WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactivity artificially induced

  1. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  2. Artificial radioactivity in Carlingford Lough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this study was to assess whether radioactivity concentrations in a wide range of environmental materials from the Lough were enhanced above general levels found elsewhere along the east and north-east coasts of Ireland. Other objectives included an examination of gamma dose rates in air over inter-tidal sediments throughout the Lough and an examination of coastal soils to determine the extent of sea-to-land transfer of plutonium and , by inference, americium

  3. Influence of natural radioactive aerosols on artificial radioactivity detection in the Spanish surveillance networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device used for continuous measurements of artificial α and β activity in Spanish radiological surveillance networks is the LB BAI 9850 monitor from the Berthold Company. The temporal variation of radon decay product equilibrium introduces a varying background signal in the artificial radioactivity in these monitors. This unwanted background signal can be significantly reduced by analyzing natural radioactive aerosols and their influence on the monitor

  4. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  5. Medical imaging was boosted by the discovery of artificial radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws the history of medical imaging since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934. The author reviews the PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technologies and presents the recent progress in neuro-sciences that have been made possible by using these 2 technologies. Brain imaging has allowed to show: - the impact of emotions on logical mental processes and on mental performances, - the management of memory in the brain of talented quick reckoners, - the degeneration of neurons, and - the link between autism and the presence of structural and functional anomalies in the brain. (A.C.)

  6. Modelling of artificial radioactivity migration in environment: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation and description of models to assess the environmental behaviour and effects of accidental and routine releases of artificial radioactivity from nuclear power facilities. About 60 models are described and a card is given for each one, to indicate in summarized form its features and data content. This collection is intended to help in developing specific personal models by assembling different parts chosen among the most suitable ones of different models of various degrees of sophistication

  7. Artificial radioactivity on the coasts of Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Northern Ireland, measurements of artificial radioactivity have been made in inshore seawater, beach sand and mud, sea spray, the air and material deposited from the air, and in coastal soil. The objective was to determine the levels in the coastal environment and also to assess the magnitude of transport of radioactivity from sea to land in sea spray. The results would provide a basis for the development of a model describing sea to land transfer, and allowing the resulting population exposure to be assessed. The results showed the presence of plutonium isotopes, 241Am and 137Cs in some samples of each of the media measured, but concentrations were low in all cases. Large variation in the concentrations in seawater and beach sediment were attributed to variations in dispersion and in the characteristics of the sediment. Sea to land transfer of actinides was detected in samples of sea spray and in air and deposition measurements. Only at some sites on the east coast could the resulting accumulation in soil close to the beach be distinguished from fallout. Following May 1986 137Cs from Chernobyl could be detected in air and in atmospheric deposition. A preliminary assessment of the exposure of the population to the actinides and 137Cs in all the media showed that the resulting dose is a small fraction of the recognised limit. (author)

  8. Nuclear chemistry fifty years after the discovery of artificial radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1934, the observation and the chemical identification of radiophosphorus as a reaction product in the bombardment of Aluminium by alpha particles have been the first step of a new scientific branch: Nuclear Chemistry. We describe here how this discovery in itself contains the frame of all the development which has followed. It consisted in four stages, each of them being a crucial starting point. The first one is the possibility for a total balance of the nuclear reaction in the exit channels, so that reaction mechanisms can be studied. The second, the most important perhaps, is the opening of nuclear synthesis. Nuclear chemists can now interfere into nuclear matter and instead of staying as observers of the radioactive decays of natural isotopes, they were able to build up a numerous chart of various nuclear species, going step by step further and further away from the nuclear stability conditions. The third aspect of the discovery was the appearance of a new mode of radioactive decay with the production of the first particle an antimater. 50 years later, the instability due to a much larger excess of protons is known to induce the proton emission radioactivity for new species like 109I or 115Cs, in the vicinity of proton unstability. Finally, the last point, so fertile for the future, was the observation of a neutron in the exit channel, so that neutron fluxes could result from alpha induced nuclear reactions and became such a strong tool for the production of transuranium elements and for nuclear fission. In the present survey, the wide interest of the second point, i.e. the nuclear synthesis, is emphasized, as well as the huge change in the technical methods

  9. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  10. Natural and induced radioactivity in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the first questions often asked about irradiated food is whether it is radioactive. Not many people understand that food and any natural substance contains natural radioactivity which can be measurable. It is therefore important to put the issue on natural radioactivity and possible induced radioactivity in food in perspective. While there is a clear consensus among the scientific community that no radioactivity is induced when food is irradiated by gamma rays from cobalt-60 or cesium-137, electron generated by a machine with energy less than 10 million electron volt (MeV) or X rays produced generated by a machine with energy less than 5 MeV. However, data to this effect were published many years ago and are not easy to find. As food irradiation is gaining wide acceptance in many countries, it was considered timely to compile data on natural and induced radioactivity in food into one document. We are grateful to A. Brynjolfsson, one of the few experts who have the knowledge on this subject as well as wide experience on food irradiation, who collected, compiled and evaluated all data on this subject into one report. This publication provides clear explanations not only why radioactivity cannot be induced in food irradiated by radiation sources mentioned above but to what extent the increase in dose or energy level of radiation sources would induce significantly radioactivity in food. The compilation of such data was prompted by a desire to increase the energy limit and the absorbed dose based on the need to irradiate thicker samples of food and to use sterilizing dose up to 60 kGy. This publication concluded that the increase in radiation background dose from consumption of food irradiated to an average dose up to 60 kGy with gamma rays from cobalt- 60 or cesium-137, with 10 MeV electrons or with 5 MeV X rays is insignificant. In addition, food irradiated with X ray with energy up to 7.5 MeV to a dose of 30 kGy has radioactivity well below natural

  11. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from different sea areas.

