed a better fit than the linear model with a non-zero intercept. The difference was significant (p<0.05) in 5 dogs. For Pooled data, linear regression analysis with a non-zero intercept revealed: DMIPP=0.54+0.44*MBF (SEE: 0.18) and with a zero intercept: DMIPP=0.97*MBF (SEE: 0.27). The goodness of fit of the exponential model: DMIPP=1.07[1-e{sup -MBF/0.35}] (SEE: 0.15) was significantly better (p<0.0001) than the linear models. In the normal to low MBF range, uptake of the dimenthyl branched fatty acid analogue DMIPP shows an exponential relationship, which is more appropriate than a linear relationship from a physiological point of view. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] An 10 Hunden mit eroeffnetem Brustkorb wurde der Ramus interventricularis anterior der linken Koronararterie kanueliert und ueber einen extrakorporalen Bypass (ECB) mit einem reduzierten Fluss perfundiert. Der myokardiale Blutfluss (MBF) wurde ueber Scandium-46-markierte Mikrosphaeren erfasst. Vierzig Minuten nach der iv. Injektion von DMIPP wurde

  11. PET-CT and PET-MRI of the prostate. From {sup 18}F-FDG to {sup 68}Ga-PSMA; PET-CT/-MRT der Prostata. Von {sup 18}F-FDG zu {sup 68}Ga-PSMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, K.; Eiber, M.; Scheidhauer, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Maurer, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Wester, H.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Pharmazeutische Radiochemie, Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Fluordesoxyglukose (FDG) ist wegen der biologischen Besonderheiten des Prostatakarzinoms nur bei entdifferenzierten Tumoren hilfreich. Radiopharmaka wie Cholin-Derivate, das beim Prostatakarzinom vermehrt in die Tumorzelle aufgenommen und in die Zellmembran eingebaut wird sowie in juengster Zeit die hochspezifischen Liganden fuer das prostataspezifische Membranantigen (PSMA) revolutionieren derzeit die Prostatakarzinombildgebung und das (Re-)Staging. {sup 68}Ga-markierte PSMA-Liganden fuer PET-CT und PET-MRT sind hochspezifische Tracer zur Primaerdiagnostik sowie zur Lokalisationsdiagnostik im biochemischen Rezidiv eines Prostatakarzinoms. Bei Risikopatienten, also Patienten mit Intermediate- und High-risk-Tumoren haben sie die cholinbasierte PET-CT weitgehend verdraengt, insbesondere auch bei sehr niedrigen PSA-Werten (prostataspezifisches Antigen) von <0,5 ng/ml in der Rezidivdiagnostik. Die Anwendung bei der Primaerdiagnostik als PET-MRT, auch in Kombination mit der multiparametrischen MRT (mpMR), ist vielversprechend bzgl. der Fruehdiagnostik und der bildfusionsgestuetzten Biopsie sowie zur Operations- und Bestrahlungsplanung. (orig.)

  12. Radiological and surgical management of nonpalpable breast leasions; Radiologisches und chirurgisches Management der nichtpalpablen Mammalaesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinung, S.; Wuerl, P.; Preusse, C.; Boerner, P.; Schoenfelder, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik; Schneider, J.P.; Schmidt, F. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Guetz, U. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    2000-06-01

