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Sample records for radioadaptive response developing

  1. A new paradigm in radioadaptive response developing from microbeam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Tomita, Masanori; Otsuka, Kensuke; Hatashita, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A classic paradigm in radiation biology asserts that all radiation effects on cells, tissues and organisms are due to the direct action of radiation on living tissue. Using this model, possible risks from exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to higher doses of radiation, using a linear non-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. These important responses to low dose/low dose-rate radiation are the radiation-induced adaptive response, the bystander response, low-dose hypersensitivity, and genomic instability. The mechanisms underlying these responses often involve bio-chemical and molecular signals generated in response to targeted and non-targeted events. In order to define and understand the bystander response to provide a basis for the understanding of non-targeted events and to elucidate the mechanisms involved, recent sophisticated research has been conducted with X-ray microbeams and charged heavy particle microbeams, and these studies have produced many new observations. Based on these observations, associations have been suggested to exist between the radio-adaptive and bystander responses. The present review focuses on these two phenomena, and summarizes observations supporting their existence, and discusses the linkage between them in light of recent results obtained from experiments utilizing microbeams. (author)

  2. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge about cellular events in mammalian cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation is meager. Recent works showed that human lymphocytes become resistant to radiation-induced chromosomal damage after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental evidence for radio-adaptive response (RAR) in cultured mammalian cells was obtained. Exposure to very low doses of gamma-rays or tritium beta-rays make cells less susceptible to the induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges by subsequent higher doses. Many important characteristics of the novel response suggest that RAR is a stress response resulting in the enhanced repair of chromosomal DNA damage in cell under restricted conditions. Experiments are still in progress in order to elucidate the molecular basis for RAR processes. (author). 13 refs.; 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, as a suppressed induction of micronuclei (MNs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the cells conditioned by very low doses. The important characteristics of the novel chromosomal response, called radio-adaptive response (RAR), that have newly emerged in this study are: 1) Low doses of beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritiated thymidine can cause the RAR. 2) Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium beta-rays or gamma-rays. 3) The RAR expression is suppressed by an inhibition of protein synthesis. 4) Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggest that the RAR is an adaptive chromosomal DNA repair induced by very low doses of low LET radiations under restricted conditions, accompanying the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  4. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  5. The p53-dependent radioadaptive response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    We already reported that conditioning exposures at low doses, or at low dose-rates, lowered radiation-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells in vitro and in the spleens of mice in vivo. In this study, the aim was to characterize the p53-dependent radioadaptive response at the molecular level. We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulation of p53, Hdm2, and iNOS was analyzed with Western blotting. The quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about 2-4 fold after challenging irradiation following a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of Pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor), RITA or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover, radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of the radioadaptive response acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  6. DNA damage response pathway in radioadaptive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Ejima, Yosuke; Tachibana, Akira; Yamada, Toshiko; Ishizaki, Kanji; Shimizu, Takashi; Nomura, Taisei

    2002-07-25

    Radioadaptive response is a biological defense mechanism in which low-dose ionizing irradiation elicits cellular resistance to the genotoxic effects of subsequent irradiation. However, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the dose recognition and adaptive response could be mediated by a feedback signaling pathway involving protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and phospholipase C (PLC). Further, to elucidate the downstream effector pathway, we studied the X-ray-induced adaptive response in cultured mouse and human cells with different genetic background relevant to the DNA damage response pathway, such as deficiencies in TP53, DNA-PKcs, ATM and FANCA genes. The results showed that p53 protein played a key role in the adaptive response while DNA-PKcs, ATM and FANCA were not responsible. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mimicked the priming irradiation in that the inhibitor alone rendered the cells resistant against the induction of chromosome aberrations and apoptosis by the subsequent X-ray irradiation. The adaptive response, whether it was afforded by low-dose X-rays or wortmannin, occurred in parallel with the reduction of apoptotic cell death by challenging doses. The inhibitor of p38MAPK which blocks the adaptive response did not suppress apoptosis. These observations indicate that the adaptive response and apoptotic cell death constitute a complementary defense system via life-or-death decisions. The p53 has a pivotal role in channeling the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) into an adaptive legitimate repair pathway, where the signals are integrated into p53 by a circuitous PKC-p38MAPK-PLC damage sensing pathway, and hence turning off the signals to an alternative pathway to illegitimate repair and apoptosis. A possible molecular mechanism of adaptive response to low-dose ionizing irradiation has been discussed in relation to

  7. Molecular mechanisms of radioadaptive responses in human lymphoblastoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Ayana; Taki, Keiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Radioadaptive response is a biodefensive response observed in a variety of mammalian cells and animals where exposure to low dose radiation induces resistance against the subsequent high dose radiation. Elucidation of its mechanisms is important for risk estimation of low dose radiation because the radioadaptive response implies that low dose radiation affects cells/individuals in a different manner from high dose radiation. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanisms of the radioadaptive response in human lymphoblastoid cells AHH-1 in terms of mutation at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene locus. First we observed that preexposure to the priming dose in the range from 0.02 Gy to 0.2 Gy significantly reduced mutation frequency at HPRT gene locus after irradiation with 3 Gy of X rays. As no significant adaptive response was observed with the priming dose of 0.005 Gy, it was indicated that the lower limit of the priming dose to induce radioadaptive response may be between 0.005 Gy and 0.02 Gy. Second, we examined the effect of 3-amino-benzamide (3AB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase1, which has been reported to inhibit the radioadaptive response in terms of chromosome aberration. However we could observe significant radioadaptive responses in terms of mutation even in the presence of 3AB. These findings suggested that molecular mechanisms of the radioadaptive response in terms of mutation may be different from that for radioadaptive responses in terms of chromosomal aberration, although we could not exclude a possibility that the differential effects of 3AB was due to cell type difference. Finally, by performing a comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression using high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP), we could identify 17 genes whose expressions were significantly altered 6 h after irradiation with 0.02 Gy. We also found 17 and 20 genes, the expressions of which were different with or without priming

  8. Radio-adaptation: cellular and molecular features of a response to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that sublethal doses of DNA damaging agents induce protective mechanisms against a subsequent high dose treatment ; for instance, the phenomenon of radio-adaptation in the case of ionizing radiations. Since the early observation described in 1984, numerous studies have confirmed the radio-adaptive response in terms of reduction of chromosomal breaks for varied biological models in vitro and in vivo. Evidence for an adaptive response against the induction of gene mutations and the lethal effect is clearly demonstrated. This paper reviews the experimental results describing various aspects of these adaptive responses expressed on these different biological end-points. The molecular mechanism underlying radio-adaptation still remains nuclear. The development of this phenomenon requires de novo synthesis of transcripts and proteins during the time interval between the two doses. Some data are consistent with the hypotheses that these gene products would be involved in the activation of DNA repair pathways and antioxidant systems. However, a major question still remains unanswered; indeed, it is not clear whether or not the radio-adaptation could affect the estimation of cancer risk related with low level exposure to ionizing radiation, a major concern in radioprotection. Until such data are available, it is yet unwise to evoke the beneficial effects of radio-adaptation. (authors)

  9. Study of radioadaptive response in Drosophila melanogaster at different oogenesis stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkova, I.V.; Aksyutik, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    We study radioadaptive response in the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster at different oogenesis stages using the test of dominant lethal mutations (DLM). AR was not revealed at the stages of 14-7 and 7--1 oocytes in the studied Drosophila stock. It is likely to be associated with a genetic constitution of the Drosophila strain under study. (authors)

  10. Radioadaptive response: the results of a two-year follow-up study on a non-responder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Javad S M.; Ikushima, Takaji

    2001-01-01

    Scientists have been aware for many years that low doses of ionizing radiation may cause some changes in the cells and organisms, which lead to an adaptation to the detrimental effects of relatively high doses of radiation. In spite of the fact that human lymphocytes exposed in vivo to different adapting doses show a radioadaptive response (e.g. induction of radioadaptive response in radiation workers, residents of the contaminated areas after Chernobyl accident or the inhabitants of high background radiation areas), it is still an open question why the radioadaptive response cannot be induced in the lymphocytes of some individuals. We and other investigators reported that some non-responders showed a significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations after an adapting dose. Considering the fact that we still don't know the frequency of non-responders in the population, any implication of radioadaptive response in the estimation of the risks of low-level exposure would be problematical. In this paper, we present the results of our two-year follow-up study on a non-responder. In 1998, we found out that one of the blood donors did not show radioadaptive response in any experiments. Interestingly, in some cases the donor's lymphocytes showed a strong synergistic effect after exposure to an adapting dose. As it was claimed that the existence or lack of radioadaptive response is possibly dependent on some transient physiological parameters, we evaluated the responses of this donor to a common adapting dose in a two-year follow-up study. The results showed that non-responsiveness was not a transient phenomenon. The non-responder donor never showed a radioadaptive response despite some changes in the magnitude of the synergistic effect induced by an adapting dose. These results suggest that the non-responsiveness of this donor is probably determined by some non-transient biological factors such as the genetic constitution. (authors)

  11. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor

  12. Relation between radio-adaptive response and cell to cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiichiro Ishii

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been considered to cause severe damages to DNA and do harm to cells in proportion to the dose, however low it might be. In 1984, Wolff et al. showed that human peripheral lymphocytes adapted to the low-dose radiation from 3 H-TdR added in culture medium and became resistant to the subsequent irradiation with high-doses of X-rays. This response, which is called radio-adaptive response, is also induced by X-rays and gamma-rays in human lymphocytes and Chinese hamster V79 cells. However, the mechanisms of and conditions for adaptive responses to radiation have not been clarified. With an objective of clarifying the conditions for adaptive responses of cells to radiation, we examined how the cell to cell communication is involved in the adaptive responses. We irradiated normal human embryo-derived (HE) cells and cancer cells (HeLa) in culture at high density with low-dose X-ray and examined their radio-adaptive responses by measuring the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-ray irradiation using the Trypan Blue dye-exclusion test method. We also conducted experiments to examine the effects of Ca 2+ ions and Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (TPA) which are supposed to be involved in cell to cell communication. (author)

  13. Radioadaptive response. Efficient repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in adapted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji; Aritomi, Hisako; Morisita, Jun

    1996-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the induction of a novel, efficient repair mechanism for chromosomal DNA breaks may be involved in the radioadaptive response, the repair kinetics of DNA damage has been studied in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells with single-cell gel electrophoresis. The cells were adapted by priming exposure with 5 cGy of γ-rays and 4-h incubation at 37C. There were no indication of any difference in the initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks induced by challenging doses from non-adapted cells and from adapted cells. The rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks was monitored over 120 min after the adapted cells were challenged with 5 or 1.5 Gy, doses at the same level to those used in the cytogenetical adaptive response. The rate of DNA damage repair in adapted cells was higher than that in non-adapted cells, and the residual damage was less in adapted cells than in non-adapted cells. These results indicate that the radioadaptive response may result from the induction of a novel, efficient DNA repair mechanism which leads to less residual damage, but not from the induction of protective functions that reduce the initial DNA damage

  14. Participation of intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response of human fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells with low-dose X-rays and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. When the cells were irradiated by 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the viable cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a conditioning irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the growth ratio increased significantly to 45-53%, and a peak was reached at a conditioning dose of 13 cGy. Cells blocked off intercellular communication either in Ca 2+ ion-free medium or in TPA added medium during the conditioning irradiation of 13 cGy did not show the improvement of growth ratio. Addition of H-7, as an inhibitor of PKC, to the medium during the conditioning irradiation inhibited the induction of the radio-adaptive response. However, addition of either inhibitor of A kinase, H-89, or inhibitor of G kinase, H-8, failed to inhibit the induction of the radio-adaptive response. These results suggest that: (1) normal cells show an adaptive response to low-dose radiation, (2) intercellular communication may play a role in radio-adaptive responses, (3) the transduction of the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation via protein kinase C was involved in radio-adaptive responses, not via A kinase nor G kinase. (author)

  15. Induction of a Radio-Adaptive Response by Low-dose Gamma Irradiation in Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Seawright, John W.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    One of the most significant occupational hazards to an astronaut is the frequent exposure to radiation. Commonly associated with increased risk for cancer related morbidity and mortality, radiation is also known to increase the risk for cardiovascular related disorders including: pericarditis, hypertension, and heart failure. It is believed that these radiation-induced disorders are a result of abnormal tissue remodeling. It is unknown whether radiation exposure promotes remodeling through fibrotic changes alone or in combination with programmed cell death. Furthermore, it is not known whether it is possible to mitigate the hazardous effects of radiation exposure. As such, we assessed the expression and mechanisms of radiation-induced tissue remodeling and potential radio-adaptive responses of p53-mediated apoptosis and fibrosis pathways along with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice myocardium. 7 week old, male, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 6Gy (H) or 5cGy followed 24hr later with 6Gy (LH) 137Cs gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed and their hearts extirpated 4, 24, or 72hr after final irradiation. Real Time - Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to evaluate target genes. Apoptotic genes Bad and Bax, pro-cell survival genes Bcl2 and Bcl2l2, fibrosis gene Vegfa, and oxidative stress genes Sod2 and GPx4 showed a reduced fold regulation change (Bad,-6.18; Bax,-6.94; Bcl2,-5.09; Bcl2l2,-4.03; Vegfa, -11.84; Sod2,-5.97; GPx4*,-28.72; * = Bonferroni adjusted p-value present compared to 24hr control. These data suggest a general reduction in genetic expression 4hrs after a high dose of gamma radiation. However, pre-exposure to 5cGy gamma radiation appears to facilitate a radio-adaptive response that mitigates the reduction in genetic expression associated with single high-dose gamma radiation exposure. This radio-adaptive response may serve as a potential countermeasure to radiation-induced myocardial remodeling and preserve the cardiovascular health of

  16. Natural background radiation induces cytogenetic radioadaptive response more effectively than occupational exposure in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfared, A.S.; Mozdarani, H.; Amiri, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ramsar, a city in the northern Iran, has the highest level of natural background radiation in the world. It has been clearly shown that low doses of ionising radiation can induce resistance to subsequent higher exposures. This phenomenon is termed radioadaptive response. We have compared induction of cytogenetic radioadaptive response by High Natural Background Radiation (HNBR) in Ramsar and X-ray occupational exposure as conditioning doses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. 30 healthy control individuals, living in Ramsar but in normal background radiation areas, 15 healthy individuals from Talesh Mahalleh, a region with extraordinary high level of background radiation, and 7 X-ray radiographers working in Ramsar hospital located in normal natural background ionising radiation area were evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were prepared and exposed to challenge dose of 0 and 2 Gy. Lymphocytes were scored using analysis of metaphase, for the presence of chromosomal aberrations. An adaptive response was observed in HNBR and radiation workers groups in comparison with sham controls. A significant increase in adaptive response was observed in the HNBR group if compared with the occupationally exposed group. These findings indicate that both natural background radiation and occupational exposure could induce cytogenetic radioadaptive response and it is more significant regarding to natural background ionising radiation. (author)

  17. Molecular mechanism of radioadaptive response: A cross-adaptive response for enhanced repair of DNA damage in adapted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji Ikushima

    1997-01-01

    The radioadaptive response (RAR) has been attributed to the induction of a repair mechanism by low doses of ionizing radiation, but the molecular nature of the mechanism is not yet elucidated. We have characterized RAR in a series of experiments in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. A 4-h interval is required for the full expression of RAR, which decays with the progression of cell proliferation. Treatments with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, protein- or RNA synthesis, and protein kinase C suppress the RAR expression. The RAR cross-reacts on clastogenic lesions induced by other physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents. The presence of newly synthesised proteins has been detected during the expression period. Experiments performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis provided more direct evidence for a faster and enhaced DNA repair rate in adapted cells. Here, using single-cell gel electrophoresis, a cross-adaptive response has been demonstrated for enhanced repair of DNA damage induced by neocarzinostatin in radio-adapted cells. (author)

  18. Participation of intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response induced by low-dose X-irradiation in human embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the induction mechanism of radio-adaptive response in normal cells, we searched the literatures of the intracellular signal transduction. Furthermore, we examined the induction of radio-adaptive response with or without inhibitors of several kinds of protein kinase. The major results obtained were as follows; (1) According to the literature survey it is revealed that there are 4 intracellular signal transduction pathways which are possibly involved in the induction of radio-adaptive response: pathways depending on cAMP, calcium, cGMP, or protein-tyrosine kinase. (2) Addition of either inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinase or protein kinase C to the cell culture medium during the low-dose X-irradiation inhibited the induction of radio-adaptive response. However, the addition of inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, or Ca 2+ -calmodulin kinase II failed to inhibit the induction of radio-adaptive response. (3) These results suggest that the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation was transduced from protein-tyrosine kinase to protein kinase C via either pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or splitting of profilin binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (author)

  19. Non-induction of radioadaptive response in zebrafish embryos by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Candy Y.P.; Kong, Eva Y.; Kobayashi, Alisa; Suya, Noriyoshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Cheng, Shuk Han; Konishi, Teruaki; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2016-01-01

    In vivo neutron-induced radioadaptive response (RAR) was studied using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan, was employed to provide 2-MeV neutrons. Neutron doses of 0.6, 1, 25, 50 and 100 mGy were chosen as priming doses. An X-ray dose of 2 Gy was chosen as the challenging dose. Zebrafish embryos were dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf), irradiated with a chosen neutron dose at 5 hpf and the X-ray dose at 10 hpf. The responses of embryos were assessed at 25 hpf through the number of apoptotic signals. None of the neutron doses studied could induce RAR. Non-induction of RAR in embryos having received 0.6- and 1-mGy neutron doses was attributed to neutron-induced hormesis, which maintained the number of damaged cells at below the threshold for RAR induction. On the other hand, non-induction of RAR in embryos having received 25-, 50- and 100-mGy neutron doses was explained by gamma-ray hormesis, which mitigated neutron-induced damages through triggering high-fidelity DNA repair and removal of aberrant cells through apoptosis. Separate experimental results were obtained to verify that high-energy photons could disable RAR. Specifically, 5- or 10-mGy X-rays disabled the RAR induced by a priming dose of 0.88 mGy of alpha particles delivered to 5-hpf zebrafish embryos against a challenging dose of 2 Gy of X-rays delivered to the embryos at 10 hpf

  20. Radioadaptive response to the medium-mediated bystander induction of DNA strand breaks in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.; Okuyama, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Numerous investigators have reported two cellular responses of importance at low doses that have a potential impact on the risk estimation of ionizing radiation. The radioadaptive response confers resistance to a subsequent dose by a low priming dose, while the bystander effect exaggerates the effect of small doses. The present study was conducted to examine the interaction of the radioadaptive response with the bystander effect in HeLa cells. The culture was irradiated with 0.5 to 8 Gy of 140 kVp X-rays and one hour later, the medium was taken, passed through a filter and transferred to the parallel culture of non-irradiated HeLa cells as non-targeted cells. After incubation for 30 min, the induced DNA damage was analyzed by the single cell gel-electrophoresis assay under alkaline or neutral conditions. The treatments resulted in a dose-dependent increase in tail moment under either conditions, indicating the induction of DNA single- and double-strand breaks. The clonogenic survival of non-irradiated cells was also reduced after they were cultured in the medium that was taken from irradiated cultures. Any change was not observed when the medium alone was irradiated. These results give the disputed evidence that certain genotoxic factor(s) released from irradiated cells into the culture medium can induce DNA strand breaks leading to cell death. It is also suggested that physical contact between irradiated and non-irradiated cells may not be required for the bystander effect. In adapted cells that were pre-exposed to 5 cGy of X-rays and cultured for 4 h beforehand, the yield of DNA strand breaks induced by X-rayed medium was reduced by about 50 %. The results, in conjunction with our early finding (Ikushima et al., 1996) suggest that the radioadaptive response resulting from such a low dose may diminish the bystander effect through an enhanced DNA repair function

  1. Pilot Study: Unique Response of Bone Tissue During an Investigation of Radio-Adaptive Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Iwaniec, U.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We obtained bone tissue to evaluate the collateral effects of experiments designed to investigate molecular mechanisms of radio-adaptation in a mouse model. Radio-adaptation describes a process by which the prior exposure to low dose radiation can protect against the toxic effect of a subsequent high dose exposure. In the radio-adaptation experiments, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either a Sham or a priming Low Dose (5 cGy) of Cs-137 gamma rays before being exposed to either a Sham or High Dose (6 Gy) 24 hours later. ANALYSIS: Bone tissue were obtained from two experiments where mice were sacrificed at 3 days (n=3/group, 12 total) and at 14 days (n=6/group, 24 total) following high dose exposure. Tissues were analyzed to 1) evaluate a radio-adaptive response in bone tissue and 2) describe cellular and microstructural effects for two skeletal sites with different rates of bone turnover. One tibia and one lumbar vertebrae (LV2), collected at the 3-day time-point, were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and micro-CT to evaluate the cellular response and any evidence of microarchitectural impact. Likewise, tibia and LV2, collected at the 14-day time-point, were analyzed by micro-CT alone to evaluate resulting changes to bone structure and microarchitecture. The data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA to evaluate the effects of the priming low dose radiation, of the high dose radiation, and of any interaction between the priming low and high doses of radiation. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the cancellous bone (aka trabecular bone) compartments of the proximal tibial metaphysis and of LV2. RESULTS: Cellular Response @ 3 Days The priming Low Dose radiation decreased osteoblast-covered bone perimeter in the proximal tibia and the total cell density in the bone marrow in the LV2. High Dose radiation, regardless of prior exposure to priming dose, dramatically reduced total cell density in bone marrow of both the long bone and vertebra. However, in the proximal

  2. Possible role of oxidative stress in the radioadaptive response of G_0 human PBMCs to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraswani, Neha; Thoh, Maikho; Ghosh, Anu; Bhilwade, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate radio-adaptive response (RAR) in non-proliferating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to understand the potential role of endogenous reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in these phenomena. RAR was measured in G_0 human PBMCs from eight healthy individuals using alkaline comet assay. Cells were exposed to a small 'priming dose' of either 10mGy or 10cGy and followed by the respective 'challenge dose' of either 1Gy or 2Gy. Two adaptive windows of 2 hours and 4 hours were studied. Residual DNA damage was monitored 7, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the challenge dose. Changes in endogenous ROS levels were determined using DCFH-DA. Intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was measured using conventional enzyme recycling method, 1 hour post challenge dose. G_0 cells irradiated with an adaptive dose of 10cGy when challenged with a subsequent irradiation of 2Gy showed significant radio-adaptation after 4 hours in five out of eight individuals. No such response was seen with an adaptive dose of 10mGy, indicating that a minimum basal level damage and definite time window is required for effective RAR. Residual DNA damage was seen to be higher in non-primed cells as compared to primed cells when analysed 7 and 15 minutes post-challenge dose in the individuals that showed RAR; however, the repair kinetics was found to be same. The primed cells from these individuals showed lower levels of endogenous ROS. However, the GSH: GSSG ratio did not differ significantly between the primed and non-primed cells. (author)

  3. Radioadaptive response and radiation-induced teratogenesis in the late period of organogenesis in mice. Involvement of p53-dependent apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Ohyama, Harumi; Nose, Masako; Yukawa, Osami; Yamada, Takeshi; Hayata, Isamu

    2003-01-01

    In the past 5 years, a series of study was done at our institute to investigate radiation effects on the embryogenesis in mice with an emphasis on mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced adaptive response and the role of radiation-induced apoptosis played in teratogenesis in the late period of organogenesis. Using the limb bud system, we first found that radiation-induced apoptosis is involved in malformations, namely, radiation-induced apoptosis in the predigital regions of embryonic limb buds is responsible for digital defects in ICR mice. Examination of embryonic C57BL/6J mice with different p53 status led to further finding that susceptibility to the radiation-induced apoptosis and digital defects depends on both the p53 status and the radiation dose. p53 wild-type mice appeared to be the most sensitive, while p53 knockout mice were the most resistant. These results indicate that p53-dependent apoptosis mediates radiation-induced digital defects. The existence of a radioadaptive response in fetuses, i.e., the priming dose significantly decreases the apoptosis induction, prenatal death, and digital defects in the living fetuses induced by the challenging dose, was found first in ICR strain mice and later confirmed again in C57BL/6J mice. p53 heterozygous embryos did not show the radioadaptive response, indicating the involvement of p53 in the radioadaptive response. (author)

  4. Cadmium induced radioadaptive response via an ATM-independent H2S/cystathionine γ-lyase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yan; Yuan Dexiao; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    The combined exposure to environmental toxicants such as heavy metals and radiation is an important research area in health protection. Here we explored cadmium induced radioadaptive response (RAR) and investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and ATM kinase in this response. Our data showed that the cadmium ions with a sub-lethal concentration could induce RAR in Chang liver cells towards subsequent γ-irradiation and this response could be abrogated by DL-propargylglycine (PPG), the endogenous H 2 S synthetase inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), but not by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), the inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). Moreover, the pretreatment of cells with NaHS also stimulated cellular adaptive response to radiation. Both cadmium treatment and irradiation up-regulated the expression of CSE protein in a time-dependent manner but had no influence on the expression of CBS protein. In the primed cells, the time course of CBS expression showed no significant difference with the cells treated with 2Gy irradiation alone, however, the CSE expression was easier to reach the maximum level, indicating a more efficient H 2 S production by CSE. Moreover, the cadmium-induced RAR was totally suppressed by KU-55933, a specific ATM inhibitor that did not change the CSE expression after radiation. However, exogenous H 2 S decreased the phosphorylation level of radiation-induced ATM. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate firstly that H 2 S is involved in the cadmium induced cross-adaptive response to challenging radiation. CSE, rather than CBS, may mainly responsible for the H 2 S production during this RAR which may also be mediated by ATM pathway. However, the activation of CSE is independent of ATM but could negatively regulate the phosphorylation of ATM.

  5. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flegal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  6. Investigation of the response of low-dose irradiated cells. Pt. 2. Radio-adaptive response of human embryonic cells is related to cell-to-cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Masami.

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells and HeLa cells with low-dose X-ray and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. The results obtained were as follows; (1) When HE cells were irradiated by a high-dose of 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the living cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a preliminary irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the relative growth ratios increased significantly to 45-53%. (2) This preliminary irradiation effect was not observed in HeLa cells, being cancer cells. (3) When the HE cells suspended in a Ca 2+ iron-free medium or TPA added medium while receiving the preliminary irradiation of 13 cGy, the effect of the preliminary irradiation in increasing the relative growth ratio of living cells was not observed. (4) This indicates that normal cells shows an adaptive response to low-dose radiation and become more radioresistant. This phenomenon is considered to involve cell-to-cell communication maintained in normal cells and intracellular signal transduction in which Ca 2+ ion plays a role. (author)

  7. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  8. Adaptive response to high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Annamaria; Bogdandi, E. Noemi; Polonyi, Istvan; Sardy, M. Marta; Balashazy, Imre; Palfalvy, Jozsef

    2001-01-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation include gene mutation, chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation and cell death. These effects are attributed to the DNA damaging effects of the irradiation resulting in irreversible changes during DNA replication or during the processing of the DNA damage by enzymatic repair processes. These repair processes could initiate some adaptive mechanisms in the cell, which could lead to radioadaptive response (RAR). Adaptive responses have typically been detected by exposing cells to a low radiation dose (1-50 mGy) and then challenging the cells with a higher dose of radiation (2-4 Gy) and comparing the outcome to that seen with the challenge dose only. For adaptive response to be seen the challenge dose must be delivered within 24 hour of the inducing dose. Radio-adaptation is extensively studied for low LET radiation. Nevertheless, few data are available for high LET radiation at very low doses and dose rate. Our study was aimed to investigate the radioadaptive response to low-dose neutron irradiation by detection of the genotoxic damage i.e.: hprt-mutant colonies induced. Altered protein synthesis was also studied to identify stress proteins may responsible for radio-adaptation. New alpha particle irradiator system was also built up to study the biological effects of low dose alpha irradiation. The experiments were carried out on monolayers of human melanoma and CHO (Chines Hamster Ovary) cells irradiated by neutrons produced in the biological irradiation channel of the Research Reactor of Budapest Neutron Center. Cells were exposed to 0.5-50 mGy neutron doses with dose rates of 1.59-10 mGy/min. The challenge doses of 2-4 Gy gamma rays were administrated within 1-48 hours after priming treatment. The induced mutants at hprt locus were selected by adding 6-thioguanine and allow to grow for 10 days for expression of the phenotype. The protein synthesis was studied by PAGE, the molecular mass of specific

  9. Developing Responsible Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautum, Satyen; Jangam, Sachin; Loh, Kai Chee

    2018-01-01

    Developing responsible learners is one of the key education challenges of our time. Education literature suggests that for students to see themselves as active and necessary participants in their own learning, it is important that they view themselves as stakeholders in education. This research aims at exploring the effectiveness of instructional…

  10. Recovery of endo-CFU-S in radio-adaptive survival response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio; Horie, Kiyohito; Kubo, Kihei

    2003-01-01

    A priming irradiation with 0.45 Gy of X-rays, given 2 weeks prior to the challenging exposures, induces radio-resistance (decrease in bone marrow death rate after mid-lethal irradiations) in mice of C57BL/6 mice. This acquired radio-resistance appeared on day 9 and continued till day 17 after the priming irradiation, with a maximal on days 12-14 and diminished on day 21. The priming irradiation, given 14 days prior to the challenging exposure, increased endogenous spleen colonies on days 12-13 after exposure to 5.0 Gy. Effect of interval time between the priming and the challenging irradiations on the increase in endogenous spleen colonies was also examined. Significant increase of the colonies by the priming irradiation was observed when the interval time was 12-17 and 21 days. The results correspond to the increase of the survival rates on days 12-17 after the challenging irradiations. (author)

  11. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick

    2007-01-01

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  12. Adaptive response of the chicken embryo to low doses of x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, K.; Schleifer, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chicken embryos were x-irradiated in ovo with 5-30 cGy (=priming dose) at the 13th-15th day of development. After 3-48 h, brain- and liver-cell suspensions were x-irradiated in vitro with (challenge) doses of 4-32 Gy. Significantly less radiation damage was observed when the radiation response was measured by scheduled DNA synthesis, nucleoid sedimentation and viscosity of alkaline cell lysates 12-36 h after the priming exposure. In vivo, pre-irradiation with 10 cGy enhanced regeneration as evidenced by the DNA content of chicken embryo brain and liver 24 h following a challenge dose of 4 Gy. From nucleoid sedimentation analyses in brain and liver cells immediately after irradiation with 16 Gy and after a 30-min repair period in the presence of aphidicolin, dideoxythymidine and 3-aminobenzamide or in the absence of these DNA repair inhibitors, it is concluded that a reduction of the initial radiation damage is the dominant mechanism of the ''radio-adaptive'' response of the chicken embryo. Sedimentation of nucleoids from ethidium bromide (EB) (0.75-400 μg/ml)-treated cells suggests a higher tendency of ''radio-adapted'' cells to undergo positive DNA supercoiling in the presence of high EB concentrations. (orig.)

  13. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  14. Responsible nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    to the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  15. Trp53 activity is repressed in radio-adapted cultured murine limb bud cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, Guillaume; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Shang, Yi; Fujita, Kazuko; Hayata, Isamu; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) at low dose in fetal models is of great importance, because the fetus is considered to be at the most radiosensitive stage of the development and prenatal radiation might influence subsequent development. We previously demonstrated the existence of an adaptive response (AR) in murine fetuses after pre-exposure to low doses of X-rays. Trp53-dependent apoptosis was suggested to be responsible for the teratogenic effects of IR; decreased apoptosis was observed in adapted animals. In this study, in order to investigate the role of Trp53 in AR, we developed a new model of irradiated micromass culture of fetal limb bud cells, which replicated proliferation, differentiation and response to IR in murine embryos. Murine fetuses were exposed to whole-body priming irradiation of 0.3 Gy or 0.5 Gy at embryonic day 11 (E11). Limb bud cells (collected from digital ray areas exhibiting radiation-induced apoptosis) were cultured and exposed to a challenging dose of 4 Gy at E12 equivalent. The levels of Trp53 protein and its phosphorylated form at Ser18 were investigated. Our results suggested that the induction of AR in mouse embryos was correlated with a repression of Trp53 activity. (author)

  16. Leadership Development: A Supervisory Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, David

    2000-01-01

    .... This is a recurring theme found throughout leadership literature and speeches. The US Air Force clearly establishes subordinate development as a supervisory responsibility in top-level doctrine...

  17. Adaptive response and split-dose effect of radiation on the survival ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, we report radioadaptive response in terms of survival of ... Group 4: mice pre-treated with conditioning dose of 0⋅5 Gy ... week in mice exposed to 8 Gy. For mice .... The adaptive response is known to remain for a few hours.

  18. Effect of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced adaptive response of root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chenguang; Wang, Ting; Wu, Jingjing; Xu, Wei; Li, Huasheng; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The radio-adaptive response (RAR) of A. thaliana root growth is modulated in microgravity. • The DNA damage repairs in RAR are regulated by microgravity. • The phytohormone auxin plays a regulatory role in the modulation of microgravity on RAR of root growth. - Abstract: Space particles have an inevitable impact on organisms during space missions; radio-adaptive response (RAR) is a critical radiation effect due to both low-dose background and sudden high-dose radiation exposure during solar storms. Although it is relevant to consider RAR within the context of microgravity, another major space environmental factor, there is no existing evidence as to its effects on RAR. In the present study, we established an experimental method for detecting the effects of gamma-irradiation on the primary root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which RAR of root growth was significantly induced by several dose combinations. Microgravity was simulated using a two-dimensional rotation clinostat. It was shown that RAR of root growth was significantly inhibited under the modeled microgravity condition, and was absent in pgm-1 plants that had impaired gravity sensing in root tips. These results suggest that RAR could be modulated in microgravity. Time course analysis showed that microgravity affected either the development of radio-resistance induced by priming irradiation, or the responses of plants to challenging irradiation. After treatment with the modeled microgravity, attenuation in priming irradiation-induced expressions of DNA repair genes (AtKu70 and AtRAD54), and reduced DNA repair efficiency in response to challenging irradiation were observed. In plant roots, the polar transportation of the phytohormone auxin is regulated by gravity, and treatment with an exogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) prevented the induction of RAR of root growth, suggesting that auxin might play a regulatory role in the interaction between microgravity and RAR of root growth.

  19. Effect of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced adaptive response of root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Chenguang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province (China); Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province (China); Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Jingjing [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province (China); Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xu, Wei [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province (China); Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Liu, Min [China Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); and others

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The radio-adaptive response (RAR) of A. thaliana root growth is modulated in microgravity. • The DNA damage repairs in RAR are regulated by microgravity. • The phytohormone auxin plays a regulatory role in the modulation of microgravity on RAR of root growth. - Abstract: Space particles have an inevitable impact on organisms during space missions; radio-adaptive response (RAR) is a critical radiation effect due to both low-dose background and sudden high-dose radiation exposure during solar storms. Although it is relevant to consider RAR within the context of microgravity, another major space environmental factor, there is no existing evidence as to its effects on RAR. In the present study, we established an experimental method for detecting the effects of gamma-irradiation on the primary root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which RAR of root growth was significantly induced by several dose combinations. Microgravity was simulated using a two-dimensional rotation clinostat. It was shown that RAR of root growth was significantly inhibited under the modeled microgravity condition, and was absent in pgm-1 plants that had impaired gravity sensing in root tips. These results suggest that RAR could be modulated in microgravity. Time course analysis showed that microgravity affected either the development of radio-resistance induced by priming irradiation, or the responses of plants to challenging irradiation. After treatment with the modeled microgravity, attenuation in priming irradiation-induced expressions of DNA repair genes (AtKu70 and AtRAD54), and reduced DNA repair efficiency in response to challenging irradiation were observed. In plant roots, the polar transportation of the phytohormone auxin is regulated by gravity, and treatment with an exogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) prevented the induction of RAR of root growth, suggesting that auxin might play a regulatory role in the interaction between microgravity and RAR of root growth.

  20. Low-dose radiation-induced adaptive response in bone marrow cells of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Zeba; Kesavan, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Using bone marrow cells of whole body irradiated mice, the cytogenetic adaptive response induced by low conditioning doses of gamma-rays was investigated. The conditioning doses (0.025 and 0.05 Gy) were given at a dose-rate of 1.67 Gy/min. The challenging dose of 1 Gy was given at a dose-rate of 0.045 Gy/s. The challenging dose was given at different time intervals after the conditioning dose. The time intervals between the conditioning dose and challenging dose were 2, 7.5, 13, 18.5 and 24 h. When the time interval between the conditioning dose and the challenging dose was 2 h, both conditioning doses (0.025 and 0.05 Gy) reduced the frequency of MNPCEs and chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells. The data collected at different time intervals (7.5, 13, 18.5 h) reveal that the radioadaptive response persisted for a longer time when the lower conditioning dose (0.025 Gy) was given. With the higher conditioning dose (0.05 Gy), the radioadaptive response disappeared after a time interval of 13 h. When the time interval between the conditioning dose and the challenging doses was 18.5 or 24 h, only the lower conditioning dose appeared effective in inducing the radioadaptive response

  1. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda

    2017-08-01

    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:505-509).

  2. New responsibilities in purchasing and developing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerram, Soline; Fox, Ann

    2014-06-01

    The role of nursing in the NHS commissioning structure in England is developing. Since April 2013 more than 200 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs), which comprise all GP practices in the locality, have taken on responsibility for health budgets in their areas. This article describes the challenges ahead and nurses' responsibilities in CCGs when working with local citizens and across the health and social care system to assure the delivery of high quality, safe services.

  3. [Development of an Atypical Response Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Mark; Linden, James

    The development of an objective diagnostic scale to measure atypical behavior is discussed. The Atypical Response Scale (ARS) is a structured projective test consisting of 17 items, each weighted 1, 2, or 3, that were tested for convergence and reliability. ARS may be individually or group administered in 10-15 minutes; hand scoring requires 90…

  4. The development of socially responsible marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary knowledge-based economy characterized by fast and turbulent changes, the achieved competitive advantage is much more exposed to hazards in contrast to earlier periods. Companies are forced to constantly create new business opportunities in order to respond to the challenges that are generated by the impact of numerous primarily technological and market changes. However, there is a small number of companies, with arranged organization and strategy, that support the requests for the research and creation of sustainable business and marketing strategies. The global scene conditioned by the development of new markets and developing economies requires changes in marketing approaches and strategy adaptation. The realization of superior business performances in global environment is related to the acquirement and adaption to new challenges and trends. The trend that questions the business activity of many companies is the requests for responsible behavior of enterprises in the market and acceptance of ethical, moral and environmental principles. There are more and more evident requests for aligning of business and marketing decisions with the aims of socially responsible business. The development of socially responsible marketing is the imperative of economic and social success. The authors point to the role and importance of innovation in marketing approaches, the need for enhancement of socially responsible marketing with the aim of improving its business performance and successful positioning.

  5. Socially responsible marketing decisions - scale development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lončarić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement scale for evaluating the implementation level of the concept of social responsibility in taking marketing decisions, in accordance with a paradigm of the quality-of-life marketing. A new scale of "socially responsible marketing decisions" has been formed and its content validity, reliability and dimensionality have been analyzed. The scale has been tested on a sample of the most successful Croatian firms. The research results lead us to conclude that the scale has satisfactory psychometric characteristics but that it is necessary to improve it by generating new items and by testing it on a greater number of samples.