  12. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Campagna; A. Nardoni; R. Cavallina

    2010-01-01

    Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from differe...

  13. Artificial intelligence methods applied for quantitative analysis of natural radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Basic description of artificial neural networks. ► Natural gamma ray sources and problem of detections. ► Application of neural network for peak detection and activity determination. - Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) represents one of artificial intelligence methods in the field of modeling and uncertainty in different applications. The objective of the proposed work was focused to apply ANN to identify isotopes and to predict uncertainties of their activities of some natural radioactive sources. The method was tested for analyzing gamma-ray spectra emitted from natural radionuclides in soil samples detected by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe (high purity germanium). The principle of the suggested method is described, including, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. It is clear that there is satisfactory agreement between obtained and predicted results using neural network.

  14. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  15. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  16. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaji B. Babatunde; Francis D. Sikoki; Ibitoruh Hart

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest a...

  17. Metal Complexes Containing Natural and and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Kharissova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium, are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  18. Robust Type-specific Hemisynapses Induced by Artificial Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Joong; Jeon, Chang Su; Lee, Soo Youn; Hwang, Inseong; Chung, Taek Dong

    2016-04-01

    Type-specificity of synapses, excitatory and inhibitory, regulates information process in neural networks via chemical neurotransmitters. To lay a foundation of synapse-based neural interfaces, artificial dendrites are generated by covering abiotic substrata with ectodomains of type-specific synaptogenic proteins that are C-terminally tagged with biotinylated fluorescent proteins. The excitatory artificial synapses displaying engineered ectodomains of postsynaptic neuroligin-1 (NL1) induce the formation of excitatory presynapses with mixed culture of neurons in various developmental stages, while the inhibitory artificial dendrites displaying engineered NL2 and Slitrk3 induce inhibitory presynapses only with mature neurons. By contrast, if the artificial dendrites are applied to the axonal components of micropatterned neurons, correctly-matched synaptic specificity emerges regardless of the neuronal developmental stages. The hemisynapses retain their initially established type-specificity during neuronal development and maintain their synaptic strength provided live neurons, implying the possibility of durable synapse-based biointerfaces.

  19. Simulation of induced radioactivity for Heavy Ion Medical Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Jun-Kui, Xu; Wu-Yuan, Li; Wang, Mao; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xi-Meng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yan; Chong, Xu

    2013-01-01

    For radiation protection and environmental impact assessment purpose, the radioactivity induced by carbon ion of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) was studied. Radionuclides in accelerator component, cooling water and air at target area which are induced from primary beam and secondary particles are simulated by FLUKA Monte Carlo code. It is found that radioactivity in cooling water and air is not very important at the required beam intensity and energy which is needed for treatment, radionuclides in accelerator component may cause some problem for maintenance work, suitable cooling time is needed after the machine are shut down.

  20. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  1. Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

  2. Calculations and observations of induced radioactivity in spaceborne materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All material in space becomes radioactive due to nuclear interactions with cosmic rays, radiation belt protons and solar flare particles. This poses a particular problem for gamma-ray detectors as the energy depositions fall in the precise window of interest. On the positive side, samples returned to earth can be monitored to provide information on the primary and secondary radiations experienced. Here, radiation transport calculations are compared with observations of induced radioactivity obtained from the OSSE experiment on the Compton Observatory and the CREAM experiment on Space Shuttle. These results illustrate the importance of secondary particles

  3. Sodium mobility in a mini-catchment studied with radioactive tracers and artificial precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, N.; Seip, H.M.; Qvenild, C.; Tollan, O.

    1982-01-01

    A natural 98 sq m mini-catchment was watered with artificial precipitation at an intensity of 5 mm per hour, 8 hours per day, 5 days per week for several weeks starting August 19, 1980. The tracers were administered on September 3. After 6 days an estimated 84% of the tritiated water and 45% of the Na/sup 2//sub 4/ were recovered in runoff. Na ions were fairly mobile but were delayed with respect to water movement. Some of the remaining Na/sup 24/ ions remained in stagnant zones or took part in isotopic exchange, leaving less than half of the non-radioactive Na ions available for ion exchange with ions such as H/sup +/ in the soil. Mean monthly Na ions in precipitation falling on this section of Norway averaged 15 microequivalents per liter from 1977 to 1980. The 10 microequivalents per liter Na available for ion exchange was of minor importance compared with the 50 microequivalents per liter of H..mu.. in runoff. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. (d,p)-transfer induced fission of heavy radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin

    2012-01-01

    (d,p)-transfer induced fission is proposed as a tool to study low energy fission of exotic heavy nuclei. Primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission offers a possibility for systematic study the low energy fission of heavy exotic nuclei at the ISOLDE.

  5. Radioactivity Induced by Neutrons: a Thermodynamic Approach to Radiative Capture

    OpenAIRE

    De Gregorio, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    When Enrico Fermi discovered slow neutrons, he accounted for their great efficiency in inducing radioactivity by merely mentioning the well-known scattering cross-section between neutrons and protons. He did not refer to capture cross-section, at that early stage. It is put forward that a thermodynamic approach to neutron-proton radiative capture then widely debated might underlie his early accounts. Fermi had already met with a similar approach, and repeatedly used it.