    ,9%) aus einer im Rahmen einer Vorsorgeuntersuchung durchgefuehrten Erstmammographie, bei 33 Patientinnen (16,0%) anlaesslich einer Kontrolle nach operativer Therapie eines Mammakarzinoms und bei 16,5% (n=34) aus sonstigen Indikationen. Nichtpalpable Laesionen (n=206) wurden praeoperativ mammographisch in 84,0% (n=173), sonographisch in 11,2% (n=23) oder mittels Magnetresonanztomographie in 4,8% der Faelle (n=10) markiert. Es erfolgte in jedem mammographisch markierten Fall eine intraoperative Praeparatemammographie. Bei 19,4% (n=40) der 206 nichtpalpablen markierten Herde handelte es sich um ein Karzinom. In Bezug auf die Primaertumorgroesse wurden 25% (n=10) aller markierten Karzinome als In-situ-Karzinome und 65% (n=26) als pT1-Karzinome diagnostiziert und therapiert. In Bezug auf den Nodalstatus wurden 85% (n=34) als pN0-Karzinome und in Bezug auf den Fernmetastasenstatus 100% (n=40) fernmetastasenfrei diagnostiziert und therapiert. Schlussfolgerung: Hieraus ergibt sich im Interesse einer Prognoseverbresserung, bei gleichzeitiger Senkung der Ablationsrate von Mammakarzinomen bei dennoch kurativer Therapie, die Forderung nach einem regelmaessigen Screening von definierten Risikogruppen. Die chirurgische Behandlung von Patientinnen mit kleinen, nicht sicher palpablen Befunden sollte Einrichtungen mit Markierungs- und Schnellschnittmoeglichkeit vorbehalten bleiben. (orig.)

  13. Results of immunoscintigraphy of osteomyelitis (LeukoScan) {sup trademark}; Ergebnisse zur Immunszintigraphie der Osteomyelitis (LeukoScan) {sup trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, S.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2000-05-01

    99mTc-labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody Fab' fragments have shown a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting osteomyelitis in prospective studies. We retrospectively evaluated the use of LeukoScan {sup trademark} (Immunomedics, Morris Plains, N.J.) in clinical routine for the detection of bone and soft tissue infections and we want to present the results of our findings as well as some of the more interesting cases in this occasion. Imaging infection can be performed fast and easy with {sup 99m}Tc-Fab' fragments due to a fast targeting of infection and good background clearance, which increases in imaging quality. The application of {sup 99m}Tc-Fab' fragments gives good results in patients with bone and soft tissue infections of peripheral bones, as well as in patients with infected prostheses and infected arthritis. The use of {sup 99m}Tc-Fab' fragments should not be limited to these patients only, since good results can also be achieved in patients with infections of vascular grafts, of appendicitis and of endocarditis as well. A higher number of false-negative results has to be expected in case of subacute/chronic infections instead. Independent of the grade of infection acute/subacute infections of the spine always show 'cold lesions'. If cold lesions are used as guide for diagnosing a pathologic finding, an increase in sensitivity together with a decrease in specificity can be achieved. (orig.) [German] {sup 99m}Tc-markierte Antigranulozytenantikoerper-Fab'-Fragmente konnten in prospektiven Studien eine hohe Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet bei der Detektion von Osteomyelitiden unter Beweis stellen. Retrospektiv haben wir die Anwendung von {sup 99m}Tc-markierten Fab'-Fragmenten ({sup 99m}Tc-Fab') (LeukoScan {sup trademark}, Immunomedics, Morris Plains, N.J.) in der klinischen Routine zum Nachweis von Knochen- und Weichteilentzuendungen ausgewertet und moechten einen Teil unserer Ergebnisse sowie einige