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSIBILITY OF BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Krykun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today sustainable development is a widely used term, which has been increasingly influential in recent years. Debates about sustainability no longer consider sustainability solely as an environmental concern, but also incorporate economic and social dimensions. However, while a social and economic dimensions of sustainable development are widely discussed, environmental degradation becomes more and more crucial each year and is likely to reduce human well-being all across the world within the next few decades. The purpose of the paper is to analyse ecological ‘pillar’ of sustainable development, its historical background, main steps towards implementation of ‘new global environmental rules for society. Methodology. The paper is based on statistical information from public sources, reports of different international organizations and institutions, which are used to stress and underline main crucial points of research. Results of the survey show, that environmental quality, economic development and social well-being are interdependent and the main aim of international institutions, independent countries, businesses and society is to achieve environmentally sustainable development. Environmental issues make strong impact on modern economy. Responsible global strategy of development provides the whole society with rules, how ‘wise’ technological changes and economic policy can make industrial production processes less polluting and less resource intensive but yet more productive and profitable. Practical implications. Strategy of sustainable development and it’s three basic dimensions have found practical implication in one complex model, which illustrates the level of development of each country – the Human Development Index, which is focusing on three basic dimensions of human development: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. Another data, which is

  7. Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Extracellular Oxidized Cell-Free DNA: A Possible Mediator of Bystander Effect and Adaptive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have hypothesized that the adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR is mediated by oxidized cell-free DNA (cfDNA fragments. Here, we summarize our experimental evidence for this model. Studies involving measurements of ROS, expression of the NOX (superoxide radical production, induction of apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks, antiapoptotic gene expression and cell cycle inhibition confirm this hypothesis. We have demonstrated that treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with low doses of IR (10 cGy leads to cell death of part of cell population and release of oxidized cfDNA. cfDNA has the ability to penetrate into the cytoplasm of other cells. Oxidized cfDNA, like low doses of IR, induces oxidative stress, ROS production, ROS-induced oxidative modifications of nuclear DNA, DNA breaks, arrest of the cell cycle, activation of DNA reparation and antioxidant response, and inhibition of apoptosis. The MSCs pretreated with low dose of irradiation or oxidized cfDNA were equally effective in induction of adaptive response to challenge further dose of radiation. Our studies suggest that oxidized cfDNA is a signaling molecule in the stress signaling that mediates radiation-induced bystander effects and that it is an important component of the development of radioadaptive responses to low doses of IR.

  8. Developments in weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of weather-responsive traffic management practices. It focuses on what WRTM strategies exist, where they have been used, the benefits realized, what improvements are needed, and how to implement and evalu...

  9. Development of Biomimetic and Functionally Responsive Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    2010-03-01

    Controlling the surface morphology of solids and manufacturing of functional surfaces with special responsive properties has been the subject of intense research. We report a methodology for creating multifunctionally responsive surfaces by irradiating silicon wafers with femtosecond laser pulses and subsequently coating them with different types of functional conformal coatings. Such surfaces exhibit controlled dual-scale roughness at the micro- and the nano-scale, which mimics the hierarchical morphology of water repellent natural surfaces. When a simple alkylsilane coating is utilized, highly water repellent surfaces are produced that quantitatively compare to those of the Lotus leaf. When a polymer brush is ``grafted from" these surfaces based on a pH-sensitive polymer, the surfaces can alter their behavior from super-hydrophilic (after immersion in a low pH buffer) to super-hydrophobic and water-repellent (following immersion to a high pH buffer). We quantify the water repellency of such responsive systems by drop elasticity measurements whereas we demonstrate that the water repellent state of such surface requires appropriate hydrophobicity of the functionalizing polymer. When a photo-responsive azobenzene-type polymer is deposited, a dynamic optical control of the wetting properties is obtained and the surface can be switched from super-hydrophilic (following UV irradiation) to hydrophobic (following green irradiation). In all the above cases we show that the principal effect of roughness is to cause amplification of the response to the different external stimuli.

  10. The Education of Developing Responsibility Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli; Güzel, Deniz Bostan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value education activities in pre-school value education. In Turkey, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 26 students aged five and…

  11. Hospitableness and sustainable development: New responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the environmental and social aspects in day-to-day business ... responsibility of the host, in which the host not only takes care of the actual guest, but does so in a more ..... implementation of this into hospitality service skills will provide.

  12. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN

    2018-01-01

    In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...

  13. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    institutional theory it is suggested that strategic framing activities aiming to conceptualize an industry as a sectoral object of development are likely to generate multiple and incommensurable representations with different and conflicting strategic implications. Second, if faced with a development agenda...

  14. Skin bank development and critical incident response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kellie T; Herson, Marisa R

    2011-05-01

    The Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria (DTBV), situated in Melbourne, Australia developed a skin banking program in 1994. It remains Australia's only operational skin bank, processing cryopreserved human cadaveric skin for the treatment of burns. The demand for allograft skin in Australia has steadily increased since the development of the program. The bank has been involved in the provision of skin for a number of critical incidences or disasters both in Australia and overseas. Demand always exceeds supply, and in the absence of other local skin banks, the DTBV has needed to develop strategies to enable increased provision of allograft skin nationally.

  15. Leadership Competency Development: A Higher Education Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemiller, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Moving from why, how, and what, this chapter closes with a focus on how we know the outcomes of leadership education. This final chapter provides an overview of leadership competency development as a critical component of higher education.

  16. Developing Moral Responsibleness through Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Sharon M.; Tennyson, W. Wesley

    1989-01-01

    Argues that more attention must be given in counselor preparation and practice to developing critical reflectiveness about valued ends when making professional judgments. Describes and evaluates an instructional model designed to further students' capacities and motivations for making rational moral judgments in counseling. (Author/TE)

  17. Contemporary Organized Crime. : Developments, Challenges and Responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information

  18. Vanguards of paradigm shift in radiation biology. Radiation-induced adaptive and bystander responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. In other words, there are accumulated findings which cannot be explained by the classical ''target theory'' of radiation biology. The radioadaptive response, radiation-induced bystander effects, low-dose radio-hypersensitivity, and genomic instability are specifically observed in response to low dose/low dose-rate radiation, and the mechanisms underlying these responses often involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. Recently, correlations between the radioadaptive and bystander responses have been increasingly reported. The present review focuses on the latter two phenomena by summarizing observations supporting their existence, and discussing the linkage between them from the aspect of production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. (author)

  19. Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Global Dimension in Engineering Education

    2015-01-01

    Document realitzat amb un ajut financer de la Unió Europea. Per poder accedir al material complementari per a docents dels 28 casos estudi que formen el llibre, activeu el "Document relacionat" Col·lecció de 28 casos estudi per a professors d'enginyeria: 1. Rural development and planning in LDCs: the “Gamba Deve – Licoma axis”,district of Caia, Mozambique 2. Reducing the impact of soil erosion and reservoir siltation on agricultural production and water availability: the case stu...

  20. Development of a Scale Measuring Discursive Responsible Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Voegtlin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper advances the conceptual understanding of responsible leadership and develops an empirical scale of discursive responsible leadership. The concept of responsible leadership presented here draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution combining the macro view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro view of leadership. Ideal responsible leadership conduct thereby goes beyond the dyadic leader–follower interaction to include all stakeholders. The pa...

  1. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  2. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  3. Developments in neonatal care and nursing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Patricia; Fallon, Anne

    This article reviews the origins and evolution of neonatology and considers the role of the neonatal nurse within this specialty. Neonatal nurses are a vital part of the neonatal team that provides care for sick babies. The nursing care required by sick babies and their families on a neonatal unit can be variable and complex. The past century has seen significant changes in the role of the neonatal nurse. This has come about through dramatic technological developments on neonatal units, an increased understanding of neonatal physiology and pathology, changes in the education of neonatal nurses, and active and ongoing clinical research within the specialty. The resulting significant advances in neonatal care, including that provided by neonatal nurses, have made a crucial and steadfast contribution to marked improvements in neonatal outcomes.

  4. Development of site specific response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Savy, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    For a number of years the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has employed site specific spectra (SSSP) in their evaluation of the adequacy of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). These spectra were developed only from the spectra of the horizontal components of the ground motion and from a very limited data set. As the data set has considerably increased for Eastern North America (ENA) and as more relevant data has become available from earthquakes occurring in other parts of the world (e.g., Italy), together with the fact that recent data indicated the importance of the vertical component, it became clear that an update of the SSSP's for ENA was desirable. The methodology used in this study is similar to the previous ones in that it used actual earthquake ground motion data with magnitudes within a certain range and recorded at distances and at sites similar to those that would be chosen for the definition of an SSE. An extensive analysis of the origin and size of the uncertainty is an important part of this study. The results of this analysis of the uncertainties is used to develop criteria for selecting the earthquake records to be used in the derivation of the SSSP's. We concluded that the SSSPs were not very sensitive to the distribution of the source to site distance of the earthquake records used in the analysis. That is, the variability (uncertainty) introduced by the range of distances was relatively small compared to the variability introduced by other factors. We also concluded that the SSSP are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of the magnitudes of these earthquakes, particularly at rock sites and, by inference, at shallow soil sites. We found that one important criterion in selecting records to generate SSSP is the depth of soil at the site

  5. Corporate Sustainable Development Assessment Base on the Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Mei; Nagata Katsuya; Onoda Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    With the resource exhaustion, bad affections of human activities and the awakening of the human rights, the corporate social responsibility became popular corporate strategy achieving sustainable development of both corporation and society. The issue of Guideline of Chinese Corporate Social Responsibility Report promotes greatly corporation to take social responsibility. This paper built the index system according to this guideline and takes the textile industry as an exa...

  6. Local Development Responses in Zambia:The Case of Kitwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth in planning initiatives for Local Economic Development (LED). This article examines LED activities in the city of Kitwe, against the backdrop of regional and local economic decline, two different sets of responses may be recognised: (i) local government led initiatives and (ii) 'bottom up' LED responses arising from the ...

  7. Service Learning and the Development of Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott D.; Bozeman, Marci

    This essay presents the findings of a study employing a developmental approach to student acquisition of social responsibility. Professors at seven collegiate institutions of differing types who teach service-learning courses were asked if they would be willing to include their students in a study of social responsibility development through…

  8. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patish, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  9. Response Matrix Method Development Program at Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicilian, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Response Matrix Method Development Program at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has concentrated on the development of an effective system of computer codes for the analysis of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactors. The most significant contribution of this program to date has been the verification of the accuracy of diffusion theory codes as used for routine analysis of SRP reactor operation. This paper documents the two steps carried out in achieving this verification: confirmation of the accuracy of the response matrix technique through comparison with experiment and Monte Carlo calculations; and establishment of agreement between diffusion theory and response matrix codes in situations which realistically approximate actual operating conditions

  10. Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Philbrook, Lauren E; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Developing responsive web applications with Ajax and jQuery

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This book is a standard tutorial for web application developers presented in a comprehensive, step-by-step manner to explain the nuances involved. It has an abundance of code and examples supporting explanations of each feature. This book is intended for Java developers wanting to create rich and responsive applications using AJAX. Basic experience of using jQuery is assumed.

  12. Status and developing of nuclear emergency response techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangang, Zhang; Bing, Zhao; Rongyao, Tang; Xiaoxiao, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Emergency preparedness and response in China is consistent with international basic principle of nuclear safety and emergency response. Nuclear emergency response techniques in China developed with nuclear power from 1980s. The status of nuclear emergency techniques in China are: 1) China have plentiful experiences and abilities in the fields of nuclear facility emergency planning and preparedness, nuclear accident consequence assessment, emergency monitoring, and emergency advisory; 2) Emergency assistance ability in China has a foundation, however it cannot satisfy national requirement; 3) Emergency planning and preparedness is not based on hazard assessment; 4) Remote monitoring and robot techniques in not adaptable to the requirements of nuclear emergency response; 5) A consistent emergency assessment system is lack in China. In this paper, it is analyzed what is the developing focal points of nuclear emergency response techniques in China, and it is proposed that the main points are: a) To develop the research of emergency preparedness on the base of hazard analysis; b) To improve remote monitoring and robot ability during nuclear emergency; c) To develop the response technique research with anti-terrorism. (author)

  13. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility: Linking Goals to Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Bakardjieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the core of sustainable development of companies. On one hand, the corporate social responsibility of companies is a prerequisite for sustainable business, on the other - sustainable development sets specific requirements for the development of businesses in the context of increasing requirements to the degree of quality and reliability of financial information. In recent years, sustainable development has become a strategic issue for companies and this trend applies to Bulgarian companies too. Development of non-financial reporting is a very dynamic process, whose peak is the establishment of an integrated system of accountability. Current paper makes analyses of advantages of CSR linking it to the implementation of sustainable development goals through the integrated reporting following the requirements of the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.

  14. Theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Vesna M.; Bučalina, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, with the focus on the following periods: up to 1950, between 1950 an 1970, from 1970 to 1990 and from 1990 to now. We employed historical approach. We had an insight into the results of theoretical research on 'corporate social responsibility' concept, which were mostly presented in scientific papers in the English language. The ab...

  15. The development of Corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Navickas, Valentinas; Kontautienė, Rima

    2014-01-01

    The authors of the article analyze the development of corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian food industry. By emphasize the importance of food industry as one of the largest manufacturing group in Lithuania and its strong impact and high dependence on the economy, the environment and on society, implementation of principles and practice of corporate social responsibility is of high relevance for this sector. The paper deals with the main indicators of Lithuanian food industry in...

  16. The development of nuclear power and emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power is a safe, clean energy, which has been evidenced by the history of nuclear power development. Nuclear power is associated with very low risk but not equal to zero. Accident emergency response and preparedness is a final barrier necessary to reduce potential risks that may arise from nuclear power plants, which must be enhanced. In the course of accident emergency response and preparedness, it is highly necessary to draw domestic and foreign experiences and lessons. Lastly, the paper presents the discussions of some issues which merit attention with respect to emergency response and preparedness in China. (authors)

  17. Development cooperation as methodology for teaching social responsibility to engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Pia

    2011-12-01

    The role of engineering in promoting global well-being has become accentuated, turning the engineering curriculum into a means of dividing well-being equally. The gradual fortifying calls for humanitarian engineering have resulted in the incorporation of social responsibility themes in the university curriculum. Cooperation, communication, teamwork, intercultural cooperation, sustainability, social and global responsibility represent the socio-cultural dimensions that are becoming increasingly important as globalisation intensifies the demands for socially and globally adept engineering communities. This article describes an experiment, the Development Cooperation Project, which was conducted at Aalto University in Finland to integrate social responsibility themes into higher engineering education.

  18. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Murashov, V.; Kuempel, E. D.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Castranova, V.; Hoover, M. D.; Hodson, L.; Martinez, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels—if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions.

  19. Development of Brainstem-Evoked Responses in Congenital Auditory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tillein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the development of the auditory system in hearing and completely acoustically deprived animals, naive congenitally deaf white cats (CDCs and hearing controls (HCs were investigated at different developmental stages from birth till adulthood. The CDCs had no hearing experience before the acute experiment. In both groups of animals, responses to cochlear implant stimulation were acutely assessed. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs were recorded with monopolar stimulation at different current levels. CDCs demonstrated extensive development of E-ABRs, from first signs of responses at postnatal (p.n. day 3 through appearance of all waves of brainstem response at day 8 p.n. to mature responses around day 90 p.n.. Wave I of E-ABRs could not be distinguished from the artifact in majority of CDCs, whereas in HCs, it was clearly separated from the stimulus artifact. Waves II, III, and IV demonstrated higher thresholds in CDCs, whereas this difference was not found for wave V. Amplitudes of wave III were significantly higher in HCs, whereas wave V amplitudes were significantly higher in CDCs. No differences in latencies were observed between the animal groups. These data demonstrate significant postnatal subcortical development in absence of hearing, and also divergent effects of deafness on early waves II–IV and wave V of the E-ABR.

  20. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  1. How Do Employees Perceive Corporate Responsibility? Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Corporate Stakeholder Responsibility Scale

    OpenAIRE

    El Akremi, A.; Gond, J-P.; Swaen, V.; De Roeck, K.; Igalens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on the microfoundations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has highlighted the need for improved measures to evaluate how stakeholders perceive and subsequently react to CSR initiatives. Drawing on stakeholder theory and data from five samples of employees (N = 3,772), the authors develop and validate a new measure of corporate stakeholder responsibility (CStR), which refers to an organization’s context-specific actions and policies designed to enhance the welfare of var...

  2. Coupling Metallic Nanostructures to Thermally Responsive Polymers Allows the Development of Intelligent Responsive Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rubén Morones-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of porous membranes capable of controlling flow or changing their permeability to specific chemical entities, in response to small changes in environmental stimuli, is an area of appealing research, since these membranes present a wide variety of applications. The synthesis of these membranes has been mainly approached through grafting of environmentally responsive polymers to the surface walls of polymeric porous membranes. This synergizes the chemical stability and mechanical strength of the polymer membrane with the fast response times of the bonded polymer chains. Therefore, different composite membranes capable of changing their effective pore size with environmental triggers have been developed. A recent interest has been the development of porous membranes responsive to light, since these can achieve rapid, remote, noninvasive, and localized flow control. This work describes the synthesis pathway to construct intelligent optothermally responsive membranes. The method followed involved the grafting of optothermally responsive polymer-metal nanoparticle nanocomposites to polycarbonate track-etched porous membranes (PCTEPMs. The nanoparticles coupled to the polymer grafts serve as the optothermal energy converters to achieve optical switching of the pores. The results of the paper show that grafting of the polymer and in situ synthesis of the metallic particles can be easily achieved. In addition, the composite membranes allow fast and reversible switching of the pores using both light and heat permitting control of fluid flow.

  3. Pediatric disaster response in developed countries: ten guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Mark A; Arneson, Wendy L

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents and large-scale disasters involving children are likely to overwhelm a regional disaster response system. Children have unique vulnerabilities that require special considerations when developing pediatric response systems. Although medical and trauma strategies exist for the evaluation and treatment of children on a daily basis, the application of these strategies under conditions of resource-constrained triage and treatment have rarely been evaluated. A recent report, however, by the Institute of Medicine did conclude that on a day-to-day basis the U.S. healthcare system does not adequately provide emergency medical services for children. The variability, scale, and uncertainty of disasters call for a set of guiding principles rather than rigid protocols when developing pediatric response plans. The authors propose the following guiding principles in addressing the well-recognized, unique vulnerabilities of children: (1) terrorism prevention and preparedness, (2) all-hazards preparedness, (3) postdisaster disease and injury prevention, (4) nutrition and hydration, (5) equipment and supplies, (6) pharmacology, (7) mental health, (8) identification and reunification of displaced children, (9) day care and school, and (10) perinatology. It is hoped that the 10 guiding principles discussed in this article will serve as a basic framework for developing pediatric response plans and teams in developed countries.

  4. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijen FİLİZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.

  5. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  6. Social responsible investment: satisfaction, risks and prospects of development /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the study of the features and trends of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The present study shows that under the current conditions of economic development and political situation in different countries, socially responsible investment of various projects and programs of social significance becomes increasingly important and relevant. Today we observe the appearance of the new forms of implementation of socially responsible business activities, among which the impact-investment and financing of socially significant projects on the principles of venture philanthropy are becoming more and more popular. It is determined that IMP involves, firstly, profit making, and secondly, it expects positive social changes, in particular, in support of sustainable agricultural development, ensuring availability of medical services, affordability of housing, development of environmentally friendly technologies. It was found out that the goal of venture philanthropy is primarily to create a social effect, and, eventually, to generate profits that may appear in the process of implementing the project or the activities of the organization. In the vast majority of cases, this type of financing takes place through direct investment or fixed income securities.

  7. Development and regulation of response properties in spinal cord motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic response properties of spinal motoneurons determine how converging premotor neuronal input is translated into the final motor command transmitted to muscles. From the patchy data available it seems that these properties and their underlying currents are highly conserved in terrestrial...... vertebrates in terms of both phylogeny and ontogeny. Spinal motoneurons in adults are remarkably similar in many respects ranging from the resting membrane potential to pacemaker properties. Apart from the axolotls, spinal motoneurons from all species investigated have latent intrinsic response properties...... mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels. This mature phenotype is reached gradually during development through phases in which A-type potassium channels and T-type calcium channels are transiently expressed. The intrinsic response properties of mature spinal motoneurons are subject to short-term adjustments via...

  8. Library performance and service competition developing strategic responses

    CERN Document Server

    White, Larry Nash

    2008-01-01

    A practice-driven and proven resource for library administrators of all types of libraries. The work describes how the library can identify the service environment factors impacting customers; strategic needs; identify library competitors; strategic abilities and service environment impacts; and use the combined results to develop proactive competitive responses that drive the service environment instead of reacting to the service environment. These strategic competitive responses would allow the library to increase the value of its service impact and effectiveness while increasing customer appreciation and the libraries advantage in the competitive service environment. Written by a highly knowledgeable practitioner from the library field Experience of the author (library and for-profit management experience) provides a hybrid/blended view of library competition and management responses from both the library and for-profit management worlds Written to applicable to all types of libraries.

  9. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities. Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    After a presentation of the approach to responsibility adopted by AREVA to be a responsible mining stake holder (charter of values, implemented policies, risk prevention and management, best practices), this report gives an overview of mining activities (international presence, production in constant increase) with a focus on uranium mining which is the core business (the different phases are briefly presented: exploration, project development, mining, site decommissioning). It outlines personnel qualification and commitment, actions and policy in the field of personnel health and safety. It addresses the environmental policy: key levers, environmental management system, examples throughout the entire mining life cycle, changes in site consumptions and emissions, promotion of biodiversity. The next part concerns Areva's social commitment (dialogue, development aid in mining territories). Then, performance is expressed in terms of indicators for these different issues (teams, environmental policy, social involvement)

  10. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  11. Our responsibility in a developing world: from ethics to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Nauze, Jamie

    2002-04-01

    If development is defined as a process of enhancing human capabilities, that is, to expand choices and opportunities so that each person can lead a life of respect and value, then poverty is the deprivation of these capabilities. Nobel Laureate for Economics, Amartya Sen, states: 'as people who live minus sign in a broad sense minus sign together, we cannot escape the thought that the terrible occurrences that we see around us are quintessentially our problems'. This year's Council Lecture examines issues of individual and institutional responsibility in a developing world. Aspects of development relevant to ophthalmology are discussed and a review of Australian efforts undertaken. With a view to encouraging Fellows to take a more active role in development, it is demonstrated that there are a range of contributions that can be made. Appropriate practice models are explored and a strategy for College involvement presented.

  12. Developing and testing the CHORDS: Characteristics of Responsible Drinking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Report on the development and psychometric testing of a theoretically and evidence-grounded instrument, the Characteristics of Responsible Drinking Survey (CHORDS). Instrument subjected to four phases of pretesting (cognitive validity, cognitive and motivational qualities, pilot test, and item evaluation) and a final posttest implementation. Large public university in Texas. Randomly selected convenience sample (n  =  729) of currently enrolled students. This 78-item questionnaire measures individuals' responsible drinking beliefs, motivations, intentions, and behaviors. Cronbach α, split-half reliability, principal components analysis and Spearman ρ were conducted to investigate reliability, stability, and validity. Measures in the CHORDS exhibited high internal consistency reliability and strong correlations of split-half reliability. Factor analyses indicated five distinct scales were present, as proposed in the theoretical model. Subscale composite scores also exhibited a correlation to alcohol consumption behaviors, indicating concurrent validity. The CHORDS represents the first instrument specifically designed to assess responsible drinking beliefs and behaviors. It was found to elicit valid and reliable data among a college student sample. This instrument holds much promise for practitioners who desire to empirically investigate dimensions of responsible drinking.

  13. Flat-response x-ray-diode-detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, G.

    1982-10-01

    In this report we discuss the design of an improved sub-nanosecond flat response x-ray diode detector needed for ICF diagnostics. This device consists of a high Z cathode and a complex filter tailored to flatten the response so that the total x-ray energy below 1.5 keV can be measured using a single detector. Three major problems have become evident as a result of our work with the original LLNL design including deviation from flatness due to a peak in the response below 200 eV, saturation at relatively low x-ray fluences, and long term gold cathode instability. We are investigating grazing incidence reflection to reduce the response below 200 eV, new high Z cathode materials for long term stability, and a new complex filter for improved flatness. Better saturation performance will require a modified XRD detector under development with reduced anode to cathode spacing and increased anode bias voltage

  14. SUSTAINABILITY AS A STRATEGY OF RESPONSIBLE AND COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a competitiveness strategy based on sustainability to lead the way to a model of responsible and competitive development. The analysis takes as its starting point the assumption that the maturity of a sustainable business strategy positively affects competitiveness. The used method is the critical analysis. Among other results of this analysis concludes that the current business strategy seeks a system ecologically appropriate, economically viable and socially fair to reach sustainable equilibrium. This strategy based on sustainability must be promoted by the institutions and strengthened by the capabilities and resources that each company counts on to develop advantages to foster the overall development and achieve the maximization of benefits from the tangible and intangible perspectives

  15. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a review of what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know about the relationship between industrial clusters and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. In addition to the drivers of and barriers to the adoption of CSR initiatives......, this study highlights key lessons learned from empirical studies of CSR initiatives that aimed to improve environmental management and work conditions and reduce poverty in local industrial districts. Academic work in this area remains embryonic, lacking in empirical evidence about the effects of CSR...... a theoretical model to explain why CSR has not become institutionalized in many developing country clusters, which in turn suggests that the vast majority of industrial clusters in developing countries are likely to engage in socially irresponsible behavior....

  16. Development of Smart Optical Gels with Highly Magnetically Responsive Bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Stucki, Sandro; Massabni, Sarah; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Reckey, Pernille Q; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Windhab, Erich J; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2018-03-14

    Hydrogels delivering on-demand tailorable optical properties are formidable smart materials with promising perspectives in numerous fields, including the development of modern sensors and switches, the essential quality criterion being a defined and readily measured response to environmental changes. Lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ )-chelating bicelles are interesting building blocks for such materials because of their magnetic responsive nature. Imbedding these phospholipid-based nanodiscs in a magnetically aligned state in gelatin permits an orientation-dependent retardation of polarized light. The resulting tailorable anisotropy gives the gel a well-defined optical signature observed as a birefringence signal. These phenomena were only reported for a single bicelle-gelatin pair and required high magnetic field strengths of 8 T. Herein, we demonstrate the versatility and enhance the viability of this technology with a new generation of aminocholesterol (Chol-NH 2 )-doped bicelles imbedded in two different types of gelatin. The highly magnetically responsive nature of the bicelles allowed to gel the anisotropy at commercially viable magnetic field strengths between 1 and 3 T. Thermoreversible gels with a unique optical signature were generated by exposing the system to various temperature conditions and external magnetic field strengths. The resulting optical properties were a signature of the gel's environmental history, effectively acting as a sensor. Solutions containing the bicelles simultaneously aligning parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field directions were obtained by mixing samples chelating Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ . These systems were successfully gelled, providing a material with two distinct temperature-dependent optical characteristics. The high degree of tunability in the magnetic response of the bicelles enables encryption of the gel's optical properties. The proposed gels are viable candidates for temperature tracking of sensitive goods and provide

  17. Development of the Parent Responses to School Functioning Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Garcia, Brittany N; Gray, Laura S; Simons, Laura E; Logan, Deirdre E

    2017-10-01

    Parents play an important role in supporting school functioning in youth with chronic pain, but no validated tools exists to assess parental responses to child and adolescent pain behaviors in the school context. Such a tool would be useful in identifying targets of change to reduce pain-related school impairment. The goal of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate the Parent Responses to School Functioning Questionnaire (PRSF), a parent self-report measure of this construct. After initial expert review and pilot testing, the measure was administered to 418 parents of children (ages 6-17 years) seen for initial multidisciplinary chronic pain clinic evaluation. The final 16-item PRSF showed evidence of good internal consistency (α = .82) and 2-week test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .87). Criterion validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with school absence rates and overall school functioning, and construct validity was demonstrated by correlations with general parental responses to pain. Three subscales emerged capturing parents' personal distress, parents' level of distrust of the school, and parents' expectations and behaviors related to their child's management of challenging school situations. These results provide preliminary support for the PRSF as a psychometrically sound tool to assess parents' responses to child pain in the school setting. The 16-item PRSF measures parental responses to their child's chronic pain in the school context. The clinically useful measure can inform interventions aimed reducing functional disability in children with chronic pain by enhancing parents' ability to respond adaptively to child pain behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of glucose-responsive 'smart' insulin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Nischay K; Phillips, Nelson F B; Weiss, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    The complexity of modern insulin-based therapy for type I and type II diabetes mellitus and the risks associated with excursions in blood-glucose concentration (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia) have motivated the development of 'smart insulin' technologies (glucose-responsive insulin, GRI). Such analogs or delivery systems are entities that provide insulin activity proportional to the glycemic state of the patient without external monitoring by the patient or healthcare provider. The present review describes the relevant historical background to modern GRI technologies and highlights three distinct approaches: coupling of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to deliver devices (algorithm-based 'closed-loop' systems), glucose-responsive polymer encapsulation of insulin, and molecular modification of insulin itself. Recent advances in GRI research utilizing each of the three approaches are illustrated; these include newly developed algorithms for CGM-based insulin delivery systems, glucose-sensitive modifications of existing clinical analogs, newly developed hypoxia-sensitive polymer matrices, and polymer-encapsulated, stem-cell-derived pancreatic β cells. Although GRI technologies have yet to be perfected, the recent advances across several scientific disciplines that are described in this review have provided a path towards their clinical implementation.

  19. Responsible Development of AREVA's Mining Activities - Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    By defining AREVA's strategy and policies, this report aims to demonstrate the company's performance in the key areas of mining activity responsibility: ethics and governance, social report, the environment, occupational health and safety, community involvement, commitments to stakeholders. The data given cover the assets for which AREVA acts as operator in uranium mining activities: exploration, project development, production and rehabilitation. The consolidated data target activities in France, Canada, Niger, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Gabon and Namibia. Activities in the Central African Republic and those linked to La Mancha no longer fall within the scope of this report (sale of assets in 2012). This report is the third edition of this annual exercise

  20. Endocrine Responses to Exercise in the Developing Child and Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of exercise training on the neuroendocrine control of the pituitary in the developing child is complex and the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple determinants influence adaptive hypothalamic-pituitary secretory responses to physical stress, namely, training intensity and duration, nutrition and energy balance, gender, age, sex, and sexual maturation status. The increase in growth hormone (GH) in response to acute exercise is dependent on pubertal status; children in more advanced pubertal stages respond with larger peak GH concentrations compared to those in earlier stages. The adolescent female athlete is more prone to menstrual disorders than the more mature athlete, and recent data suggest that athletes may be able to reverse menstrual disorders by increasing their dietary energy intake without decreasing their exercise levels. The thyroid changes observed are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. Studies that evaluated changes in cortisol secretion during aerobic exercise in children and adolescents show either an increase or no change in response to the exercise bout. Recent research showed that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and increasing levels of physical activity during childhood likely enhance optimal bone strength. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Response of Elk to Habitat Modification Near Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Fred; Fox, Autumn; Harju, Seth M.; Dzialak, Matthew R.; Hayden-Wing, Larry D.; Winstead, Jeffrey B.

    2012-11-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with various forms of energy development. The specific behavioral responses underlying these trends, however, have not been effectively studied. To investigate such effects, we examined elk response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008-2010. We created 10 1-ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 operating natural gas wells by removing standing timber in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated elk use, indexed by pellet density, before and after timber removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production and cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by elk and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity, graminoid and forb cover, and graminoid and forb biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Differences were greater in 2010 than in 2009, and elk and deer removed more plant biomass in 2010 than 2009. Elk use of cut sites was 37 % lower than control sites in 2009, but 46 % higher in 2010. The initially lower use of cut sites may be attributable to lack of winter forage on these sites caused by timber removal and associated surface modification. The increased use of cut sites in 2010 suggested that elk possessed the behavioral capacity, over time, to exploit enhanced forage resources in the proximity of habitat modifications and human activity associated with maintenance of operating natural gas wells.

  2. Responsible and sustainable business in the context of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses in the contemporary world, detached from the classic entrepreneurial paradigm in keeping with which a business appears, grows and matures, are undergoing a process of adjustment to the new concept of sustainability, focusing on reconciling global, regional, national and local economic development and the quality of the environment. The practical organization of a responsible and sustainable business, the results of which are ever new products and services, which creates new jobs, and contributes, by aggregating systematically, to assessing new macroeconomic results, from GDP or NDP to import and export, and especially to sustainable economic development, requires the presence of both the three classical factors, i.e., capital, labour and location (land, and the other three essential new factors, which are called technology, information and the specific skills of the business owner, or simply of the entrepreneur.

  3. Development of Visible Light-Responsive Sensitized Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of studies about the visible-light-promoted photodegradation of the contaminants and energy conversion with sensitized photocatalysts. Herein we studied mechanism, physical properties, and synergism effect of the sensitized photocatalysts as well as the method for enhancing the photosensitized effect. According to the reported studies in the literature, inorganic sensitizers, organic dyes, and coordination metal complexes were very effective sensitizers that were studied mostly, of which organic dyes photosensitization is the most widely studied modified method. Photosensitization is an important way to extend the excitation wavelength to the visible range, and therefore sensitized photocatalysts play an important role in the development of visible light-responsive photocatalysts for future industrialized applications. This paper mainly describes the types, modification, photocatalytic performance, application, and the developments of photosensitization for environmental application.

  4. African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development: Link with Inflammatory Responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stijlemans

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i early parasite diagnosis, (ii anti-trypanosome (drugs treatment, and (iii anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.

  5. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  6. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  7. Examples of socially responsible practices of multinational enterprises from developed and developing countries in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Viviana Duque Orozco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available International business research has considered the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the Multinational Enterprises (MNEs and so Multilateral Organizations have developed different recommendations about what these companies should do in different social areas, especially in labor practices. MNEs play a significant role given their influence and activities in both home and host countries. They play a double role: actor of the problem, but also the actor of the solution. The purpose of the paper is to identify the differences of Socially Responsible Practices (SRP between MNEs from developed countries and MNEs from developing countries in Colombia. The method used in this document is a literature review from several academic databases; and we check CSR programs published in Web sites in the host country (Colombia of six MNE´s The results suggest that Multinationals from developing countries focus their practices on the com­munity, mainly in education programs, while Multinationals from developed countries try to work with all stakeholders and involve particularly aspects related with their business in the programs they develop. This is possible because MNEs from developed countries use better divulgation me­chanisms. SRP less mentioned in both cases are related to employees. Commitment with ethical responsibilities, promote greater economic and social inclusion should be the goals for MNEs in developing countries. In the other hand, the government has to play a more important role in this ground establishing minimum standards for MNEs that want to operate in developing countries, and some education programs to sensitize society into a more responsible consumption, in order to generate social pressure.

  8. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  9. Development of a model to assess orthostatic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1993-01-01

    A major change for crewmembers during weightlessness in microgravity is the redistribution of body fluids from the legs into the abdomen, thorax, and head. The fluids continue to be sequestered in these areas throughout the flight. Upon reentry into gravity on landing, these same body fluids are displaced again to their normal locations, however, not without hazardous incidence to the crewmembers. The problem remains that upon landing, crewmembers are subject to orthostasis, that is, the blood flowing into the legs reduces the blood supply to the brain and may result in the crewmember fainting. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of testing orthostatic responses of blood pressure regulating mechanisms of the cardiovascular system, when challenged, to maintain blood pressure to the brain. To accomplish this, subjects' responses were assessed as they proceeded from the supine position of progressive head-up tilt positions of 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg angles. A convenience sample consisted of 21 subjects, females (N=11) and males (N=10), selected from a list of potential subjects available through the NASA subject screening office. The methodology included all non-invasive measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, echocardiograms, cardiac output, cardiac stroke volume, fluid shifts in the thorax, ventricular ejection and velocity times, and skin blood perfusion. The Fischer statistical analysis was done of all data with the significance level at .05. Significant differences were demonstrated in many instances of changes of posture for all variables. Based on the significance of the findings of this study, this model for assessing orthostatic responses does provide an adequate challenge to the blood pressure regulatory systems. While individuals may use different adaptations to incremental changes in gravity, the subjects, in aggregate, demonstrated significant adaptive cardiovascular changes to orthostatic challenges which were presented to them.

  10. Linear, no threshold response at low doses of ionizing radiation: ideology, prejudice and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The linear, no threshold (LNT) response model assumes that there is no threshold dose for the radiation-induced genetic effects (heritable mutations and cancer), and it forms the current basis for radiation protection standards for radiation workers and the general public. The LNT model is, however, based more on ideology than valid radiobiological data. Further, phenomena such as 'radiation hormesis', 'radioadaptive response', 'bystander effects' and 'genomic instability' are now demonstrated to be radioprotective and beneficial. More importantly, the 'differential gene expression' reveals that qualitatively different proteins are induced by low and high doses. This finding negates the LNT model which assumes that qualitatively similar proteins are formed at all doses. Thus, all available scientific data challenge the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  11. Study of developing nuclear fabrication facility's integrated emergency response manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeh Yeong; Cho, Nam Chan; Han, Seung Hoon; Moon, Jong Han; Lee, Jin Hang; Min, Guem Young; Han, Ji Ah

    2016-01-01

    Public begin to pay attention to emergency management. Thus, public's consensus on having high level of emergency management system up to advanced country's is reached. In this social atmosphere, manual is considered as key factor to prevent accident or secure business continuity. Therefore, we first define possible crisis at KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (hereinafter KNF) and also make a 'Reaction List' for each crisis situation at the view of information-design. To achieve it, we analyze several country's crisis response manual and then derive component, indicate duties and roles at the information-design point of view. From this, we suggested guideline to make 'Integrated emergency response manual(IERM)'. The manual we used before have following few problems; difficult to applicate at the site, difficult to deliver information. To complement these problems, we searched manual elements from the view of information-design. As a result, we develop administrative manual. Although, this manual could be thought as fragmentary manual because it confined specific several agency/organization and disaster type

  12. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  13. Developing cultural competence and social responsibility in preclinical dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Richard W

    2004-04-01

    Dental student development of cultural competence and social responsibility is recognized by educators as an important element in the overall shaping of minds and attitudes of modem dental practitioners. Yet training modalities to achieve these competencies are not clearly defined, and outcome measurements are elusive. This article shows an effective method to meet these desired outcomes. Sixty-one freshmen (class of 2005) participated in forty hours of nondental community service, and reflective journals were completed by the end of second year. Competency outcomes were measured by selecting key words and phrases found in the individual journals. Key phrases were related to compassion, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom. Also, phrases had to be accompanied by written indications of direct program causation. The combination of active-learning (based upon service learning models) in public health settings outside of the dental realm, accompanied by reflective journaling, enhanced cultural understanding and community spirit in the majority of students.

  14. Impact of corporate social responsibility on sustainable enterprise development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danubianu Mirela

    2017-06-01

    Top management endorsement and nomination of a complex CSR teamDeveloping formal company CSR policy documentsSelecting and engaging the company’s stakeholders as early as possible.Building a Project Advisory Board – useful in every modern managerial tool application should guide the progress toward CSR.An external facilitator would help solve internal conflicts.An audit of what CSR represents for the Company, what are the CSR options, e.g., promoting a “green company” profile, what would be the best impact of philanthropy and community volunteering, etc.Generate a CSR portfolio of actions, setting deadlines, responsibilities and allocating resources, establishing communication, reporting, monitoring and corrective proceduresupgrading the sustainable enterprise strategy.

  15. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  16. Development of Investment Strategy Applying Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekaterina Kuzmina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Due to globalization processes and technological development, companies are having more influence on global society than ever. Therefore, business misconduct causes enormous harm to stakeholders, whereas ethical behavior is becoming an important issue. The goal of the following study is to verify and measure a positive effect from investments in social activities on financial attractiveness of companies in the form of its stock portfolio value growth. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the goal of the research, quantitative analysis is used by comparing performance of stock portfolio of companies having long-term investments in social activities with market index increment. The quantitative results are accompanied with the review of corporate social responsibility definition and some practical issues on governmental and corporation level. Scientific aim: The conducted research contributes both to the scientific discussion about development of appropriate investment strategy in companies applying CSR principles as well as to the discussion of related terminology used in the field. Findings: The research has shown that engagement in the CSR activities tends to have strong positive effect on companies’ financial results and investors’ financial performance. The research proves this fact by comparing value increment of CSR-portfolio (+35.99% gained from January 2015 to March 2017 with market index (+22.37% in the same period. Conclusions: Regardless the positive result achieved in the study the authors have determined several gaps in the research, which will be discussed in the further studies on the field.

  17. The Concept and Development Tendencies of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Szegedi

    2010-01-01

    The expression Corporate Social Responsibility was first used in the United States of America in the 1960s. This triggered a nationwide debate about the responsibilities corporations have towards societies. The most criticized statement belongs to Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize winner, who said, "The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits."[1] This means that there is only one responsibility of business, namely to use its resources and to become engaged in activities in ...

  18. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  19. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  20. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future.