  6. Medical imaging was boosted by the discovery of artificial radioactivity; L'imagerie medicale revelee par la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarthon, F.; Dupuy-Maury, F.; Donnars, O

    2002-08-01

    This article draws the history of medical imaging since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934. The author reviews the PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technologies and presents the recent progress in neuro-sciences that have been made possible by using these 2 technologies. Brain imaging has allowed to show: - the impact of emotions on logical mental processes and on mental performances, - the management of memory in the brain of talented quick reckoners, - the degeneration of neurons, and - the link between autism and the presence of structural and functional anomalies in the brain. (A.C.)

  7. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ2H and δ18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (δ15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and δ18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme

  8. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  9. Induced radioactivity of the IHEP proton synchrotron beam extraction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement results of induced radioactivity of the beam extraction equipment during 1972-1978 are presented. All the values are given to the moment of the accelerator stop. The experimental data permits to predict further possible variations of the induced radioactivity levels of the equipment. Given are the measures required for reduction of the accelerator equipment irradiation, which are the following: 1) compensation of residual distortion of a closed beam orbit in the course of the induction system operation; 2) limitation of the intensity of drop on the internal targets up to the 11 protons per target level over a cycle; 3) putting into operation the program control system for the duration of a current pulse of a linear accelerator to minimize the beam residues at the 70 GeV energy during physical experiments; 4) construction of the system of beam interception and cutting-off to ensure effective energy suppression of uncontrolled beam residues and localization of their radiation effect; 5) extraction of a high-energy beam out of the accelerator during the experiments (e.g., into the neutrino channel for apparatus adjusting) instead of its dropping on the interceptor-target; 6) beam orbit controlling in the case of multiturn injection into the accelerator

  10. Ultracold Fermions in a Cavity-Induced Artificial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath, Corinna; Sheikhan, Ameneh; Wolff, Stefan; Brennecke, Ferdinand

    2016-02-01

    We propose how a fermionic quantum gas confined to an optical lattice and coupled to an optical cavity can self-organize into a state where the spontaneously emerging cavity field amplitude induces an artificial magnetic field. The fermions form either a chiral insulator or a chiral liquid carrying chiral currents. The feedback mechanism via the dynamical cavity field enables robust and fast switching in time of the chiral phases, and the cavity output can be employed for a direct nondestructive measurement of the chiral current.

  11. Applicability of artificial intelligence to reservoir induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, Pijush; Kim, Dookie

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes to use least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and relevance vector machine (RVM) for prediction of the magnitude (M) of induced earthquakes based on reservoir parameters. Comprehensive parameter (E) and maximum reservoir depth (H) are used as input variables of the LSSVM and RVM. The output of the LSSVM and RVM is M. Equations have been presented based on the developed LSSVM and RVM. The developed RVM also gives variance of the predicted M. A comparative study has been carried out between the developed LSSVM, RVM, artificial neural network (ANN), and linear regression models. Finally, the results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the LSSVM and RVM models.

  12. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, {sup 131}I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the {sup 131}I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of {sup 131}I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with {sup 131}I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  13. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (131I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, 131I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the 131I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of 131I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of 131I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with 131I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  14. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author)

  15. State of radionuclides in seawater. Comparison of natural stable and artificial radioactive isotope s of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the state of stable and artificial radioactive isotopes of merury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR by radioactivity and radiochemical methods. Convergent results have been obtained for the dissolved forms of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone in a comparison of the results of radioactivation analysis and laboratory simulation using the radionuclides mercury-203 and zinc-65

  16. Influences of cosmic radiation, artificial radioactivity and aerosol concentration upon the fair-weather atmospheric electric field in Lisbon (1955–1991)

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Claudia; Reis, A. Heitor; Rosa, Rui; P. S. Lucio

    2006-01-01

    The atmospheric electric field is influenced by cosmic radiation, radioactivity and aerosols. In this work we investigate the existence of: (i) correlations between relative anomalies of annual values of atmospheric electric field and cosmic radiation intensity, artificial radioactivity and aerosol concentration; (ii) seasonal correlations between relative anomalies of the atmospheric electric field and cosmic radiation intensity. We used data of the electric field strength recorded at the Po...

  17. Proton-induced radioactivity in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by protons in sodium iodide scintillation crystals were calculated and directly measured. These data are useful in determining trapped radiation and cosmic-ray induced, background-counting rates in spaceborne detectors.