  14. The new law on radiation protection as a consequence of the EU safety standard of 2013; Das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz als Auswirkung der EU-Grundnormen von 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layer, G. [Klinikum Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    europaeischen Richtlinie (2013/59/Euratom) aus dem Jahr 2013 in nationales Recht erfordert die Anpassung nationaler gesetzlicher Regularien. Alle Bereiche des Schutzes vor ionisierender Strahlung werden dieses Jahr systematisch mit dem neuen Strahlenschutzgesetz StrlSchG erfasst. Dadurch werden Roentgenverordnung und Strahlenschutzverordnung auf hoeherem Autoritaetsniveau zusammengefuehrt. Die Hauptteile des StrlSchG bekommen eine neue Systematik und gliedern nach Expositionssituation: Strahlenschutz bei geplanten Expositionssituationen, Strahlenschutz bei Notfallexpositionssituationen, Strahlenschutz bei bestehenden Expositionssituationen und expositionssituationsuebergreifende Vorschriften. Die fuer die Radiologie wichtigsten erstmals oder modifiziert geregelten Punkte betreffen die Frueherkennung, wo die Anwendung von Roentgen- oder radioaktiver Strahlung unter bestimmten Bedingungen prinzipiell erlaubt wird, das Hinzuziehen des Medizinphysikexperten bei allen strahlendiagnostischen Untersuchungsverfahren und interventionsradiologischen Anwendungen, die mit hohen Dosen der untersuchten Person verbunden sind, die Teleradiologie als weiterhin genehmigungsbeduerftiger Sonderfall der Anwendung von Roentgenstrahlung am Menschen, jetzt mit der erforderlichen Fachkunde im Strahlenschutz, vormals mit der Gesamtfachkunde sowie die Forschung mit Ersatz des vereinfachten Genehmigungsverfahrens durch ein Anzeigeverfahren. Weiterhin kann sich der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte im Konfliktfall im Gegensatz zu bisherigen Regelungen direkt an die Aufsichtsbehoerde wenden, was eine deutliche Staerkung seiner Autoritaet bedeutet. Der einzige Dosisgrenzwert, bei dem es zu einer deutlichen Absenkung kommen wird, ist die Organaequivalenzdosis der Augenlinse, deren Hoechstwert bei beruflich Strahlenexponierten von 150 auf 20 mSv pro Jahr herabgesetzt wird. (orig.)

  15. Radioiodinated PHIPA`s; metabolically trapped fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhut, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Herzmuskelretention von [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 wird durch die p-Phenylengruppe verursacht, die nicht mehr als einen {beta}-Oxidationszyklus zulaesst. Nur ein radioaktiver Metabolit konnte durch Synthese moeglicher Abbauprodukte und HPLC-Vergleich sowie durch Massenspektrometrie aufgeklaert werden. Es handelt sich um die um zwei Methylengruppen verkuerzte [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 1-10. Die Bildung dieses Metaboliten konnte durch den Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase I Inhibitor Etomoxir unterdrueckt werden. Ein wichtiger zusaetzlicher Hinweis auf physiologischen Fettsaeureabbau war der Nachweis, dass sich die freien Fettsaeuren, [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 und [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 1-10, in der durch Ultrazentrifugation aufgetrennten Mitochondrienfraktion aus Rattenherzhomogenaten befanden. [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 kann wegen seiner biochemischen Eigenschaften als ein nuetzliches, nuklearkardiologisches Radiopharmakon angesehen werden. (orig.)