  1. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IMPACTS ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Anstätt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to critically analyze the findings of the first, recently published, studies about Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR impacts on Sustainable Human Development (SHD. We aim at deriving conclusions for effective CSR strategies and at identifying consequences for management and research. As CSR claims to create value for corporations and for society, we argue that the people-centered Capability Approach (CA is promising to provide neglected and much needed insights how corporate activities affect individuals and communities. Based on a survey of recent literature addressing CSR impacts on SHD, we highlight CSR potentials to improve average well-being in multiple dimensions of SHD. Moreover, we critically assess challenges and limitations of CSR as a strategy to preserve and foster SHD. For instance, studies have shown that, despite CSR-driven well-being increases, social capital, relational capabilities and collective agency may become challenged by corporate strategies. Moreover, corporate environmental impacts have been found to be less often addressed by both, companies and SHD researchers. Resulting inequality and fairness issues have been identified as causes of violence against corporations even in the presence of total well-being improvements. We conclude that companies should strategically take into account a comprehensive range of factors driving and hampering SHD to account for their whole portfolio of corporate opportunities and risks. This requires evaluating CSR impacts instead of only focusing on CSR inputs and outputs. Thereby, corporations can mitigate their risks, improve their stakeholder trust and strengthen their competitiveness.

  2. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  3. Promoting responsible research conduct in a developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As reports of research misconduct seem to increase, research integrity and the promotion of responsible research conduct are important for academic institutions. This paper considers what research integrity means for individual researchers and institutions, and explores trends for promoting responsible research conduct.

  4. The development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Afshin; Mirfakhraie, Pejman; Yourdkhani, Sorush

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and goat kids. Thirty lambs and 33 kids were assessed daily from birth until the pupillary light reflex and menace response had become established. All animals had a controlled pupillary light reflex within 20 h of birth. Lambs and kids had developed menace responses by 8 ± 3 and 14 ± 2 days, respectively. The Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference (P kids developed a menace response. Male kids developed this response significantly (P = 0.006) later than females. There was no sex difference in the menace response in the lambs. Overall, the findings indicated that lambs develop a menace response earlier than kids, and female kids develop this response more rapidly than their male counterparts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Which electricity market design to encourage the development of demand response?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Rious, Fabien Roques and Yannick Perez

    2012-01-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets under climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at encouraging the deployment of smart meters and the development of demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response and smart metering for mid-size and small consumers,...

  6. Which electricity market design to encourage the development of demand response?

    OpenAIRE

    Rious , Vincent; Perez , Yannick; Roques , Fabien

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets under climate change constraints. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at encouraging the deployment of smart meters and the development of demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper focusing on demand response and smart metering for mid-­...

  7. School Response to Violence: A Case Study in Developing Crisis Response Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the perceptions of participants regarding their effectiveness in responding to defiant student violence as a crisis response team, following crisis response team training. The participants were a group of 10 volunteer PK-6 public school educators from western Wisconsin. The study took place during the…

  8. Responsible Mining: The Key to Profitable Resource Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Goodland

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Better mining corporations want to adopt “Responsible Mining”. This paper outlines the essentials of responsible mining and offers a guide to corporations who want become responsible. Eight principles are discussed: (1 Social and environmental assessment, (2 Transparency, (3 Acceptance by stakeholders, (4 Food production trumps questionable mining, (5 Compliance with international standards, (6 Corporate prequalification, (7 Insurance and performance bonds, and (8 Royalties, taxes and fees. These principles are followed by a discussion of No-Go Zones to mining: why some types of sites should be off-limits to all mining. The Annex on Compensatory Offsets suggests that, on occasion, there may be exceptions to a No-Go Zone.

  9. Personnel development as component of business social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of social responsibility of business has been determined in the article on the basis of existent scientific approaches. It has been educed that in the present conditions the entrepreneurship functions should be complemented by a social function. In a market economy entrepreneurial activity is indissolubly related to the concept of responsibility (to the country, society and partners. Nature of social investment has been substantiated in the article, the difference between charity and social investing carried out by the company through the implementation of internal and external social programs has been shown.

  10. Speaking of Sustainable Development and Values... A Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... we can discuss our environmental concerns and our (educational) responses to them, but rather because we should be self-consciously aware of the assumptions and implications hidden in the language that we choose to discuss these matters, thus enabling us to disect and evaluate these assumptions and implications ...

  11. Development Cooperation as Methodology for Teaching Social Responsibility to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The role of engineering in promoting global well-being has become accentuated, turning the engineering curriculum into a means of dividing well-being equally. The gradual fortifying calls for humanitarian engineering have resulted in the incorporation of social responsibility themes in the university curriculum. Cooperation, communication,…

  12. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All water services systems, irrespective of size, location etc., should have emergency response plans (ERPs) to guide officials, stakeholders and consumers through emergencies, as part of managing risks in the water supply system. Emergencies in the water supply system may result from, among other causes, natural ...

  13. Development of a radiation-responsive gene expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Ryohei; Morii, Akihiro; Watanabe, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a promoter enhancing expression of a gene of our interest connected downstream after activation in response to radiation stimulation and it could be used in radiogenetic therapy, a combination between radiotherapy and gene therapy. The promoter has been chosen out of a library of DNA fragments constructed by connecting the TATA box to randomly combined binding sequences of transcription factors that are activated in response to radiation. Although it was shown that the promoter activation was cell type specific, it turned out that radiation responsive promoters could be obtained for a different type of cells by using another set of transcription factor binding sequences, suggesting that the method would be feasible to obtain promoters functioning in any type of cells. Radiation reactivity of obtained promoters could be improved by techniques such as random introduction of point mutations. The improved promoters significantly enhanced expression of the luciferase gene connected downstream in response to radiation even in vivo, in addition, a gene cassette composed of one such promoter and the fcy::fur gene was confirmed useful for suicide gene therapy as shown in vitro simulation experiment, suggesting possible clinical application. (author)

  14. Promoting responsible research conduct in a developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-22

    Jun 22, 2013 ... from 51 countries, it contains 4 principles and 14 responsibilities and has been .... Likewise, all institutions must have an 'assurance' registered with the ... requirements and standards, via process auditing. Whether these .... Office for Human Research Protections, Health and Human Services, US Federal.

  15. Development and regulation of response properties in spinal cord motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    vertebrates in terms of both phylogeny and ontogeny. Spinal motoneurons in adults are remarkably similar in many respects ranging from the resting membrane potential to pacemaker properties. Apart from the axolotls, spinal motoneurons from all species investigated have latent intrinsic response properties...

  16. Development of the oil spill response cost-effectiveness analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; Welch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making during oil spill response operations or contingency planning requires balancing the need to remove as much oil as possible from the environment with the desire to minimize the impact of response operations on the environment they are intended to protect. This paper discussed the creation of a computer tool developed to help in planning and decision-making during response operations. The Oil Spill Response Cost-Effectiveness Analytical Tool (OSRCEAT) was developed to compare the costs of response with the benefits of response in both hypothetical and actual oil spills. The computer-based analytical tool can assist responders and contingency planners in decision-making processes as well as act as a basis of discussion in the evaluation of response options. Using inputs on spill parameters, location and response options, OSRCEAT can calculate response cost, costs of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the oil spill and response impacts. Oil damages without any response are contrasted to oil damages with response, with expected improvements. Response damages are subtracted from the difference in damages with and without response in order to derive a more accurate response benefit. An OSRCEAT user can test various response options to compare potential benefits in order to maximize response benefit. OSRCEAT is best used to compare and contrast the relative benefits and costs of various response options. 50 refs., 19 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Responsible Mining: A Human Resources Strategy for Mine Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar, Sriram (Ram)

    2012-01-01

    Mining is a global industry. Most mining companies operate internationally, often in remote, challenging environments and consequently frequently have respond to unusual and demanding Human Resource (HR) requirements. It is my opinion that the strategic imperative behind success in mining industry is responsible mining. The purpose of this paper is to examine how an effective HR strategy can be a competitive advantage that contributes to the success of a mining project in the global mining in...

  18. Developing a Proportionate Response to a Cyber Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Limnéll, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    The debate on both the impacts of cyber attacks and how to response to attacks is active but precedents are only a few. Strategies and political speeches are always (at least partially) declaratory and vague by nature, and beyond these declarations the practical reality of cyber security as a matter of national security issue is challenging. At the same time cyber issues have catapulted into the highest of the high politics, cyberpolitics, and the line of digital and physical is blurring in m...

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE NEUROINFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING CONCUSSION TO DEVELOP TREATMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI have been associated with long-term cognitive deficits relating to trauma-induced neurodegeneration. These long-term deficits include impaired memory and attention, changes in executive function, emotional instability and sensorimotor deficits. Furthermore, individuals with concussions show a high co-morbidity with a host of psychiatric illnesses (e.g. depression, anxiety, addiction and dementia. The neurological damage seen in mTBI patients is the result of the direct impact and mechanical injury, followed by a delayed neuroimmune response that can last hours, days and even months after the injury. As part of the neuroimmune response, a cascade of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released and can be detected at the site of injury as well as subcortical, and often contralateral, regions. It has been suggested that the delayed neuroinflammatory response to concussions is more damaging then the initial impact itself. However, evidence exists for favourable consequences of cytokine production following traumatic brain injuries as well. In some cases, treatments that reduce the inflammatory response will also hinder the brain's intrinsic repair mechanisms. At present, there is no evidence-based pharmacological treatment for concussions in humans. The ability to treat concussions with drug therapy requires an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological and neuroinflammatory changes that accompany concussive injuries. The use of neurotrophic factors (e.g. nerve growth factor and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct for the management of post-concussion symptomology will be explored in this review.

  20. Hsp90-downregulation influences the heat-shock response, innate immune response and onset of oocyte development in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eckl

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone involved in the regulation and maturation of kinases and transcription factors. In Caenorhabditis elegans, it contributes to the development of fertility, maintenance of muscle structure, the regulation of heat-shock response and dauer state. To understand the consequences of Hsp90-depletion, we studied Hsp90 RNAi-treated nematodes by DNA microarrays and mass spectrometry. We find that upon development of phenotypes the levels of chaperones and Hsp90 cofactors are increased, while specific proteins related to the innate immune response are depleted. In microarrays, we further find many differentially expressed genes related to gonad and larval development. These genes form an expression cluster that is regulated independently from the immune response implying separate pathways of Hsp90-involvement. Using fluorescent reporter strains for the differentially expressed immune response genes skr-5, dod-24 and clec-60 we observe that their activity in intestinal tissues is influenced by Hsp90-depletion. Instead, effects on the development are evident in both gonad arms. After Hsp90-depletion, changes can be observed in early embryos and adults containing fluorescence-tagged versions of SEPA-1, CAV-1 or PUD-1, all of which are downregulated after Hsp90-depletion. Our observations identify molecular events for Hsp90-RNAi induced phenotypes during development and immune responses, which may help to separately investigate independent Hsp90-influenced processes that are relevant during the nematode's life and development.

  1. Development of degradable renewable polymers and stimuli-responsive nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyiler, Ersan

    The overall goal of this research was to explore new living radical polymerization methods and the blending of renewable polymers. Towards this latter goal, polylactic acid (PLA) was blended with a new renewable polymer, poly(trimethylene-malonate) (PTM), with the aim of improving mechanical properties, imparting faster degradation, and examining the relationship between degradation and mechanical properties. Blend films of PLA and PTM with various ratios (5, 10, and 20 wt %) were cast from chloroform. Partially miscible blends exhibited Young's modulus and elongation-to-break values that significantly extend PLA's usefulness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) data showed that incorporation of 10 wt% PTM into PLA matrix exhibited a Young's modulus of 4.61 GPa, which is significantly higher than that of neat PLA (1.69 GPa). The second part of the bioplastics study involved a one-week hydrolytic degradation study of PTM and another new bioplastic, poly(trimethylene itaconate) (PTI) using DI water (pH 5.4) at room temperature, and the effects of degradation on crystallinity and mechanical properties of these films were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and AFM. PTI showed an increase in crystallinity with degradation, which was attributed to predominately degradation of free amorphous regions. Depending on the crystallinity, the elastic modulus increased at first, and decreased slightly. Both bulk and surface-tethered stimuli-responsive polymers were studied on amine functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Stimuli-responsive polymers studied, including poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), and poly(itaconic acid) (PIA), were grafted via surface-initiated aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopies showed the progression of the grafting. The change in particle size as a

  2. Educational Development for Responsible Graduate Students in the Neoliberal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kloet, Marie; Aspenlieder, Erin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine how our work in educational development, specifically in graduate student training, enacts the logic of neoliberalism in higher education in Canada. We approach this examination through a collaborative autoethnographic consideration of and reflection on our practices and experiences as educational developers, the design…

  3. Climate resilient urban development : why responsible land governance is important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, D.; Enemark, S.; van der Molen, P.

    2015-01-01

    In less-developed countries, the major global pressures of rapid urbanization and climate change are resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers. Much of the climate impact is concentrated in urban and coastal areas, as urban development spreads into areas that are hazard-prone. Often

  4. Te Kotahitanga: Culturally Responsive Professional Development for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere

    2010-01-01

    Te Kotahitanga is a research and professional development project that aims to support teachers to raise the achievement of New Zealand's indigenous Maori students in public/mainstream classrooms. An Effective Teaching Profile, developed from the voices of Maori students, their families, principals and some of their teachers, provides direction…

  5. Development of high responsivity Ge:Ga photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegel, N.M.; Hueschen, M.R.; Haller, E.E.

    1984-06-01

    Czochralski-grown gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) single crystal samples with a compensation of 10 -4 have been modified by the indiffusion of Cu to produce photoconductors which provide NEPs comparable to current optimum Ge:Ga detectors, but exhibit responsivities a factor of 5 to 6 times higher when tested at a background photon flux of 10 8 photons/sec at lambda=93 μm. The introduction of Cu, a triple acceptor in Ge which acts as a neutral scattering center, reduces carrier mobility and extends the breakdown field significantly in this ultra-low compensation material

  6. Developing Global Building Exposure for Disaster Forecasting, Mitigation, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nongovernmental organizations and governments are recognizing the importance of insurance penetration in developing countries to mitigate the tremendous setbacks that follow natural disasters., but to effectively manage risk stakeholders must accurately quantify the built environment. Although there are countless datasets addressing elements of buildings, there are surprisingly few that are directly applicable to assessing vulnerability to natural disasters without skewing the spatial distribution of risk towards known assets. Working with NASA center partners Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University in New York (http://www.ciesin.org), ImageCat have developed a novel method of developing Global Exposure Data (GED) from EO sources. The method has been applied to develop exposure datasets for GFDRR, CAT modelers, and aid in post-earthquake allocation of resources for UNICEF.

  7. Transcriptomic response of Drosophila melanogaster pupae developed in hypergravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical forces greatly influence the growth and function of an organism. Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene...

  8. The Response of Banking Sector Development to Financial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa's financial system is strongly bank-based and so this paper investigate .... development in Nigeria while an opening of capital without trade in Nigeria does ...... on Financial Globalization, Hosted by the International Monetary Fund and.

  9. Staff Development and Instructional Improvement: Response to Robbins and Wolfe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    Critiques the Napa/Vacaville project for being exceptionally well designed yet being ineffective. The key to effective staff development is to find ways of increasing teachers' ability to accept innovations and incorporate them into their teaching repertoires. (MD)

  10. Co-evolutionary organisational response development model (CORD): a case study of an Australian energy company climate change responses

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis reports an investigation of the effects of the complex, evolving relationships between organisations and their environments. This examination is a case study of the responses of an Australian energy company to effects of climate change, and aims to enhance understanding of how organisational responses to climate change develop and evolve over time.    The impact of climate change on the contemporary organisational environment has multiple aspects – natural, ec...

  11. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  12. Development of procedure for emergency response in the combined disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Lessons learned from operating experience at the emergency after a East Japan Great Earthquake, have shown that development of decision making procedure and criteria for protective action implementation would be important at the emergency in the combined disaster such as nuclear accidents caused by natural disasters (including tsunami, flood, heavy snow, fire, etc.). In this study, the problemdefinition, the concept of operation and the data development were planned for three years since fiscal year 2011. In tins year, trial calculation of evacuation time estimate (ETE) for the wide area was performed. Moreover, the basic concept and procedure for carrying out ETE condidering the combined emergency were developed based on the last year results. (author)

  13. Development of procedure for emergency response in the combined disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Lessons learned from operating experience at the emergency after a East Japan Great Earthquake, have shown that development of decision making procedure and criteria for protective action implementation would be important at the emergency in the combined disaster such as nuclear accidents caused by natural disasters (including tsunami, flood, heavy snow, fire, etc.). In this study, the problemdefinition, the concept of operation and the data development were planned for three years since fiscal year 2011. In tins year, trial calculation of evacuation time estimate (ETE) for the wide area was performed. Moreover, the basic concept and procedure for carrying out ETE condidering the combined emergency were developed based on the last year results. (author)

  14. Resources and development: trying to close the gap responsibly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotz, M C.B.

    1981-01-01

    While many countries struggle to industrialize, developed countries face economic and social problems which could preclude continued economic growth and may result in structural changes toward new economic systems as well as radically different lifestyles. The widening gap between rich and poor countries suggests that developing nations could take a different path in the way resources are owned and used. Resource management is complicated in developing countries if a large manpower pool is displaced by technology. This complexity also affects matters of health and man's relationship to the biological world. Industrial countries have resolved the problem of pollution control through technology, which adds another layer of economic and social impacts. The need is for new industrial processes that are supportive of the environment and for approaches that will identify linkages between human activity and environmental quality. Such harmony must be based on public knowledge and an understanding of policies. The focus should be on urban areas and the concept transferred in conjunction with technology to developing areas. (DCK)

  15. Climate Resilient Urban Development: Why responsible land governance is important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Enemark, Stig; van der Molen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    development is the degree to which climate change adaptation and risk management are mainstreamed into two major elements of land governance, viz. securing and safeguarding of land rights, and planning and control of land-use. This paper proposes ways in which the growth of human settlements can be better...

  16. Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

    2003-01-01

    Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

  17. The Squadron Commander’s Responsibility for Officer Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    during and after the reporting period. These actions are mandatory for Lieutenants and Captains, but optional above Major. 26 Sq/CCs rely on the...meetings. Many also stated they would have officers present when they executed disciplinary action . Using events and activities as shadow opportunities...competency Tactical Expertise Personal Embodies Airman Culture -Ethical Leadership - Followership -Warrior Ethos -Develops Self Communicating

  18. Toward the Responsible Development and Commercialization of Sensor Nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Tarek R; Farrell, Dorothy F; Friedersdorf, Lisa E; Griep, Mark H; Hoover, Mark D; Meador, Michael A; Meyyappan, M

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-enabled sensors (or nanosensors) will play an important role in enabling the progression toward ubiquitous information systems as the Internet of Things (IoT) emerges. Nanosensors offer new, miniaturized solutions in physiochemical and biological sensing that enable increased sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability, all with the compelling economic drivers of low cost and high-energy efficiency. In the United States, Federal agencies participating in the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) "Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology: Improving and Protecting Health, Safety, and the Environment" Nanotechnology Signature Initiative (the Sensors NSI), address both the opportunity of using nanotechnology to advance sensor development and the challenges of developing sensors to keep pace with the increasingly widespread use of engineered nanomaterials. This perspective article will introduce and provide background on the NNI signature initiative on sensors. Recent efforts by the Sensors NSI aimed at promoting the successful development and commercialization of nanosensors will be reviewed and examples of sensor nanotechnologies will be highlighted. Future directions and critical challenges for sensor development will also be discussed.

  19. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  20. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Frantz, Mack W.; Becker, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Because shale gas development is occurring over large landscapes and consequently is affecting many headwater streams, an understanding of its effects on headwater-stream faunal communities is needed. We examined effects of shale gas development (well pads and associated infrastructure) on Louisiana waterthrush Parkesia motacilla and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 12 West Virginia headwater streams in 2011. Streams were classed as impacted (n = 6) or unimpacted (n = 6) by shale gas development. We quantified waterthrush demography (nest success, clutch size, number of fledglings, territory density), a waterthrush Habitat Suitability Index, a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol habitat index, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics including a genus-level stream-quality index for each stream. We compared each benthic metric between impacted and unimpacted streams with a Student's t-test that incorporated adjustments for normalizing data. Impacted streams had lower genus-level stream-quality index scores; lower overall and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness; fewer intolerant taxa, more tolerant taxa, and greater density of 0–3-mm individuals (P ≤ 0.10). We then used Pearson correlation to relate waterthrush metrics to benthic metrics across the 12 streams. Territory density (no. of territories/km of stream) was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores; greater density of all taxa and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa; and greater biomass. Clutch size was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores. Nest survival analyses (n = 43 nests) completed with Program MARK suggested minimal influence of benthic metrics compared with nest stage and Habitat Suitability Index score. Although our study spanned only one season, our results suggest that shale gas development affected waterthrush and benthic communities in the headwater streams we studied. Thus, these ecological effects of

  1. Creative tensions : mutual responsiveness adapted to private sector research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, M.M.; Asveld, L.; Landeweerd, L.; Osseweijer, P.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of mutual responsiveness is currently based on little empirical data in the literature of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This paper explores RRI’s idea of mutual responsiveness in the light of recent RRI case studies on private sector research and development (R&D). In

  2. The Development of a Model of Culturally Responsive Science and Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.; Morales, Amanda R.; Shroyer, M. Gail

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative theoretical study was conducted in response to the current need for an inclusive and comprehensive model to guide the preparation and assessment of teacher candidates for culturally responsive teaching. The process of developing a model of culturally responsive teaching involved three steps: a comprehensive review of the…

  3. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  4. Culturally responsible curriculum development in hospitality, tourism and events management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Losekoot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the importance of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840 to Higher Education in New Zealand and how this influences the educational experience of hospitality, tourism and event management students. The paper reviews the literature on cultural diversity, internationalization and curriculum development, the role of culture in educating domestic and international students, and how the acculturation Higher Education students experience as part of their studies might lead to a deeper understanding of culture and identity in the hospitality workplace. The gap in the literature concerns how a higher education curriculum can assist in the development of cultural awareness and an understanding of historical commitments. The paper therefore identifies a number of key principles which are regarded as essential to the identity of those living in New Zealand/Aotearoa. The paper then goes on to illustrate how these principles could be applied to Higher Education. It suggests that these principles enshrined in the Treaty of Waitangi are also worth considering when creating an inclusive curriculum which supports all hospitality, tourism and events management students, irrespective of ethnic background, culture or upbringing. Finally, this paper proposes a matrix of ‘hooks’ - tools which academics can use to ensure their lectures address the needs of all learners. This matrix is developed from a study of the educational goals of the Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (ToW, the founding document of this country. This research adds value by creating an awareness of the diverse environment in which academics and students operate, thereby enabling students to develop a cultural sensitivity to the international hospitality industry they will be employed in on graduation.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Responsive Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to present the development and evaluation of a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure. This reconfigurable structure can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... of a secondary environmental system to a primary structural system joint into a collective behavioural system equipment with an actuator system is presented....

  6. Semantic mechanisms may be responsible for developing synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eMroczko-Wąsowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, little is known about how synesthesia develops and which aspects of synesthesia can be acquired through a learning process. We review the increasing evidence for the role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia, and argue for the thesis that synesthetic abilities are developed and modified by semantic mechanisms. That is, in certain people semantic mechanisms associate concepts with perception-like experiences—and this association occurs in an extraordinary way. This phenomenon can be referred to as higher synesthesia or ideasthesia. The present analysis suggests that synesthesia develops during childhood and is being enriched further throughout the synesthetes’ lifetime; for example, the already existing concurrents may be adopted by novel inducers or new concurrents may be formed. For a deeper understanding of the origin and nature of synesthesia we propose to focus future research on two aspects: i the similarities between synesthesia and ordinary phenomenal experiences based on concepts, and ii the tight entanglement of perception, cognition and the conceptualization of the world. Most importantly, an explanation of how biological systems get to generate experiences, synesthetic or not, may have to involve an explanation of how we form semantic networks in general and what their role is in our ability to be aware of the surrounding world.

  7. Bereavement Photography for Children: Program Development and Healthcare Professionals’ Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin; Frader, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. We describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs’ reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July, 2007 through April, 2010 families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n=34, 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n=30, 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n=34, 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n=37, 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open ended questions revealed four categories: the program’s general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs. PMID:24520925

  8. Development and validation of an item response theory-based Social Responsiveness Scale short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Alexandra; Kuhfeld, Megan; Kasari, Connie; McCracken, James T

    2017-09-01

    Research and practice in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on quantitative measures, such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), for characterization and diagnosis. Like many ASD diagnostic measures, SRS scores are influenced by factors unrelated to ASD core features. This study further interrogates the psychometric properties of the SRS using item response theory (IRT), and demonstrates a strategy to create a psychometrically sound short form by applying IRT results. Social Responsiveness Scale analyses were conducted on a large sample (N = 21,426) of youth from four ASD databases. Items were subjected to item factor analyses and evaluation of item bias by gender, age, expressive language level, behavior problems, and nonverbal IQ. Item selection based on item psychometric properties, DIF analyses, and substantive validity produced a reduced item SRS short form that was unidimensional in structure, highly reliable (α = .96), and free of gender, age, expressive language, behavior problems, and nonverbal IQ influence. The short form also showed strong relationships with established measures of autism symptom severity (ADOS, ADI-R, Vineland). Degree of association between all measures varied as a function of expressive language. Results identified specific SRS items that are more vulnerable to non-ASD-related traits. The resultant 16-item SRS short form may possess superior psychometric properties compared to the original scale and emerge as a more precise measure of ASD core symptom severity, facilitating research and practice. Future research using IRT is needed to further refine existing measures of autism symptomatology. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  10. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities. 2010 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a map indicating the location of the main Areva's mining sites, this report provides several key figures and data and discusses the evolution of this activity which is part of the business core of the AREVA company. It gives a statement of values and principles, governance and commitments related to this activity. In order to report this activity, it addresses several topics: reduction of industrial risks, protection of workers and populations, rational consumption of water and energy resources, biodiversity preservation, management over time of waste rock and mining tailings, sustainable integration into territories, and contribution to social development. This document is proposed in French and in English

  11. Sustainable Eco Coastal Development Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanissazly, Arsi; Mursito Ardy, Yong; Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Besides technical problems the company’s operational constraints that may effect high deficiency for the company is the company - community conflicts. Company - community conflict can also arise depends on the geographic conditions and characteristics of the community itself. Some studies has show that coastal community have higher level of social risk when compared to non-coastal community. Also, the coastal community ussually only rely on what sea provides as their main livelihood. Because of the level of education still contemtible the community couldn’t optimized the potential of their own area. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har emerged as an important approach for addressing the social and environmental impact of company activities. Through CSR program, PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Tambun Field (PEP) try to form value integration by utilizing resources from the community and the company by making sustainable eco - coastal living in Desa Tambaksari, Karawang, one of PEP working area. Using sustainable livelihood approach begin with compiling data by doing social mapping PEP has initiate the area to becoming Fish Processing Industry Centre. By implementing PDCA in every steps of the program, PEP has multiplied some other programs such as Organic Fish Feed Processing, Seaweed Farming and Waste Bank for Green Coastal Village. These program is PEP’s effort to create a sustainability environment by enhancing the community’s potentials as well as resolving social problems around Tambaksari. The most important result besides getting our license to operate from the community, is the community itself can grow into an eco coastal sustainable system.

  12. The Role of Maternal Responsivity in the Development of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy C.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cumulative exposure to highly responsive parenting styles throughout the early childhood period may provide a variety of important child benefits in terms of language, cognitive, social, and emotional development. We view maternal responsivity as a dynamic construct of central importance to the development of…

  13. Developing Culturally Responsive Teaching through Professional Noticing within Teacher Educator Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Robin; Anderson, Dayle; Drake, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Much evidence exists that culturally responsive and equitable teaching practices are challenging to develop. Evidence exists that in-the-moment coaching of "rehearsals" of practice can help foster mathematics teaching strategies, but how such coaching can assist the development of culturally responsive practice is less clear. Drawn from…

  14. The Role of Ferroptosis in Cancer Development and Treatment Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferroptosis is a process driven by accumulated iron-dependent lipid ROS that leads to cell death, which is a distinct regulated cell death comparing to other cell death. The lethal metabolic imbalance resulted from GSH depletion or inactivation of glutathione peroxidase 4 is the executor of ferroptosis within the cancer cell. Small molecules-induced ferroptosis has a strong inhibition of tumor growth and enhances the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs, especially in the condition of drug resistance. These evidences have highlighted the importance of ferroptosis in cancer therapeutics, but the roles of ferroptosis in tumorigenesis and development remain unclear. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms of ferroptosis, highlights the role of ferroptosis in cancer and discusses strategies for therapeutic modulation.

  15. Development of a Mobile Application for Disaster Information and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) started exploring current technology and internet trends in order to answer the question if post-disaster situation awareness can be improved by community involvement. An exploratory research project revolves around the development of an iPhone App to provide users with real-time information about disasters and give them the possibility to send information in the form of a geo-located image and/or text back. Targeted users include professional emergency responders of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS), as well as general users affected by disasters. GDACS provides global multi-hazard disaster monitoring and alerting for earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, floods and volcanoes. It serves to consolidate and improve the dissemination of disaster-related information, in order to improve the coordination of international relief efforts. The goal of the exploratory research project is to extract and feedback useful information from reports shared by the community for improving situation awareness and providing ground truth for rapid satellite-based mapping. From a technological point of view, JRC is focusing on interoperability of field reporting software and is working with several organizations to develop standards and reference implementations of an interoperable mobile information platform. The iPhone App developed by JRC provides on one hand information about GDACS alerts and on the other hand the possibility for the users to send reports about a selected disaster back to JRC. iPhones are equipped with a camera and (apart from the very first model) a GPS receiver. This offers the possibility to transmit pictures and also the location for every sent report. A test has shown that the accuracy of the location can be expected to be in the range of 50 meters (iPhone 3GS) and respectively 5 meters (iPhone 4). For this reason pictures sent by the new iPhone generation can be very

  16. Developing a coordinated response to drug abuse in Pakistan.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes moves towards the coordination of efforts to respond to the worsening drug abuse situation in Pakistan which affects all segments of society. The efforts reported seek to rectify inconsistencies in treatment policy resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes. Examples of collaborative strategies with encouraging results need further underpinning and expansion. There is, however, a lack of realization at the policy level of the need to effect changes in treatment formulated on a consistent and evidence-based approach. Policy has therefore been reviewed and proposals made for a comprehensive treatment strategy in line with international best practices to deal with this problem effectively and efficiently. Establishment of an addiction study centre at university level to continue professional and academic development is suggested.

  17. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo eOtvos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC. In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399. The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400 was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400 at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  18. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  19. Immunotoxicity in green mussels under perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure: Reversible response and response model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhui; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2018-04-01

    The immunotoxicity of 4 commonly detected perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was investigated by measuring biomarkers of the immune profile of green mussels, Perna viridis. The biomarkers included neutral red retention, phagocytosis, and spontaneous cytotoxicity, all of which were tested on mussel hemocytes. Hemocytes are an important component of the invertebrate immune system. We found that exposure to PFASs could lead to reduced hemocyte cell viability and suppress immune function by up to 50% of normal performance within the experimental exposure range. The results indicate that PFASs have an immunotoxic potential and thus could pose severe health risks to aquatic organisms. The reported immunotoxicity is likely to result from the compounds' direct and indirect interactions with the hemocyte membrane, and therefore likely to affect the functionality of these cells. The immunotoxic response was found to be related to the organism's burden of PFASs, and was reversible when the compounds were removed from the test organisms. Based on this relationship, models using an organism's PFAS concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) as the independent variables were established to quantify PFAS-induced immunotoxicity. The models help us to gain a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of PFASs, and provide a tool to evaluate adverse effects for the whole group of compounds with one mathematical equation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1138-1145. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  20. The role of maternal responsivity in the development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy C

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cumulative exposure to highly responsive parenting styles throughout the early childhood period may provide a variety of important child benefits in terms of language, cognitive, social, and emotional development. We view maternal responsivity as a dynamic construct of central importance to the development of children with intellectual disabilities just as it is for typically developing children. In this study, we selectively review the theoretical and conceptual evidence for the effects of responsivity on development, discuss factors known to influence responsivity including the nature of a child's disability, and review intervention approaches intended to enhance maternal responsivity. We conclude with a set of recommendations for future research. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  2. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  3. Support for the Development of Technological Innovations: Promoting Responsible Social Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Georges A; Verchère, Céline; Patenaude, Johane

    2018-04-01

    How can technological development, economic development, and the claims from society be reconciled? How should responsible innovation be promoted? The "responsible social uses" approach proposed here was devised with these considerations in view. In this article, a support procedure for promoting responsible social uses (RSU) is set out and presented. First, the context in which this procedure emerged, which incorporates features of both the user-experience approach and that of ethical acceptability in technological development, is specified. Next, the characteristic features of the procedure are presented, that is, its purpose, fundamental orientation, and component parts as experimented by partners. Third, the RSU approach is compared with other support approaches and considered in term of how each approach assumes responsible innovation. Briefly, the RSU procedure is a way of addressing the issue of responsible innovation through an effective integration of social concerns.

  4. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response: Recent Developments and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for different phases of the sexual response, especially with regard to the wanting phase, and changes in these patterns can be linked to sexual response variations, including sexual dysfunctions. From ...

  5. Social responsibility standards and global environmental accountability : a developing country perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Murthy, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that accountability, responsibility and governance go hand in hand. Evolving standards is a part of governance. Unless such a global perspective is adopted “Social Responsibility and the implications for Developing Countries”, which is the theme for this workshop, cannot be unraveled. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how Social Responsibility Standards and their relation to environmental sustainability cannot be addressed without relating it to Global Environmental ...

  6. Using Assessment to Develop Social Responsibility as a Graduate Attribute in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kerry; Fitzallen, Noleine; Adams, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Australian higher education institutions have struggled to develop clear strategies for developing and assessing graduate attributes within their specific disciplinary contexts. Using the example of the graduate attribute of social responsibility, this paper explores the outcomes of using assessment tasks to raise the awareness of development of…

  7. Maternal Verbal Responsiveness and Directiveness: Consistency, Stability, and Relations to Child Early Linguistic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola-Ruotsalainen, Leila; Lehtosaari, Jaana; Palomäki, Josefina; Tervo, Immi

    2018-01-01

    Maternal responsive and directive speech to children at ages 0;10 and 2;0 was investigated by applying a procedure frst introduced by Flynn and Masur (2007) to a new language community (Finnish). The issues examined were consistency and stability over time, and also the role of responsiveness and directiveness in child linguistic development at…

  8. Developing a Scale for Culturally Responsive Practice: Validation, Relationship with School Organizational Factors, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Bum

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop and provide preliminary validation for a new measure of culturally responsive practice. This instrument, which is called the Culturally Responsive Practice Scale (CRPS), includes items that reflect ways that teachers teach multicultural students in their classrooms. To accomplish the goal, three…

  9. Development and Validation of a Response Bias Scale (RBS) for the MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Wygant, Dustin B.; Green, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the development of a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) scale designed to detect negative response bias in forensic neuropsychological or disability assessment settings. The Response Bias Scale (RBS) consists of 28 MMPI-2 items that discriminated between persons who passed or failed the Word Memory Test…

  10. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report discusses (1) the roles, responsibilities, and authority of : agencies that establish policy, provide funds or oversee funding requests, : and develop explosives and narcotics detection technologies; : (2) mechanisms used to coordinate th...

  11. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Program HHQ Health History Questionnaire National Marrow Donor Program® N00014-16-1-2020 Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2015 -November 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow...immunobiologic and clinical research activities promote studies to advance the science and technology of HCT to improve outcomes and quality of life for

  12. Development and evaluation of fixed phrase registration function for disaster response management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu; Tsuda, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    It is important that three elements such as what happened, how it will advance, and how people should act are intelligibly transferred in disaster information from administrative organs to local residents. In this paper, authors developed the fixed phrase registration function and it was implemented in disaster response management system authors have previously developed. The system was applied to disaster response exercise in Mitsuke City, Niigata prefecture and the function was highly evaluated by employees of Mitsuke City. (author)

  13. Creative tensions: mutual responsiveness adapted to private sector research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonck, Matti; Asveld, Lotte; Landeweerd, Laurens; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2017-09-07

    The concept of mutual responsiveness is currently based on little empirical data in the literature of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This paper explores RRI's idea of mutual responsiveness in the light of recent RRI case studies on private sector research and development (R&D). In RRI, responsible innovation is understood as a joint endeavour of innovators and societal stakeholders, who become mutually responsive to each other in defining the 'right impacts' of the innovation in society, and in steering the innovation towards realising those impacts. Yet, the case studies identified several reasons for why the idea of mutual responsiveness does not always appear feasible or desirable in actual R&D situations. Inspired by the discrepancies between theory and practice, we suggest three further elaborations for the concept of responsiveness in RRI. Process-responsiveness is suggested for identifying situations that require stakeholder involvement specifically during R&D. Product-responsiveness is suggested for mobilising the potential of innovation products to be adaptable according to diverse stakeholder needs. Presponsiveness is suggested as responsiveness towards stakeholders that are not (yet) reachable at a given time of R&D. Our aim is to contribute to a more tangible understanding of responsiveness in RRI, and suggest directions for further analysis in upcoming RRI case studies.

  14. Developing a highway emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous materials, second edition, March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This provides minimum guidelines for developing an emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous liquid hydrocarbons, such as gasoline and crude oil, transported in MC 306/DOT 406 and MC 307/DOT 407 aluminum cargo tanks and for coordinating and cooperating with local, state, and federal officials. This publication covers response plan priorities, personnel training, special equipment, media relations, environmental relations, and post-response activities. The apprendixes to this recommended practice outline a highway emergency response plan and suggest a procedure for removing liquid hydrocarbons from overturned cargo tanks and righting the tank vehicles

  15. Developing a response to family violence in primary health care: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Claire; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Wilson, Denise; Clark, Faye

    2016-08-20

    Despite primary health care being recognised as an ideal setting to effectively respond to those experiencing family violence, responses are not widely integrated as part of routine health care. A lack of evidence testing models and approaches for health sector integration, alongside challenges of transferability and sustainability, means the best approach in responding to family violence is still unknown. The Primary Health Care Family Violence Responsiveness Evaluation Tool was developed as a guide to implement a formal systems-led response to family violence within New Zealand primary health care settings. Given the difficulties integrating effective, sustainable responses to family violence, we share the experience of primary health care sites that embarked on developing a response to family violence, presenting the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain family violence response development. In this qualitative descriptive study data were collected from two sources. Firstly semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted during 24-month follow-up evaluation visits of primary health care sites to capture the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain a response to family violence. Secondly the outcomes of a group activity to identify response development barriers and implementation strategies were recorded during a network meeting of primary health care professionals interested in family violence prevention and intervention; findings were triangulated across the two data sources. Four sites, representing three PHOs and four general practices participated in the focus group interviews; 35 delegates from across New Zealand attended the network meeting representing a wider perspective on family violence response development within primary health care. Enablers and barriers to developing a family violence response were identified across four themes: 'Getting started', 'Building effective

  16. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATIONS IN DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility strategies are a topic of great interest for both researchers and practitioners, and require the development of interdisciplinary approaches: economic, ethical and social. The paper analyses the social responsibility strategies employed by European automotive businesses and highlights their impact on business sustainability. From a theoretical perspective, applying the content analysis method on sustainability or social responsibility reports revealed a variety of social responsibility strategies. The utility of the research is supported by formulating a typology of social responsibility strategies, based on objectives of sustainable development and by establishing arguments concerning the impact of these strategies on automotive businesses’ sustainability in the following areas: social and societal, ecological and environmental, distribution chains and suppliers, corporate image, position in relation to competitors and financial performance.

  17. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How to develop the internal responsibility according to P.Ya. Galperin’s conce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Molchanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the ideas of P.Ya. Galperin on the nature of moral behaviour and the basic patterns of internal responsibility in childhood and adolescence. Distinctive features of objective and subjective responsibility, internal and external responsibility are highlighted. It is argued that internal responsibility expresses the person’s attitude to society and social groups and might be developed only if involved in certain relations and implemented in socially useful activities, i.e. if it is significant for other people. The psychological roles of cooperation for of responsibility are compared in J. Piaget’s works and P.Ya. Galperin’s scientific theory. The research results of internal responsibility in primary school students and adolescents conducted by P.Ya. Galperin and T.V. Morozkina are discussed. The decisive role of value orientation and motivation in solving «affective type» problems and in moral behaviour is shown. According philosophy issues, responsibility is considered as a perceived necessity, which assumes a free moral choice. Three criteria of moral responsibility are introduced: the causal relationship between the subject’s behaviour and its consequence, subject’s ability to predict the possible consequences of his/her behaviour, the possibility of free choice. The psychological content of responsibility is the subject’s commitment and further response regulated by a certain system of norms and regulations on the basis of moral choice and self-regulation. The distinction between the action device and motive as the accepted moral basis for behaviour has been introduced. Accordingly, responsible behaviour is considered as willful behaviour. The genesis of strong-will behaviour is associated with social relations and moral values and is developed in the course of cooperation. Conditions of orientation in moral choice as a prerequisite for actualizing the individual’s internal responsibility are discussed.