  18. Artificial Intelligence based Solver for Governing Model of Radioactivity Cooling, Self-gravitating Clouds and Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Ali Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a reliable alternate platform is developed based on artificial neural network optimized with soft computing technique for a non-linear singular system that can model complex physical phenomenas of the nature like radioactivity cooling, self-gravitating clouds and clusters of galaxies. The trial solution is mathematically represented by feed-forward neural network. A cost function is defined in an unsupervised manner that is optimized by a probabilistic meta-heuristic global search technique based on annealing in metallurgy. The results of the designed scheme are evaluated by comparing with the desired response of the system. The applicability, stability and reliability of the proposed method is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BULGARIAN SOILS ALONG THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from gamma-spectrometry analyses of soils and sediments samples taken along the Danube river is presented in the paper. Results about the content of natural and artifi cial radionuclides like Sr-90 and Cs-137 are discussed. The region around the Kozloduj NPP including its exclusion zone is investigated in more details. Data from the last years is compared with such from former investigations of similar samples from the region. The soil is a natural depot and initial reservoir for spreading of all man-made radionuclides and natural radioactivity. The man-made isotopes with the longest half-life time, like Sr-90 and Cs-137 are mainly investigated. Because of their feature to be bioelements, that is to include themselves in human’s metabolism, they are especially dangerous when their concentrations in the nutritious chain increase. That is why the investigation of these nuclides together with the natural once like uranium, thorium and radium started in 1978 with annual determination of their concentrations in soils collected from the region of “Kozloduj” NPP and some places along the Danube river potentially exposed to radioactive contamination. The aim was to make a picture of the radioecological status of the soils along the Danube river. The period after 1986 is concerned as the accident in Chernobyl’s NPP changed basically the radioactive situation in the country.

  20. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  1. Transport and dispersion of artificial radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean - Model studies and observations -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf regions are subject to growing concern because of increasing environmental problems. The most crucial problem arises probably from the dumping of nuclear waste in the Barents and the Kara Sea. But also the great Siberian rivers Ob and Yenisei which drain huge land areas and industrial zones may contribute to the input of pollutants into the Arctic environment. First results of a joint project are described which combines numerical model studies and experimental field work in order to investigate the potential pathways and dispersion of radioactive contaminants in the Arctic Ocean. (author)

  2. Scoping estimates of the LDEF satellite induced radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Tony W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite was recovered after almost six years in space. It was well-instrumented with ionizing radiation dosimeters, including thermoluminescent dosimeters, plastic nuclear track detectors, and a variety of metal foil samples for measuring nuclear activation products. The extensive LDEF radiation measurements provide the type of radiation environments and effects data needed to evaluate and help resolve uncertainties in present radiation models and calculational methods. A calculational program was established to aid in LDEF data interpretation and to utilize LDEF data for assessing the accuracy of current models. A summary of the calculational approach is presented. The purpose of the reported calculations is to obtain a general indication of: (1) the importance of different space radiation sources (trapped, galactic, and albedo protons, and albedo neutrons); (2) the importance of secondary particles; and (3) the spatial dependence of the radiation environments and effects expected within the spacecraft. The calculational method uses the High Energy Transport Code (HETC) to estimate the importance of different sources and secondary particles in terms of fluence, absorbed dose in tissue and silicon, and induced radioactivity as a function of depth in aluminum.

  3. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  4. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the north Western mediterranean sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiological measurements of the north west mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, 106Ru and from atmospheric fall out, 137Cs and sup(239+240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10-5) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26

  5. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Papastefanou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y, while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y, that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y. The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y.

  6. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV electron-irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1993-10-01

    In order to make clear appreciation to induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods, photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity at energies up to 10 MeV were listed up from elemental compositions of black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (J.P.N.).

  7. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    CERN Document Server

    Boehnlein, David J

    2012-01-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  8. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  9. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-electron irradiated spices, (1); [gamma]-ray measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured in order to estimate induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by [gamma]-ray spectrometry in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list of photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity below 10 MeV. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (author).

  10. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  11. Induced radioactivity of LDEF materials and structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Laird, C. E.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Camp, D. C.; Frederick, C. E.; Hurley, D. L.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Moss, C. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Reeves, J. H.; Smith, A. R.; Winn, W. G.; Benton, E. V.

    1996-01-01

    We present an overview of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) induced activation measurements. The LDEF, which was gravity-gradient stabilized, was exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) radiation environment over a 5.8 year period. Retrieved activation samples and structural components from the spacecraft were analyzed with low and ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry at several national facilities. This allowed a very sensitive measurement of long-lived radionuclides produced by proton- and neutron-induced reactions in the time-dependent, non-isotropic LEO environment. A summary of major findings from this study is given that consists of directionally dependent activation, depth profiles, thermal neutron activation, and surface beryllium-7 deposition from the upper atmosphere. We also describe a database of these measurements that has been prepared for use in testing radiation environmental models and spacecraft design.

  12. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region. PMID:26307690

  13. Distortions induced by radioactive seeds into interstitial brachytherapy dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi; Modrick, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    In a previous article, we presented development and verification of an integral transport equation-based deterministic algorithm for computing three-dimensional brachytherapy dose distributions. Recently, we have included fluorescence radiation physics and parallel computation to the standing algorithms so that we can compute dose distributions for a large set of seeds without resorting to the superposition methods. The introduction of parallel computing capability provided a means to compute the dose distribution for multiple seeds in a simultaneous manner. This provided a way to study strong heterogeneity and shadow effects induced by the presence of multiple seeds in an interstitial brachytherapy implant. This article presents the algorithm for computing fluorescence radiation, algorithm for parallel computing, and display results for an 81-seed implant that has a perfect and imperfect lattice. The dosimetry data for a single model 6711 seeds is presented for verification and heterogeneity factor computations using simultaneous and superposition techniques are presented.

  14. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  15. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity.