  16. Foreseeable cost and economic impacts of the approach proposed; Absehbare Kosten und volkswirtschaftliche Effekte des vom AkEnd vorgeschlagenen Vorgehens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeskamp, H.; Brammer, K.-J. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuclear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Schlombs, H. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    radioaktive Abfaelle verantwortlich. Fruehzeitig mit der Inbetriebnahme der ersten Kernkraftwerke wurden in den 1960er Jahren entsprechende Schritte eingeleitet. Diese resultierten u.a. in den Beschluessen und Auswahlverfahren der 1970er und 1980er Jahre zum Salzstock Gorleben sowie zum ehemaligen Eisenerzbergwerk Konrad als potenzielle Endlagerstandorte. Die Bundesregierung hat im Jahr 2000 fuer Gorleben ein drei- bis maximal zehnjaehriges Moratorium fuer die weiteren Erkundungsarbeiten festgelegt, um aus Sicht des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) bestehende Zweifel abzuarbeiten. Fuer Konrad wurde im Mai 2002 ein positiver Planfeststellungsbeschluss erteilt. Nach Erlangung der Rechtssicherheit koennte ab etwa 2010-2012 die Einlagerung beginnen. Im Februar 1999 wurde der Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd) durch das BMU berufen. Der Auftrag bestand in der Entwicklung eines nachvollziehbaren Verfahrens fuer die Suche und die Auswahl von Standorten zur Endlagerung aller Arten radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland. Das vom AkEnd abschliessende vorgestellte Verfahren birgt erhebliche Unsicherheiten, u.a. bezueglich der rechtlichen Umsetzbarkeit, des erforderlichen Zeitbedarfs und der Finanzierung. Es koennen sich mit Blick auf den Salzstock Gorleben allein durch zusaetzliche Erkundungen und Verfahren Mehrkosten gegenueber der Weiterfuehrung der Projekttaetigkeiten in Hoehe von 3 bis 5 Mrd. Euro ergeben. Aehnlich hohe Mehrbelastungen - insbesondere fuer die oeffentliche Hand - sind bei einer Verzoegerung der Einlagerung in Konrad zu erwarten. Eine moeglichst zuegige Endlagerung aller Abfallarten in tiefen geologischen Formationen ist unter sicherheitstechnischen Aspekten anderen Alternativen vorzuziehen. Daher sollte unter Beruecksichtigung aller Faktoren eine weitere Erkundung von Gorleben zuegig abgeschlossen und das Projekt Konrad realisiert werden. (orig.)

  17. ILK statement on the recommendations by the working group on procedures for the selection of repository sites; ILK-Stellungnahme zu den Empfehlungen des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte Internationale (AkEnd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-11-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany. ILK recommends to perform a comprehensive safety analysis of Gorleben and define a selection procedure including the facts about Gorleben and, in addition, to commission the Konrad repository as soon as possible. The one-repository concept established as a precondition by BMU greatly restricts the selection procedure. There are no technical or scientific reasons for such concept. ILK recommends to plan for separate repositories, which would also correspond to international practice. The geoscientific criteria proposed by AkEnd should be examined and revised. With respect to the site selection procedure proposed, ILK feels that procedure is unable to define a targeted approach. Great importance must be attributed to public participation. The final site selection must be made under the responsibility of the government or the parliament. (orig.) [German] Der Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd) hat Ende 2002 seine Empfehlungen vorgestellt. Der AkEnd war vom Bundesumweltministerium (BMU) berufen worden, um Verfahren und Kriterien fuer die Suche und die Auswahl eines Endlagerstandortes fuer alle Arten radioaktiver Abfaelle in tiefen geologischen Formationen in Deutschland zu entwickeln. Die ILK begruesst grundsaetzlich den Versuch des AkEnd, ein systematisches Verfahren zu entwickeln. Allerdings haelt die ILK die beiden vom BMU

  18. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Wörterbuchform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: In diesem Beitrag wird die Bildung, Darstellung und Leistung von hybriden textuellen Strukturen, die akzessive Einträge aufweisen, am Beispiel von Wörterbuchartikeln behandelt sowie erklärt, welche Eigenschaften hybride textuelle Einheiten haben. Ein Wörterbuchartikel eines Printwörterbuchs weist immer dann neben einer hierarchischen reinen eine hierarchische hybride Textkonstituentenstruktur auf, wenn in ihm mindestens ein funktionaler Angabezusatz auftritt, z.B. ein oben oder unten erweiternder oder ein binnenerweiternder. Da funktionale Angabezusätze Textsegmente mit Angabefunktion aber ohne Textkonstituentenstatus sind, werden sie durch nichtfunktionale Segmentation ermittelt, so dass neben funktionalen auch nichtfunktionale Textsegmente gegeben sind, die dann bei der Strukturbildung in die Trägermengen eingehen, so dass die Trägermengen aller hybriden hierarchischen Strukturen elementenheterogen, während die Trägermengen aller hierarchischen reinen Strukturen elementenhomogen sind. In den Strukturgraphen für hierarchische hybride Artikelstrukturen sind dann die Knoten für diejenigen Textsegmente, die den Hybridstatus der Strukturen bewirken, entweder durch Pfeilkanten für die textarchitektonischen oberhalb/unterhalb-Relationen mit den Knoten für die Textkonstituenten verbunden, so dass die Strukturgraphen architektonisch angereichert sind, oder durch besonders markierte Kanten, die die Knoten für die nichtfunktionalen Textsegmente und die für die binnenerweiternden funktionalen Angabezusätze mit den Knoten für die Textkonstituenten verbinden. Zu jedem Typ von hierarchischer reiner Artikelstruktur gehören mehrere Typen von hybriden Artikelstrukturen; entsprechendes gilt für hierarchische reine Angabestrukturen. Nur eine Auswahl aus den Typologien der hybriden Artikel- und Angabestrukturen wird behandelt sowie eine kleine Auswahl von hybriden textuellen Einheiten, die kriteriale Eigenschaften von zwei