  19. Teaching about Refugees: Developing Culturally Responsive Educators in Contexts of Politicised Transnationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Antoinette; Schmidt, Clea; Markus, Paula

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses issues of teaching about refugees in initial teacher education and professional development for practicing teachers. We respond to the who, what, where, when, why and how of teaching about refugees and developing culturally responsive pedagogy in contexts of politicised transnationalism, where the wider politics around…

  20. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  1. Learning Agreements and Socially Responsible Approaches to Professional and Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This article draws upon original qualitative data to present an initial assessment of the significance of learning agreements for the development of socially responsible approaches to professional and human resource development within the workplace. The article suggests that the adoption of a partnership-based approach to learning is more…

  2. Course Development in Socially Responsible Advertising and Promotion: An Interdisciplinary and Stakeholder Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Karen H.; Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Rudd, Nancy A.; Littrell, Mary A.; Bickle, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a course development project designed to address the obligation of consumer goods companies to engage in socially responsible advertising and promotion. Course development was informed by stakeholder theory. Videotaped interviews with 46 stakeholder representatives were integrated into the course, providing students with an…

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-01-01

    Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards th...

  4. Social Responsibility as a Means for the Sustainable Development in the Lower Danube River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetelin Gueorguiev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the world and the EU in particular is a priority outlined in a number of strategic documents. Social responsibility is an important topic covered by standards such as SA 8000:2001 and ISO 26000:2010. This paper presents a case study of the practical implementation of corporate social responsibility activities in a Bulgarian company. Several key initiatives have been undertaken to prove the company‘s commitment to all interested parties including local communities as well. Social responsibility is where the interests and benefits for all stakeholders meet, namely employers, employees, contractors, academics, authorities and society as a whole. This paper presents a critical and original point of view on the advantages of using standards for social responsibility as a means for sustainable development.

  5. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability. 14 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. The development of a fast response thermocouple for use in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, A.G.; Vincent, B.

    1987-03-01

    Work carried out at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories to develop a fast-response thermocouple for use in liquid metals is described. This thermocouple because of its unique construction, has a junction mass approaching zero and hence its frequency response should be very high. Some of the problems of manufacture are discussed, in particular the high quality of seal required to avoid ingress of liquid metal. A comparison of results obtained with the fast-response thermocouple and with conventional stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples is made. The improved response of the new thermocouple is clearly visible, hence confirming that measurements made with sheathed thermocouples suffer attenuation. It is concluded that results obtained with the fast-response thermocouple are close to the real magnitude of temperature fluctuations present in turbulent flow. It is also demonstrated that, with suitable corrections, results obtained with sheathed thermocouples can be used to estimate the real signals present in the flow. (author)

  7. Toward the development of a corporate social responsibility leadership questionnaire: An adaptation of the LBI-2

    OpenAIRE

    Ronel du Preez; Liam T. van Zyl

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown exponentially in South African organisations, making leadership in CSR crucial. This article describes the first phase towards the development of a CSR leadership questionnaire (CSR-LQ), based on the Leadership Behaviour Inventory version 2 (LBI-2). Research purpose: To develop a CSR leadership questionnaire (the CSR-LQ) that would serve as a basis for developing a CSR leadership competency model in future. Motivation for the stu...

  8. Demand-Side Flexibility for Energy Transitions: Ensuring the Competitive Development of Demand Response Options

    OpenAIRE

    Nursimulu, Anjali; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Vuille, François

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current debates about demand response development, focusing primarily on Europe, with some comparisons to the United States. ‘Demand response’ includes strategies that involve end-use customers adapting or altering their electricity demand in response to grid conditions or market prices. It is viewed as a multi-purpose power-system resource that enhances the energy system’s capacity to cope with increasing demand, rising costs of conventional transmissi...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN TRADE UNDER CONDITIONS OF MARKET GLOBALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic, Djordje Cuzovic,

    2015-01-01

    Under contemporary business conditions, market globalisation has become inevitable. Such relationships on the market make trade companies use different means to acquire and maintain long-term competitive advantage. One of them is the concept of corporate social responsibility, which is, under conditions of globalisation, seen as a redesign of the classic marketing concept. The aim of this paper is to highlight the development of corporate social responsibility in trade, in the context of mark...

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Development: Towards a New Agenda and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee Reed, Ananya; Reed, Darryl

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether calls for a new, more critical corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda are sufficient to address the concerns of critics of CSR. It argues for the need to move from 'responsibility' towards accountability and regulation. Efforts to regulate corporate behaviour, the authors argue must be supplemented by sustained and systematic efforts to support alternative economic arrangements at the local level. It is only through such local development that serious c...

  11. Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility : The Scope for Corporate Investment in Community Driven Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed expanded awareness among companies, especially multinational corporations, of their responsibilities toward the communities they impact, elaborated in the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and allied notions such as a Social License to Operate (SLTO). CSR is the realization of business contributions to sustainable development goals. It refers to how business takes account of its economic, social and environmental impacts in the way it operates -- m...

  12. The development and revision of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.; Wolff, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1985, federal agencies have been using the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) in exercises and real events. This experience and the development of other emergency response guidance (e.g., National System for Emergency Coordination) are fueling current efforts to review and revise the FRERP to reflect what the agencies have learned since the FRERP was published. Revision efforts are concentrating on clarifying the plan and addressing deficiencies. No major changes are expected in the general structure of the federal response nor should states need to revise their plans because of these modifications. 5 refs

  13. The Emergence of Ethic Banks and Social Responsibility in Financing Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the present offer of banking products and services in the developed countries as well in the emerging ones shows the extent to which they fulfill or not the principles specific to social responsibility and ethics in economics. Considering heightened competition, some institutions adopt new strategies based on the creation of new concepts where human finality is to replace economical finality. Thus, banking ethics and social responsibility are concepts which are found at the level of credit cooperative and ethical banks. Oriented mainly towards rural financing and financing social responsible projects, within the study, the two approaches complete and sustain each other.

  14. Developing an incident management system to support Ebola response -- Liberia, July-August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Rouse, Edward; Arwady, M Allison; Forrester, Joseph D; Hunter, Jennifer C; Matanock, Almea; Ayscue, Patrick; Monroe, Benjamin; Schafer, Ilana J; Poblano, Luis; Neatherlin, John; Montgomery, Joel M; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-10-17

    The ongoing Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most sustained Ebola epidemic recorded, with 6,574 cases. Among the five affected countries of West Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria, and Senegal), Liberia has had the highest number cases (3,458). This epidemic has severely strained the public health and health care infrastructure of Liberia, has resulted in restrictions in civil liberties, and has disrupted international travel. As part of the initial response, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) developed a national task force and technical expert committee to oversee the management of the Ebola-related activities. During the third week of July 2014, CDC deployed a team of epidemiologists, data management specialists, emergency management specialists, and health communicators to assist MOHSW in its response to the growing Ebola epidemic. One aspect of CDC's response was to work with MOHSW in instituting incident management system (IMS) principles to enhance the organization of the response. This report describes MOHSW's Ebola response structure as of mid-July, the plans made during the initial assessment of the response structure, the implementation of interventions aimed at improving the system, and plans for further development of the response structure for the Ebola epidemic in Liberia.

  15. New Trends of Development of Beer Industry in Lithuania – Diversification and Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislavas Petraškevičius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to outline the current challenges of beer industry in Lithuania and provide suggestions for future development of organizations in this industry, by focusing on diversification strategy and social responsibility. The main challenges of Lithuanian beer industry are related to finding ways of future development in a constantly contracting market, as well as to find a competitive strategy of market penetration. In connection of these challenges, product differentiation creates new benefits for the consumers. However this strategy proves itself not being sufficient to reach the desired goals. Diversification of portfolio, being more risky, gives opportunity to target new customer groups and increase market presence. However, both strategies are less effective without changing the culture of drinking and consumer perceptions of beer. These issues will be addressed through the lenses of social responsibility, by emphasizing the promotion of responsible alcohol consumption and responsible behaviour of beer industry. As a result, the customers have to be ready to pay higher price for new products and develop a more responsible culture of beer consumption. To overcome outlined challenges, organizations in Lithuanian beer industry, must rethink their existing strategies and operations. Based on proposed future directions, the paper provides suggestions for business practices, how to implement differentiation strategy and actions in order to increase the level of social responsibility of various stakeholders.

  16. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  17. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  19. Trends of development of social responsible investment in Ukraine: accounting principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudeychuk S.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the study of the features and trends of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The main objective of the study of social responsibility issues is to systematize and study the prospects for the development and evaluation of corporate social responsibility in Ukraine, as well as to study the peculiarities of its accounting reflection in the accounting system. In the course of the study, the current state of social projects in Ukraine was studied, as well as the main obstacles and perspectives of the development of socially responsible investment in Ukraine. The research defines the features of socially responsible investment in order to identify the main areas of improvement of the information provision of formation of social reporting indicators. The article proposes the bookkeeping for directions of enterprise’s social activity in clearly defined accounts of accounting, regardless of the level of its regulation, followed by the development of analytical sections of accounting in the relevant areas of social policy.

  20. Maternal history of parentification and warm responsiveness: The mediating role of knowledge of infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Wang, Lijuan; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Borkowski, John G

    2015-12-01

    Maternal history of parentification in the family of origin poses subsequent risk to parenting quality during the transition to parenthood. The present study builds on prior work by evaluating whether the association between maternal parentification history and warm responsiveness is mediated by maternal knowledge of infant development in first time mothers. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on the transition to motherhood, maternal knowledge of infant development and observational codings of warm responsiveness were examined across the first 18 months of parenthood for 374 mothers who also provided retrospective reports of their childhood parentification experiences. Results indicated that maternal retrospective reports of higher engagement in parentified roles in family of origin were associated with poorer knowledge of infant development across the first 18 months of parenthood and, in turn, less warm responsiveness with 18-month-old children. However, maternal parentification history did not significantly influence changes in maternal warm responsiveness across the transition to parenthood. These findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting maternal knowledge of infant development as early as the prenatal period may be useful for preventing poor warm responsiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Host Response in Patients with Sepsis Developing Intensive Care Unit-acquired Secondary Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Frencken, Jos F; Scicluna, Brendon P; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Lutter, Rene; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; Bonten, Marc M J; Cremer, Olaf L; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-08-15

    Sepsis can be complicated by secondary infections. We explored the possibility that patients with sepsis developing a secondary infection while in the intensive care unit (ICU) display sustained inflammatory, vascular, and procoagulant responses. To compare systemic proinflammatory host responses in patients with sepsis who acquire a new infection with those who do not. Consecutive patients with sepsis with a length of ICU stay greater than 48 hours were prospectively analyzed for the development of ICU-acquired infections. Twenty host response biomarkers reflective of key pathways implicated in sepsis pathogenesis were measured during the first 4 days after ICU admission and at the day of an ICU-acquired infection or noninfectious complication. Of 1,237 admissions for sepsis (1,089 patients), 178 (14.4%) admissions were complicated by ICU-acquired infections (at Day 10 [6-13], median with interquartile range). Patients who developed a secondary infection showed higher disease severity scores and higher mortality up to 1 year than those who did not. Analyses of biomarkers in patients who later went on to develop secondary infections revealed a more dysregulated host response during the first 4 days after admission, as reflected by enhanced inflammation, stronger endothelial cell activation, a more disturbed vascular integrity, and evidence for enhanced coagulation activation. Host response reactions were similar at the time of ICU-acquired infectious or noninfectious complications. Patients with sepsis who developed an ICU-acquired infection showed a more dysregulated proinflammatory and vascular host response during the first 4 days of ICU admission than those who did not develop a secondary infection.

  2. Plant's adaptive response under UV-B-radiation influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chenko, O.A.; Grodzinskij, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction of ozone layer, owing to anthropogenic contamination of an atmosphere results in increase of intensity of UV-radiation and shift of its spectrum in the short-wave side that causes strengthening of various biological effects of irradiation. Consequences of these processes may include increase of injuring of plants and decrease of productivity of agricultural crops to increased UV levels. The important significance in the plant's adaptation to different unfavorable factors has the plant's radioadaptive answer. It has been shown that radioadaptation of plants occurred not only after irradiation with g-radiation in low doses but after UV-rays action . Reaction of radioadaptation it seems to be nonspecific phenomenon in relation to type radiations

  3. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  4. Ethical Responsibility of Governance for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya

    2015-04-01

    The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.

  5. The AP2/ERF Transcription Factor DRNL Modulates Gynoecium Development and Affects Its Response to Cytokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Durán-Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process. On the other hand, the AP2/ERF2 transcription factor BOL/DRNL/ESR2/SOB is expressed at very early stages of aerial organ formation and has been proposed to be a marker for organ founder cells. In this work, we found that this gene is also expressed at later stages during gynoecium development, particularly at the lateral regions (the region related to the valves of the ovary. The loss of DRNL function affects gynoecium development. Some of the mutant phenotypes present similarities to those observed in plants treated with exogenous cytokinins, and AHP6 has been previously proposed to be a target of DRNL. Therefore, we explored the response of drnl-2 developing gynoecia to cytokinins, and found that the loss of DRNL function affects the response of the gynoecium to exogenously applied cytokinins in a developmental-stage-dependent manner. In summary, this gene participates during gynoecium development, possibly through the dynamic modulation of cytokinin homeostasis and response.

  6. Social responsibility of education as one of advantages of innovative development of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelinska Haluna Olexiivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of social responsibility education as a prerequisite for the development of innovative enterprises is determined. It was found that socially responsible must be education, business and government to society. Determined that education affects the efficiency of business quality prepared workforce, business in society – the purchasing power of the population, stable working conditions, providing jobs and so on. Therefore, regional educational management (REM in higher education must be socially responsible and to ensure a high level of implementation of not only traditional – academic and research functions, but also new – innovative and entrepreneurial. Analytical justified that social responsibility in education will be effective if the balance of interests between all regional social partners. Determined that the interaction between the production and the educational sphere should appear in the dissemination of knowledge about the basic principles of socially responsible management; production centers transfer of new technologies; direct centers (including the manufacturing and research institutions training and so on. It is proved that the formation of social responsibility in the family is the primary source of its formation in the subsequent stages of personality development.

  7. Development of urban planning guidelines for improving emergency response capacities in seismic areas of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Kambod Amini; Jafari, Mohammad Kazem; Hosseini, Maziar; Mansouri, Babak; Hosseinioon, Solmaz

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of research carried out to improve emergency response activities in earthquake-prone areas of Iran. The research concentrated on emergency response operations, emergency medical care, emergency transportation, and evacuation-the most important issues after an earthquake with regard to saving the lives of victims. For each topic, some guidelines and criteria are presented for enhancing emergency response activities, based on evaluations of experience of strong earthquakes that have occurred over the past two decades in Iran, notably Manjil (1990), Bam (2003), Firouz Abad-Kojour (2004), Zarand (2005) and Broujerd (2006). These guidelines and criteria are applicable to other national contexts, especially countries with similar seismic and social conditions as Iran. The results of this study should be incorporated into comprehensive plans to ensure sustainable development or reconstruction of cities as well as to augment the efficiency of emergency response after an earthquake.

  8. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response: Recent Developments and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for different phases of the sexual response, especially with regard to the wanting phase, and changes in these patterns can be linked to sexual response variations, including sexual dysfunctions. From this solid basis, connectivity studies of the human sexual response have begun to add a deeper understanding of the brain network function and structure involved. The study of "sexual" brain connectivity is still very young. Yet, by approaching the brain as a connected organ, the essence of brain function is captured much more accurately, increasing the likelihood of finding useful biomarkers and targets for intervention in sexual dysfunction.

  9. Development of an integrated response generator for Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuta, Junichiro; Koseki, Yuu; Fukuyama, Taro; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an integrated response generator based on Monte Carlo simulation for Compton cameras composed of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors. In order to construct an accurate detector response function, the simulation is required to include a comprehensive treatment of the semiconductor detector devices and the data processing system in addition to simulating particle tracking. Although CdTe is an excellent semiconductor material for detection of soft gamma rays, its ineffective charge transport property distorts its spectral response. We investigated the response of CdTe pad detectors in the simulation and present our initial results here. We also performed the full simulation of prototypes of Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras and report on the reproducibility of detection efficiencies and angular resolutions of the cameras, both of which are essential performance parameters of astrophysical instruments.

  10. Development of emergency response training program for on-site commanders (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Kanayama, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, there have been increasing calls for developing the leadership capabilities of managers who are in charge of command and control of the on-site emergency response center at nuclear power plants. Training programs to improve non-technical skills are being developed and introduced. The authors developed an active learning exercise that can be repeatedly performed on-site, targeting on-site commander teams in charge of the initial response in an emergency situation. The exercise forms the core element of a non-technical skills training curriculum. This paper outlines the developed exercise, evaluates the stress on the participants caused by the exercise, and identifies any issues before actually introducing it to a site. (author)

  11. Development of a theoretical model for measuring the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: rmutarelli@gmail.com, E-mail: aclima@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)

  12. Development of a theoretical model for measuring the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)

  13. CLE peptides regulate lateral root development in response to nitrogen nutritional status of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (ESR)) peptides control meristem functions in plants. Our recent study highlights the critical role of a peptide-receptor signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in controlling lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CLE1, -3, -4 and -7 are expressed in root pericycle cells in Arabidopsis roots under N-limited growth conditions. Overexpression of these CLE genes inhibits lateral root emergence from the primary root. The inhibitory action of N-responsive CLE peptides on lateral root development requires the function of CLV1 expressed in phloem companion cells in roots, suggesting that downstream signals are transferred through phloem for systemic regulation of root system architecture. An additional mechanism downstream of CLV1 feedback-regulates transcript levels of N-responsive CLE genes in roots for fine-tuning the signal amplitude.

  14. Responsible tourism as an agent of sustainable and socially-conscious development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Musarò

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the variety of banalities that are often associated with trips and vacations as mass consumption, the study of tourism – due to the commitment of social, economic, political and cultural energy - remains one of the predominant inputs for understanding contemporary society and the new social hierarchies that distinguish it. Tourism, which is  increasingly seen as a process that has become integral to social and cultural life, also plays an essential role in the social and spatial dialectic that gives meaning to the places. Focusing tourism through the lens of "productive consumption" developed by Cultural Studies, the paper moves from the assumption that responsible tourism can be analyzed in the broader paradigm of relational goods to explore the role of responsible tourism as a possible way of sustainable and responsible development.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility: Benefits for Youth in Hydropower Development in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent…

  16. The development of an air injection system for the forced response testing of axial compressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wegman, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A phase-controllable, air injection exciter system was developed to enable measurement of the forced response properties of a transonic axial compressor blisk. The project was performed as part of the FP7 European framework program project FUTURE...

  17. Integrating ecosystem services and climate change responses in coastal wetlands development plans for Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarwar, M.H.; Hein, L.G.; Rip, F.I.; Dearing, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the integration of ecosystem services and climate change adaptation in development plans for coastal wetlands in Bangladesh. A new response framework for adaptation is proposed, based on an empirical analysis and consultations with stakeholders, using a modified version of the

  18. Examining the Intersections between Undergraduates' Engagement in Community Service and Development of Socially Responsible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista; Nobbe, June; Fink, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined relationships between students' engagement in community service in different contexts through classes, student organizations, work study, and on their own as well as their development of socially responsible leadership at a large, public, research university in the Upper Midwest. Results from the Multi-Institutional Study of…

  19. Responsible research and innovation in miniature: Information asymmetries hindering a more inclusive 'nanofood' development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de E.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Hoes, A.C.; Beekman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is about an interactive and comprehensive development of new technologies, also addressing social needs and ethical issues. But how do these ambitions of RRI relate to the practice of technological innovations? Nanotechnology is currently a large-scale

  20. Cortical interhemispheric responses to rhythmic stimulation are influenced by status epilepticus in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 209-210 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : status epilepticus * interhemispheric responses * developing rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  1. Impaired dynamic cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia predicts development of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Vascular impairment in regions of NAWM that progresses to WMH consists not only of decreased magnitude of ssCVR, but also a pathological decrease in the speed of vascular response. These findings support the association between cerebrovascular dysregulation and the development of WMH.

  2. Glutaredoxins in plant development, abiotic stress response, and iron homeostasis: From model organisms to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress require the judicious balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are a group of oxidoreductases that participate in the control of ROS and are traditionally defined as redox regulators. New studies suggest the member...

  3. Social Responsibility and Community Development: Lessons from the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article extends understanding of the connections between education, social capital, and development through a mixed-methods case study of the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial, or SAT, an innovative secondary-level education system. The quantitative dimension of the research used survey measures of social responsibility to compare 93 SAT…

  4. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response : Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for

  5. The Influence of Professional Development on Teachers' Implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Choi, Euichang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers' implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data…

  6. Academics' and Employers' Perceptions about Responsibilities for Employability and Their Initiatives towards Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of preliminary research into how Portuguese academics and employers perceive the responsibility of different higher education stakeholders-students, teaching staff, higher education institutions, employers, and policy-makers-for developing graduate employability. The study was conducted 8 years after the…

  7. Protection and conservation of tourism potential. Essential conditions for a sustainable and responsible development of tourism.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Neacsu

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is considered a rapidly growing phenomenon and it has become one of the largest industries in the world and its impact is extremely varied. This paper presents the many aspects of responsible tourism considering the importance of this approach for the economic and social development

  8. Moral Development: Making the Connection between Choices, Responsibility and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Julia A.

    This paper discusses strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can use to encourage self-esteem and responsibility in young children. It examines Kohlberg's theory of moral values, which states that children progress through three stages of moral development: (1) the pre-moral stage, based on rewards and punishments; (2) the moral…

  9. Designing, developing, and deploying systems to support human-robot teams in disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Kruijff-Korbayová, I.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Janíček, M.; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Siegwart, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Looije, R.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Diggelen, J. van; Pirri, F.; Gianni, M.; Ferri, F.; Menna, M.; Worst, R.; Linder, T.; Tretyakov, V.; Surmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Reinštein, M.; Zimmermann, K.; Petříček, T.; Hlaváč, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our experience in designing, developing and deploying systems for supporting human-robot teams during disaster response. It is based on R&D performed in the EU-funded project NIFTi. NIFTi aimed at building intelligent, collaborative robots that could work together with humans in

  10. Governance through learning: making corporate social responsibility in dutch industry effective from a sustainable development perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Loeber, A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of firms try to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of sustainable development. This article considers these efforts in the light of the changing relation between the state, society and the corporate sector, as a result of which governance

  11. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing

  12. Influential Factors and Strategy of Sustainable Product Development under Corporate Social Responsibility in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adopt the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR to explore the intention of sustainable product development in Taiwan, as well as leading to the creation of influential factors that affect corporate sustainable product development intention. In this research, the induction analysis was conducted to understand the implementation of sustainable product development, and this was supplemented with questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate developmental intention. In addition, principal component analysis was used for factor analysis and content analysis in the 6 W expression method, leading to the creation of the influential factors. The research results have demonstrated that the factors affecting the intention of corporate sustainable product development include having a sustainable design and a development purpose, a corporate development purpose, sustainable development concepts, a sustainable design value, a sustainability concept, and a manufacturing process quality. For sustainable product development, corporate social responsibility needs to be most concerned with the added value of products, regulation requirements, and accommodation of the industrial chain, costs, and quality.

  13. Development of quantitative methods for spill response planning: a trajectory analysis planner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, J.A.; Payton, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    In planning for response to oil spills, a great deal of information must be assimilated. Typically, geophysical flow patterns, ocean turbulence, complex chemical processes, ecological setting, fisheries activities, economics of land use, and engineering constraints on response equipment all need to be considered. This presents a formidable analysis problem. It can be shown, however, that if an appropriate set of evaluation data is available, an objective function and appropriate constraints can be formulated. From these equations, the response problem can be cast in terms of game theory of decision analysis and an optimal solution can be obtained using common scarce-resource allocation methods. The optimal solution obtained by this procedure maximises the expected return over all possible implementations of a given set of response options. While considering the development of an optimal spill response, it is useful to consider whether (in the absence of complete data) implementing some subset of these methods is possible to provide relevant and useful information for the spill planning process, even though it may fall short of a statistically optimal solution. In this work we introduce a trajectory analysis planning (TAP) methodology that can provide a cohesive framework for integrating physical transport processes, environmental sensitivity of regional sites, and potential response options. This trajectory analysis planning methodology can be shown to implement a significant part of the game theory analysis and provide 'minimum regret' strategy advice, without actually carrying out the optimisation procedures. (Author)

  14. Mission: Partnerships - A Socially Responsible Approach for New Hydro-electric Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojczynski, Ed; Cole, Victoria; Pachal, Shawna; Goulet, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Worldwide there is a desire for clean, secure and renewable energy developed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. In the Canadian province of Manitoba, where water is an abundant resource, efforts are being undertaken by Manitoba Hydro to achieve this goal through the development of new hydro-electric generating stations in partnership with Aboriginal (indigenous) communities. This paper focuses on the lessons learned by Manitoba Hydro in developing and implementing partnership agreements with northern Aboriginal communities on two new generation projects - the Wuskwatim Generation Project and the Keeyask Generation Project.

  15. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Nina La Cour; Lossl, K.; Bogstad, Jeanette Wulff

    2008-01-01

    , total Doppler score of the ovarian stromal blood flow, baseline FSH and oestradiol. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used for the statistical analysis. Appropriate ovarian response was defined as two to three mature follicles. Body weight (P = 0.001) and the number of antral follicles (P = 0.......004) were the strongest independent predictive factors of the number of mature follicles. In conclusion, body weight and antral follicle count may be used to achieve appropriate ovarian response for IUI in ovulatory patients. Based on this, a simple rFSH dosage nomogram was developed for individual ovarian...

  16. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  17. Validation of Sustainable Development Practices Scale Using the Bayesian Approach to Item Response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hernani Merino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing recognition of the importance of creating performance measurement tools for the economic, social and environmental management of micro and small enterprise (MSE. In this context, this study aims to validate an instrument to assess perceptions of sustainable development practices by MSEs by means of a Graded Response Model (GRM with a Bayesian approach to Item Response Theory (IRT. The results based on a sample of 506 university students in Peru, suggest that a valid measurement instrument was achieved. At the end of the paper, methodological and managerial contributions are presented.

  18. Development of uniform hazard response spectra for Tarapur, Trombay and Kakrapar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rao, K.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally, the seismic design basis ground motion has been specified by normalised response spectral shapes and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The mean recurrence interval (MRI) used to be computed for PGA only. The present work develops uniform hazard response spectra i.e. spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies for Tarapur, Trombay and Kakrapar sites. These results determine the seismic hazard at the given site and the associated uncertainties. Typical examples are given to show the sensitivity of the results to changes in various parameters. (author)

  19. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  20. Development of supporting system for emergency response to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Matsuoka, T.; Suzuki, H.

    2004-01-01

    National Maritime Research Institute has developed a supporting system for emergency response of competent authority to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material. The supporting system for emergency response has functions of radiation shielding calculation, marine diffusion simulation, air diffusion simulation and radiological impact evaluation to grasp potential hazard of radiation. Loss of shielding performance accident and loss of sealing ability accident were postulated and impact of the accidents was evaluated based on the postulated accident scenario. Procedures for responding to emergency were examined by the present simulation results

  1. Profiling of androgen response in rainbow trout pubertal testis: relevance to male gonad development and spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine D Rolland

    Full Text Available The capacity of testicular somatic cells to promote and sustain germ cell differentiation is largely regulated by sexual steroids and notably androgens. In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. Here we studied the influence of androgens on testicular gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males with physiological doses of testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone, 418 genes that exhibit changes in expression were identified. Interestingly, the activity of testosterone appeared stronger than that of 11-ketotestosterone. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed androgens to mainly affect gene expression in somatic cells. Furthermore, specific clusters of genes that exhibit regulation coincidently with changes in the natural circulating levels of androgens during the reproductive cycle were highlighted, reinforcing the physiological significance of these data. Among somatic genes, a phylogenetic footprinting study identified putative androgen response elements within the proximal promoter regions of 42 potential direct androgen target genes. Finally, androgens were also found to alter the germ line towards meiotic expression profiles, supporting the hypothesis of a role for the somatic responsive genes in driving germ cell fate. This study significantly increases our understanding of molecular pathways regulated by androgens in vertebrates. The highly cyclic testicular development in trout together with functions associated with regulated genes reveal potential mechanisms for androgen actions in tubule formation, steroid production, germ cell development and sperm secretion.

  2. Gamma delta T cell responses associated with the development of tuberculosis in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane J; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Leonor; Martins, Marta; Leandro, Clara; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Arroz, Maria J; Ventura, Fernando A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated T cell immune responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in health care workers who remained free of active tuberculosis (HCWs w/o TB), health care workers who went on to develop active TB (HCWs w/TB), non-health care workers who were TB free (Non-HCWs) and tuberculosis patients presenting with minimal (Min TB) or advanced (Adv TB) disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with Mtb and PPD and the expression of T cell activation markers CD25+ and HLA-DR+, intracellular IL-4 and IFN-gamma production and cytotoxic responses were evaluated. PBMC from HCWs who developed TB showed decreased percentages of cells expressing CD8+CD25+ in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. HCWs who developed TB showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cell cytotoxicity and decreased CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. PBMC from TB patients with advanced disease showed decreased percentages of CD25+CD4+ and CD25+CD8+ T cells that were associated with increased IL-4 production in CD8+ and gammadelta TCR+ phenotypes, in comparison with TB patients presenting minimal disease. TB patients with advanced disease showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cytotoxicity and reduced CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that HCWs who developed TB show an early compensatory mechanism involving an increase in lytic responses of gammadelta TCR+ cells which did not prevent TB.

  3. Development of uniform hazard response spectra for rock sites considering line and point sources of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2001-12-01

    Traditionally, the seismic design basis ground motion has been specified by normalised response spectral shapes and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The mean recurrence interval (MRI) used to computed for PGA only. It is shown that the MRI associated with such response spectra are not the same at all frequencies. The present work develops uniform hazard response spectra i.e. spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies for line and point sources of earthquakes by using a large number of strong motion accelerograms recorded on rock sites. Sensitivity of the number of the results to the changes in various parameters has also been presented. This work is an extension of an earlier work for aerial sources of earthquakes. These results will help to determine the seismic hazard at a given site and the associated uncertainities. (author)

  4. Application of artificial neural networks for response surface modelling in HPLC method development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Korany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANNs for response surface modelling in HPLC method development. In this study, the combined effect of pH and mobile phase composition on the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic behaviour of a mixture of salbutamol (SAL and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination I, and a mixture of ascorbic acid (ASC, paracetamol (PAR and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination II, was investigated. The results were compared with those produced using multiple regression (REG analysis. To examine the respective predictive power of the regression model and the neural network model, experimental and predicted response factor values, mean of squares error (MSE, average error percentage (Er%, and coefficients of correlation (r were compared. It was clear that the best networks were able to predict the experimental responses more accurately than the multiple regression analysis.

  5. Developing a short version of the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekely, Angela; Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R Michael

    2018-03-17

    The Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA) was developed to provide a structured interview method for assessing alexithymia. One drawback of this instrument is the amount of time it takes to administer and score. The current study used item response theory (IRT) methods to analyze data from a large heterogeneous multi-language sample (N = 842) to investigate whether a subset of items could be selected to create a short version of the instrument. Samejima's (1969) graded response model was used to fit the item responses. Items providing maximum information were retained in the short model, resulting in the elimination of 12-items from the original 24-items. Despite the 50% reduction in the number of items, 65.22% of the information was retained. Further studies are needed to validate the short version. A short version of the TSIA is potentially of practical value to clinicians and researchers with time constraints. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The development and characterization of stimuli-responsive systems for performance materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Melissa B.

    In nature, living organisms adjust to their surroundings by responding to environmental cues, such as light, temperature or force. Stimuli-triggered processes, such as the contraction of eyes in response to bright light or wound healing in skin after a cut, motivate the design of "smart" materials which are designed to respond to environmental stimuli. Responsive materials are used as self-healing materials, shape memory polymers and responsive coatings; moreover, responsive materials may also be employed as model systems, which enhance understanding of complex behavior. The overall goal of this work is to design a material that offers self-healing functionality, which will allow for self-repair following material fatigue or failure, and increased strength in response to ballistic or puncture threats through the incorporation of colloidal particles. The target application for this material is as a protective barrier in extreme environments, such as outer space. Towards this end, the dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of each component of the protective material by (1) designing and testing novel light- and force-sensitive polymers for self-healing applications and (2) examining and characterizing long-time behavior (i.e., aging) in model thermoreversible colloidal gels and glasses. Towards the development of novel stimuli-responsive materials, a photo-responsive polymer network is developed in which a dynamic bond is incorporated into the network architecture to enable a light-triggered, secondary polymerization, which increases the modulus by two orders of magnitude while strengthening the network by over 100%. Unlike traditional two-stage polymerization systems, in which the secondary polymerization is triggered by a leachable photoinitiator, the dynamic nature is imparted by the material itself via the dissociation of its own crosslinks to become stronger in response to light. Several attributes of the photo-responsive network are

  7. Development of an extended framework for emergency response criteria. Interim report for comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Experience from response to recent nuclear and radiological emergencies has clearly demonstrated the importance of an efficient response system that includes, among other components, emergency plans, procedures, and internally consistent operational criteria. An analysis of lessons identified from recent responses has shown that a lack of crucial components in the emergency response system could result in major radiological and nonradiological consequences at the national level. One of the reasons for the overwhelming psychological consequences of the Chernobyl and Goiania emergencies was public mistrust of decision-makers, who lost their credibility by frequently changing the criteria for taking action. Moreover, national response arrangements that are incompatible among countries can result in major mistrust by the public. It is considered important to have internationally agreed criteria and guidance for emergency response established in advance of an emergency. Currently there are several IAEA safety standards that contain recommendations for response to radiation emergencies, addressing principles and response criteria. Mindful of the lessons identified from recent emergencies, the IAEA convened in November 2001 a technical committee meeting (TCM) to develop aspects of the technical basis for emergency response to radiation emergencies. At this meeting, the lessons from response to the Chernobyl, Goiania and other emergencies over the past years were examined to identify where revisions were needed to the existing international guidance for response. In particular, the existing international criteria and guidance for taking protective and other actions were examined in the light of these lessons. The objectives of this document are: (1) to propose an extension of existing criteria for undertaking protective and other actions during or following a nuclear or radiological emergency that: addresses the lessons from past emergencies, addresses the recently

  8. SOS response activation and competence development are antagonistic mechanisms in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Céline; Delplace, Brigitte; Clippe, André; Fontaine, Laetitia; Hols, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus includes species that either contain or lack the LexA-like repressor (HdiR) of the classical SOS response. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a species which belongs to the latter group, SOS response inducers (e.g., mitomycin C [Mc] and fluoroquinolones) were shown to induce natural transformation, leading to the hypothesis that DNA damage-induced competence could contribute to genomic plasticity and stress resistance. Using reporter strains and microarray experiments, we investigated the impact of the SOS response inducers mitomycin C and norfloxacin and the role of HdiR on competence development in Streptococcus thermophilus. We show that both the addition of SOS response inducers and HdiR inactivation have a dual effect, i.e., induction of the expression of SOS genes and reduction of transformability. Reduction of transformability results from two different mechanisms, since HdiR inactivation has no major effect on the expression of competence (com) genes, while mitomycin C downregulates the expression of early and late com genes in a dose-dependent manner. The downregulation of com genes by mitomycin C was shown to take place at the level of the activation of the ComRS signaling system by an unknown mechanism. Conversely, we show that a ComX-deficient strain is more resistant to mitomycin C and norfloxacin in a viability plate assay, which indicates that competence development negatively affects the resistance of S. thermophilus to DNA-damaging agents. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that SOS response activation and competence development are antagonistic processes in S. thermophilus.

  9. Development of exercise design, development and implementation protocol in the utilization of simulators for response management training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Development and operation of a marine oil spill management simulator system at Texas A and M University's Galveston Center for Marine Training and Safety was described. The Spill Management Simulator is a multi-year joint program between the U. S. Coast Guard and the Center. Essentially, it is a a computer-based modelling and scenario generator for conducting and evaluating incident management training. An independent evaluation group has been set up by the U.S.Coast Guard to evaluate the Galveston and similar programs established under the same legislation throughout the United States. This paper discusses the creation of a development and implementation protocol for Spill Management Team simulation as a foundation upon which to integrate available and future technology and for making it available to the response community as a whole. 12 refs.,1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Principles for Developing Benchmark Criteria for Staff Training in Responsible Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Stefan; Banzer, Raphaela; Gruenerbl, Agnes; Malischnig, Doris; Griffiths, Mark D; Haring, Christian

    2017-03-01

    One approach to minimizing the negative consequences of excessive gambling is staff training to reduce the rate of the development of new cases of harm or disorder within their customers. The primary goal of the present study was to assess suitable benchmark criteria for the training of gambling employees at casinos and lottery retailers. The study utilised the Delphi Method, a survey with one qualitative and two quantitative phases. A total of 21 invited international experts in the responsible gambling field participated in all three phases. A total of 75 performance indicators were outlined and assigned to six categories: (1) criteria of content, (2) modelling, (3) qualification of trainer, (4) framework conditions, (5) sustainability and (6) statistical indicators. Nine of the 75 indicators were rated as very important by 90 % or more of the experts. Unanimous support for importance was given to indicators such as (1) comprehensibility and (2) concrete action-guidance for handling with problem gamblers, Additionally, the study examined the implementation of benchmarking, when it should be conducted, and who should be responsible. Results indicated that benchmarking should be conducted every 1-2 years regularly and that one institution should be clearly defined and primarily responsible for benchmarking. The results of the present study provide the basis for developing a benchmarking for staff training in responsible gambling.

  11. Development of visible-light responsive and mechanically enhanced "smart" UCST interpenetrating network hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ghag, Onkar; Reimann, Morgan; Sitterle, Philip; Chatterjee, Prithwish; Nofen, Elizabeth; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing; Dai, Lenore L

    2017-12-20

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), chlorophyllin-incorporated environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized and exhibited the following features: enhanced mechanical properties, upper critical solution temperature (UCST) swelling behavior, and promising visible-light responsiveness. Poor mechanical properties are known challenges for hydrogel-based materials. By forming an interpenetrating network between polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer networks, the mechanical properties of the synthesized IPN hydrogels were significantly improved compared to hydrogels made of a single network of each polymer. The formation of the interpenetrating network was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the analysis of glass transition temperature, and a unique UCST responsive swelling behavior, which is in contrast to the more prevalent lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour of environmentally responsive hydrogels. The visible-light responsiveness of the synthesized hydrogel also demonstrated a positive swelling behavior, and the effect of incorporating chlorophyllin as the chromophore unit was observed to reduce the average pore size and further enhance the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. This interpenetrating network system shows potential to serve as a new route in developing "smart" hydrogels using visible-light as a simple, inexpensive, and remotely controllable stimulus.

  12. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina GAWEŁ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of corporate social responsibility as an instrument of operationalising the paradigm of sustainable development on the microeconomic level in the sector of production enterprises. It presents a genesis and importance of CSR and indicates the most relevant essential instruments of CSR implementation on an enterprise level. The paper also analyses endogenous and exogenous benefits from implementing CSR into the business practice.

  13. Response of mycorrhizal grapevine to Armillaria mellea inoculation: disease development and polyamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, A. (Amaia); Aguirreolea, J. (Jone); Santa-Maria, E. (Eva); Camprubi, A. (Amalia); Calvet, C. (Cinta)

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted with the vine rootstock Richter 110 (Vitis berlandieri Planch. x Vitis rupestris L.) in order to assess whether the colonisation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) can delay the disease development in plants inoculated with the root-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) Kummer, and to elucidate if the levels of polyamines (PAs) are modified in response to G. intraradices, A. mellea or by the dual infection. Four treatments were consi...

  14. Adaptive and Pathogenic Responses to Stress by Stem Cells during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Ladan; Xie, Yufen; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Cellular stress is the basis of a dose-dependent continuum of responses leading to adaptive health or pathogenesis. For all cells, stress leads to reduction in macromolecular synthesis by shared pathways and tissue and stress-specific homeostatic mechanisms. For stem cells during embryonic, fetal, and placental development, higher exposures of stress lead to decreased anabolism, macromolecular synthesis and cell proliferation. Coupled with diminished stem cell proliferation is a stress-induce...