  16. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. PMID:27423927

  17. Monitoring of mining-induced ambient radioactivity. 11th expert meeting on ambient radioactivity monitoring, held on 28/29 March 2000 at Schlema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 11th expert meeting was the first exclusively devoted to aspects of monitoring mining-induced ambient radioactivity, and therefore was held 'on site', in the formerly important uranium mining area of Schlema. The meeting was organised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU). (orig./CB)

  18. Application of artificial neural networks on the characterization of radioactive waste drums; Aplicacao de redes neurais artificiais na caracterizacao de tambores de rejeito radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: apotiens@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The methodology consist of system simulation of drum-detector by Monte Carlo for obtention of counting efficiency. The obtained data were treated and a neural artificial network (RNA) were constructed for evaluation of total activity of drum. For method evaluation measurements were performed in ten position parallel to the drum axis and the results submitted to the RNA. The developed methodology showed to be effective for isotopic characterization of gamma emitter radioactive wastes distributed in a heterogeneous way in a 200 litters drum. The objective of this work as to develop a methodology of analyse for quantification and localization of radionuclides not homogeneous distributed in a 200 liters drum based on the mathematical techniques

  19. Earthquake-induced landslide-susceptibility mapping using an artificial neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Evangelista, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply and verify landslide-susceptibility analysis techniques using an artificial neural network and a Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to Baguio City, Philippines. The 16 July 1990 earthquake-induced landslides were studied. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology, land cover and terrain mapping units. Factors that influence...

  20. DCHAIN-SP 2001: High energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Fujio; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contribution to safety design calculations for induced radioactivities in the JAERI/KEK high-intensity proton accelerator project facilities, the DCHAIN-SP which calculates the high energy particle induced radioactivity has been updated to DCHAIN-SP 2001. The following three items were improved: (1) Fission yield data are included to apply the code to experimental facility design for nuclear transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste where fissionable materials are treated. (2) Activation cross section data below 20 MeV are revised. In particular, attentions are paid to cross section data of materials which have close relation to the facilities, i.e., mercury, lead and bismuth, and to tritium production cross sections which are important in terms of safety of the facilities. (3) User-interface for input/output data is sophisticated to perform calculations more efficiently than that in the previous version. Information needed for use of the code is attached in Appendices; the DCHAIN-SP 2001 manual, the procedures of installation and execution of DCHAIN-SP, and sample problems. (author)

  1. Exploring thermally induced states in square artificial spin-ice arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, J. M.; Bedoya-Pinto, A.; Berger, A.; Vavassori, P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a methodology to explore experimentally the formation of thermally induced long-range ground-state ordering in artificial spin-ice systems. Our novel approach is based on the thermalization from a square artificial spin-ice array of elongated ferromagnetic nanoislands made of a FeNi alloy characterized by a Curie temperature about 100 K lower than that of Permalloy (Ni81Fe19), which is commonly used for this kind of investigation. The decrease in M(T) when the sample is heated close to its Curie temperature reduces the shape anisotropy barrier of each island and allows us to bring the artificial spin-ice pattern above the blocking temperature of the islands, thus ‘melting’ the spin-ice system, without damaging the sample. The magnetization configuration resulting from the thermal excitation of the islands and the frustrated dipolar interactions among them can be then imaged by magnetic force microscopy or any other kind of magnetic microscopy imaging after cooling down the sample back to room temperature. This thermally induced melting-freezing protocol can be repeated as many times as desired on the same sample and the heating and cooling parameters (max T, heating and cooling rates, number of cycles, application of external fields) varied at will. Thereby, the approach proposed here opens up a pathway to the systematic experimental study of thermally induced frozen states in artificial spin-ice systems, which have been the subject of many recent theoretical studies due to their interesting physical properties but, because of the difficulties in obtaining them in real samples and in a controlled manner, remain experimentally an almost completely unexplored terrain.

  2. Highly Selective Artificial K(+) Channels: An Example of Selectivity-Induced Transmembrane Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Arnaud; Barboiu, Mihail

    2016-01-13

    Natural KcsA K(+) channels conduct at high rates with an extraordinary selectivity for K(+) cations, excluding the Na(+) or other cations. Biomimetic artificial channels have been designed in order to mimick the ionic activity of KcSA channels, but simple artificial systems presenting high K(+)/Na(+) selectivity are rare. Here we report an artificial ion channel of H-bonded hexyl-benzoureido-15-crown-5-ether, where K(+) cations are highly preferred to Na(+) cations. The K(+)-channel conductance is interpreted as arising in the formation of oligomeric highly cooperative channels, resulting in the cation-induced membrane polarization and enhanced transport rates without or under pH-active gradient. These channels are selectively responsive to the presence of K(+) cations, even in the presence of a large excess of Na(+). From the conceptual point of view, these channels express a synergistic adaptive behavior: the addition of the K(+) cation drives the selection and the construction of constitutional polarized ion channels toward the selective conduction of the K(+) cation that promotes their generation in the first place.

  3. Investigation of induced radioactivity in the CERN Large Electron Positron collider for its decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The future installation of the Large Hadron Collider in the tunnel formerly housing the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) required the dismantling of the latter after 11-year operation. As required by the French legislation, an extensive theoretical study was conducted before decommissioning to establish the possible activation paths both in the accelerator and in the four experiments (L3, ALEPH, OPAL and DELPHI) installed around the ring. The aim was to define which areas may contain activated material and which ones would be completely free of activation. The four major sources of activation in LEP, i.e., distributed and localized beam losses, synchrotron radiation and the super-conducting RF cavities, were investigated. Conversion coefficients from unit lost beam power to induced specific activity were established for a number of materials. A similar study was conducted for the four experiments, evaluating the four potential sources of induced radioactivity, namely e**+e **- annihilation events, two-p...