  19. CT-image based conformal brachytherapy of breast cancer. The significance of semi-3-D and 3-D treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polgar, C.; Major, T.; Somogyi, A.; Takacsi-Nagy, Z.; Mangel, L.C.; Fodor, J.; Nemeth, G. [Orszagos Onkologiai Intezet, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Forrai, G. [Haynal Imre Univ. of Health Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Radiology; Sulyok, Z. [Orszagos Onkologiai Intezet, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Surgery

    2000-03-01

    -2, N0-1 wurde das Tumorbett mit Klips waehrend der brusterhaltenden Operation markiert. 52/103 Patientinnen haben einen Brachytherapie-Boost nach 46 bis 50 Gy Teletherapie bekommen, und 51 von ihnen wurden mit alleiniger Brachytherapie mit plastischen Kathetern behandelt. Die Dosen des Brachytherapie-Boosts und der alleinigen Brachytherapie (bezogen auf die Dosisreferenzpunkte) waren 3mal 4,75 Gy und 7mal 5,2 Gy. Die Positionen der Dosisreferenzpunkte aenderten sich in Abhaengigkeit von der verwendeten Bestrahlungsplanung (2D, Semi-3D und 3D). Die Implantation wurde in einer, zwei und drei Ebenen in sechs, 89 und acht Faellen appliziert. Die Behandlungsplanung gruendete sich auf die 3D-Rekonstruktion der chirurgischen Klips, der Katheter und der Hautpunkte. In allen Faellen wurde die Implantation mit simulatorgestuetzter Semi-3D-Technik geplant. Bei zehn Patientinnen wurde ein CT-gestuetztes 3D-Planungssystem angewendet. Die Semi-3D- und 3D-Bestrahlungsplaene wurden mit den hypothetischen 2D-Plaenen unter Verwendung des Dosis-Volumen-Histogramms und Dosis-Non-Uniformitaets-Verhaeltnisses verglichen. Die Werte der durchschnittlichen Zentraldosis, Hautdosis, minimaler Klipdosis, des Verhaeltnisses der unterdosierten Klips und der durchschnittlichen Dosis an der Oberflaeche des Zielvolumens wurden berechnet. Die Genauigkeit der Lokalisation des Tumorbetts und die Konformitaet des Planungszielvolumens und des Bestrahlungsvolumen wurden bei allen Techniken analysiert. Ergebnisse: Mit Hilfe der konformellen Semi-3D- und 3D-Brachytherapie-Planung konnten wir die Referenzdosispunkt, die aktiven Quellenpositionen und Quellenstandzeiten definieren. Diese Technik verringerte die durchschnittliche Hautdosis um 22,2% und reduzierte die Moeglichkeit des geographischen Fehlers. Die beste Konformitaet zwischen Zielvolumen und Bestrahlungsvolumen konnten wir mit der CT-gestuetzten 3D-Bestrahlungsplanung erreichen, allerdings auf Kosten einer schlechteren Dosishomogenitaet. Mit der Semi