  15. Developing an effective approach to measure emotional response to the sensory properties of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Emotion research in sensory and consumer science has gathered significant momentum over recent years and the development of effective emotion measurement methods is a priority in this rapidly growing area.\\ud \\ud The aim of this research was to advance the use of consumer-led emotion lexicons by using focus groups to increase the efficiency of lexicon generation and by decreasing the number of consumer response categories. In parallel, the ability of the newly generated reduced lexicon to dis...

  16. Linking public sector corporate social responsibility with sustainable development: lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Ray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic think tanks predict India to be the world’s largest economy by 2050. This would require India to accelerate its industrial and infrastructure development. Industrialization based economic development will have a negative impact on the environment and hence sustainable development. Such steps could affect the social and environmental bottom line of the national economy. In recent years, a number of regulatory measures have been proposed by the Indian government to ensure corporate support to the goals of sustainable and inclusive development. The objective of these regulations is to achieve triple bottom line based growth. Notable among them is the mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR guidelines for public sector undertakings, first issued in April, 2010. I study the possibility and problems created by this effort by analyzing the policy documents and interviewing managers responsible for implementing CSR programmers in Indian public sector. Managers interviewed came from hydropower, coal, power distribution and shipping industries. Based on the study, four areas are identified that requires attention for effective linking between sustainable development and CSR; stakeholder engagement, institutional mechanisms, capacity building and knowledge management. Both government-public sector and public sector-community engagements have to be more streamlined. Institutional mechanisms have to be developed to see that CSR projects are effective and delivering. Importantly, managers at all levels need a better understanding of CSR and sustainable development. Since most projects are in rural areas, understanding of rural issues and sustainability is very important. Finally, such a large scale exercise in CSR should have a knowledge management mechanism to learn from the achievements and mistakes of the early years. I discuss the implication of the findings on India and other emerging economies many of which are struggling to balance

  17. The Multiple Functions of the Nucleolus in Plant Development, Disease and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia O. Kalinina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most conspicuous domain in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, whose main function is ribosomal RNA (rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. However, there is growing evidence that the nucleolus is also implicated in many other aspects of cell biology, such as regulation of cell cycle, growth and development, senescence, telomerase activity, gene silencing, responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the first part of the review, we briefly assess the traditional roles of the plant nucleolus in rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis as well as possible functions in other RNA regulatory pathways such as splicing, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNA silencing. In the second part of the review we summarize recent progress and discuss already known and new hypothetical roles of the nucleolus in plant growth and development. In addition, this part will highlight studies showing new nucleolar functions involved in responses to pathogen attack and abiotic stress. Cross-talk between the nucleolus and Cajal bodies is also discussed in the context of their association with poly(ADP ribosepolymerase (PARP, which is known to play a crucial role in various physiological processes including growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  18. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Constituting the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle, New Areva's mining activities cover research, production and commercialization of uranium throughout the world. New Areva counts among the world's leading producers of uranium enjoying competitive production costs and with mines in operation in Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger. Committed to its role as a responsible mining company, New Areva conducts its mining activities in a manner that fully respects people and the environment, and contributes to the economic development of local regions and their populations. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2016. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Top management statement, Risk management, Ethics and human rights, Voluntary initiatives, Materiality); Commitments (Health, occupational safety and radiation protection, Environment and Biodiversity, Social involvement, Commitment to employees, Mining closure, R and D and Innovation); Performance (CSR objectives, Key indicators, Reporting parameters); Case Studies; Annexes (GRI Index)

  19. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. The Multiple Functions of the Nucleolus in Plant Development, Disease and Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Natalia O.; Makarova, Svetlana; Makhotenko, Antonida; Love, Andrew J.; Taliansky, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most conspicuous domain in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, whose main function is ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. However, there is growing evidence that the nucleolus is also implicated in many other aspects of cell biology, such as regulation of cell cycle, growth and development, senescence, telomerase activity, gene silencing, responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the first part of the review, we briefly assess the traditional roles of the plant nucleolus in rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis as well as possible functions in other RNA regulatory pathways such as splicing, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNA silencing. In the second part of the review we summarize recent progress and discuss already known and new hypothetical roles of the nucleolus in plant growth and development. In addition, this part will highlight studies showing new nucleolar functions involved in responses to pathogen attack and abiotic stress. Cross-talk between the nucleolus and Cajal bodies is also discussed in the context of their association with poly(ADP ribose)polymerase (PARP), which is known to play a crucial role in various physiological processes including growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:29479362

  1. The historical development of business philanthropy: social responsibility in the new corporate economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetto, M

    1999-01-01

    According to neo-liberal economists such as Friedman and Hayek, the prime function of any business enterprise is to generate profits; its central responsibility is to shareholders. The idea that business owners should also seek to perform social tasks is regarded as completely erroneous. Historical evidence suggests that not all business leaders have been content simply to perform a commercial role in society. Numerous industrialists and entrepreneurs throughout the nineteenth century made significant contributions to their local communities. The early efforts of socially responsible business leaders are well documented. This paper aims to build on existing historical analysis of business philanthropy and social involvement by analysing developments in post-war Britain. Three main historical developments are outlined. Firstly, the early post-war years, despite the formation of the welfare state, witnessed some notable efforts to engage business in society. These were mainly inspired by church-led organisations and Christian entrepreneurs. Second, the expansion of the corporate economy throughout the 1940s and 1950s placed increasing constraints on the social aspirations of businesses. Finally, from the mid-1970s onwards there grew a more general interest in corporate responsibility. This was consolidated in the 1980s. As part of the general redefinition of state functions in this period, the role of business in addressing social problems became more prominent. Such political and policy developments, it is argued, have made a significant contribution towards enhancing the social role of business.

  2. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount and configuration (arrangement for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  3. Development of 70 MW class superconducting generator with quick-response excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaike, Kiyoshi; Kitajima, Toshio; Ito, Tetsuo

    2002-03-01

    The development of a superconducting generator had been carried out for 12 years under the first stage of a Super GM project. The 70 MW class model machine with quick response excitation was manufactured and evaluated in the project. This type of superconducting generator improves power system stability against rapid load fluctuations at the power system faults. This model machine achieved all development targets including high stability during rapid excitation control. It was also connected to the actual 77 kV electrical power grid as a synchronous condenser and proved advantages and high-operation reliability of the superconducting generator.

  4. From Corporate Social Responsibility to Corporate Sustainability: Features of Financing Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylchuk Irуna P.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical basis of the concepts of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development are studied. It is revealed that scientists mainly distinguish two main stages in the evolution of the concept of corporate social responsibility. There argued the expediency of singling out the third stage of the development of the concept (version CSR 2.0, which is characterized by the integration of the theoretical and practical foundations of the concepts of CSR and sustainable development as well as by their implementation into activities of corporations. The presence of the necessary prerequisites for singling out the new stage in the evolution of these concepts (version CSR 3.0, which is based on the provisions of the collaborative theory and provides for the cooperation of social enterprises and sustainable corporations in achieving the goals of sustainable development, is revealed, its expediency is justified. The determinant of the stage is the use of opportunities for sustainable development, the dominant is the social orientation, and its content is characterized by the slogan “doing common good to do common well”. Using generalization, there identified the features of the established models of sustainable development of corporations by key aspects (goals, principles, methods. On this basis, the features of approaches to financing sustainable development at the macro and micro levels are determined, and the principles for financing the activities of corporations in the new conditions are defined. It is concluded that achieving sustainability requires an effective system of financing corporate measures aimed at sustainable development, for the creation of which in Ukraine it is necessary to use the experience of “best practices” at the national, local and corporate levels.

  5. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling.

  6. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. Scope This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. Conclusions The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling. PMID:23267006

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility Applied for Rural Development: An Empirical Analysis of Firms from the American Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility has been recognized by policymakers and development specialists as a feasible driver for rural development. The present paper explores both theoretically and empirically how firms involved in CSR provide development opportunities to rural communities. The research first evaluates the applied literature on the implementation of CSR by private firms and policymakers as means to foster sustainable rural development. The empirical research analyses the CSR activities of 100 firms from a variety of industries, sizes, and countries to determine the type of companies who are involved in rural development and the kind of activities they deployed. Results from the empirical research show that although rural development initiatives are not relevant for all types of companies, a significant number of firms from a variety of industries have engaged in CSR programs supporting rural communities. Firms appear to be interested in stimulating rural development and seem to benefit from it. This paper also includes an exploration of the main challenges and constraints that firms encounter when encouraging rural development initiatives.

  8. Development of new geomagnetic storm ground response scaling factors for utilization in hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bernabeu, E.; Weigel, R. S.; Kelbert, A.; Rigler, E. J.; Bedrosian, P.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Development of realistic storm scenarios that can be played through the exposed systems is one of the key requirements for carrying out quantitative space weather hazards assessments. In the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and power grids context, these scenarios have to quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the geoelectric field that drives the potentially hazardous currents in the system. In response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order 779, a team of scientists and engineers that worked under the auspices of North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has developed extreme geomagnetic storm and geoelectric field benchmark(s) that use various scaling factors that account for geomagnetic latitude and ground structure of the locations of interest. These benchmarks, together with the information generated in the National Space Weather Action Plan, are the foundation for the hazards assessments that the industry will be carrying out in response to the FERC order and under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. While the scaling factors developed in the past work were based on the best available information, there is now significant new information available for parts of the U.S. pertaining to the ground response to external geomagnetic field excitation. The significant new information includes the results magnetotelluric surveys that have been conducted over the past few years across the contiguous US and results from previous surveys that have been made available in a combined online database. In this paper, we distill this new information in the framework of the NERC benchmark and in terms of updated ground response scaling factors thereby allowing straightforward utilization in the hazard assessments. We also outline the path forward for improving the overall extreme event benchmark scenario(s) including generalization of the storm waveforms and geoelectric field spatial patterns.

  9. A review: Development of a microdose model for analysis of adaptive response and bystander dose response behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2008-02-27

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type (125)I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  10. Response of custom-developed radiochromic dye films after electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Aburto, C.; Uribe, R.M.; McLauglin, W.L.; Dick, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Radiochromic dye (RD) films with varying formulations have been produced in this laboratory and are being used to aid in the determination of both the absorbed dose in irradiated test materials as well as the spatial homogeneity of the electron beam used to perform the irradiations. Specifically, these films have been used during the irradiation of both photovoltaic (solar cells) and liquid crystal-based devices (light valves). However, the optical response of RD films is known to be affected by post-irradiation conditions, such as the storage time and temperature, among others. This work represents a study of the time-dependence of the response of the custom-developed RD films. The change in response has been studied for every formulation, as a function of two different post-irradiation storage temperatures (23 degrees C and 45 degrees C) for a period of six months. Results show that significant changes in the response of these films can be observed even after this extended period. These results are compared with those obtained by other authors on similar films subjected to both electron and gamma ( 60 Co) radiation

  11. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities - 2010 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    Areva's mining activities place it among the world leaders in uranium production. The main objective of Areva's mining activities is ensuring uranium supply over the long term to produce nuclear power while emitting less CO 2 , reducing risks to people and the environment and contributing to the development of areas where mining activities take place. Areva's mining activities span five continents. This diversified portfolio allows the group to carry out exploration, project development and production activities in various geopolitical and technological contexts with the support of its staff's multi-cultural backgrounds. This document is the first Responsible Development report of Areva's Mining Activities. Content: 1 - All about Areva's Mining Activities (Interview with Sebastien de Montessus, General Director of Areva's Mining Activities, Ongoing Progress, The Core of Areva's Mining Activities Work); 2 - The Foundation of Areva's Mining Activities Approach (Values and Principles, Governance, Commitments); 3 - Reporting on Areva's Mining Activities (Scope, Relevance of Indicators, Outlook); 4 - Being a Responsible Mining Stakeholder (Actions, Reducing Industrial Risks, Ensuring the Protection of Workers and Populations, Consuming Water and Energy Resources in a Rational Way, Preserving Biodiversity, Managing Waste Rock and Mine Tailings over Time, Sustainable Presence, Contribution to Social Development); 5 - Glossary

  12. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  13. Retailers’ Responsibility towards Consumers and Key Drivers of Their Development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational retailers are now very powerful and their activities could influence whole economies. In this paper, we investigate why they engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR practices towards consumers, how it fosters sustainable development, and what the role of institutions are in the process of developing CSR strategies. Changes that have taken place in Poland since 1989, when the transition process into a market economy started, constituted an excellent research field due to the fact that the retail market was not saturated at the beginning, consumers were only slightly protected by the law, and there were no institutions promoting the implementation of social responsibility standards by companies. Research involving analysis of secondary data drawn from retailers’ websites, CSR reports, and published data relating to the CSR institutions allowed the following: (1 identification of three stages of development in consumers’ conception of CSR characterized by the immoral, amoral, and moral management; (2 showing that these activities have a business case; and (3 explaining the role of institutions and competition in this process. It is also shown how multinational retailers could contribute to the sustainable development of less mature markets in which they invest.

  14. Metabolic development of the porcine placenta in response to alterations in maternal or fetal homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsey, T.G.; kasser, T.R.; Hausman, G.J.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Porcine placenta has been utilized as a model for elucidating contributions of both fetal and maternal tissues to metabolic activity of the placenta in response to a variety of stresses. Alloxan diabetes, food restriction and genetic obesity all produced alterations in placental metablolism with differences in responses of fetal and maternal placentas. Further analysis of nutrient untilization by the placenta produced dramatic differences in the partitioning of substrates by fetal and maternal tissues during placental development. Metabolic activity of maternal tissue contributed to overall placental metabolic activity to a greater degree than fetal tissue. However, experiments with in utero fetal decapitation indicated that some of differences between fetal and maternal placental metabolic activity may be due to the influence of fetal regulatory mechanisms. Maternal endometrium plays a critical role in metabolic response of uteroplacenta and thus availability of nutrients to the fetus and fetal placenta. Differences in metabolic development of fetal and maternal tissues suggested that regulation of placental metabolism may originate from fetal as well as maternal sources

  15. Dual Raman-Brillouin spectroscopic investigation of plant stress response and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Marble, Kassie; Yakovlev, Vladislav

    2018-03-01

    Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy are powerful tools for non-invasive and non-destructive investigations of material chemical and mechanical properties. In this study, we use a newly developed custom-built dual Raman-Brillouin microspectroscopy instrument to build on previous works studying in-vivo stress response of live plants using only a Raman spectroscopy system. This dual Raman-Brillouin spectroscopy system is capable of fast simultaneous spectra acquisition from single-point locations. Shifts and changes in a samples Brillouin spectrum indicate a change in the physical characteristics of the sample, namely mechano-elasticity; in measuring this change, we can establish a relationship between the mechanical properties of a sample and known stress response agents, such as reactive oxygen species and other chemical constituents as indicated by peaks in the Raman spectra of the same acquisition point. Simultaneous application of these spectroscopic techniques offers great promise for future development and applications in agricultural and biological studies and can help to improve our understanding of mechanochemical changes of plants and other biological samples in response to environmental and chemically induced stresses at microscopic or cellular level.

  16. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle and in the integrated model of the Areva Group. Areva was one of the top producers worldwide in 2014, producing 8,959 metric tons of uranium. The group works to maintain resources and weighted reserves equivalent to 20 years of production at all times. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2014. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Statement from the senior executive vice president, Risk management, Ethics and human rights, Voluntary initiatives, Materiality); Commitments (Health and radiation protection, Occupational safety, Environment and Biodiversity, Community involvement, Commitment to employees, After-mines, Innovation); Performance (Key indicators, Objectives of responsibility, Reporting parameters); Case Studies; Annexes (GRI Index)

  17. Development and implementation of intranasal naloxone opioid overdose response protocol at a homeless health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Horstman, Molly J; Williams, Brent C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of Opioid Overdose Response Protocol using intranasal (IN) naloxone in a homeless shelter. Opioid Overdose Response Protocol and training curriculum were developed using the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) flow chart, the American Heart Association (AHA) simplified adult basic life support algorithm, and resources through Harms Reduction Coalition. Intranasal naloxone offers a safe and effective method for opioid reversal. To combat the rising incidence of opioid overdose, IN naloxone should be made available at homeless shelters and other facilities with high frequency of opioid overdose, including the training of appropriate staff. This project has demonstrated the effective training and implementation of an Opioid Overdose Response Protocol, based on feedback received from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) trained nonhealthcare staff. Nurse practitioners (NPs), with our focus on patient care, prevention, and education, are well suited to the deployment of this life-saving protocol. NPs are in critical positions to integrate opioid overdose prevention education and provide naloxone rescue kits in clinical practices. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. The development of socially responsible life-sciences teachers through community service learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Rian de Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, polices in higher education are urging tertiary institutions to produce graduates who are socially responsible citizens. One method of achieving this is through service-learning initiatives. Zoos as community partners can provide exciting educational opportunities for students to do animal behaviour studies and to develop their social responsibility. A sample of 58 preservice life-sciences teachers from a South African university completed a questionnaire on their animal behaviour studies. This study sought to determine how animal behaviour studies could successfully be incorporated as a community service-learning project in a zoo setting, what the educational value of these studies was and what the benefits were of incorporating this community service-learning component in the life-sciences course. The incorporation of the service-learning component into the zoology course led to the students’ personal and professional development, knowledge about themselves, sensitivity to cultural diversity, civic responsibility and insights into the ways in which communities operate. For a successful service-learning project, lectures, students and community partners should all have a sense of engagement. A number of suggestions are made to improve the incorporation of this service-learning component into the existing zoology course.

  19. Police Mental Health Partnership project: Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response (PACER) model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, David; Griffiths, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    To review internationally recognized models of police interactions with people experiencing mental health crises that are sometimes complex and associated with adverse experience for the person in crisis, their family and emergency service personnel. To develop, implement and review a partnership model trial between mental health and emergency services that offers alternative response pathways with improved outcomes in care. Three unique models of police and mental health partnership in the USA were reviewed and used to develop the PACER (Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response) model. A three month trial of the model was implemented and evaluated. Significant improvements in response times, the interactions with and the outcomes for people in crisis were some of the benefits shown when compared with usual services. The pilot showed that a partnership involving mental health and police services in Melbourne, Australia could be replicated based on international models. Initial data supported improvements compared with usual care. Further data collection regarding usual care and this new model is required to confirm observed benefits. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback and the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Jones, Neil P; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2017-08-01

    Etiological models propose that a biological vulnerability to emotional reactivity plays an important role in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the physiological and phenomenological components of emotional reactivity that predict the course of BPD symptoms in adolescence are poorly understood. This prospective study examines pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback as predictors of BPD symptom development in adolescent girls over 18 months. Fifty-seven 16-year-old girls completed a laboratory task in which they heard recorded clips of their own mothers making critical or praising statements about them, as well as neutral statements that did not pertain to them. Changes in girls' pupil dilation and subjective affect were assessed throughout the task. The results demonstrated that greater pupillary response to maternal criticism predicted increases in BPD symptoms over time. In addition, greater pupillary and positive affective responses to maternal praise were associated with higher BPD symptoms at age 16 and faster decreases in BPD symptoms over time, but only among girls who heard clips that were rated by independent observers as less praising. The results suggest that emotional reactivity can serve as either a risk or a protective factor depending on context, with differential effects of reactivity to criticism versus praise.

  1. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2013-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Mining activities are the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle and in the integrated model of the Areva Group. Areva was one of the top producers worldwide in 2013, producing 9,330 metric tons of uranium (Areva's financially consolidated share). The group works to maintain resources and weighted reserves equivalent to 20 years of production at all times. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2013 and 2014. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Message from the Senior Executive Vice President, Fundamentals, Responsible Commitments Plan, Materiality); Commitments (Health and radiation protection, Occupational safety, Environment and Biodiversity, Community involvement, Commitment to employees, Relationships with stakeholders, Innovation); Performance (Main Key indicators, 2013-2016 Objectives, Reporting parameters); Annexes (Cases studies, Focus post-mining, Audit and GRI certifications)

  2. Developing Environmentally Responsible Behaviours Through the Implementation of Argumentation- and Problem-Based Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlıoğlu, Pınar; Aydoğdu, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using argumentation and problem-based learning approaches on the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers. Experimental activities were implemented for 14 weeks for 52 class hours in an environmental education class within a science teaching department. A mixed method was used as a research design; particularly, a special type of Concurrent Nested Strategy was applied. The quantitative portion was based on the one-group pre-test and post-test models, and the qualitative portion was based on the holistic multiple-case study method. The quantitative portion of the research was conducted with 34 third-year pre-service science teachers studying at a state university. The qualitative portion of the study was conducted with six pre-service science teachers selected among the 34 pre-service science teachers based on the pre-test results obtained from an environmentally responsible behaviour scale. t tests for dependent groups were used to analyse quantitative data. Both descriptive and content analyses of the qualitative data were performed. The results of the study showed that the use of the argumentation and problem-based learning approaches significantly contributed to the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers.

  3. Abscisic Acid and Gibberellins Antagonistically Mediate Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones regulate numerous important biological processes in plant development and biotic/abiotic stress response cascades. More than 50 and 100 years have passed since the initial discoveries of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GA, respectively. Over the past several decades, numerous elegant studies have demonstrated that ABA and GA antagonistically regulate many plant developmental processes, including seed maturation, seed dormancy and germination, root initiation, hypocotyl and stem elongation, and floral transition. Furthermore, as a well-established stress hormone, ABA plays a key role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought, flooding, salinity and low temperature. Interestingly, recent evidence revealed that GA are also involved in plant response to adverse environmental conditions. Consequently, the complex crosstalk networks between ABA and GA, mediated by diverse key regulators, have been extensively investigated and documented. In this updated mini-review, we summarize the most recent advances in our understanding of the antagonistically regulatory roles of ABA and GA in different stages of plant development and in various plant–environment interactions, focusing on the crosstalk between ABA and GA at the levels of phytohormone metabolism and signal transduction.

  4. Development of novel metabolite-responsive transcription factors via transposon-mediated protein fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Andrew K D; Su, Peter Y; Shepard, Andrea J; Udani, Shreya V; Cybulski, Thaddeus R; Tyo, Keith E J; Leonard, Joshua N

    2018-02-01

    Naturally evolved metabolite-responsive biosensors enable applications in metabolic engineering, ranging from screening large genetic libraries to dynamically regulating biosynthetic pathways. However, there are many metabolites for which a natural biosensor does not exist. To address this need, we developed a general method for converting metabolite-binding proteins into metabolite-responsive transcription factors-Biosensor Engineering by Random Domain Insertion (BERDI). This approach takes advantage of an in vitro transposon insertion reaction to generate all possible insertions of a DNA-binding domain into a metabolite-binding protein, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting to isolate functional biosensors. To develop and evaluate the BERDI method, we generated a library of candidate biosensors in which a zinc finger DNA-binding domain was inserted into maltose binding protein, which served as a model well-studied metabolite-binding protein. Library diversity was characterized by several methods, a selection scheme was deployed, and ultimately several distinct and functional maltose-responsive transcriptional biosensors were identified. We hypothesize that the BERDI method comprises a generalizable strategy that may ultimately be applied to convert a wide range of metabolite-binding proteins into novel biosensors for applications in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Response

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic silicon chips have been developed over the last 30 years, inspired by the design of biological nervous systems and offering an alternative paradigm for computation, with real-time massively parallel operation and potentially large power savings with respect to conventional computing architectures. I will present the general principles with a brief investigation of the design choices that have been explored, and I'll discuss how such hardware has been applied to problems such as classification.

  6. Development of a parallel zoomed EVI sequence for high temporal resolution analysis of the BOLD response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic impulse response to any short stimulus typically lasts around 20 seconds. Thus, the detection of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is usually performed using a 2D Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, with repetition times on the order of 1 or 2 seconds. This temporal resolution is generally enough for detection purposes. Nevertheless, when trying to accurately estimate the hemodynamic response functions (HRF), higher scanning rates represent a real advantage. Thus, in order to reach a temporal resolution around 200 ms, we developed a new acquisition method, based on Echo Volumar Imaging and 2D parallel acquisition (1). Echo Volumar Imaging (EVI) has been proposed in 1977 by Mansfield (2). EVI intrinsically possesses a lot of advantages for functional neuroimaging, as a 3 D single shot acquisition method. Nevertheless, to date, only a few applications have been reported (3, 4). Actually, very restricting hardware requirements make EVI difficult to perform in satisfactory experimental conditions, even today. The critical point in EVI is the echo train duration, which is longer than in EPI, due to 3D acquisition. Indeed, at equal field of view and spatial resolutions, EVI echo train duration must be approximately equal to EPI echo train duration multiplied by the number of slices acquired in EPI. Consequently, EVI is much more sensitive than EPI to geometric distortions, which are related to phase errors, and also to signal losses, which are due to long echo times (TE). Thus, a first improvement has been brought by 'zoomed' or 'localized' EVI (5), which allows to focus on a small volume of interest and thus limit echo train durations compared to full FOV acquisitions.To reduce echo train durations, we chose to apply parallel acquisition. Moreover, since EVI is a 3D acquisition method, we are able to perform parallel acquisition and SENSE reconstruction along the two phase directions (6). The R = 4 under-sampling consists in the

  7. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  8. The mesoscale dispersion modeling system a simulation tool for development of an emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uliasz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The mesoscale dispersion modeling system is under continuous development. The included numerical models require further improvements and evaluation against data from meteorological and tracer field experiments. The system can not be directly applied to real time predictions. However, it seems to be a useful simulation tool for solving several problems related to planning the monitoring network and development of the emergency response system for the nuclear power plant located in a coastal area. The modeling system can be also applied to another environmental problems connected with air pollution dispersion in complex terrain. The presented numerical models are designed for the use on personal computers and are relatively fast in comparison with the similar mesoscale models developed on mainframe computers

  9. Transformation processes of the corporate development in Russia: corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Sergeyevna Belyayeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial and economic crises made the level of readiness to changes in the different types of organizations throughout the world and Russia visible. Variation of social and economic programmes implemented by governmental and corporate sectors is widely seen; not all of them work positively for the population, especially in the countries with emerging markets. At the same time, twenty years of the market economy in Russia, for instance, have definitely built a new social and economic system, but whether it has changed fundamentally in the management techniques? This research generalizes some trends of the corporate development in Russia in the context of social responsibility and socio-economic transformation. The author attempts to define Russia's place on the world map of corporate social responsibility. The opportunities for Russia to learn from foreign experience are also examined.

  10. Development of closed-loop supply chain network in terms of corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Ali; Pedram, Payam; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rise in awareness of environmental issues and the depletion of virgin resources, many firms have attempted to increase the sustainability of their activities. One efficient way to elevate sustainability is the consideration of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by designing a closed loop supply chain (CLSC). This paper has developed a mathematical model to increase corporate social responsibility in terms of job creation. Moreover the model, in addition to increasing total CLSC profit, provides a range of strategic decision solutions for decision makers to select a best action plan for a CLSC. A proposed multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model was solved with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Fuzzy set theory was employed to select the best compromise solution from the Pareto-optimal solutions. A numerical example was used to validate the potential application of the proposed model. The results highlight the effect of CSR in the design of CLSC.

  11. Development of uniform hazard response spectra from accelerograms recorded on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally, the seismic design basis ground motion has been specified by response spectral shapes and the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The mean recurrence interval (MRI) is evaluated for PGA only. The present work has developed response spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies. This report extends the work of Cornell (on PGA) to consider an aerial source model and a general form of the spectral acceleration at various frequencies. The latter has been derived from a number of strong motion earthquake recorded on rock sites. Sensitivity of the results to the changes in various parameters has also been presented. These results will help to determine the seismic hazard at a given site and the associated uncertainties. (author)

  12. Development of a virtual reality training system. An application to emergency response in radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Naohito

    2003-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) training system was developed for the purpose of confirming the applicability of virtual reality on training systems for emergency response of radioactive materials transport. This system has following features; 1) Accident scenarios were derived from an event tree analysis. 2) Instructors can edit the training scenario. 3) Three VR scenes were prepared: vehicle and equipment checks, vehicle travel on an expressway, and emergency response in a tunnel fire accident. 4) every action by users is recorded automatically. 5) Instructors and users hold briefing session after the training, and they can review and confirm the results with VR animation. 6) A support database is provided for the convenience of users. The applicability of the system was validated through some trial applications and demonstrations. (author)

  13. Interrelationships of VEL1 and ENV1 in light response and development in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Bazafkan

    Full Text Available Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles, an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1. Phenotypes of growth and asexual sporulation as well as regulation of the peptide pheromone precursors of double mutants suggested that ENV1 and VEL1 balance positive and negative regulators of these functions. Additionally, VEL1 contributed to the strong deregulation of the pheromone system observed in env1 mutants. Female sterility of Δvel1 was rescued by deletion of env1 in darkness in MAT1-1, indicating a block of sexual development by ENV1 in darkness that is balanced by VEL1 in the wild-type. We conclude that ENV1 and VEL1 exert complementing functions in development of T. reesei. Our results further showed that the different developmental phenotypes of vel1/veA mutants in T. reesei and Aspergillus nidulans are not due to the presence or function of ENV1 in the VELVET regulatory pathway in T. reesei.

  14. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carolina C; Abud, Ana Paula R; de Oliveira, Simone M; Guimarães, Fernando de S F; de Andrade, Lucas F; Di Bernardi, Raffaello P; Coletto, Ediely L de O; Kuczera, Diogo; Da Lozzo, Eneida J; Gonçalves, Jenifer P; Trindade, Edvaldo da S; Buchi, Dorly de F

    2011-10-26

    In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  15. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Carolina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. Methods We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. Results None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide (NO production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Conclusions Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  16. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Megan A.; Katani, Robab; Memari, Sahar; Cavanaugh, Meredith; Buza, Joram; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Mpenda, Fulgence N.; Deist, Melissa S.; Lamont, Susan J.; Kapur, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2) and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13) sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens. PMID:29535762

  17. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Schilling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2 and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13 sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

  18. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6 for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs.

  19. Development of a health and safety manual for emergency response operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riland, C.A.; Junio, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Health and Safety Manual, which has been under development by a multi-agency group, is nearing completion and publication. The manual applies to offsite monitoring during a radiological accident or incident. Though written for multi-agency offsite monitoring activities (FRMAC), the manual is generic in nature and should be readily adaptable for other emergency response operations. Health and safety issues for emergency response situations often differ from those of normal operations. Examples of these differences and methodologies to address these issues are discussed. Challenges in manual development, including lack of regulatory and guidance documentation, are also discussed. One overriding principle in the Health and Safety Manual development is the overall reduction of risk, not just dose. The manual is broken into several chapters, which include Overview of Responsibities, Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene and Safey, Medical, and Environmental Compliance and Records. Included is a series of appendices, which presents additional information on forms and plans for default scenarios

  20. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Stolp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognised that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signalling, or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signalling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body’s response to damage or infection. This signalling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed.

  1. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection.

  2. Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Xu, Hong-ping; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Retinal light responsiveness measured via electroretinography undergoes developmental modulation and is thought to be critically regulated by both visual experience and dopamine. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether the dopamine D2 receptor regulates the visual experience-dependent functional development of the retina. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinograms from wild type mice and mice with a genetic deletion of the gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor raised under normal cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially increases the amplitude of the inner retinal light responses evoked by high intensity light measured as oscillatory potentials in adult mice. During postnatal development, all three major components of electroretinograms, the a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials, increase with age. Comparatively, mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially reduces the age-dependent increase of b-waves evoked by low intensity light. Light deprivation from birth reduces the amplitude of b-waves and completely diminishes the increased amplitude of oscillatory potentials. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the dopamine D2 receptor plays an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina. PMID:25393815

  3. A quantitative formulation of the dynamic behaviour of adaptation processes to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfandler, S.

    1999-12-01

    The discovery of adaptation processes in cells (i.e., increased resistance to effects of a challenge dose administered after a lower adapting dose) has fuelled the debate on possible cellular processes relevant for low dose exposures. However, numerous experiments on radioadaptive response do not provide a clear picture of the nature of adaptive response and the conditions under which it occurs. This work proposes a model that succeeds in modelling data obtained from various experiments on radioadaptation. The model assumes impaired DNA integrity as triggering signal for induction of adaptation. Induction of adaptive response is seen as two-phase process. First, ionizing radiation induces radicals by water radiolysis which give rise to specific DNA lesions. On the other hand, these lesions must be perceived and, in a way, processed by the cell, thereby creating the final signal necessary for the comprehensive adaptive response. This processing occurs through some event in S-phase and can be halted by local conformational changes of chromatin induced by ionizing radiation. Thus, the model assumes two counteracting processes that have to be balanced for the triggering signal of adaptation to occur, each of them related to different target volumes. This work comprises mathematical treatment of radical formation, DNA lesion induction and inhibition of local initiation of replication which finally provides functions that quantify the reduction of double strand breaks introduced by challenge doses in adapted cells as compared to non-adapted cells. Non-linear regression analyses based upon data from experiments on radioadaptation yield regression curves which describe existing data satisfactorily. Thus, it corroborates the existence of adaptive response as, in principle, universal feature of cells and specifies conditions which favor development of radioadaptation. (author)

  4. Development of the acoustically evoked behavioral response in larval plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Alderks

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r(2 = 0.92. The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥ 1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or -15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis. Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140-150 dB re 1 µPa or -33 to -23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9-2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages.

  5. Development of the acoustically evoked behavioral response in larval plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderks, Peter W; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥ 1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or -15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140-150 dB re 1 µPa or -33 to -23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9-2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages.

  6. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  7. Experiences in the development of an emergency response facility (ERF) system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seisdedos, A.; Sanchez-Fornie, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident gave rise to a series of new requirements with which Nuclear Power Plants must comply and amongst which the implementation of emergency response facilities, particularly the SPDS, has received special attention. This paper covers the experience and problems encountered in the developing of the engineering necessary for the detailed definition of the ERF in a Nuclear Power Plant in the commercial operation phase. Also, a real example is provided for the case of a plant in the last phase of construction and installation. This will serve to illustrate each of the topics covered. (author)

  8. Development of chimeric gene promoters responsive to hypoxia and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Aiqing; Yu Jinming

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe two systems that make use of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy, regulated by radiation or hypoxic-responsive promoters. The use of treatment-, condition- or tumor-specific promoters to control gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy is one such method for targeting gene expression to the tumor. The development of such strategies that achieve tumor targeted expression of genes via selective promoters will enable improved specificity and targeting thereby addressing one of the major limitations of cancer gene therapy

  9. Development of uniform hazard response spectra for Kalpakkam, Kaiga and Kudankulam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rao, K.S.

    2009-11-01

    Variation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with mean recurrence interval (MRI) has also been presented using various well-known correlations. The present work develops uniform hazard response spectra i.e. spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies for Kalpakkam, Kaiga and Kudankulam sites. These results determine the seismic hazard at the given site and the associated uncertainties. Typical examples are given to show the sensitivity of the results to changes in various parameters. The results will be useful in evaluation of seismic risk. (author)

  10. Demographic response of Louisiana Waterthrush, a stream obligate songbird of conservation concern, to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Mack W.; Wood, Petra B.; Sheehan, James; George, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Shale gas development continues to outpace the implementation of best management practices for wildlife affected by development. We examined demographic responses of the Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) to shale gas development during 2009–2011 and 2013–2015 in a predominantly forested landscape in West Virginia, USA. Forest cover across the study area decreased from 95% in 2008 to 91% in 2015, while the area affected by shale gas development increased from 0.4% to 3.9%. We quantified nest survival and productivity, a source–sink threshold, riparian habitat quality, territory density, and territory length by monitoring 58.1 km of forested headwater streams (n = 14 streams). Across years, we saw annual variability in nest survival, with a general declining trend over time. Of 11 a priori models tested to explain nest survival (n = 280 nests), 4 models that included temporal, habitat, and shale gas covariates were supported, and 2 of these models accounted for most of the variation in daily nest survival rate. After accounting for temporal effects (rainfall, nest age, and time within season), shale gas development had negative effects on nest survival. Population-level nest productivity declined and individual productivity was lower in areas disturbed by shale gas development than in undisturbed areas, and a source–sink threshold suggested that disturbed areas were more at risk of being sink habitat. Riparian habitat quality scores, as measured by a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency index and a waterthrush-specific habitat suitability index, differed by year and were negatively related to the amount of each territory disturbed by shale gas development. Territory density was not related to the amount of shale gas disturbance, but decreased over time as territory lengths increased. Overall, our results suggest a decline in waterthrush site quality as shale gas development increases, despite relatively small site-wide forest loss.

  11. Effect of systemic inflammatory response in the development of encephalopathy in severe thermal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina O.Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the burn encephalopathy as a manifestation of organ dysfunction. Purpose: to determine the impact of the systemic inflammatory response to the development of en­cephalopathy in thermal injury. The study involved 104 patients, who were divided into two groups depending on the severity of the burn injury. The development of SIRS in patients was confirmed by high levels of IL-6 during the whole period of observation. The level of IL-6 did not affect the development, timing and duration of sleep disorders in both groups. The level of LII on the day 1 affects the development of sleep disorders in group 1 (R=0.499, p=0.041. Development of insomnia correlated with the shift of leukocyte formula to the left in group 2 on the day 5 (R=0.349, p=0.020. We found a relationship between the development of delirium, its duration and the level of young forms of neutrophils in patients of 1 (R=0.563, p=0.001 and 2 (R=0.3488, p=0.003 groups. Development of delirium, its timing and duration correlated with the level of IL-6 on day 3 (R=0.812, p=0,049, R=0.5903, p=0.079 and R=0.615, p=0.059, respectively in the group 2. The extent of the inflammatory reaction determined the disorders of thought (R=-0.545, p=0.036, memory (R=-0.547, p=0.023 and the dynamic of the recovery of cognitive functions in patients of group 1. Cognitive deficit correlated with the level of IL-6 (R=0.760, p=0.079 and the level of young forms of neutrophils (R=-0.603, p=0,013 in group 2. Thus, SIRS is a defining moment in the development of nervous system dysfunction in severe thermal injury.

  12. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Serrano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I, lag (II, and ripening (III, in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation and biotic (fungi and viruses stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support

  13. Stress response to cadmium and manganese in Paracentrotus lividus developing embryos is mediated by nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NO is produced in sea urchin embryos in response to cadmium and manganese. • Cadmium and manganese affect the expression of specific genes. • NO levels regulate directly or indirectly the expression of some metal-induced genes. • NO is proposed as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin embryos. - Abstract: Increasing concentrations of contaminants, often resulting from anthropogenic activities, have been reported to occur in the marine environment and affect marine organisms. Among these, the metal ions cadmium and manganese have been shown to induce developmental delay and abnormalities, mainly reflecting skeleton elongation perturbation, in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an established model for toxicological studies. Here, we provide evidence that the physiological messenger nitric oxide (NO), formed by L-arginine oxidation by NO synthase (NOS), mediates the stress response induced by cadmium and manganese in sea urchins. When NO levels were lowered by inhibiting NOS, the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. Quantitative expression of a panel of 19 genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification and multidrug efflux processes was followed at different developmental stages and under different conditions: metals alone, metals in the presence of NOS inhibitor, NO donor and NOS inhibitor alone. These data allowed the identification of different classes of genes whose metal-induced transcriptional expression was directly or indirectly mediated by NO. These results open new perspectives on the role of NO as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin developing embryos

  14. Alaska GRIN project : development of geospatial data management interface for oil spill and emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, S. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States); Robertson, T.L. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Seldovia, AK (United States); DeCola, E. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Plymouth, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A geographic response network (GRIN) project was conducted in 2005 to develop a computer-based tool for organizing maps and data related to oil spill and emergency response logistics and community resources. Originally conceived as an html-based website where information was organized based on incident command system divisions of responsibility, open source mapping applications are also being added to crate an interactive map interface with geospatially referenced information. GRIN information is organized by community. A locator map is embedded in the lower right-hand corner of each map. GRIN includes categories of information related to emergency management, air logistics, law enforcement, marine logistics, and shore-side logistics. A project is now being conducted by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council to convert the html-based GRIN into a geospatial data management tool. A prototype has now been populated with data for several Cook Inlet communities. GRIN can also be accessed on only computer with an Internet browser. It was concluded that the use of open source programming will make GRIN an easy tool for planners and emergency responders. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Development of generic floor response spectra for equipment qualification for seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, J.R.; Costantino, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A generic floor response spectra has been developed for use in the qualification of electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used as representative of a class of structures. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. This resulted in fundamental mode coupled natural frequencies as low as 0.86 cps and as high as 30 cps. The characteristics of 1000 floor response spectra were studied to determine the generic spectra. A procedure for its application to any operating plant has been established. The procedure uses as much or as little information that currently exists at the plant relating to the question of equipment qualification. A generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels

  16. Progress toward developing a practical societal response to severe convection (2005 EGU Sergei Soloviev Medal Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Doswell III

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of severe convection in the context of geophysical hazards is given. Societal responses to geophysical hazards depend, in part, on the ability to forecast the events and the degree of certainty with which forecasts can be made. In particular, the spatio-temporal specificity and lead time of those forecasts are critical issues. However, societal responses to geophysical hazards are not only dependent on forecasting. Even perfect forecasts might not be sufficient for a meaningful societal response without the development of considerable infrastructure to allow a society to respond properly and in time to mitigate the hazard. Geophysical hazards of extreme magnitude are rare events, a fact that tends to make funding support for appropriate preparations difficult to obtain. Focusing on tornadoes as a prototypical hazard from severe convective storms, the infrastructure for dealing with them in the USA is reviewed. Worldwide implications of the experience with severe convective storms in the USA are discussed, with an emphasis on its relevance to the situation in Europe.