  4. Cosmic-ray induced production of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere, ground, and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of an MCNP6 model and a suite of supporting MATLAB scripts being developed to conduct detailed studies of the radioactive noble gas background activity concentrations resulting from cosmic-neutron-induced reactions in the Earth's atmosphere, in various geologies, and in seawater. Initial results generated using the MCNP6 model and the suite of supporting MATLAB scripts indicate that the cosmic-neutron-induced 133Xe background activity concentrations at a depth of 1 m in a geology representative of the Earth's upper crust and a depth of 5 m in seawater are about 3.48 × 10-1 and 8.49 × 10-7 mBq m-3, respectively. (author)

  5. [Evaluation of a risk communication approach for maintenance staff working with induced radioactivity in medical linear accelerators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Maehara, Yoshiaki; Koizumi, Mitsue; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Kida, Tetsuo; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Horitsugi, Genki; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Kimura, Yumi; Oyama, Masaya

    2013-12-01

    In order to promote consensus building on decommissioning operation rules for medical linear accelerators in Japan, we carried out a risk communication (RC) approach mainly providing knowledge for maintenance staff regarding induced radioactivity. In February 2012, we created a booklet (26 pages) to present an overview of the amended law, the mechanism and the distribution of induced radioactivity showing the actual radiation dose rate around a linear accelerator and actual exposure doses to staff. In addition, we co-sponsored a seminar for workers in this field organized by the Japan Medical Imaging and Radiological Systems Industries Association to explain the contents of this booklet, and answer questions regarding induced radioactivity of linear accelerators as an RC program. As a result, the understanding of staff regarding the regulations on maximum X-ray energy on linear accelerators (Papproach suggests that consensus building should be used to make rules on decommissioning operations for linear medical accelerators.

  6. A radiation-induced breast cancer following artificial pneumothorax therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of radiation-induced breast cancer in a woman who had been fluoroscopied repeatedly for control of pneumothorax for pulmonary tuberculosis 35 years before is reported. The breast tissue presumably received about 136 rads or less in three and a half years. In Japan, both prospective and retrospective surveies following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax collaps therapy have failed to show an increase in the risk of subsequent development of primary breast cancer. The dose given to breast tissues in Japanese patients was generally far less than that in the MacKenzie's series. A radiation-induced breast cancer in Japanese literature has not yet been reported. It seems that the lesser doses may explain the reason of this fact. (auth.)

  7. Radiological considerations on multi-MW targets Part I Induced radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M

    2005-01-01

    CERN is designing a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to provide a 2.2GeV, 4MW proton beam to feed facilities like, for example, a future Neutrino Factory or a Neutrino SuperBeam. The material activation in such facilities is an important aspect that has to be taken into account at an early design stage. In particular, the choice of the target has consequences on the induced radioactivity and dose rates in the target itself and in its surroundings. In the present work, the radiological aspects of a stationary target made up of small tantalum pellets are compared to those of a free-surface jet of mercury. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump were performed for both targets by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which...

  8. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  9. Programmatic Assessment of Potential Induced Radioactivity in Electron Beam Sterilization of Healthcare Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Montgomery, Alan; Vrain, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 Sterilization of Healthcare Products-Radiation requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation should be engrained in the process, including the device design phase, where selection of materials can make a difference in the potential for activation to occur as a result of the irradiation process. The program, which is based on general assumptions as to the likely activation processes and generalized process assessments is being implemented in three phases: (1) incorporating materials consideration in the design phase, (2) evaluating potential activation empirically, including measurement at the point of irradiation, and (3) implementing routine procedures for the program, including developing a data base of results for consideration in future design efforts. PMID:27356164

  10. Programmatic Assessment of Potential Induced Radioactivity in Electron Beam Sterilization of Healthcare Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Montgomery, Alan; Vrain, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 Sterilization of Healthcare Products-Radiation requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation should be engrained in the process, including the device design phase, where selection of materials can make a difference in the potential for activation to occur as a result of the irradiation process. The program, which is based on general assumptions as to the likely activation processes and generalized process assessments is being implemented in three phases: (1) incorporating materials consideration in the design phase, (2) evaluating potential activation empirically, including measurement at the point of irradiation, and (3) implementing routine procedures for the program, including developing a data base of results for consideration in future design efforts.

  11. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenter; Hoenik, V. [Thin Films and Nanostructures, Department of Physics, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno [Institute of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, Kassel Univ. (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Artificial ferrimagnets (AFi) have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning with He ions on a single layer reference electrode of magnetic tunnel junctions is possible. For some applications a combination of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning and artificial ferrimagnets as a reference electrode is desirable. The effect of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning on pinned artificial ferrimagnets with a Ru interlayer which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions as well as pinned AFis with a Cu interlayer has been tested. Special attention has been given to the question whether the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling can withstand the ion dose necessary to turn the exchange bias.