  17. Potential Relationship between Inadequate Response to DNA Damage and Development of Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are responsible for the continuous regeneration of all types of blood cells, including themselves. To ensure the functional and genomic integrity of blood tissue, a network of regulatory pathways tightly controls the proliferative status of HSCs. Nevertheless, normal HSC aging is associated with a noticeable decline in regenerative potential and possible changes in other functions. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is an age-associated hematopoietic malignancy, characterized by abnormal blood cell maturation and a high propensity for leukemic transformation. It is furthermore thought to originate in a HSC and to be associated with the accrual of multiple genetic and epigenetic aberrations. This raises the question whether MDS is, in part, related to an inability to adequately cope with DNA damage. Here we discuss the various components of the cellular response to DNA damage. For each component, we evaluate related studies that may shed light on a potential relationship between MDS development and aberrant DNA damage response/repair.

  18. Development of national level preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    In India, DAE being the nodal agency for technical support for response to any radiation emergency nuclear disaster and various nuclear and radiological emergency scenarios and their impacts are identified. To reduce their consequences development of methodologies for detection and quick impact assessment, trained First Responders and Quick Response Teams (QRTs), twenty two DAE Emergency Response Centers, mobile and aerial radiation monitoring systems, aerial and ground based validation trials etc. are carried out. Study related to radiological threats and simulated RDD experiments conducted using stable isotopes indicates that radiation levels for distances more than 50 m will not be very high as hotspots may be restricted to nearby area. The biggest challenge from an RDD explosion will be handling of the radioactive contamination and 'fear factor' compared to radiation exposure to public or First Responders. Level and pattern of radioactive contamination on ground following releases during nuclear accidents and minimum strength of orphan radioactive sources to be detected are taken into account for optimizing systems and monitoring methodology required for emergency preparedness

  19. Stress response to cadmium and manganese in Paracentrotus lividus developing embryos is mediated by nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata [Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Romano, Giovanna [Laboratory of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna, E-mail: anna.palumbo@szn.it [Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • NO is produced in sea urchin embryos in response to cadmium and manganese. • Cadmium and manganese affect the expression of specific genes. • NO levels regulate directly or indirectly the expression of some metal-induced genes. • NO is proposed as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin embryos. - Abstract: Increasing concentrations of contaminants, often resulting from anthropogenic activities, have been reported to occur in the marine environment and affect marine organisms. Among these, the metal ions cadmium and manganese have been shown to induce developmental delay and abnormalities, mainly reflecting skeleton elongation perturbation, in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an established model for toxicological studies. Here, we provide evidence that the physiological messenger nitric oxide (NO), formed by L-arginine oxidation by NO synthase (NOS), mediates the stress response induced by cadmium and manganese in sea urchins. When NO levels were lowered by inhibiting NOS, the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. Quantitative expression of a panel of 19 genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification and multidrug efflux processes was followed at different developmental stages and under different conditions: metals alone, metals in the presence of NOS inhibitor, NO donor and NOS inhibitor alone. These data allowed the identification of different classes of genes whose metal-induced transcriptional expression was directly or indirectly mediated by NO. These results open new perspectives on the role of NO as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin developing embryos.

  20. Development of generic floor response spectra for equipment qualification for seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.R.; Costantino, C.J.

    1984-10-01

    A generic floor response spectra has been developed for use in the qualification of electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used as representative of a class of structures. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. This resulted in fundamental mode coupled natural frequencies as low as 0.86 cps and as high as 30 cps. The characteristics of 1000 floor response spectra were studied to determine the generic spectra. A procedure for its application to any operating plant has been established. The procedure uses as much or as little information that currently exists at the plant relating to the question of equipment qualification. A generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels

  1. The temporal relationship between reduction of early imitative responses and the development of attention mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benga Oana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined in 4-month-old infants. They were divided into high and low imitators, based on an index of imitation. The status of attention was assessed by studying inhibition of return (IOR. Nine-month-old infants were also tested to confirm the hypothesis. Results The IOR latency data replicate previous results that infants get faster to produce a covert shift of attention with increasing age. However, those 4-month-olds who showed less imitation had more rapid saccades to the cue before target presentation. Conclusion The cortical control of saccade planning appears to be related to an apparent drop in early imitation. We interpret the results as suggesting a relationship between the status of imitation and the neural development of attention-related eye movement.

  2. Diaspora-led development through the corporate social responsibility initiatives of talented migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, Juan Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the idea that talented migrants can assist in the development andgrowth of their economies of origin through brain-circulation dynamics, linking the developedworld where they live and developing homelands they (or their ancestors in the case of latergenerationdiasporans left behind. Depending on the roles these talented people play in theorganizational (and institutional environment at both ends of the migratory trail, differentalternatives of diaspora-led initiatives are available to them. When these roles are attached tothe private sector, the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiativespiggybacking preexisting diaspora tools (such as talent networks, open migration chains,diaspora-oriented institutions, etc. might be the more appropriate and efficient channels.

  3. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.

    2009-01-01

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  4. [THE STATUS OF CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL ADRENERGIC RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS DURING DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTHYROIDISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Nizar Salim; Ismail, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of thyroid hormones on the expression of physiological reactions during adrenergic stimulation (20 min at a dose of 2.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the development of experimental hyperthyroidism. Rats were divided into two groups. The animals in Group 1 were injected woth triiodothyronine. The duration of injection ranged from 1 to 12 days. Consequently, 12 subgroups were formed. The second group was the control group. It is shown that in the process of development of experimental hyperthyroidism all physiological responses vary in accordance with the law, which can be described by a parabola of general form with the value of the degree in the equation equal to three.

  5. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  6. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Mimitopes for Characterization of CRF01_AE HIV-1 Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse V. Schoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping humoral immune responses to HIV-1 over the course of natural infection is important in understanding epitope exposure in relation to elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, which is considered imperative for effective vaccine design. When analyzing HIV-specific immune responses, the antibody binding profiles may be a correlate for functional antibody activity. In this study, we utilized phage display technology to identify novel mimitopes that may represent Env epitope structures bound by bNAbs directed at V1V2 and V3 domains, CD4 binding site (CD4bs and the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env. Mimitope sequence motifs were determined for each bNAb epitope. Given the ongoing vaccine development efforts in Thailand, these mimitopes that represent CD4bs and MPER epitopes were used to map immune responses of HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected individuals with known neutralizing responses from two distinct time periods, 1996-98 and 2012-15. The more contemporary cohort showed an increase in binding breadth with binding observed for all MPER and CD4bs mimitopes, while the older cohort showed only 75% recognition of the CD4bs mimitopes and no MPER mimotope binding. Furthermore, mimitope binding profiles correlated significantly with magnitude (p=0.0036 and breadth (p=0.0358 of neutralization of a multi-subtype Tier 1 panel of pseudoviruses. These results highlight the utility of this mimitope mapping approach for detecting human plasma IgG-specificities that target known neutralizing antibody epitopes, and may also provide an indication of the plasticity of antibody binding within HIV-1 Env neutralization determinants.

  7. Ectopic Fgf signaling induces the intercalary response in developing chicken limb buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Intercalary pattern formation is an important regulatory step in amphibian limb regeneration. Amphibian limb regeneration is composed of multiple steps, including wounding, blastema formation, and intercalary pattern formation. Attempts have been made to transfer insights from regeneration-competent animals to regeneration-incompetent animalsat each step in the regeneration process. In the present study, we focused on the intercalary mechanism in chick limb buds. In amphibian limb regeneration, a proximodistal axis is organized as soon as a regenerating blastema is induced. Intermediate structures are subsequently induced (intercalated) between the established proximal and distal identities. Intercalary tissues are derived from proximal tissues. Fgf signaling mediates the intercalary response in amphibian limb regeneration. We attempted to transfer insights into intercalary regeneration from amphibian models to the chick limb bud. The zeugopodial part was dissected out, and the distal and proximal parts were conjunct at st. 24. Delivering ectopic Fgf2 + Fgf8 between the distal and proximal parts resulted in induction of zeugopodial elements. Examination of HoxA11 expression, apoptosis, and cell proliferation provides insights to compare with those in the intercalary mechanism of amphibian limb regeneration. Furthermore, the cellular contribution was investigated in both the chicken intercalary response and that of axolotl limb regeneration. We developed new insights into cellular contribution in amphibian intercalary regeneration, and found consistency between axolotl and chicken intercalary responses. Our findings demonstrate that the same principal of limb regeneration functions between regeneration-competent and -incompetent animals. In this context, we propose the feasibility of the induction of the regeneration response in amniotes.

  8. Herpes simplex virus-2 in the genital mucosa: insights into the mucosal host response and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the predominant cause of genital herpes and has been implicated in HIV infection and transmission. Thus far, vaccines developed against HSV-2 have been clinically ineffective in preventing infection. This review aims to summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 and examines the current status of vaccine development. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are essential for an effective primary immune response and the generation of immunity. The innate response involves Toll-like receptors, natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and type I, II, and III interferons. The adaptive response requires a balance between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells for optimal viral clearance. T-regulatory cells may be involved, although their exact function has yet to be determined. Current vaccine development involves the use of HSV-2 peptides or attenuated/replication-defective HSV-2 to generate adaptive anti-HSV-2 immune responses, however the generation of innate responses may also be an important consideration. Although vaccine development has primarily focused on the adaptive response, arguments for innate involvement are emerging. A greater understanding of the innate and adaptive processes underlying the response to HSV-2 infection will provide the foundation for the development of an effective vaccine.

  9. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  10. Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

    2014-04-01

    Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars.

  11. Development of an experimental model of neutrophilic pulmonary response induction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Araújo Pinto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several lung diseases are characterized by a predominantly neutrophilic inflammation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of some drugs on the airway inflammation of such diseases may bring advances to the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to induce pulmonary neutrophilic response in mice, without active infection. METHODS: Eight adult Swiss mice were used. The study group (n = 4 received an intranasal challenge with 1 x 10(12 CFU/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psa, frozen to death. The control group (n = 4 received an intranasal challenge with saline solution. Two days after the intranasal challenge, a bron­choalveolar lavage (BAL was performed with total cell and differential cellularity counts. RESULTS: The total cell count was significantly higher in the group with Psa, as compared to the control group (median of 1.17 x 10(6 and 0.08 x 10(6, respectively, p = 0.029. In addition to this, an absolute predominance of neutrophils was found in the differential cellularity of the mice that had received the Psa challenge. CONCLUSIONS: The model of inducing a neutrophilic pulmonary disease using frost-dead bacteria was successfully developed. This neutrophilic inflammatory response induction model in Swiss mice lungs may be an important tool for testing the anti-inflammatory effect of some antimicrobial drugs on the inflammation of the lower airways.

  12. Development of gluten-free fish (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) patties by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mara C; Fogar, Ricardo A; Rolhaiser, Fabiana; Clavero, Verónica V; Romero, Ana M; Judis, María A

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a fish-based product suitable for people with celiac disease. Water and gluten-free flours (rice, corn, amaranth or quinoa) were added to improve cooking yield, texture parameters and as an aid in improving quality attributes such as taste and juiciness. Cooking yields of patties containing gluten-free flours were higher than control and maximum values ranged between 91 and 93%. Hardness was higher in patties made with amaranth or quinoa flour, whereas cohesiveness and springiness were higher in patties made with corn and rice flour, respectively. Response surface methodology was used to optimize patties formulations. Optimized formulations were prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. Also, nutritional value and consumer acceptance of optimized formulations were analysed. Flours addition affected proximate composition increasing carbohydrates, total fat and mineral content compared to control. Sensory evaluation showed that no differences were found in the aroma of products. Addition of rice flour increased juiciness and tenderness whereas taste, overall acceptance and buying intention were higher in control patty, followed by patties made with corn flour. The present investigation shows good possibilities for further product development, including the scale up at an industrial level.

  13. Responsible Development On Areva's Mining Activities. Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Mining activities are the first link in the nuclear fuel cycle and in the integrated model of the Areva Group. Areva was one of the top producers worldwide in 2015, producing 11,002 metric tons of uranium. The group works to maintain resources and weighted reserves equivalent to 20 years of production at all times. Thanks to a presence spanning five continents, they ensure the long-term supply to customers of uranium for electricity production while maintaining a responsible attitude towards people and the environment. It has a diverse portfolio of both active mines (Canada, Kazakhstan and Niger) and mines under development (Africa). This document is Areva's Mining Activities responsible Development report for 2015. Content: profile (Overview, Keys events, Worldwide presence, Governance and Organization, Uranium market); CSR approach (Statement from the senior executive vice president, Risk management, Ethics and human rights, Voluntary initiatives, Materiality); Commitments (Health and radiation protection, Occupational safety, Environment and Biodiversity, Social involvement, Commitment to employees, Mining closure, Innovation); Performance (CSR objectives, Key indicators, Reporting parameters); Case Studies; Annexes (GRI Index)

  14. Feasibility Exploration of Electrodermal Response to Food in Children with ASD Compared to Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Suarez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD frequently have food selectivity that causes additional health and quality of life stressors for the child and the family. The causes of food selectivity are currently unknown but may be linked, at least in part, to sensory processing problems. Method: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using electrodermal activity (EDA measurement in response to food to gain insight into the physiological processes associated with eating for children with ASD compared to typically developing children. In addition, differences in food acceptance and the relationship between food acceptance and sensory over-responsivity were explored. Results: Children with ASD had significantly different EDA during food presentation compared to typically developing controls. In addition, children with ASD accepted significantly fewer foods as part of their regular diet, and the number of foods accepts was significantly related to a measure of SOR. Discussion: This information has the potential to inform research and treatment for food selectivity

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Gregory

    Full Text Available Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus. Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  16. Cotton proteomics for deciphering the mechanism of environment stress response and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Sun, Guoqing; Sun, Zhanmin; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2014-06-13

    Cotton fiber is considered as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop is severely hampered by the occurrence of pathogens, pests, and various environmental factors. Nevertheless, cotton plant has developed sophisticated mechanisms to respond to environment stresses to avoid detrimental effects on its growth and development. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber development and environment stress response is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the last 5years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to generate novel insight useful for cotton improvement. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop grown all over the world and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. Cotton is also an important source of edible oil seed and a nutrient-rich food crop as cottonseed contains high-quality protein and oil. The growth and productivity of cotton crop are often hampered by various biotic stress factors, such as insect pests and pathogens. In addition, cotton plants are frequently subjected to unavoidable environmental factors that cause abiotic stress, such as salt, heat and drought. Proteomic techniques provide one of the best options for understanding the gene function and phenotypic changes during cotton fiber development and stress response. This review first summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics about cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance, and also evaluates the findings in context of the approaches

  17. Neurodegeneration and adaptation in response to low-dose photon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limoli, Charles L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Neural stem and precursor cells (i.e. multipotent neural cells) are concentrated in the neurogenic regions of the brain (hippocampal dentate gyrus, subventricular zones), and considerable evidence suggests that these cells are important in mediating the stress response of the CNS after damage from ionizing radiation. The capability of these cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate (i.e. to undergo neurogenesis) suggests they can participate in the repair and maintenance of CNS functions by replacing brain cells damaged or depleted due to irradiation. Importantly, we have shown that multipotent neural cells are markedly sensitive to irradiation and oxidative stress, insults that compromise neurogenesis and hasten the onset and progression of degenerative processes that are likely to have an adverse impact on cognition. Our past and current work has demonstrated that relatively low doses of radiation cause a persistent (weeks-months) oxidative stress in multipotent neural cells that can elicit a range of degenerative sequelae in the CNS. Therefore, our project is focused on determining the extent that endogenous and redox sensitive multipotent neural cells represent important radioresponsive targets for low dose radiation effects. We hypothesize that the activation of redox sensitive signaling can trigger radioadaptive changes in these cells that can be either harmful or beneficial to overall cognitive health.

  18. Role of DNA damage repair capacity in radiation induced adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Dexiao; Pan Yan; Zhao Meijia; Chen Honghong; Shao Cunlin

    2009-01-01

    This work was to explore γ-ray induced radioadaptive response (RAR) in Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cell lines of different DNA damage repair capacities. CHO-9 cells and the two repair-deficient strains, EM-C11(DNA single strand break repair deficient) and XR-C1(DNA double strand break repair deficient), were irradiated with a priming dose of 0.08 Gy or 0.016 Gy. After 4 or 7 hours, they were irradiated again with a challenging dose of 1 Gy. The micronucleus induction and plating efficiency of the cells were assayed. Under 0.08 Gy priming dose and 4-h interval, just the CHO-9 cells showed RAR, while with the 7-h interval the CHO-9 and EM-C11 showed RAR, but XR-C1 did not. When the cells were pretreated with a lower priming dose of 0.016 Gy in a 4-h time interval, all the three cell lines showed RAR to subsequent 1 Gy irradiation. It can be concluded that RAR is not only related to the priming dose and time interval, but also has close dependence on the ability of DNA damage repair. (authors)

  19. Protective value of immune responses developed in goats vaccinated with insoluble proteins from Sarcoptes Scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines developed from certain membrane proteins lining the lumen of arthropod’s gut have been demonstrated effective in the control of some arthropod ectoparasites. A similar approach could also be applied to Sarcoptes scabiei since this parasite also ingests its host immunoglobulins. To evaluate immune protection of the membrane proteins, insoluble mite proteins were fractionated by successive treatment in the solutions of 1.14 M NaCl, 2% SB 3-14 Zwitterion detergent, 6 M urea, 6 M guanidine-HCl and 5% SDS. Five groups of goats (6 or 7 goats per group were immunised respectively with the protein fractions. Vaccination was performed 6 times, each with a dosage of 250 μg proteins, and 3 week intervals between vaccination. Group 6 (7 goats received PBS and adjuvant only, and served as an unvaccinated control. One week after the last vaccination, all goats were challenged with 2000 live mites on the auricles. The development of lesions were examined at 1 day, 2 days, and then every week from week 1 to 8. All animals were bled and weighed every week, and at the end of the experiment, skin scrapings were collected to determine the mite burden. Antibody responses induced by vaccination and challenge were examined by ELISA and Western blotting. This experiment showed that vaccination with the insoluble-protein fractions resulted in the development of high level of specific antibodies but the responses did not have any protective value. The severity of lesions and mite burden in the vaccinated animals were not different from those in the unvaccinated control.

  20. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Tobin, Kristina E; Fallon, Sarah C; Deng, Kevin S; McDonough, Amy B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to sustained hyperoxia alters the development of the respiratory control system, but the respiratory effects of chronic intermittent hyperoxia have rarely been investigated. We exposed newborn rats to short, repeated bouts of 30% O2 or 60% O2 (5 bouts h(-1)) for 4-15 days and then assessed their hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR; 10 min at 12% O2) by plethysmography. The HVR tended to be enhanced by intermittent hyperoxia at P4 (early phase of the HVR), but it was significantly reduced at P14-15 (primarily late phase of the HVR) compared to age-matched controls; the HVR recovered when individuals were returned to room air and re-studied as adults. To investigate the role of carotid body function in this plasticity, single-unit carotid chemoafferent activity was recorded in vitro. Intermittent hyperoxia tended to decrease spontaneous action potential frequency under normoxic conditions but, contrary to expectations, hypoxic responses were only reduced at P4 (not at P14) and only in rats exposed to higher O2 levels (i.e., intermittent 60% O2). Rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia had smaller carotid bodies, and this morphological change may contribute to the blunted HVR. In contrast to rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia beginning at birth, two weeks of intermittent 60% O2 had no effect on the HVR or carotid body size of rats exposed beginning at P28; therefore, intermittent hyperoxia-induced respiratory plasticity appears to be unique to development. Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin Is Involved in Regulation of Bermudagrass Growth and Development and Response to Low K+ Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress. Interestingly, exogenous melatonin application also promoted bermudagrass growth and development at normal condition. Furthermore, the K+ contents measurement revealed that melatonin-treated plants accumulated more K+ in both shoot (under both control and LK condition and root tissues (under LK condition compared with those of melatonin non-treated plants. Expression analysis indicated that the transcripts of K+ transport genes were significantly induced by exogenous melatonin treatment in bermudagrass under both control and LK stress conditions, especially under a combined treatment of LK stress and melatonin, which may increase accumulation of K+ content profoundly under LK stress and thereby contributed to the LK-tolerant phenotype. In addition, we investigated the role of melatonin in the regulation of photosystem II (PSII activities under LK stress. The chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP curves were obviously higher in plants grown in LK with melatonin (LK+Mel than those of plants grown in LK medium without melatonin application for 1 or 2 weeks, suggesting that melatonin plays important roles in PSII against LK stress. After a combined treatment of LK stress and melatonin, the values for performance indexes (PIABS, PITotal, and PICS, flux ratios (φP0, ΨE0, and φE0 and specific energy fluxes (ETO/RC were significantly improved compared with those of LK

  2. TU-C-12A-02: Development of a Multiparametric Statistical Response Map for Quantitative Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosca, R [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mahajan, A; Brown, PD; Stafford, RJ [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, VE [Texas A' M University, College Station, TX (United States); Dong, L [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Jackson, EF [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIB) are becoming increasingly utilized in early phase clinical trials as a means of non-invasively assessing treatment response and associated response heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to develop a flexible multiparametric statistical framework to predict voxel-by-voxel response of several potential MRI QIBs. Methods: Patients with histologically proven glioblastomas (n=11) were treated with chemoradiation (with/without bevacizumab) and underwent one baseline and two mid-treatment (3–4wks) MRIs. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (3D FSPGR, 6.3sec/phase, 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA), dynamic susceptibility contrast (2D GRE-EPI, 1.5sec/phase, 0.2mmol/kg Gd-DTPA), and diffusion tensor (2D DW-EPI, b=0, 1200 s/mm{sup 2}, 27 directions) imaging acquisitions were obtained during each study. Mid-treatment and pre-treatment images were rigidly aligned, and regions of partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were contoured in consensus by two experienced radiation oncologists. Voxels in these categories were used to train ordinal (PR

  3. TU-C-12A-02: Development of a Multiparametric Statistical Response Map for Quantitative Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosca, R; Mahajan, A; Brown, PD; Stafford, RJ; Johnson, VE; Dong, L; Jackson, EF

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIB) are becoming increasingly utilized in early phase clinical trials as a means of non-invasively assessing treatment response and associated response heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to develop a flexible multiparametric statistical framework to predict voxel-by-voxel response of several potential MRI QIBs. Methods: Patients with histologically proven glioblastomas (n=11) were treated with chemoradiation (with/without bevacizumab) and underwent one baseline and two mid-treatment (3–4wks) MRIs. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (3D FSPGR, 6.3sec/phase, 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA), dynamic susceptibility contrast (2D GRE-EPI, 1.5sec/phase, 0.2mmol/kg Gd-DTPA), and diffusion tensor (2D DW-EPI, b=0, 1200 s/mm 2 , 27 directions) imaging acquisitions were obtained during each study. Mid-treatment and pre-treatment images were rigidly aligned, and regions of partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were contoured in consensus by two experienced radiation oncologists. Voxels in these categories were used to train ordinal (PR

  4. A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1 protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP, yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS, we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt

  5. A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2011-10-19

    Abiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1) protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3?,5?-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphate (PAP), yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS), we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt toxicity target

  6. Development and use of a master health facility list: Haiti's experience during the 2010 earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Wood, Alyson; Heard, Nathan; Thermidor, Roody; Chan, Jessica; Joseph, Fanor; Lerebours, Gerald; Zugaldia, Antonio; Konkel, Kimberly; Edwards, Michael; Lang, Bill; Torres, Carmen-Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Master health facility lists (MHFLs) are gaining attention as a standards-based means to uniquely identify health facilities and to link facility-level data. The ability to reliably communicate information about specific health facilities can support an array of health system functions, such as routine reporting and emergency response operations. MHFLs support the alignment of donor-supported health information systems with county-owned systems. Recent World Health Organization draft guidance promotes the utility of MHFLs and outlines a process for list development and governance. Although the potential benefits of MHFLs are numerous and may seem obvious, there are few documented cases of MHFL construction and use. The international response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake provides an example of how governments, nongovernmental organizations, and others can collaborate within a framework of standards to build a more complete and accurate list of health facilities. Prior to the earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) maintained a list of public-sector health facilities but lacked information on privately managed facilities. Following the earthquake, the MSPP worked with a multinational group to expand the completeness and accuracy of the list of health facilities, including information on post-quake operational status. This list later proved useful in the response to the cholera epidemic and is now incorporated into the MSPP's routine health information system. Haiti's experience demonstrates the utility of MHFL formation and use in crisis as well as in the routine function of the health information system.

  7. Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot A Schel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children.

  8. [The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, G

    2008-02-01

    The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility is critically reflected by examining the medical care of those who are deprived. Poverty in Germany is dramatically increasing. There are confirmed findings on the correlation of being poor and being ill. Poverty leads to an increased number of cases of illness and a higher mortality rate. And vice versa, chronic illnesses very often cause impoverishment. This correlation has largely been ignored not only by the public but also by experts, especially when public health-care issues are on the political agenda. With reference to the current discussion about public health-care and the widespread disregard of the living conditions of the poor, the categories of "reasonable behaviour" (Kant) and "communicative behaviour" (Habermas) are reflected on in a philosophical excursion. Further interest groups affecting the political sphere, such as the pharmaceutical industry, the medical profession, patients and scientists are also examined with regard to public health-care. What are the premises of a health-care discussion that is controlled by economic considerations, particularly when keeping in mind the humanistic and Christian ethics of our society? And what does this mean for our responsibility for those who are handicapped and are in need of our help? Do decision makers and participants of the health-care discussion satisfy these ethical challenges? And what are the effects of the so-called "social peace" on social cooperation and economic power of a country? The increasing market orientation (commercialisation) of the public health sector can only be accepted on the basis of practiced humanity and social responsibility. In the light of a human public health-care, deprived people are in need of our solidarity.

  9. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated

  10. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Reed, D.J.; Smith, W.T.; Dau, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km 2 ) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lin, Hong-En; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2017-01-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur), a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5-60.8%) in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  12. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner

    2008-11-01

    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  13. Gut microbiota drive the development of neuro-inflammatory response in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Betrapally, Naga S; Ghosh, Siddhartha A; Sartor, R Balfour; Hylemon, Phillip B; Gillevet, Patrick M; Sanyal, Arun J; Heuman, Douglas M; Carl, Daniel; Zhou, Huiping; Liu, Runping; Wang, Xiang; Yang, Jing; Jiao, Chunhua; Herzog, Jeremy; Lippmann, H Robert; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Brown, Robert R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are unclear although hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation through gut dysbiosis have been proposed. Aim Define the individual contribution of hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation on neuro-inflammation in cirrhosis using germ-free (GF) and conventional mice. Methods GF and conventional C57BL/6 mice were made cirrhotic using CCl4 gavage. These were compared to their non-cirrhotic counterparts. Intestinal microbiota, systemic and neuro-inflammation (including microglial and glial activation), serum ammonia, intestinal glutaminase activity and cecal glutamine content were compared between groups. Results GF-cirrhotic mice developed similar cirrhotic changes to the conventional mice after four extra weeks (16 vs. 12 weeks) of CCL4 gavage. GF-cirrhotic mice exhibited higher ammonia compared to the GF controls but this was not associated with systemic or neuro-inflammation. Ammonia was generated through increased small intestinal glutaminase activity with concomitantly reduced intestinal glutamine levels. However, conventional cirrhotic mice had intestinal dysbiosis as well as systemic inflammation, associated with increased serum ammonia compared to conventional controls. This was associated with neuro-inflammation and glial/microglial activation. Correlation network analysis in conventional mice showed significant linkages between systemic/neuro-inflammation, intestinal microbiota and ammonia. Specifically beneficial, autochthonous taxa were negatively linked with brain and systemic inflammation, ammonia and with Staphylococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Streptococcaceae. Enterobacteriaceae were positively linked with serum inflammatory cytokines Conclusions Gut microbiota changes drive the development of neuro- and systemic inflammatory responses in cirrhotic animals. PMID:27339732

  14. Follicular helper T cells poise immune responses to the development of autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Diana; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Romo-Tena, Jorge; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH)) have been implicated as a lineage that provides sufficient help to B cells in order to become professional antibody producers. This T helper subset is characterized by a distinctive cell-surface phenotype (CD4(+)CD57(+)CXCR5(+)) and cytokine profile (IL-21, IL-6, and IL-27) as well as transcriptional program (BCL-6, ICOS, and PD-1). Evidence supports the concept that T(FH) subset development, as well as for other lineages, is dependent on microenvironment cues that modulate a particular transcriptional program, susceptible to plasticity. Recently, it has been shown that BCL-6 and IL-21 act as master regulators for the development and function of T(FH) cells. Moreover, costimulation via ICOS, as well as signaling proteins such as SAP constitute required elements of the regulatory network that modulates T(FH) functions. T(FH) dysregulation has been implicated in the development of autoimmune pathology, such as SLE. Indeed, the Sanroque mice associated to the mutation of Roquin, a ubiquitin ligase, essential for the regulation of ICOS and germinal center responses, constitutes a model that shares features with human SLE. Recently, the expansion of "circulating T(FH) cells" (CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD1(high)) has been described for a subset of SLE patients that share T(FH) dependent features of disease with Sanroque mice, such as glomerulonephritis and cytopenias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and process evaluation of a Web-based responsible beverage service training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G; Dresser, Jack; Shaw, Tracy; Severson, Herbert H; Tyler, Milagra S; Maxwell, Elisabeth D; Christiansen, Steve M

    2012-09-22

    Responsible beverage service (RBS) training designed to improve the appropriate service of alcohol in commercial establishments is typically delivered in workshops. Recently, Web-based RBS training programs have emerged. This report describes the formative development and subsequent design of an innovative Web-delivered RBS program, and evaluation of the impact of the program on servers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Formative procedures using focus groups and usability testing were used to develop a Web-based RBS training program. Professional alcohol servers (N = 112) who worked as servers and/or mangers in alcohol service settings were recruited to participate. A pre-post assessment design was used to assess changes associated with using the program. Participants who used the program showed significant improvements in their RBS knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Although the current study did not directly observe and determine impact of the intervention on server behaviors, it demonstrated that the development process incorporating input from a multidisciplinary team in conjunction with feedback from end-users resulted in creation of a Web-based RBS program that was well-received by servers and that changed relevant knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The results also help to establish a needed evidence base in support of the use of online RBS training, which has been afforded little research attention.

  16. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF UKRAINIAN UNIVERSITIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND MAIN DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the essence of university social responsibility. The study explores basic directions of universities social responsible activities in Ukraine and in western countries. A comparative assessment is conducted as to distribution of social responsibility in national universities activities. The paper specifies priority areas of social responsibility education.

  17. Emotionality in response to aircraft noise: A report of development work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    A literature search and pilot study conducted to investigate the topic of emotional response to aircraft noise are described. A Tell-A-Story Technique was developed for use in the pilot study which required respondents to make up stories for a series of aircraft-related and non-aircraft-related pictures. A content analysis of these stories was made. The major finding was that response patterns varied among three groups of respondents - those currently living near airports, those who had lived near airports in the past, and those who had never lived near airports. Negative emotional feelings toward aircraft were greatest among respondents who had lived near airports in the past but no longer did. A possible explanation offered for this finding was that people currently living near airports might adapt to the situation by denying some of their negative feelings, which they might feel more free to express after they had moved away from the situation. Other techniques used in the pilot study are also described, including group interviews and a word association task.

  18. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  19. Development of closed–loop supply chain network in terms of corporate social responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Payam; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rise in awareness of environmental issues and the depletion of virgin resources, many firms have attempted to increase the sustainability of their activities. One efficient way to elevate sustainability is the consideration of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by designing a closed loop supply chain (CLSC). This paper has developed a mathematical model to increase corporate social responsibility in terms of job creation. Moreover the model, in addition to increasing total CLSC profit, provides a range of strategic decision solutions for decision makers to select a best action plan for a CLSC. A proposed multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model was solved with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Fuzzy set theory was employed to select the best compromise solution from the Pareto-optimal solutions. A numerical example was used to validate the potential application of the proposed model. The results highlight the effect of CSR in the design of CLSC. PMID:28384250

  20. Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, R.Y.C.; Giesy, J.P.; Wu, R.S.S.; Chen, E.X.H.; Chiang, M.W.L.; Lim, P.L.; Yuen, B.B.H.; Yip, B.W.P.; Mok, H.O.L.; Au, D.W.T.

    2008-01-01

    A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5 μm) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs and proteins in different tissues and subcellular compartments of a single fish. Stereological analysis (as measured by volume density, V v ) was used to quantify ISH and IHC signals on tissue sections. Using the telomerase reverse transcriptase (omTERT) gene, omTERT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins as examples, we demonstrated that it is possible to localize, quantify and correlate their tissue expression profiles in a whole fish system. Using chronic hypoxia (1.8 ± 0.2 mg O 2 L -1 for 3 months) as an environmental stressor, we were able to identify significant alterations in levels of omTERT mRNA, omTERT protein, PCNA (cell proliferation marker) and TUNEL (apoptosis) in livers of hypoxic O. melastigma (p < 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that O. melastigma can serve as a model marine fish for assessing multiple in vivo molecular responses to stresses in the marine environment

  1. Development, Characterization, and Optimization of Protein Level in Date Bars Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to produce a nourishing date bar with commercial value especially for school going children to meet their body development requirements. Protein level of date bars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Economical and underutilized sources, that is, whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates, were explored for protein supplementation. Fourteen date bar treatments were produced using a central composite design (CCD with 2 variables and 3 levels for each variable. Date bars were then analyzed for nutritional profile. Proximate composition revealed that addition of whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates improved the nutritional profile of date bars. Protein level, texture, and taste were considerably improved by incorporating 6.05% whey protein concentrate and 4.35% vetch protein isolates in date bar without affecting any sensory characteristics during storage. Response surface methodology was observed as an economical and effective tool to optimize the ingredient level and to discriminate the interactive effects of independent variables.

  2. Study of developing nuclear fabrication facility's integrated emergency response manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeh Yeong; Cho, Nam Chan; Han, Seung Hoon; Moon, Jong Han; Lee, Jin Hang [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Guem Young; Han, Ji Ah [Dongguk Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Public begin to pay attention to emergency management. Thus, public's consensus on having high level of emergency management system up to advanced country's is reached. In this social atmosphere, manual is considered as key factor to prevent accident or secure business continuity. Therefore, we first define possible crisis at KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (hereinafter KNF) and also make a 'Reaction List' for each crisis situation at the view of information-design. To achieve it, we analyze several country's crisis response manual and then derive component, indicate duties and roles at the information-design point of view. From this, we suggested guideline to make 'Integrated emergency response manual(IERM)'. The manual we used before have following few problems; difficult to applicate at the site, difficult to deliver information. To complement these problems, we searched manual elements from the view of information-design. As a result, we develop administrative manual. Although, this manual could be thought as fragmentary manual because it confined specific several agency/organization and disaster type.

  3. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  4. Development of a Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) for Kalpakkam site - the design aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja Shekhar, S. S.; Bhatawadekar, Shantanu; Krishna Murthy, Y. V.N., [Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre, Department of Space, Nagpur (India); Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalapakkam (India)

    2012-07-01

    An Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) is developed for the nuclear power plant site at Kalpakkam as part of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) initiative. ONERS is a GIS based spatial analysis system designed indigenously to provide decision support in the event of a radioactive leak or accident from any of the nuclear facilities by assessing the dispersion and deposition patterns of the atmospheric releases, integrate with spatial geographical database for impact assessment and guidance for mitigation. The system is designed with open software tools (UMN Map server, MYSQL, PHP, Java scripts) and its main features include assessment of dose, short and long term forecast, counter measure support, impact assessment to minimize potential threat to man and environment during radiological emergencies. The system is implemented in live mode with integration of numerical models and spatial data base for the site region and is presently operational for the Kalpakkam site. (author)

  5. Development of a Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) for Kalpakkam site - the design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Shekhar, S.S.; Bhatawadekar, Shantanu; Krishna Murthy, Y.V.N.; Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    An Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) is developed for the nuclear power plant site at Kalpakkam as part of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) initiative. ONERS is a GIS based spatial analysis system designed indigenously to provide decision support in the event of a radioactive leak or accident from any of the nuclear facilities by assessing the dispersion and deposition patterns of the atmospheric releases, integrate with spatial geographical database for impact assessment and guidance for mitigation. The system is designed with open software tools (UMN Map server, MYSQL, PHP, Java scripts) and its main features include assessment of dose, short and long term forecast, counter measure support, impact assessment to minimize potential threat to man and environment during radiological emergencies. The system is implemented in live mode with integration of numerical models and spatial data base for the site region and is presently operational for the Kalpakkam site. (author)

  6. Development of Drop/Shock Test in Microelectronics and Impact Dynamic Analysis for Uniform Board Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallolimath, Sharan Chandrashekar

    For the past several years, many researchers are constantly developing and improving board level drop test procedures and specifications to quantify the solder joint reliability performance of consumer electronics products. Predictive finite element analysis (FEA) by utilizing simulation software has become widely acceptable verification method which can reduce time and cost of the real-time test process. However, due to testing and metrological limitations it is difficult not only to simulate exact drop condition and capture critical measurement data but also tedious to calibrate the system to improve test methods. Moreover, some of the important ever changing factors such as board flexural rigidity, damping, drop height, and drop orientation results in non-uniform stress/strain distribution throughout the test board. In addition, one of the most challenging tasks is to quantify uniform stress and strain distribution throughout the test board and identify critical failure factors. The major contributions of this work are in the four aspects of the drop test in electronics as following. First of all, an analytical FEA model was developed to study the board natural frequencies and responses of the system with the consideration of dynamic stiffness, damping behavior of the material and effect of impact loading condition. An approach to find the key parameters that affect stress and strain distributions under predominate mode responses was proposed and verified with theoretical solutions. Input-G method was adopted to study board response behavior and cut boundary interpolation methods was used to analyze local model solder joint stresses with the development of global/local FEA model in ANSYS software. Second, no ring phenomenon during the drop test was identified theoretically when the test board was modeled as both discrete system and continuous system. Numerical analysis was then conducted by FEA method for detailed geometry of attached chips with solder

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility and Poor’s Child Well Being in Developing Customer’s Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Mukhtar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to analyze the contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR perceived motives in enhancing poor children's well being and consumer loyalty. CSR strategy studied were CSR strategies implemented by two companies, Garuda Indonesia and Pertamina, which are State Owned Companies (fully or partially owned by government of Indonesia. Garuda Indonesia is a service company engaged in airline industry, and Pertamina is a non service company engaged in oil and gas industry.Using factor analysis and multiple regression, the result indicates some differences between firms CSR activities in in developing children well being and customer loyalty. This result has implication for the firm that different type of CSR activities and different industry will reflect different motives, further have different impact in children’s well being.

  8. Corporate social responsibility: Benefits for youth in hydropower development in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent hydropower investment in central Laos illustrates how policy, implementation and follow-up can lead to benefits for local communities in the impacted area of the Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP). Programmes include both support for and improvement of existing government education programmes, employment opportunities and specific programmes for youth. They have been designed to mitigate possible negative effects of the influx of workers and rapid socio-economic change in the affected area. Young people continue to have a central role in the implementation of these programmes as peer educators under the supervision of project staff and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  9. Gamma Low-Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation Stimulates Adaptive Functional and Molecular Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells in a Threshold-, Dose-, and Dose Rate-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dias, Juliana; Gloaguen, Celine; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Manens, Line; Tack, Karine; Ebrahimian, Teni G

    2018-01-01

    A central question in radiation protection research is whether low-dose and low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures to ionizing radiation play a role in progression of cardiovascular disease. The response of endothelial cells to different LDR exposures may help estimate risk of cardiovascular disease by providing the biological mechanism involved. We investigated the effect of chronic LDR radiation on functional and molecular responses of human aorta endothelial cells (HAoECs). Human aorta endothelial cells were continuously irradiated at LDR (6 mGy/h) for 15 days and analyzed at time points when the cumulative dose reached 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. The same doses were administered acutely at high-dose rate (HDR; 1 Gy/min). The threshold for the loss of angiogenic capacity for both LDR and HDR radiations was between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. At 2.0 Gy, angiogenic capacity returned to normal only for HAoEC exposed to LDR radiation, associated with increased expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. Pre-LDR, but not pre-HDR, radiation, followed by a single acute 2.0 Gy challenge dose sustained the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes and stimulated angiogenesis. Our results suggest that dose rate is important in cellular response and that a radioadaptive response is involved for a 2.0 Gy dose at LDR.

  10. Gamma Low-Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation Stimulates Adaptive Functional and Molecular Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells in a Threshold-, Dose-, and Dose Rate–Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dias, Juliana; Gloaguen, Celine; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Manens, Line; Tack, Karine; Ebrahimian, Teni G

    2018-01-01

    A central question in radiation protection research is whether low-dose and low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures to ionizing radiation play a role in progression of cardiovascular disease. The response of endothelial cells to different LDR exposures may help estimate risk of cardiovascular disease by providing the biological mechanism involved. We investigated the effect of chronic LDR radiation on functional and molecular responses of human aorta endothelial cells (HAoECs). Human aorta endothelial cells were continuously irradiated at LDR (6 mGy/h) for 15 days and analyzed at time points when the cumulative dose reached 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. The same doses were administered acutely at high-dose rate (HDR; 1 Gy/min). The threshold for the loss of angiogenic capacity for both LDR and HDR radiations was between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. At 2.0 Gy, angiogenic capacity returned to normal only for HAoEC exposed to LDR radiation, associated with increased expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. Pre-LDR, but not pre-HDR, radiation, followed by a single acute 2.0 Gy challenge dose sustained the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes and stimulated angiogenesis. Our results suggest that dose rate is important in cellular response and that a radioadaptive response is involved for a 2.0 Gy dose at LDR. PMID:29531508

  11. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities - Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The results consolidated at Mining Business Group level and presented in this document mainly relate to the uranium production sites for which Areva is the majority operator. For each stage of the mining life cycle (exploration, project development, operation, closure, redevelopment) much of the data is also reported on a national and international reporting level, and is presented in this document when deemed necessary for the understanding of Areva's activities. This document reports the extra-financial performance of Areva's mining activities for the period from 1 January to 31 December 2011. The extra-financial performance of mining activities presented in this report is underpinned by the Areva group reporting process called STAR (for Sustainability Tools Advanced Reporting). It is supplemented by information collected from in-house experts or from other reporting documents deemed to be valid sources of reference for the subjects discussed. Content: 1 - Approach to responsibility (Being a Responsible Mining Stakeholder, The Fundamentals of Areva's Approach); 2 - Activities (Activities Experiencing Strong Growth, Uranium as a Core Business); 3 - Teams (A Proactive Employment Policy, Employee Health and Safety, Focus: 'I am committed to maintaining safety' campaign yields exemplary results in Namibia); 4 - Environmental policy (Management of Challenges, The Environment Throughout the Entire Mining Lifecycle, Focus: hybrid electricity generation system for prospecting camps in Australia); 5 - Social commitment (Transparency and Openness to Dialogue, Community Involvement, Focus: working group with communities of the province of Saskatchewan in Canada); 6 - Performance (The Main Sustainable Development Indicators, Scope of this Report); 7 - Appendices (Glossary, Communications associated with this report)

  12. Responsiveness of a simple tool for assessing change in behavioral intention after continuing professional development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Freitas, Adriana; Turcotte, Stéphane; Borduas, Francine; Jacques, André; Luconi, Francesca; Godin, Gaston; Boucher, Andrée; Sargeant, Joan; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) activities are one way that new knowledge can be translated into changes in practice. However, few tools are available for evaluating the extent to which these activities change health professionals' behavior. We developed a questionnaire called CPD-Reaction for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions. We evaluated its responsiveness to change in behavioral intention and verified its acceptability among stakeholders. We enrolled 376 health professionals who completed CPD-Reaction before and immediately after attending a CPD activity. We contacted them three months later and asked them to self-report on any behavior change. We compared the mean rankings on each CPD-Reaction construct before and immediately after CPD activities. To estimate its predictive validity, we compared the median behavioral intention score (post-activity) of health professionals reporting a behavior change three months later with the median behavioral intention score of physicians who reported no change. We explored stakeholders' views on CPD-Reaction in semi-structured interviews. Participants were mostly family physicians (62.2%), with an average of 19 years of clinical practice. Post-activity, we observed an increase in intention-related scores for all constructs (P behavior change. We observed no statistically significant difference in intention between health professionals who later reported a behavior change and those who reported no change (P = 0.30). Overall, CPD stakeholders found the CPD-Reaction questionnaire of interest and suggested potential solutions to perceived barriers to its implementation. The CPD-Reaction questionnaire seems responsive to change in behavioral intention. Although CPD stakeholders found it interesting, future implementation will require addressing barriers they identified.

  13. Differentiation-Dependent Motility-Responses of Developing Neural Progenitors to Optogenetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Köhidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During neural tissue genesis, neural stem/progenitor cells are exposed to bioelectric stimuli well before synaptogenesis and neural circuit formation. Fluctuations in the electrochemical potential in the vicinity of developing cells influence the genesis, migration and maturation of neuronal precursors. The complexity of the in vivo environment and the coexistence of various progenitor populations hinder the understanding of the significance of ionic/bioelectric stimuli in the early phases of neuronal differentiation. Using optogenetic stimulation, we investigated the in vitro motility responses of radial glia-like neural stem/progenitor populations to ionic stimuli. Radial glia-like neural stem cells were isolated from CAGloxpStoploxpChR2(H134-eYFP transgenic mouse embryos. After transfection with Cre-recombinase, ChR2(channelrhodopsin-2-expressing and non-expressing cells were separated by eYFP fluorescence. Expression of light-gated ion channels were checked by patch clamp and fluorescence intensity assays. Neurogenesis by ChR2-expressing and non-expressing cells was induced by withdrawal of EGF from the medium. Cells in different (stem cell, migrating progenitor and maturing precursor stages of development were illuminated with laser light (λ = 488 nm; 1.3 mW/mm2; 300 ms in every 5 min for 12 h. The displacement of the cells was analyzed on images taken at the end of each light pulse. Results demonstrated that the migratory activity decreased with the advancement of neuronal differentiation regardless of stimulation. Light-sensitive cells, however, responded on a differentiation-dependent way. In non-differentiated ChR2-expressing stem cell populations, the motility did not change significantly in response to light-stimulation. The displacement activity of migrating progenitors was enhanced, while the motility of differentiating neuronal precursors was markedly reduced by illumination.

  14. Development of a simple detector response function generation program: The CEARDRFs code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiaxin, E-mail: jwang3@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Wang Zhijian; Peeples, Johanna [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Yu Huawei [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Gardner, Robin P. [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A simple Monte Carlo program named CEARDRFs has been developed to generate very accurate detector response functions (DRFs) for scintillation detectors. It utilizes relatively rigorous gamma-ray transport with simple electron transport, and accounts for two phenomena that have rarely been treated: scintillator non-linearity and the variable flat continuum part of the DRF. It has been proven that these physics and treatments work well for 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 Double-Prime and 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 Double-Prime cylindrical NaI detector in CEAR's previous work. Now this approach has been expanded to cover more scintillation detectors with various common shapes and sizes. Benchmark experiments of 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime cylindrical BGO detector and 2 Multiplication-Sign 4 Multiplication-Sign 16 Double-Prime rectangular NaI detector have been carried out at CEAR with various radiactive sources. The simulation results of CEARDRFs have also been compared with MCNP5 calculations. The benchmark and comparison show that CEARDRFs can generate very accurate DRFs (more accurate than MCNP5) at a very fast speed (hundred times faster than MCNP5). The use of this program can significantly increase the accuracy of applications relying on detector spectroscopy like prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, oil well logging and homeland security. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CEARDRF has been developed to generate detector response functions (DRFs) for scintillation detectors a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generated DRFs are very accurate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation speed is hundreds of times faster than MCNP5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It utilizes rigorous gamma-ray transport with simple electron transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It also accounts for scintillator non-linearity and the variable flat continuum part.

  15. Development of a simple detector response function generation program: The CEARDRFs code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaxin; Wang Zhijian; Peeples, Johanna; Yu Huawei; Gardner, Robin P.

    2012-01-01

    A simple Monte Carlo program named CEARDRFs has been developed to generate very accurate detector response functions (DRFs) for scintillation detectors. It utilizes relatively rigorous gamma-ray transport with simple electron transport, and accounts for two phenomena that have rarely been treated: scintillator non-linearity and the variable flat continuum part of the DRF. It has been proven that these physics and treatments work well for 3×3″ and 6×6″ cylindrical NaI detector in CEAR's previous work. Now this approach has been expanded to cover more scintillation detectors with various common shapes and sizes. Benchmark experiments of 2×2″ cylindrical BGO detector and 2×4×16″ rectangular NaI detector have been carried out at CEAR with various radiactive sources. The simulation results of CEARDRFs have also been compared with MCNP5 calculations. The benchmark and comparison show that CEARDRFs can generate very accurate DRFs (more accurate than MCNP5) at a very fast speed (hundred times faster than MCNP5). The use of this program can significantly increase the accuracy of applications relying on detector spectroscopy like prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, oil well logging and homeland security. - Highlights: ► CEARDRF has been developed to generate detector response functions (DRFs) for scintillation detectors a. ► Generated DRFs are very accurate. ► Simulation speed is hundreds of times faster than MCNP5. ► It utilizes rigorous gamma-ray transport with simple electron transport. ► It also accounts for scintillator non-linearity and the variable flat continuum part.

  16. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  17. Promoting the Development of Civic Responsibility: Infusing Service-Learning Practices in First-Year "Success" Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Engberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether first-year success courses that conceptually integrated a serving-learning component influenced the development of civic responsibility, operationally defined as charitable and social justice responsibility. We longitudinally assessed 173 students enrolled in 10 first-year success courses, 5 with…

  18. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  19. Development of a novel multiplex DNA microarray for Fusarium graminearum and analysis of azole fungicide responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deising Holger B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxigenic fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum compromises wheat production worldwide. Azole fungicides play a prominent role in controlling this pathogen. Sequencing of its genome stimulated the development of high-throughput technologies to study mechanisms of coping with fungicide stress and adaptation to fungicides at a previously unprecedented precision. DNA-microarrays have been used to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns and uncovered complex transcriptional responses. A recently developed one-color multiplex array format allowed flexible, effective, and parallel examinations of eight RNA samples. Results We took advantage of the 8 × 15 k Agilent format to design, evaluate, and apply a novel microarray covering the whole F. graminearum genome to analyze transcriptional responses to azole fungicide treatment. Comparative statistical analysis of expression profiles uncovered 1058 genes that were significantly differentially expressed after azole-treatment. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 31 selected genes indicated high conformity to results from the microarray hybridization. Among the 596 genes with significantly increased transcript levels, analyses using GeneOntology and FunCat annotations detected the ergosterol-biosynthesis pathway genes as the category most significantly responding, confirming the mode-of-action of azole fungicides. Cyp51A, which is one of the three F. graminearum paralogs of Cyp51 encoding the target of azoles, was the most consistently differentially expressed gene of the entire study. A molecular phylogeny analyzing the relationships of the three CYP51 proteins in the context of 38 fungal genomes belonging to the Pezizomycotina indicated that CYP51C (FGSG_11024 groups with a new clade of CYP51 proteins. The transcriptional profiles for genes encoding ABC transporters and transcription factors suggested several involved in mechanisms alleviating the impact of the fungicide

  20. Assessing the role of urban developments on storm runoff response through multi-scale catchment experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Owen, Gareth; Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality issues with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). In particular for mixed rural and urban catchments where the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological responses is high, there remains a key research challenge in evaluating the timing and magnitude of storage and flow pathways at multiple scales. This is of crucial importance for appropriate catchment management, for example to aid the design of Green Infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the risk of flooding, among other multiple benefits. The aim of this work was to (i) explore spatio-temporal storm runoff generation characteristics in multi-scale catchment experiments that contain rural and urban land use zones, and (ii) assess the (preliminary) impact of Sustainable Drainage (SuDs) as GI on high flow and flood characteristics. Our key research catchment, the Ouseburn in Northern England (55km2), has rural headwaters (15%) and an urban zone (45%) concentrated in the lower catchment area. There is an intermediate and increasingly expanding peri-urban zone (currently 40%), which is defined here as areas where rural and urban features coexist, alongside GIs. Such a structure is typical for most catchments with urban developments. We monitored spatial precipitation and multiscale nested (five gauges) runoff response, in addition to the storage dynamics in GIs for a period of 6 years (2007-2013). For a range of events, we examined the multiscale nested runoff characteristics (lag time and magnitude) of the rural and urban flow components, assessed how these integrated with changing land use and increasing scale, and discussed the implications for flood management in the catchment. The analyses indicated three distinctly different

  1. Responsible Development of Areva's Mining Activities. Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This annual report, prepared by the Corporate Social Responsibility Department of Areva Mines, is the result of the mobilization of all our teams present at Areva's mining sites as well as those in Areva corporate support functions (compliance, sustainable development, etc). The data given cover the assets for which Areva acts as operator in uranium mining activities: exploration, project development, production and rehabilitation. The consolidated data target activities in France, Canada, Niger, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Gabon and Namibia. Activities in the Central African Republic and those linked to La Mancha no longer fall within the scope of this report (sale of assets in 2012). By defining Areva's strategy and policies, this report aims to demonstrate Areva's performance in the key areas of mining activity responsibility: ethics and governance, social report, the environment, occupational health and safety, community involvement, commitments to stakeholders. This report is the third edition of this annual exercise. The results for Areva's main performance indicators are shown for the last three years (2010 to 2012). Some important information relates to the first half of 2013. Areva is a member of the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM). In this context, Areva's policies and commitments in terms of social responsibility are based on the ten sustainable development principles defined by the ICMM, as well as the associated 'position statement' documents. To this end, Areva's specialists are involved in the different working groups that bring together ICMM members to discuss the various sustainable development issues encountered in the extractive sector. Members of our top-level management form part of the Council of this organization. More generally, Areva has made a large number of commitments and works with professional organizations and international institutions. A file listing these various commitments is

  2. Fuz regulates craniofacial development through tissue specific responses to signaling factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichao Zhang

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity effector gene Fuz regulates ciliogenesis and Fuz loss of function studies reveal an array of embryonic phenotypes. However, cilia defects can affect many signaling pathways and, in humans, cilia defects underlie several craniofacial anomalies. To address this, we analyzed the craniofacial phenotype and signaling responses of the Fuz(-/- mice. We demonstrate a unique role for Fuz in regulating both Hedgehog (Hh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during craniofacial development. Fuz expression first appears in the dorsal tissues and later in ventral tissues and craniofacial regions during embryonic development coincident with cilia development. The Fuz(-/- mice exhibit severe craniofacial deformities including anophthalmia, agenesis of the tongue and incisors, a hypoplastic mandible, cleft palate, ossification/skeletal defects and hyperplastic malformed Meckel's cartilage. Hh signaling is down-regulated in the Fuz null mice, while canonical Wnt signaling is up-regulated revealing the antagonistic relationship of these two pathways. Meckel's cartilage is expanded in the Fuz(-/- mice due to increased cell proliferation associated with the up-regulation of Wnt canonical target genes and decreased non-canonical pathway genes. Interestingly, cilia development was decreased in the mandible mesenchyme of Fuz null mice, suggesting that cilia may antagonize Wnt signaling in this tissue. Furthermore, expression of Fuz decreased expression of Wnt pathway genes as well as a Wnt-dependent reporter. Finally, chromatin IP experiments demonstrate that β-catenin/TCF-binding directly regulates Fuz expression. These data demonstrate a new model for coordination of Hh and Wnt signaling and reveal a Fuz-dependent negative feedback loop controlling Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  3. Developing Intelligent System Dynamic Management Instruments on Water-Food-Energy Nexus in Response to Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W. P.; Chang, F. J.; Lur, H. S.; Fan, C. H.; Hu, M. C.; Huang, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Water, food and energy are the most essential natural resources needed to sustain life. Water-Food-Energy Nexus (WFE Nexus) has nowadays caught global attention upon natural resources scarcity and their interdependency. In the past decades, Taiwan's integrative development has undergone drastic changes due to population growth, urbanization and excessive utilization of natural resources. The research intends to carry out interdisciplinary studies on WFE Nexus based on data collection and analysis as well as technology innovation, with a mission to develop a comprehensive solution to configure the synergistic utilization of WFE resources in an equal and secure manner for building intelligent dynamic green cities. This study aims to establish the WFE Nexus through interdisciplinary research. This study will probe the appropriate and secure resources distribution and coopetition relationship by applying and developing techniques of artificial intelligence, system dynamics, life cycle assessment, and synergy management under data mining, system analysis and scenario analysis. The issues of synergy effects, economic benefits and sustainable social development will be evaluated as well. First, we will apply the system dynamics to identify the interdependency indicators of WFE Nexus in response to urbanization and build the dynamic relationship among food production, irrigation water resource and energy consumption. Then, we conduct comparative studies of WFE Nexus between the urbanization and the un-urbanization area (basin) to provide a referential guide for optimal resource-policy nexus management. We expect to the proposed solutions can help achieve the main goals of the research, which is the promotion of human well-being and moving toward sustainable green economy and prosperous society.

  4. Team development and team performance. Responsibilities, responsiveness and results : A longitudinal study of teamwork at Volvo Trucks Umeå

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study of more than 150 self-managing work teams was carried out at Volvo Trucks Umea, Sweden. Data obtained by this study were used to test a model about the performance effects of team development, answering the following research questions: (1) how can the team

  5. Development of a model of corporate social responsibility in Vietnam - How Vietnamese businesses perceive and practise CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tho Huu

    2017-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as an important issue for organisations in recent years. Organisations are beginning to understand that apart from their economic responsibility to maximise profit, there are also social and environmental obligations. Much of the literature engaging with this issue occurs in the context of developed countries, while considerably less is known about CSR in the developing world. As such, it raises the question of whether CSR...

  6. Mutielemental concentration and physiological responses of Lavandula pedunculata growing in soils developed on different mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to: i) evaluate the accumulation and translocation patterns of potentially hazardous elements into the Lavandula pedunculata and their influence in the concentrations of nutrients; and ii) compare some physiological responses associated with oxidative stress (concentration of chlorophylls (Chla, Chlb and total), carotenoids, and total protein) and several components involved in tolerance mechanisms (concentrations of proline and acid-soluble thiols and total/specific activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), in plants growing in soils with a multielemental contamination and non-contaminated. Composite samples of soils, developed on mine wastes and/or host rocks, and L. pedunculata (roots and shoots) were collected in São Domingos mine (SE of Portugal) and in a reference area with non-contaminated soils, Corte do Pinto, with the same climatic conditions. São Domingos soils had high total concentrations of several hazardous elements (e.g. As and Pb) but their available fractions were small (mainly Lavandula pedunculata plants are able to survive in soils developed on different mine wastes with multielemental contamination and low fertility showing no symptoms (visible and physiological) of phytotoxicity or deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a theory of change for a community-based response to illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duan; Cooney, Rosie; Roe, Dilys; Dublin, Holly T; Allan, James R; Challender, Dan W S; Skinner, Diane

    2017-02-01

    The escalating illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is one of the most high-profile conservation challenges today. The crisis has attracted over US$350 million in donor and government funding in recent years, primarily directed at increased enforcement. There is growing recognition among practitioners and policy makers of the need to engage rural communities that neighbor or live with wildlife as key partners in tackling IWT. However, a framework to guide such community engagement is lacking. We developed a theory of change (ToC) to guide policy makers, donors, and practitioners in partnering with communities to combat IWT. We identified 4 pathways for community-level actions: strengthen disincentives for illegal behavior, increase incentives for wildlife stewardship, decrease costs of living with wildlife, and support livelihoods that are not related to wildlife. To succeed the pathways, all require strengthening of enabling conditions, including capacity building, and of governance. Our ToC serves to guide actions to tackle IWT and to inform the evaluation of policies. Moreover, it can be used to foster dialogue among IWT stakeholders, from local communities to governments and international donors, to develop a more effective, holistic, and sustainable community-based response to the IWT crisis. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Genetic dissection of host immune response in pneumonia development and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelaya, Tamara V; Belopolskaya, Olesya B; Smirnova, Svetlana V; Kuzovlev, Artem N; Moroz, Viktor V; Golubev, Arkadiy M; Pabalan, Noel A; Salnikova, Lyubov E

    2016-10-11

    The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls). Experimental data were included in a series of 11 meta-analyses and eight subset analyses related to pneumonia susceptibility and outcome. TLR2 rs5743708 minor genotype appeared to be associated with CAP/Legionnaires' disease/pneumococcal disease. In CAP patients, the IL6 rs1800795-C allele was associated with severe sepsis/septic shock/severe systemic inflammatory response, while the IL10 rs1800896-A allele protected against the development of these critical conditions. To contribute to deciphering of the above results, we performed an in silico analysis and a qualitative synthesis of literature data addressing basal and stimulated genotype-specific expression level. This data together with database information on transcription factors' affinity changes caused by SNPs in putative promoter regions, the results of linkage disequilibrium analysis along with SNPs functional annotations supported assumptions about the complexity underlying the revealed associations.

  9. Criminal decision making: the development of adolescent judgment, criminal responsibility, and culpability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, C S; Reppucci, N D

    2001-02-01

    Theories of judgment in decision making hypothesize that throughout adolescence, judgment is impaired because the development of several psychosocial factors that are presumed to influence decision making lags behind the development of the cognitive capacities that are required to make mature decisions. This study uses an innovative video technique to examine the role of several psychosocial factors--temporal perspective, peer influence, and risk perception--in adolescent criminal decision making. Results based on data collected from 56 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years revealed that detained youth were more likely to think of future-oriented consequences of engaging in the depicted delinquent act and less likely to anticipate pressure from their friends than nondetained youth. Examination of the developmental functions of the psychosocial factors indicates age-based differences on standardized measures of temporal perspective and resistance to peer influence and on measures of the role of risk perception in criminal decision making. Assessments of criminal responsibility and culpability were predicted by age and ethnicity. Implications for punishment in the juvenile justice system are discussed.

  10. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  11. Response to dynamic language tasks among typically developing Latino preschool children with bilingual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Janet L; Rodríguez, Barbara L; Dale, Philip S

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether typically developing preschool children with bilingual experience show evidence of learning within brief dynamic assessment language tasks administered in a graduated prompting framework. Dynamic assessment has shown promise for accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual children, and a graduated prompting approach may be well-suited to screening for language impairment. Three dynamic language tasks with graduated prompting were presented to 32 typically developing 4-year-olds in the language to which the child had the most exposure (16 Spanish, 16 English). The tasks were a novel word learning task, a semantic task, and a phonological awareness task. Children's performance was significantly higher on the last 2 items compared with the first 2 items for the semantic and the novel word learning tasks among children who required a prompt on the 1st item. There was no significant difference between the 1st and last items on the phonological awareness task. Within-task improvements in children's performance for some tasks administered within a brief, graduated prompting framework were observed. Thus, children's responses to graduated prompting may be an indicator of modifiability, depending on the task type and level of difficulty.

  12. Pupillary Response and Phenotype in ASD: Latency to Constriction Discriminates ASD from Typically Developing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Georgina T F; James, Stephen M; VanDam, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Brain imaging data describe differences in the ASD brain, including amygdala overgrowth, neural interconnectivity, and a three-phase model of neuroanatomical changes from early post-natal development through late adolescence. The pupil reflex test (PRT), a noninvasive measure of brain function, may help improve early diagnosis and elucidate underlying physiology in expression of ASD endophenotype. Commonly observed characteristics of ASD include normal visual acuity but difficulty with eye gaze and photosensitivity, suggesting deficient neuromodulation of cranial nerves. Aims of this study were to confirm sensitivity of the PRT for identifying adolescents with ASD, determine if a phenotype for a subtype of ASD marked by pupil response is present in adolescence, and determine whether differences could be observed on a neurologic exam testing cranial nerves II and III (CNII; CNIII). Using pupillometry, constriction latency was measured serving as a proxy for recording neuromodulation of cranial nerves underlying the pupillary reflex. The swinging flashlight method, used to perform the PRT for measuring constriction latency and return to baseline, discriminated ASD participants from typically developing adolescents on 72.2% of trials. Results further confirmed this measure's sensitivity within a subtype of ASD in later stages of development, serving as a correlate of neural activity within the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. A brainstem model of atypical PRT in ASD is examined in relation to modulation of cranial nerves and atypical arousal levels subserving the atypical pupillary reflex. Autism Res 2018, 11: 364-375. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Milder forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult to diagnose based on behavioral testing alone. This study used eye-tracking equipment and a hand-held penlight to measure the pupil reflex in adolescents with "high functioning" ASD and in adolescents

  13. DSSNET, a network of users and developers of decision support systems for emergency response in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, H.C.; Raskob, W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, computerised systems for off-site management and response in case of a nuclear accident were developed and installed in many European countries. Some of the systems are in use in only one country, whereas other systems have found broader application in Europe. Examples of these systems are IMIS (D), ARGOS (DK), running in Denmark, Lithuania and Poland and RODOS, a real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergency management in Europe, which is now installed for operational or test-operational use in many European countries. During the development and installation phases of these decision support systems the necessity emerged, that there is a need for an intensive feedback between developers and users. Therefore, under the 5. Framework Programme of the European Commission a network has been installed to intensify the communication and increase the understanding between the operational community and the many and diverse disciplines involved in RD for improvement, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management, called DSSNET. This poster demonstrates how the network is organised, namely with different work groups, exercises and meetings. Each working group addresses one of seven work packages: - Preparation and conduct of exercises (WP1), - User interfaces, results and interaction with decision makers (WP2), - Exchange of data information relevant for decision-making (WP3), System functions, networks and processing of on-line data (WP4), European database (WP5), Coordination of the network (WP6), Hydrological modelling (WP7). Main focus is given to WP4, in which information of on-line monitoring from more than 10 European counties is collected. Information was collated with the help of questionnaires which are send out on a regular basis. The evaluation of the various questionnaires summarises the different systems in use for stack monitoring, retrieving on

  14. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Tsai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur, a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5–60.8% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  15. International Experience of the Development of Corporate Social Responsibility: Comparative Analysis of the Influence of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rybalko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide analysis of the international experience of the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR and to provide stimulation methods used by the state to develop CSR in Russia. The study is based on the identification of characteristics of CSR development in Russia; it subsequently concludes the most appropriate methods for the Russian state and business interaction in this sphere. Determination of the level and stage of the development of CSR in Russia is carried out by multivariate statistical (cluster analysis. The results of the study of international experience in the development of corporate responsibility and the results of the cluster analysis were used for the further improvement of the state policy in this field in Russia. This paper proposes a number of measures aimed both at improving conditions for socially responsible companies and at increasing the disclosure of information in the field of CSR and improvement of its quality.

  16. Development and validation of a two-dimensional fast-response flood estimation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAK

    2009-01-01

    A finite difference formulation of the shallow water equations using an upwind differencing method was developed maintaining computational efficiency and accuracy such that it can be used as a fast-response flood estimation tool. The model was validated using both laboratory controlled experiments and an actual dam breach. Through the laboratory experiments, the model was shown to give good estimations of depth and velocity when compared to the measured data, as well as when compared to a more complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies show that a relatively numerical scheme used to solve the complete shallow water equations can be used to accurately estimate flood inundation. Future work will focus on further reducing the computation time needed to provide flood inundation estimates for fast-response analyses. This will be accomplished through the efficient use of multi-core, multi-processor computers coupled with an efficient domain-tracking algorithm, as well as an understanding of the impacts of grid resolution on model results.

  17. Protection of constitutional rights, technological development, and responsibility towards future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear engineering and the peaceful use of nuclear energy still is a major issue in the dispute about technological progress. There are the two most ambiguous concepts in the nuclear controversy which illustrate the uncertainty in dealing with the 'new technologies': The 'risk to be accepted', and the 'responsibility towards future generations'. The study in hand focusses on the 'risk to be accepted', which from the constitutional point of view still lacks legitimation. The concept of 'social adequacy' used in the Kalkar judgement of the Federal Constitutional Court is based on custom and consensus and today, in view of the lack of consensus, can no longer be used to derive a constitutional legitimation. This gap is filled in this study by examining the applicability of the basic right of physical integrity (Art. 2, section 2, first sentence of the GG). In addition, it is a particular feature of the concept of 'risk to be accepted' that neither the Constitution nor the Atomic Energy Act allow direct limits to the quantitative increase of that risk to be derived from their provisions. However, it is just the need for legal provisions checking and controlling the risk growing with technological progress that creates the major problem in the effort to prevent a possible intrinsic dynamic development of risks. The study investigates whether there are such instruments provided by the law. Another aspect discussed in connection with the safe ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes with half-life periods of up to 24.000 years is the responsibility we have towards the future generations. The author examines whether there are constitutional rights affecting nuclear technology in relation to this topic. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Vicarious learning has become an established indirect pathway to fear acquisition. It is generally accepted that associative learning processes underlie vicarious learning; however, whether this association is a form of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) learning or stimulus-response (CS-CR) learning remains unclear. Traditionally, these types of learning can be dissociated in a US revaluation procedure. The current study explored the effects of post-vicarious learning US revaluation on acquired fear responses. Ninety-four children (46 males and 48 females) aged 6 to 10 years first viewed either a fear vicarious learning video or a neutral vicarious learning video followed by random allocation to one of three US revaluation conditions: inflation; deflation; or control. Inflation group children were presented with still images of the adults in the video and told that the accompanying sound and image of a very fast heart rate monitor belonged to the adult. The deflation group were shown the same images but with the sound and image of a normal heart rate. The control group received no US revaluation. Results indicated that inflating how scared the models appeared to be did not result in significant increases in children's fear beliefs, avoidance preferences, avoidance behavior or heart rate for animals above increases caused by vicarious learning. In contrast, US devaluation resulted in significant decreases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences. Thus, the findings provide evidence that CS-US associations underpin vicarious learning and suggest that US devaluation may be a successful method for preventing children from developing fear beliefs following a traumatic vicarious learning episode with a stimulus.

  19. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  20. Development of an automated speech recognition interface for personal emergency response systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailidis Alex

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demands on long-term-care facilities are predicted to increase at an unprecedented rate as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. Aging-in-place (i.e. aging at home is the desire of most seniors and is also a good option to reduce the burden on an over-stretched long-term-care system. Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERSs help enable older adults to age-in-place by providing them with immediate access to emergency assistance. Traditionally they operate with push-button activators that connect the occupant via speaker-phone to a live emergency call-centre operator. If occupants do not wear the push button or cannot access the button, then the system is useless in the event of a fall or emergency. Additionally, a false alarm or failure to check-in at a regular interval will trigger a connection to a live operator, which can be unwanted and intrusive to the occupant. This paper describes the development and testing of an automated, hands-free, dialogue-based PERS prototype. Methods The prototype system was built using a ceiling mounted microphone array, an open-source automatic speech recognition engine, and a 'yes' and 'no' response dialog modelled after an existing call-centre protocol. Testing compared a single microphone versus a microphone array with nine adults in both noisy and quiet conditions. Dialogue testing was completed with four adults. Results and discussion The microphone array demonstrated improvement over the single microphone. In all cases, dialog testing resulted in the system reaching the correct decision about the kind of assistance the user was requesting. Further testing is required with elderly voices and under different noise conditions to ensure the appropriateness of the technology. Future developments include integration of the system with an emergency detection method as well as communication enhancement using features such as barge-in capability. Conclusion The use of an automated

  1. Breeding response of transcript profiling in developing seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaodan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upgrading of rapeseed cultivars has resulted in a substantial improvement in yield and quality in China over the past 30 years. With the selective pressure against fatty acid composition and oil content, high erucic acid- and low oil-content cultivars have been replaced by low erucic acid- and high oil-content cultivars. The high erucic acid cultivar Zhongyou 821 and its descendent, low erucic acid cultivar Zhongshuang 9, are representatives of two generations of the most outstanding Chinese rapeseed cultivars (B. napus developed the past 2 decades. This paper compares the transcriptional profiles of Zhongshuang 9 and Zhongyou 821 for 32 genes that are principally involved in lipid biosynthesis during seed development in order to elucidate how the transcriptional profiles of these genes responded to quality improvement over the past 20 years. Results Comparison of the cultivar Zhongyou 821 with its descendent, Zhongshuang 9, shows that the transcriptional levels of seven of the 32 genes were upregulated by 30% to 109%, including FAD3, ACCase, FAE1, GKTP, Caleosin, GAPDH, and PEPC. Of the 32 genes, 10 (KAS3, β-CT, BcRK6, P450, FatA, Oleosin, FAD6, FatB, α-CT and SUC1 were downregulated by at least 20% and most by 50%. The Napin gene alone accounted for over 75% of total transcription from all 32 genes assessed in both cultivars. Most of the genes showed significant correlation with fatty acid accumulation, but the correlation in ZS9 was significantly different from that in ZY821. Higher KCR2 activity is associated with higher C16:0, C18:0, and C18:2 in both cultivars, lower C22:1 and total fatty acid content in ZY821, and lower 18:1 in ZS9. Conclusion This paper illustrates the response of the transcription levels of 32 genes to breeding in developing rapeseed seeds. Both cultivars showed similar transcription profiles, with the Napin gene predominantly transcribed. Selective pressure for zero erucic acid, low

  2. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d’Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  3. 20 CFR 641.310 - May the Governor delegate responsibility for developing and submitting the State Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Governor delegate responsibility for developing and submitting the State Plan? 641.310 Section 641.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... developing and submitting the State Plan, provided that any such delegation is consistent with State law and...

  4. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Kemp, B.; Lammers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for

  5. Developing Predictive Approaches to Characterize Adaptive Responses of the Reproductive Endocrine Axis to Aromatase Inhibition: Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We developed a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (DRTC)...

  6. Associations between Language Development and Skin Conductance Responses to Faces and Eye Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Steven D.; Davis, Robert; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Attention to social stimuli is associated with language development, and arousal is associated with the increased viewing of stimuli. We investigated whether skin conductance responses (SCRs) are associated with language development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a population that shows abnormalities in both attention to others and language…

  7. Religious and spiritual development are determined 100% by nature, and 100% by nurture: A playful response to Boyatzis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Nkara, Frances

    2017-03-01

    In this response, we respond to Boyatzis' commentary to our paper 'Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development'. We also provide additional elaborations on how nurture might co-sculpt nature in the context of religious and spiritual development. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Redox Modulation Matters: Emerging Functions for Glutaredoxins in Plant Development and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutian Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs are small ubiquitous glutathione (GSH-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the reversible reduction of protein disulfide bridges or protein-GSH mixed disulfide bonds via a dithiol or monothiol mechanism, respectively. Three major classes of GRXs, with the CPYC-type, the CGFS-type or the CC-type active site, have been identified in many plant species. In spite of the well-characterized roles for GRXs in Escherichia coli, yeast and humans, the biological functions of plant GRXs have been largely enigmatic. The CPYC-type and CGFS-type GRXs exist in all organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, whereas the CC-type class has thus far been solely identified in land plants. Only the number of the CC-type GRXs has enlarged dramatically during the evolution of land plants, suggesting their participation in the formation of more complex plants adapted to life on land. A growing body of evidence indicates that plant GRXs are involved in numerous cellular pathways. In this review, emphasis is placed on the recently emerging functions for GRXs in floral organ development and disease resistance. Notably, CC-type GRXs have been recruited to participate in these two seemingly unrelated processes. Besides, the current knowledge of plant GRXs in the assembly and delivery of iron-sulfur clusters, oxidative stress responses and arsenic resistance is also presented. As GRXs require GSH as an electron donor to reduce their target proteins, GSH-related developmental processes, including the control of flowering time and the development of postembryonic roots and shoots, are further discussed. Profiling the thiol redox proteome using high-throughput proteomic approaches and measuring cellular redox changes with fluorescent redox biosensors will help to further unravel the redox-regulated physiological processes in plants.

  9. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific

  10. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  11. Variations in Primary Teachers’ Responses and Development during Three Major Science In- Service Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on how different types of teachers responded to in-service aimed at developing investigative-based science education (IBSE in primary schools, and the extent to which they applied their new skills in the classroom. Common items from evaluation questionnaires allowed data to be combined from three major in-service programmes. Using complete data sets from 120 teachers, cluster analysis enabled three teacher types to be identified: a small group of ‘science unsures’, with low attitude scores and little confidence, who showed no response to the innovation; ‘holistic improvers’, who showed the largest improvement in science teaching confidence; and ‘high level, positive progressives’, who were very positive to science teaching throughout and showed gains in confidence in teaching physics and chemistry, as well as in demonstrating the relevance of science to their pupils. Taking account of these teacher types alongside interviews and observations, nine developmental stages in how teachers apply their new expertise in the classroom and the whole school are suggested. Major factorsinfluencing application in the classroom are the teachers’ initial science knowledge and pedagogical expertise, and motivating feedback to teachers when pupils responded positively to the innovation. Assessing teachers’ initial level of subject knowledge and science pedagogical expertise to inform the approach and amount of in-service provision is important. Subsequent mentoring as well as support from the school principal when teachers first try IBSE with pupils promotes successful implementation in the classroom.

  12. Gladiolus development in response to bulb treatment with different concentrations of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus is an ornamental species produced for cut flowers and propagated by corms. The early flowering and increase in the number of flower buds, besides the production of commercial corms are constant challenges to be addressed in the crop improvement. Commercial production of ornamentals is technologically accelerated by means of growth regulators. Among them, the auxins stand out for their key role in the adventitious rooting and cell elongation. Alternatively, the humic substances present in the organic matter also have biostimulating effect, which is very similar to the auxinic effect. Therefore, this work aimed to study the growth and development of gladiolus in response to application of different concentrations of humic acids (HA isolated from vermicompost. Corms were soaked for 24 hours in solutions containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmol L-1 of C from HA. The corms were planted in 10-dm³ plastic bags filled with substrate and kept in a greenhouse. Growth of shoots and roots was evaluated. The results showed that the use of HA accelerates growth, and anticipates and increases flowering of Gladiolus.

  13. Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexou, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity.

  14. DEVELOPING GIS-BASED DEMAND-RESPONSIVE TRANSIT SYSTEM IN TEHRAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Faroqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its’ members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  15. Development of computerized supporting system for emergency response in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Il

    1992-02-01

    In emergency situation of nuclear power plants, effective use of emergency operating procedures (EOPs) is a crucial part of the emergency response process. However, there are several problems in the emergency operating procedures because of the form of the written procedures. They are voluminous and complicate for effective references under high stress situation. Inevitably, it takes time that could be better spent employing measures to control and stabilize to select the correct procedures and apply the decision logic. In this study, a computerized supporting system has been developed to reduce the operator error possibility under emergency situations of nuclear power plant. Using on-line input parameters, the system can determine the status of the critical safety functions and can find appropriate procedures and necessary operator actions automatically. Moreover, the system can help the operator decision making in the core melt accident situation. By tracking the EOP in an on-line mode, most steps concerning checking or verifying plant state are processed automatically without operator participations. Therefore, the interactions between the system and the operator are simplified significantly and the possibility of human error is reduced

  16. Adaptive and Pathogenic Responses to Stress by Stem Cells during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ladan; Xie, Yufen; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2012-12-10

    Cellular stress is the basis of a dose-dependent continuum of responses leading to adaptive health or pathogenesis. For all cells, stress leads to reduction in macromolecular synthesis by shared pathways and tissue and stress-specific homeostatic mechanisms. For stem cells during embryonic, fetal, and placental development, higher exposures of stress lead to decreased anabolism, macromolecular synthesis and cell proliferation. Coupled with diminished stem cell proliferation is a stress-induced differentiation which generates minimal necessary function by producing more differentiated product/cell. This compensatory differentiation is accompanied by a second strategy to insure organismal survival as multipotent and pluripotent stem cells differentiate into the lineages in their repertoire. During stressed differentiation, the first lineage in the repertoire is increased and later lineages are suppressed, thus prioritized differentiation occurs. Compensatory and prioritized differentiation is regulated by at least two types of stress enzymes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) which mediates loss of nuclear potency factors and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) that does not. SAPK mediates an increase in the first essential lineage and decreases in later lineages in placental stem cells. The clinical significance of compensatory and prioritized differentiation is that stem cell pools are depleted and imbalanced differentiation leads to gestational diseases and long term postnatal pathologies.