  12. Induced nest spawning and artificial hatching of the fertilized eggs of mudskipper, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Wanshu; ZHANG Qiyong

    2004-01-01

    In this study, nest spawning was successfully induced by exogenous hormone injections and seawater flow stimulation, and optimum condition for hatching fertilized eggs of burrow fish mudskipper, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris, was searched. Apart from spawning inside the nests, females also spawned outside the nests. The percentages of spawned nests were 8.0% to 24.2%. Most eggs were observed adhered to the inner wall of the top half of the nest. Fertilization rates of the nest-spawned eggs varied from 17.3% to 80.8%. Females could spawn after being artificially confined inside the nests with males at ratios of 1:1 or 1:2, but the spawned eggs were not fertilized. Mean hatching rates of artificially fertilized eggs incubated in round plastic buckets were 32.7%-70.6%, and in the net cages, were 4.2%-20.5%, respectively. Mean hatching rates of nest- fertilized eggs incubated in the round plastic buckets were 33.6%-76.3%, and in the net cages, were 5.9%-25.2%. Results showed that round bucket incubation was the best way for hatching fertilized eggs of mudskipper. Keeping the hatching seawater flowing is an important way for increasing the hatching rates of the mudskipper fertilized eggs.

  13. Earthquake-induced landslide-susceptibility mapping using an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply and verify landslide-susceptibility analysis techniques using an artificial neural network and a Geographic Information System (GIS applied to Baguio City, Philippines. The 16 July 1990 earthquake-induced landslides were studied. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology, land cover and terrain mapping units. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage were calculated from the topographic database. Lithology and distance from faults were derived from the geology database. Land cover was identified from the topographic database. Terrain map units were interpreted from aerial photographs. These factors were used with an artificial neural network to analyze landslide susceptibility. Each factor weight was determined by a back-propagation exercise. Landslide-susceptibility indices were calculated using the back-propagation weights, and susceptibility maps were constructed from GIS data. The susceptibility map was compared with known landslide locations and verified. The demonstrated prediction accuracy was 93.20%.

  14. The genotoxic effects of DNA lesions induced by artificial UV-radiation and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2010-06-01

    Solar radiation sustains and affects all life forms on Earth. The increase in solar UV-radiation at environmental levels, due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, highlights serious issues of social concern. This becomes still more dramatic in tropical and subtropical regions where radiation-intensity is still higher. Thus, there is the need to evaluate the harmful effects of solar UV-radiation on the DNA molecule as a basis for assessing the risks involved for human health, biological productivity and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the profile of DNA damage induced by this form of radiation and its genotoxic effects, plasmid DNA samples were exposed to artificial-UV lamps and directly to sunlight. The induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photoproducts (CPDs) and oxidative DNA damage in these molecules were evaluated by means of specific DNA repair enzymes. On the other hand, the biological effects of such lesions were determined through the analysis of the DNA inactivation rate and mutation frequency, after replication of the damaged pCMUT vector in an Escherichia coliMBL50 strain. The results indicated the induction of a significant number of CPDs after exposure to increasing doses of UVC, UVB, UVA radiation and sunlight. Interestingly, these photoproducts are those lesions that better correlate with plasmid inactivation as well as mutagenesis, and the oxidative DNA damages induced present very low correlation with these effects. The results indicated that DNA photoproducts play the main role in the induction of genotoxic effects by artificial UV-radiation sources and sunlight.

  15. pH gradients induced by urea metabolism in 'artificial mouth' microcosm plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, C H; Wong, L; Hancock, E M; Cutress, T W

    1994-06-01

    Evidence was sought for urea-induced pH gradients in dental plaque microcosm biofilms cultured from the mixed salivary bacteria in a multi plaque 'artificial mouth'. Application of 500 mmol/l urea for short periods (6 min) to 5-8 mm maximum-thickness plaques induced intraplaque pH gradients of up to 0.7 pH units with the surface alkaline relative to the inner plaque. These pH gradients persisted for more than 5 h in the absence of a flow of fluid. With 30-min urea applications and a flow of a basal medium containing mucin (BMM, pH 7.0), the pH of the inner (deeper) plaque regions also increased. Although the pH gradient initially formed was alkaline at the plaque surface, the BMM flow lowered the surface pH to neutrality whilst the inner layers were still alkaline, thereby reversing the pH gradient. In thick microcosm dental plaques, urea-induced pH gradients can therefore form and last many hours. They probably result from the significant time taken for urea to penetrate to the inner layers of plaque, its rapid metabolism by the outer plaque layers, and a rate-limiting clearance of ammonia. Even a slow BMM flow over the plaque greatly increased the rate of return to the resting pH, causing the gradients to change polarity.

  16. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  17. Giant Controllable Magnetization Changes Induced by Structural Phase Transitions in a Metamagnetic Artificial Multiferroic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S P; Wong, A T; Glavic, A; Herklotz, A; Urban, C; Valmianski, I; Biegalski, M D; Christen, H M; Ward, T Z; Lauter, V