  17. Adaptive and Pathogenic Responses to Stress by Stem Cells during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Rappolee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular stress is the basis of a dose-dependent continuum of responses leading to adaptive health or pathogenesis. For all cells, stress leads to reduction in macromolecular synthesis by shared pathways and tissue and stress-specific homeostatic mechanisms. For stem cells during embryonic, fetal, and placental development, higher exposures of stress lead to decreased anabolism, macromolecular synthesis and cell proliferation. Coupled with diminished stem cell proliferation is a stress-induced differentiation which generates minimal necessary function by producing more differentiated product/cell. This compensatory differentiation is accompanied by a second strategy to insure organismal survival as multipotent and pluripotent stem cells differentiate into the lineages in their repertoire. During stressed differentiation, the first lineage in the repertoire is increased and later lineages are suppressed, thus prioritized differentiation occurs. Compensatory and prioritized differentiation is regulated by at least two types of stress enzymes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK which mediates loss of nuclear potency factors and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK that does not. SAPK mediates an increase in the first essential lineage and decreases in later lineages in placental stem cells. The clinical significance of compensatory and prioritized differentiation is that stem cell pools are depleted and imbalanced differentiation leads to gestational diseases and long term postnatal pathologies.

  18. Using plant biomonitors and flux modelling to develop O3 dose-response relationships in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filella, Iolanda; Pen-tilde uelas, Josep; Ribas, Angela

    2005-01-01

    We used tobacco Bel-W3 biomonitoring data and ozone flux modelling (WINDEP model) with the aim of developing the absorbed dose-response relationship, and comparing this approach with the most commonly used AOT40 (the sum of hourly ozone concentrations above a cut-off of 40 ppb during daylight hours, when global radiation exceeds 50 W m -2 ) in the estimation of exposure-damage curves. Leaf damage values were more related to OAD 15days,potential (potential ozone absorbed dose calculated over 15 consecutive days) than to AOT40 in all the studied stations. An OAD 15days,potential of 180 mg m -2 was found to be the threshold for damage to the most sensitive species in this region under well watered conditions. The results show the applicability of the flux approach for risk assessment at the local scale, the improvement of the ozone damage estimation when the potential absorbed dose is modelled and used instead of just the ozone exposure, and finally, the possibilities opened by the use of biomonitoring networks. - Modelling of biomonitors ozone absorbed dose improves damage estimation in comparison with exposure indices such as AOT40

  19. Alternative splicing at the intersection of biological timing, development, and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Dorothee; Brown, John W S

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely.

  20. Guidelines for responsible short-term global health activities: developing common principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Judith N; Aldrink, Myron; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswami; Caldron, Paul; Compton, Bruce; Evert, Jessica; Loh, Lawrence C; Prasad, Shailendra; Siegel, Shira

    2018-02-07

    Growing concerns about the value and effectiveness of short-term volunteer trips intending to improve health in underserved Global South communities has driven the development of guidelines by multiple organizations and individuals. These are intended to mitigate potential harms and maximize benefits associated with such efforts. This paper analyzes 27 guidelines derived from a scoping review of the literature available in early 2017, describing their authorship, intended audiences, the aspects of short term medical missions (STMMs) they address, and their attention to guideline implementation. It further considers how these guidelines relate to the desires of host communities, as seen in studies of host country staff who work with volunteers. Existing guidelines are almost entirely written by and addressed to educators and practitioners in the Global North. There is broad consensus on key principles for responsible, effective, and ethical programs--need for host partners, proper preparation and supervision of visitors, needs assessment and evaluation, sustainability, and adherence to pertinent legal and ethical standards. Host country staff studies suggest agreement with the main elements of this guideline consensus, but they add the importance of mutual learning and respect for hosts. Guidelines must be informed by research and policy directives from host countries that is now mostly absent. Also, a comprehensive strategy to support adherence to best practice guidelines is needed, given limited regulation and enforcement capacity in host country contexts and strong incentives for involved stakeholders to undertake or host STMMs that do not respect key principles.

  1. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E

    2010-10-19

    Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  2. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A Babayan

    Full Text Available Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  3. Early development and gravitropic response of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Guyomarc'h, S.; Leran, S.; Auzon-Cape, M.; Perrine-Walker, F.; Lucas, Mikaël; Laplaze, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture plays an important role in determining nutrient and water acquisition and is modulated by endogenous and environmental factors, resulting in considerable developmental plasticity. The orientation of primary root growth in response to gravity (gravitropism) has been studied extensively, but little is known about the behaviour of lateral roots in response to this signal. Here, we analysed the response of lateral roots to gravity and, consistently with previous observati...

  4. Developing a reduced consumer-led lexicon to measure emotional response to beer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, Carolina; Eaton, Curtis; Hewson, Louise; Fernández Vázquezc, Rocío; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Smart, Katherine A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous researchers have recently recommended and utilised consumer-led lexicons to measure emotional response. This study further advances this approach by 1) making the lexicon generation process more efficient by using consumer focus groups as opposed to individual consumer interviews and 2) decreasing the number of responses required from each consumer by reducing the lexicon to categories of similar terms. In response to 10 lager samples which were manipulated in order to control select...

  5. Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cátia S.E.; Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Mendes, Susana; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.; Faria, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO_2. However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO_2, highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO_2 on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO_2 levels (control: ~ 600 μatm, pH = 8.03; medium: ~ 1000 μatm, pH = 7.85; high: ~ 1800 μatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (U_c_r_i_t), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress — superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism — total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO_2 leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO_2 treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO_2 treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO_2 treatment may indicate that at higher pCO_2 levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO_2 levels on organisms. - Highlights: • Exposure to high pCO_2

  6. Effects of ocean acidification on the swimming ability, development and biochemical responses of sand smelt larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cátia S.E. [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal); MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal); Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Mendes, Susana [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (Portugal); Oliveira, Ana P. [IPMA — Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Algés (Portugal); Gonçalves, Emanuel J. [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal); Faria, Ana M., E-mail: afaria@ispa.pt [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA − Instituto Universitário (Portugal)

    2016-09-01

    Ocean acidification, recognized as a major threat to marine ecosystems, has developed into one of the fastest growing fields of research in marine sciences. Several studies on fish larval stages point to abnormal behaviours, malformations and increased mortality rates as a result of exposure to increased levels of CO{sub 2}. However, other studies fail to recognize any consequence, suggesting species-specific sensitivity to increased levels of CO{sub 2}, highlighting the need of further research. In this study we investigated the effects of exposure to elevated pCO{sub 2} on behaviour, development, oxidative stress and energy metabolism of sand smelt larvae, Atherina presbyter. Larvae were caught at Arrábida Marine Park (Portugal) and exposed to different pCO{sub 2} levels (control: ~ 600 μatm, pH = 8.03; medium: ~ 1000 μatm, pH = 7.85; high: ~ 1800 μatm, pH = 7.64) up to 15 days, after which critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}), morphometric traits and biochemical biomarkers were determined. Measured biomarkers were related with: 1) oxidative stress — superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and levels of superoxide anion production; 2) energy metabolism — total carbohydrate levels, electron transport system activity, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Swimming speed was not affected by treatment, but exposure to increasing levels of pCO{sub 2} leads to higher energetic costs and morphometric changes, with larger larvae in high pCO{sub 2} treatment and smaller larvae in medium pCO{sub 2} treatment. The efficient antioxidant response capacity and increase in energetic metabolism only registered at the medium pCO{sub 2} treatment may indicate that at higher pCO{sub 2} levels the capacity of larvae to restore their internal balance can be impaired. Our findings illustrate the need of using multiple approaches to explore the consequences of future pCO{sub 2} levels on

  7. Measuring Responsible Gambling amongst Players: Development of the Positive Play Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard T A; Wohl, Michael J A; Tabri, Nassim; Philander, Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    The modern gambling industry has, by-in-large, assumed a duty of care to minimize the risks associated with gambling, which has manifested in responsible gambling (RG) programming (e.g., educating players about the odds of success). The current study fills a void in gambling operators, regulators, and researchers ability to measure RG beliefs and behavior in their player-base, with the development and validation of the Positive Play Scale (PPS). In Study 1, we reviewed the literature and consulted 30 players as well as 10 RG experts to help generate a definition of RG beliefs and behavior that helped guide item generation. In Study 2, regular players ( N = 1,551) of a Canadian provincial gambling operator completed a positive play survey. Four components from a principal components analysis (PCA) were extracted: Honesty and Control, Pre-commitment, Personal Responsibility, and Gambling Literacy. The PPS subscales were either not associated with gambling frequency or had small-to-moderate negative relationships with frequency of play for games most often associated with disordered gambling (e.g., electronic games). In Study 3 ( N = 413), the factor structure of the PPS was confirmed and refined in a new sample of players. Moreover, a 1-month follow-up session demonstrated that the PPS has high test-retest reliability. The PPS is the first validated scale that reliably assesses the extent to which a consumer base has positive beliefs about gambling and gambles in a positive manner. The PPS can be used by the gambling industry to objectively assess the efficacy of their RG strategy, pinpoint specific areas for future focus, as well as examine the utility of new RG initiatives that aim to promote healthy patterns of gambling consumption. Furthermore, by examining the PPS scores for different player segments (e.g., sex, age, games played) it becomes possible to tailor RG strategy to the needs of specific players. In this way, RG strategy can be optimized by focusing

  8. Method for developing arrangements for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    In 1997 the IAEA compiled, consolidated and organized existing information, and published the TECDOC-953 'Method for Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents'. Subsequently this publication was used extensively by the IAEA for training and for evaluation of emergency response programmes. In November 1999 a technical committee meeting (TCM) with representatives of over 20 States reviewed and provided feedback on IAEA-TECDOC-953. In March 2002, the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Safety Requirements publication, 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', jointly sponsored by seven international organizations, which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. The IAEA General Conference in resolution GC(46)/RES/9 encouraged Member States to implement, if necessary, instruments for improving their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and accidents, including their arrangements for responding to acts involving the malicious use of nuclear or radioactive material and to threats of such acts, and has further encouraged them to implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The obligations, responsibilities and requirements for preparedness and response for radiation emergencies are set out in the safety standards, in particular the 1996 'International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources'. Consensus information on relevant radiation protection criteria was established in 1994 and published in 'Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency'. Several other guides and publications in the area of emergency preparedness and response had previously been issued. The present publication now being issued in the Emergency Preparedness and

  9. The development and characterization of two types of chronic responses in irradiated mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis to be tested is that there are two distinct types of chronic responses in irradiated normal tissues, each resulting from damage to different cell populations in the tissue. The first is a sequela of chronic epithelial depletion in which the tissue's integrity cannot be maintained. The other response is due to cell loss in the connective tissue and/or vascular stroma, i.e. a 'primary' chronic response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis in the murine colon by first, establishing a model of each chronic response and then, by determining whether the responses differed in timing of expression, histology, and expression of specific collagen types. The model of late damage used was colonic obstructions/strictures induced by a single dose of 27 Gy ('consequential' response) and two equal doses of 14.75 Gy (t = 10 days) ('primary' response). 'Consequential' lesions appeared as early as 5 weeks after 27 Gy and were characterized by a deep mucosal ulceration and a thickened fibrotic serosa containing excessive accumulations of collagen types I and III. Both types were commingled in the scar at the base of the ulcer. Fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen types I and III mRNA 10 weeks prior to measurable increases in collagen. A significant decrease in the ratio of collagen types I:III was associated with the 'consequential' response at 4-5 months post-irradiation. The 'primary' response, on the other hand, did not appear until 40 weeks after the split dose even though the total dose delivered was approximately the same as that for the 'consequential' response. The 'primary' response was characterized with an intact mucosa and a thickened fibrotic submucosa which contained excessive amounts of only collagen type I. An increased number of fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen type I mRNA nearly 25 weeks before collage type I levels were increased

  10. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  11. Development of floor design response spectra for seismic design of floor-supported equipment or components, Revision 1, February 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This guide presents an acceptable method for developing two horizontal and one vertical floor design response spectra at various floor or other equipment-support locations from the time-history motions resulting from the dynamic analysis of the supporting structure. These floor design response spectra are used in the dynamic analysis of systems or equipment supported at various locations of the supporting structure. Consulation has been provided by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Measure of Pain-Related Support Preferences: The Pain Response Preference Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural conceptualizations of chronic pain posit that solicitous responses to pain behaviours are positively reinforcing and play a role in the development of chronic pain and disability. Recent research suggests that studies investigating this model were likely limited by the use of only a few narrowly defined categories of responses to pain behaviour. A measure of preferences regarding pain-related social support has the potential to improve behavioural models of chronic pain by identifying other potentially reinforcing responses to pain behaviour.

  13. Development of a Rapidly Deployed Department of Energy Emergency Response Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riland, C.A.; Hopkins, R.C.; Tighe, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to maintain a viable, timely, and fully documented response option capable of supporting the responsible Lead Federal Agency in the event of a radiological emergency impacting any state or US territory (e.g., CONUS). In addition, the DOE maintains a response option to support radiological emergencies outside the continental US (OCONUS). While the OCUNUS mission is not governed by the FREP, this response is operationally similar to that assigned to the DOE by the FREP. The DOE is prepared to alert, activate, and deploy radiological response teams to augment the Radiological Assistance Program and/or local responders. The Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (RMAC) is a phased response that integrates with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in CONUS environments and represents a stand-alone DOE response for OCONUS environments. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase I was formally ''stood up'' as an operational element in April 1999. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase II proposed ''stand-up'' date is midyear 2000

  14. Maternal Responses and Development of Communication Skills in Extremely Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana Marie; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined maternal responses to infants' spontaneous communicative behaviors in a sample of 20 extremely-low-gestational-age (ELGA) infants and 20 full-term (FT) infants during 30 minutes of play interaction when infants were 12 months of age. Relations between maternal responses and infants' communication skills at 12 and 24…

  15. A Blueprint for Developing Culturally Proficient/Responsive School Administrators in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the important topic of culturally proficient/responsive school administrators for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with learning disabilities (LD). Culturally proficient/responsive school administrators with knowledge and strong leadership skills in multicultural education are essential to impact school…

  16. Effects of metal exposure on motor neuron development, neuromasts and the escape response of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnack, Laura; Kampe, Sebastian; Muth-Köhne, Elke; Erdinger, Lothar; Henny, Nicole; Hollert, Henner; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Low level metal contaminations are a prevalent issue with often unknown consequences for health and the environment. Effect-based, multifactorial test systems with zebrafish embryos to assess in particular developmental toxicity are beneficial but rarely used in this context. We therefore exposed wild-type embryos to the metals copper (CuSO4), cadmium (CdCl2) and cobalt (CoSO4) for 72 h to determine lethal as well as sublethal morphological effects. Motor neuron damage was investigated by immunofluorescence staining of primary motor neurons (PMNs) and secondary motor neurons (SMNs). In vivo stainings using the vital dye DASPEI were used to quantify neuromast development and damage. The consequences of metal toxicity were also assessed functionally, by testing fish behavior following tactile stimulation. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for morphological effects 72 h post fertilization (hpf) were 14.6 mg/L for cadmium and 0.018 mg/L for copper, whereas embryos exposed up to 45.8 mg/L cobalt showed no morphological effects. All three metals caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the numbers of normal PMNs and SMNs, and in the fluorescence intensity of neuromasts. The results for motor neuron damage and behavior were coincident for all three metals. Even the lowest metal concentrations (cadmium 2mg/L, copper 0.01 mg/L and cobalt 0.8 mg/L) resulted in neuromast damage. The results demonstrate that the neuromast cells were more sensitive to metal exposure than morphological traits or the response to tactile stimulation and motor neuron damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of private sector anticipatory response to greenhouse gas market development : Final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrister, D.; Marsh, D.; Varilek, M.

    2002-01-01

    Some active markets in greenhouse gases are beginning to emerge, which will lead to actual data concerning market performance becoming available and rendering the prediction of future prices for global greenhouse gas reductions more accurate. Market participants use studies as a starting point for the calibration of their understanding then seize opportunities in the external market and therefore refine their price expectations. In addition, they attempt to outperform their competitors. In this study, the authors reviewed the results of some of the most recent economic modeling results, synthesized pricing data, assessed the price and risk expectations of a broad range of corporate market players and examined their response strategies. The authors also took advantage of their expertise as market brokers to offer their views. The representatives of 35 companies operating in Canada, the United States, Japan, the European Union and Russia were interviewed for this study. Their price expectations were just over 5 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2005 before the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and raised to an average of 11 dollars per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2010. The major assumption was that the Kyoto Protocol would begin to take effect in 2002, and also that the United States would fail to ratify the Protocol. The respondents believed that some demand would force state and/or local programs to be implemented for a carbon reduction program. Poorly harmonized or delayed national policies, the potential costs of the Clean Development Mechanism projects and national pressure to take action at home are some of the concerns expressed which could prevent prices from becoming fully efficient. 41 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  18. The relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance in developing countries. Case of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Genedy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores and tests the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR and corporate financial performance (CFP in developing countries, focusing mainly to examine the financial aspects of high vs low-ranked firms in the CSR Index in Egypt for eight consecutive years (excluding 2011 because of its special situation due to instability caused by the revolution. Moreover, this study empirically examines different financial ratios for 18 firms listed in Egyp-tian Stock Exchange EGX 30 for eight years, 2007 – 2015. Using the Standard and Poor’s index (S&P/EGX ESG Index to measure the CSR, and using accounting based measures (from Egypt for information Dissemination (EGID database and the Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchange Disclosure book. This study’s purpose is to find the suitable measures of the CFP along with CSR, as well as, the relationship between them, to conclude whether CSR is beneficial for compa-nies or not. The main question here is: What is the type and significance of the relationship be-tween CSR and the CFP in Egypt? the ANOVA analysis was chosen and used on both compa-ny’s CSR and CFP variables, also constructed a Pearson Correlation between CSR and CFP va-riables and examined the multiple regression model to discriminate between the CFP of high and low-ranked firms in the CSR Index and recognize the type and significance of the relationship be-tween CSR and CFP. The results show that CSR has a positive significant relation with the CFP. The paper has implications for enhancing the understanding of performance management by understanding the relationship between CSR and CFP.

  19. Developing a theoretical predictive model for cellular response to combined actions of low radiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Kyu Kim; Petin, V.G.; Mishra, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Background: Organisms in their living environment are not exposed to merely a single stress agent. Several factors such as radiation and heat may simultaneously exert their stressful effect to the organisms. The combined exposure to two stressors can result in an enhanced effect that would be expected from the addition of the separate exposures to individual agents. Objective: This study has been undertaken to develop a theoretical model for assessment of combined effects of low dose radiation and mild heat for predictive cellular response assay. Rationale: Present study was motivated from the belief that synergism may occur in terms of lethal lesions arising from the interaction of non-lethal sub-lesions induced by individual agents. The sub-lesions induced by each agent may be negligible or undetectable. But, there exists a possibility of some cross talk between sublesions produced by radiation and heat. These processes may reflect the real mechanisms for inflicting the lethal damage by otherwise ignorable or undetectable insults to exposed organisms. Results: A theoretically developed mathematical model of the synergy was formulated which was tested for validation on the experimental data. The model predictions fairly closely corresponded with several experimental results. .The significance of synergistic effects for radiation biology has been demonstrated. A number of common peculiarities of synergistic interactions were found to play their roles. A unified biophysical concept for synergistic interaction has been suggested. Conclusions: For a constant dose rate, synergistic interaction between radiation and hyperthermia especially at low intensity is realized only within a certain range of temperature, independently of the target object analyzed. For temperatures below the range, the synergistic effect was not observed and cell killing was mainly determined by the damage induced by ionizing radiation. On the contrary, the

  20. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Developing a Framework of Innovative Trials to Support Water Companies Strategic Response to WFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Jodie; Cherry, Katherine; Revens, Neasa; O'Hanlon, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Slug control in high risk fields and catchments can have serious implications for water companies, threatening compliance with drinking water standards and challenging the Water Framework Directive's requirement that additional water treatment is avoided. Severn Trent Water has established a framework of innovative trails at a range of scales and locations to help shape the company's strategic, sustainable response to elevated metaldehyde concentrations at drinking water abstractions. Currently four contrasting trials are underway, two at the catchment scale, one at the field scale and one at the 'operational site' scale at locations across the English Midlands. This presentation provides an overview of the different approaches, their effectiveness to date and lessons learnt to aid strategy development. The first trial entitled Farmer's as Producers of Clean Water adopts a 'results orientated' approach, rewarding farmers for improvements in water quality at the catchment scale and allowing farmers to decide how best to manage the issue on their land with no prescribed measures. It acknowledges that co-ordinated action is needed across the catchment to see improvements in water quality, and that by incentivising outcomes rather than actions, land owners and farmers may take greater ownership of water quality issues. The second project explores the potential for a 'zero metaldehyde' catchment with all farmers throughout the catchment being financial supported to use a water friendly alternative to metaldehyde. This project is being compared to more voluntary approaches adopted elsewhere. The third project is a field scale trial to test the efficacy of alternative products to metaldehyde and different pellet formulations. Field drains are being sampled following heavy rain and crop damaged assessed to review the benefits to water quality and crops. The final project considers what Severn Trent Water can do from an operational perspective, investigating the size and

  2. Development of emergency response training focusing on non-technical skills. (1) Development and Trial of 'TAIKAN Training'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Kanayama, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, there have been increasing calls for developing the leadership capabilities of managers who are in charge of command and control of the on-site emergency response center at nuclear power plants. Training programs to improve non-technical skills are being developed and introduced. The authors developed an active learning exercise 'TAIKAN Training' that can be repeatedly performed on-site, targeting on-site commander teams in charge of the initial response in an emergency situation. The exercise forms the core element of a non-technical skills training curriculum. This paper outlines the developed exercise, evaluates the stress on the participants caused by the exercise, and identifies any issues before actually introducing it to a site. (author)

  3. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  4. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurzina Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  5. The development of a fully-integrated immune response model (FIRM) simulator of the immune response through integration of multiple subset models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Sirus; Hickling, Timothy P; Bradshaw-Pierce, Erica L; Zager, Michael; Jooss, Karin; O'Brien, Peter J; Spilker, Mary E; Palsson, Bernhard O; Vicini, Paolo

    2013-09-28

    The complexity and multiscale nature of the mammalian immune response provides an excellent test bed for the potential of mathematical modeling and simulation to facilitate mechanistic understanding. Historically, mathematical models of the immune response focused on subsets of the immune system and/or specific aspects of the response. Mathematical models have been developed for the humoral side of the immune response, or for the cellular side, or for cytokine kinetics, but rarely have they been proposed to encompass the overall system complexity. We propose here a framework for integration of subset models, based on a system biology approach. A dynamic simulator, the Fully-integrated Immune Response Model (FIRM), was built in a stepwise fashion by integrating published subset models and adding novel features. The approach used to build the model includes the formulation of the network of interacting species and the subsequent introduction of rate laws to describe each biological process. The resulting model represents a multi-organ structure, comprised of the target organ where the immune response takes place, circulating blood, lymphoid T, and lymphoid B tissue. The cell types accounted for include macrophages, a few T-cell lineages (cytotoxic, regulatory, helper 1, and helper 2), and B-cell activation to plasma cells. Four different cytokines were accounted for: IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12. In addition, generic inflammatory signals are used to represent the kinetics of IL-1, IL-2, and TGF-β. Cell recruitment, differentiation, replication, apoptosis and migration are described as appropriate for the different cell types. The model is a hybrid structure containing information from several mammalian species. The structure of the network was built to be physiologically and biochemically consistent. Rate laws for all the cellular fate processes, growth factor production rates and half-lives, together with antibody production rates and half-lives, are provided. The

  6. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of the front tracking equation of flame to uniform and convected fluctuations of the flow velocity and the response was compared with that of a V-shaped flame and the experimental data in the previous studies. The results show that the effect of flame speed development could influence a decreasing gain and increase the phase of the flame response to the uniform velocity oscillations in low and moderate frequencies. Comparing the variations in the gain of flame response upon normalized frequency, show that a conical flame has lower values than the V-flame. In other words, these flames might be less susceptible to combustion instabilities than the V-flames. Furthermore, the variations in phase of the V-flames responses, which show a quasi-linear behavior with normalized frequency, have higher values than the saturated behavior in phase of the conical flame responses. Also, considering that the flame speed development induces an increase in the gain and phase of the conical flame response to the convected velocity oscillations in certain frequencies; because the developed flame front has longer length in comparison to the flame front in constant flame speed model. Therefore, the flame length may be longer than convective wavelength and the heat release would be generated in different points of the flame; consequently the flow oscillations might exert a stronger impact on the unsteady heat release fluctuations.

  7. Research of corporate social responsibility in an energy efficient technologies development section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considered the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR and its components. The Jevons paradox is examined, the mechanism of rebound effect on the example of energy efficient technologies is analyzed.

  8. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudits, D.; Torok, K.; Cseri, A.; Paul, K.; Nagy, A.V.; Nagy, B.; Sass, L.; Ferenc, G.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, I.; Ayaydin, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2016), s. 1504-1523 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : IMAGE-ANALYSIS * WATER -STRESS * PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  9. Emergency response capabilities developed in the United States to deal with nuclear materials transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Reese, R.T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The non-existence of emergency response programs is frequently stated as a reason for restricting the movement of radioactive materials through states or local jurisdictions. Yet, studies discussed here indicate that emergency response capability, while not in the best condition, is getting more money, interest and attention, and in most states response networks exist which could be effective in responding to radiological emergencies. Awareness of such capabilities by the public is an important feature in increasing the public's confidence in the ability of federal, state and local officials in controlling hazards. One aspect of this awareness program could be in broader availability of radioactive emergency techniques for possible first responders to emergencies. This training, public awareness and more emphasis on workable emergency plans will help to assure reliable and workable emergency response plans

  10. Development of a Tailored Methodology and Forensic Toolkit for Industrial Control Systems Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    for industrial control systems ,” in Proceedings of the VDE Kongress, 2004. [15] K. Stouffer et al., “Special publication 800-82: Guide to industrial...TAILORED METHODOLOGY AND FORENSIC TOOLKIT FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS INCIDENT RESPONSE by Nicholas B. Carr June 2014 Thesis Co...CONTROL SYSTEMS INCIDENT RESPONSE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas B. Carr 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval

  11. Developing business responsibility and transparency in the construction sector : from limited business opportunities to fair competition

    OpenAIRE

    Sierla, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    This thesis concerns measures to fight grey economy and to harmonize the prevailing practices regarding responsible procurement processes in the construction industry. The purpose is to examine how people in the Baltic Sea region currently perceive grey economy, responsibility and transparency issues and how Suomen Tilaajavastuu Oy (Tilaajavastuu Ltd) could expand its business in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries. Since preventing grey economy is an agenda that concerns the whole EU i...

  12. Corporate social responsibility practices of pharmaceutical companies in China: a scale development & empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Yiyun

    2017-01-01

    JEL Classification: M14 - Corporate Culture; Social Responsibility; I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been a hot topic in literature ever since a couple of decades ago, and it roughly refers to the positive influence that a company’s operations have on its stakeholders. Amongst various industries, the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most debated in that these companies produce disease-curing and even life-saving products in a for-profit man...

  13. Development and performance of a hand-held CZT detector for in-situ measurements at the emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kim, Chang Jong; Lee, Wan No; Choi, Geun Sik; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin [SI Detection Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A hand-held detector for an emergency response was developed for nuclide identification and to estimate the information of the ambient dose rate in the scene of an accident as well as the radioactivity of the contaminants. To achieve this, the most suitable sensor was first selected as a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor and the signal processing unit from a sensor and the signal discrimination and storage unit were successfully manufactured on a printed circuit board. The performance of the developed signal processing unit was then evaluated to have an energy resolution of about 14 keV at 662 keV. The system control unit was also designed to operate the CZT detector, monitor the detector, battery, and interface status, and check and transmit the measured results of the ambient dose rate and radioactivity. In addition, a collimator, which can control the inner radius, and the airborne dust sampler, which consists of an air filter and charcoal filter, were developed and mounted to the developed CZT detector for the quick and efficient response of a nuclear accident. The hand-held CZT detector was developed to make the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and its performance was checked to have a good energy resolution. In addition, the collimator and the airborne dust sampler were developed and mounted to the developed CZT detector for a quick and efficient response to a nuclear accident.

  14. [Acquired drives. The cortical mechanism responsible to the emergence and development of social existence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    József, Knoll

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a brief interpretation of the theory (J. Knoll: The Brain and Its Self, Springer, 2005) the main message of which is that the appearance of the mammalian brain with the ability to acquire drives ensured the development of social life, and eventually led to the evolution of the human society. In the mammalian brain capable to acquire drives, untrained cortical neurons (Group 1) possess the potentiality to change their functional state in response to practice, training, or experience in three consecutive stages, namely, by getting involved in (a) an extinguishable conditioned reflex (ECR) (Group 2), (b) an inextinguishable conditioned reflex (ICR) (Group 3), or (c)an acquired drive (Group 4). The activity of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 and 4 is inseparable from conscious perception. In any moment of life self is the sum of those cortical neurons that have already changed their functional significance and belong to Group 3 or 4. Metaphorically, every human being is born with a telencephalon that resembles a book with over 100 billion empty pages (untrained, naive cortical neurons, Group 1), and with the capacity to inscribe as much as possible in this book throughout life. Whenever a drive is acquired, chains of ICRs are fixed, neurons responsible for emotions are also coupled to the integral whole, thus cognitive/volitional consciousness is necessarily inseparable from an affective state of consciousness. Cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 continuously synthesize their specific enhancer substance within their capacity. This means that even in the vigilant resting state (leisure), in the absence of a dominant drive, as well as in the non-vigilant resting state (sleeping), the cortical neurons representing the totality of the already fixed ICRs and acquired drives are permanently under the influence of their specific enhancer substance. Although the level of this permanent, undulating activation remains low, it is unpredictable as to

  15. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments

  16. Development of a social auditing management system to measure responsibility in a supply chain : Case Company: Pramia

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Lien

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditing system for a case company, Pramia, which would measure and manage responsibility throughout their supply chain. This was done by researching theoretical methodology in social auditing and key concepts related to the study and also a practical method used to gain insight on developing the management system. This thesis addresses the issues and needs of Pramia, provides a layout of actions for the revised management system, as well as a plan ...

  17. Scuba diving & underwater cultural resources: differences in environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences based on level of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Tiffany Cooper; Alan R. Graefe

    2001-01-01

    This study examined SCUBA divers' level of development in relationship to environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences concerning the use and management of New York's Great Lakes' underwater cultural resources. More than 850 New York State divers were surveyed during the fall of 1999, ranging from novices to experts...

  18. 34 CFR 403.201 - What are the State's responsibilities for developing and implementing a statewide system of core...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION... Technology Education Program? § 403.201 What are the State's responsibilities for developing and implementing... differing types of standards and measures including— (1) The advantages and disadvantages of each type of...

  19. Biofuel policies and the impact of developing countries' policy responses to the 2007-2008 food price boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de Harry; Drabik, D.

    2016-01-01

    Economists have been unanimous that developing countries’ policy responses to high food grain prices in 2007–2008 in restricting exports and promoting imports increased both world food grain price levels and volatility. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the self-defeating aspects of policy

  20. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn (Zea mays L.) in response to cultivar development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of genetic selection of corn to quantity and quality of stover is still poor-known. The aim of the study was to evaluate production, C and N in fractions of corn stover in response to the cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná - Br...

  1. Human Value Management : The influence of contemporary developments of corporate social responsibility and social capital on HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.; Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jonker, J.

    2006-01-01

    In both practice-oriented and academic discourses the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and human resource management (HRM) are often treated separately. It is argued here that this is an outdated approach. Starting from the observation that organisations develop towards open

  2. Human Value Management. The Influence of the Contemporary Developments of Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Capital on HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Michiel; Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jonker, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In both practice-oriented and academic discourses the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and human resource management (HRM) are often treated separately. It is argued here that this is an outdated approach. Starting from the observation that organisations develop towards open

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility : Legal and semi-legal frameworks supporting CSR developments 2000-2010 and cases studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooy, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has rapidly gained a foothold in business. In the last decade, many companies developed 'Planet, People, Profit' strategies, and put them into practice. Governments and civil society have called on private actors to contribute in resolving the difficulties of

  4. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  5. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  6. Effects of social conditions during early development on stress response and personality traits in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.; Floercke, C.; Oers, van K.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions during early development play a crucial role in shaping an organism's phenotype. To test how social group size affects stress response and behavioral characteristics, we used great tits (Parus major) from selection lines for exploratory behavior, a proxy for an avian

  7. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo...

  8. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2013-06-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

  9. Adrenergic Signaling: A Targetable Checkpoint Limiting Development of the Antitumor Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guanxi; Chen, Minhui; Bucsek, Mark J.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Hylander, Bonnie L.

    2018-01-01

    An immune response must be tightly controlled so that it will be commensurate with the level of response needed to protect the organism without damaging normal tissue. The roles of cytokines and chemokines in orchestrating these processes are well known, but although stress has long been thought to also affect immune responses, the underlying mechanisms were not as well understood. Recently, the role of nerves and, specifically, the sympathetic nervous system, in regulating immune responses is being revealed. Generally, an acute stress response is beneficial but chronic stress is detrimental because it suppresses the activities of effector immune cells while increasing the activities of immunosuppressive cells. In this review, we first discuss the underlying biology of adrenergic signaling in cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. We then focus on the effects of chronic adrenergic stress in promoting tumor growth, giving examples of effects on tumor cells and immune cells, explaining the methods commonly used to induce stress in preclinical mouse models. We highlight how this relates to our observations that mandated housing conditions impose baseline chronic stress on mouse models, which is sufficient to cause chronic immunosuppression. This problem is not commonly recognized, but it has been shown to impact conclusions of several studies of mouse physiology and mouse models of disease. Moreover, the fact that preclinical mouse models are chronically immunosuppressed has critical ramifications for analysis of any experiments with an immune component. Our group has found that reducing adrenergic stress by housing mice at thermoneutrality or treating mice housed at cooler temperatures with β-blockers reverses immunosuppression and significantly improves responses to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. These observations are clinically relevant because there are numerous retrospective epidemiological studies concluding that cancer patients who were

  10. Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-02-01

    In order to process speech and music, the auditory cortex must learn to process patterns of sounds. Our previous studies showed that with a stream consisting of a repeating (standard) sound, younger infants show an increase in the amplitude of a positive slow wave in response to occasional changes (deviants) in pitch or duration, whereas older infants show a faster negative response that resembles mismatch negativity (MMN) in adults (Trainor et al., 2001, 2003; He et al., 2007). MMN reflects an automatic change-detection process that does not require attention, conscious awareness or behavioural response for its elicitation (Picton et al., 2000; Näätänen et al., 2007). It is an important tool for understanding auditory perception because MMN reflects a change-detection mechanism, and not simply that repetition of a stimulus results in a refractory state of sensory neural circuits while occasional changes to a new sound activate new non-refractory neural circuits (Näätänen et al., 2005). For example, MMN is elicited by a change in the pattern of a repeating note sequence, even when no new notes are introduced that could activate new sensory circuits (Alain et al., 1994, 1999;Schröger et al., 1996). In the present study, we show that in response to a change in the pattern of two repeating tones, MMN in 4-month-olds remains robust whereas the 2-month-old response does not. This indicates that the MMN response to a change in pattern at 4 months reflects the activation of a change-detection mechanism similarly as in adults.

  11. Development of regional atmospheric dynamic and air pollution models for nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Akiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Tsujita, Yuichi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Chino, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is a computer-based emergency response system to predict long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident. WSPEEDI has been applied to several international exercises and real events. Through such experiences, the new version of WSPEEDI aims to employ a combination of an atmospheric dynamic model and a particle random walk model for more accurate predictions. This paper describes these models, improvement of prediction and computational techniques for quick responses. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY UNDER AGGRAVATION OF THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role and importance of corporate social responsibility as an important mechanism for overcoming the crisis of the welfare state and to mitigate the social problems caused by the world globalization processes. The experience of post-socialist countries, the Baltic States and Ukraine in this field is analyzed and barriers to effective implementation of CSR in the national economy are identified. The priority of the state policy to promote socially responsible business behavior in Ukraine is proved.

  13. Development of integrated-type dosimeter responsive to high energy neutrons (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Teruko; Murai, Ikuo; Abe, Masashi; Uoyama, Kazuya; Das, Mala [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tuda, Shuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The response of superheated drop detectors or bubble detectors (BDs) was measured for quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams in the 40-75 MeV range. The experiments were performed at the AVF cyclotron facility, TAKASAKI Ion Accelerator for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The measured dose sensitivities showed to be lowered to about a half the nominal sensitivity. A lead-breeder introduced to extend response to the high energy region were investigated and compared with Monte Carlo calculations by MCNPX code. (author)

  14. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  15. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  16. The development and psychometric testing of a Disaster Response Self-Efficacy Scale among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Bi, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Qing-Ling

    2017-12-01

    Disaster nurse education has received increasing importance in China. Knowing the abilities of disaster response in undergraduate nursing students is beneficial to promote teaching and learning. However, there are few valid and reliable tools that measure the abilities of disaster response in undergraduate nursing students. To develop a self-report scale of self-efficacy in disaster response for Chinese undergraduate nursing students and test its psychometric properties. Nursing students (N=318) from two medical colleges were chosen by purposive sampling. The Disaster Response Self-Efficacy Scale (DRSES) was developed and psychometrically tested. Reliability and content validity were studied. Construct validity was tested by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The DRSES consisted of 3 factors and 19 items with a 5-point rating. The content validity was 0.91, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.912, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.953. The construct validity was good (χ 2 /df=2.440, RMSEA=0.068, NFI=0.907, CFI=0.942, IFI=0.430, pself-efficacy in disaster response for Chinese undergraduate nursing students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Lee-Pullen, T F; Metcalfe, J; Holt, B J; Serralha, M; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-08-01

    Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with altered infant immune responses and a reduced risk of infant sensitization and eczema. To examine the effect of early postnatal fish oil supplementation on infant cellular immune function at 6 months of age in the context of allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12606000281594), 420 infants of high atopic risk received fish oil [containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 110 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)] or control oil daily from birth to 6 months. One hundred and twenty infants had blood collected at 6 months of age. Fatty acid levels, induced cytokine responses, T cell subsets and monocyte HLA-DR expression were assessed at 6 months of age. Infant allergies were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. DHA and EPA levels were significantly higher in the fish oil group and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) levels were lower (all P acid (PUFA) levels and associated with lowered allergen-specific Th2 responses and elevated polyclonal Th1 responses. Our results add to existing evidence of n-3 PUFA having immunomodulatory properties that are potentially allergy-protective. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Development of Finite Element Response Model for Mechanistic - Empirical Design of Flexible Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba A. AHMED

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is to present a finite element method (FEM-based program of the M-E design on MATLAB protocol. The response output generated at critical locations are presented. The results were then compared with those from a locally available program called ‘NEMPADS’ and a reasonable comparison were achieved.

  19. Development of the immune response in pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents modern data on the pathogen-associated molecular structures of Staphylococcus aureus and its role in the occurrence of pneumonia: activation and modulation of the immune response, oxidative and metabolic stress, apoptosis. Particular attention is paid to the factors of virulence of the pathogen, which can induce an inflammatory process without activating the image-recognition receptors.

  20. Methodological and empirical developments for the Ratcliff diffusion model of response times and accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ratcliff diffusion model for simple two-choice decisions (e.g., Ratcliff, 1978; Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) has two outstanding advantages. First, the model generally provides an excellent fit to the observed data (i.e., response accuracy and the shape of RT distributions, both for correct and