    2016-01-01

    The realization of a controllable metamagnetic transition from AFM to FM ordering would open the door to a plethora of new spintronics based devices that, rather than reorienting spins in a ferromagnet, harness direct control of a materials intrinsic magnetic ordering. In this study FeRh films with drastically reduced transition temperatures and a large magneto-thermal hysteresis were produced for magnetocaloric and spintronics applications. Remarkably, giant controllable magnetization changes (measured to be as high has ~25%) are realized by manipulating the strain transfer from the external lattice when subjected to two structural phase transitions of BaTiO3 (001) single crystal substrate. These magnetization changes are the largest seen to date to be controllably induced in the FeRh system. Using polarized neutron reflectometry we reveal how just a slight in plane surface strain change at ~290C results in a massive magnetic transformation in the bottom half of the film clearly demonstrating a strong lattice-spin coupling in FeRh. By means of these substrate induced strain changes we show a way to reproducibly explore the effects of temperature and strain on the relative stabilities of the FM and AFM phases in multi-domain metamagnetic systems. This study also demonstrates for the first time the depth dependent nature of a controllable magnetic order using strain in an artificial multiferroic heterostructure. PMID:26940159

  18. EDTA-induced Membrane Fluidization and Destabilization: Biophysical Studies on Artificial Lipid Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virapong PRACHAYASITTIKUL; Chartchalerm ISARANKURA-NA-AYUDHYA; Tanawut TANTIMONGCOLWAT; Chanin NANTASENAMAT; Hans-Joachim GALLA

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-induced membrane destabilization has been studied using a combination of four biophysical techniques on artificial lipid membranes.Data from Langmuir film balance and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the fluidization and expansion effect of EDTA on phase behavior of monolayers of either 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or mixtures of DPPC and metal-chelating lipids, such as Nα,Nα-Bis[carboxymethyl]-Nε-[(dioctadecylamino)succinyl]-L-lysine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[N-(5-amino- 1-carboxypentyl iminodiacetic acid) succinyl]. A plausible explanation could be drawn from the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups of EDTA and the positively charged choline head group of DPPC.Intercalation of EDTA into the lipid membrane induced membrane curvature as elucidated by atomic force microscopy. Growth in size and shape of the membrane protrusion was found to be time-dependent upon exposure to EDTA. Further loss of material from the lipid membrane surface was monitored in real time using a quartz crystal microbalance. This indicates membrane restabilization by exclusion of the protrusions from the surface. Loss of lipid components facilitates membrane instability, leading to membrane permeabilization and lysis.

  19. Giant Controllable Magnetization Changes Induced by Structural Phase Transitions in a Metamagnetic Artificial Multiferroic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S. P.; Wong, A. T.; Glavic, A.; Herklotz, A.; Urban, C.; Valmianski, I.; Biegalski, M. D.; Christen, H. M.; Ward, T. Z.; Lauter, V.

    2016-03-01

    The realization of a controllable metamagnetic transition from AFM to FM ordering would open the door to a plethora of new spintronics based devices that, rather than reorienting spins in a ferromagnet, harness direct control of a materials intrinsic magnetic ordering. In this study FeRh films with drastically reduced transition temperatures and a large magneto-thermal hysteresis were produced for magnetocaloric and spintronics applications. Remarkably, giant controllable magnetization changes (measured to be as high has ~25%) are realized by manipulating the strain transfer from the external lattice when subjected to two structural phase transitions of BaTiO3 (001) single crystal substrate. These magnetization changes are the largest seen to date to be controllably induced in the FeRh system. Using polarized neutron reflectometry we reveal how just a slight in plane surface strain change at ~290C results in a massive magnetic transformation in the bottom half of the film clearly demonstrating a strong lattice-spin coupling in FeRh. By means of these substrate induced strain changes we show a way to reproducibly explore the effects of temperature and strain on the relative stabilities of the FM and AFM phases in multi-domain metamagnetic systems. This study also demonstrates for the first time the depth dependent nature of a controllable magnetic order using strain in an artificial multiferroic heterostructure.

  20. Rainfall and earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility assessment using GIS and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A GIS-based method for the assessment of landslide susceptibility in a selected area of Qingchuan County in China is proposed by using the back-propagation Artificial Neural Network model (ANN. Landslide inventory was derived from field investigation and aerial photo interpretation. 473 landslides occurred before the Wenchuan earthquake (which were thought as rainfall-induced landslides (RIL in this study, and 885 earthquake-induced landslides (EIL were recorded into the landslide inventory map. To understand the different impacts of rainfall and earthquake on landslide occurrence, we first compared the variations between landslide spatial distribution and conditioning factors. Then, we compared the weight variation of each conditioning factor derived by adjusting ANN structure and factors combination respectively. Last, the weight of each factor derived from the best prediction model was applied to the entire study area to produce landslide susceptibility maps.

    Results show that slope gradient has the highest weight for landslide susceptibility mapping for both RIL and EIL. The RIL model built with four different factors (slope gradient, elevation, slope height and distance to the stream shows the best success rate of 93%; the EIL model built with five different factors (slope gradient, elevation, slope height, distance to the stream and distance to the fault has the best success rate of 98%. Furthermore, the EIL data was used to verify the RIL model and the success rate is 92%; the RIL data was used to verify the EIL model and the success rate is 53%.

  1. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  2. Determination of the fission barrier height in fission of heavy radioactive beams induced by the (d,p)-transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    A theoretical framework is described, allowing to determine the fission barrier height using the observed cross sections of fission induced by the (d,p)-transfer with accuracy, which is not achievable in another type of low-energy fission of neutron-deficient nuclei, the $\\beta$-delayed fission. The primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission of...

  3. Characteristics of radioactivities induced in aluminum alloys and the effects due to those major and minor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to search the usefulness of aluminum alloys as a material for an accelerator and its surrounding apparatus, the characteristics of radioactivities induced in several aluminum alloys (AA 1230, AA 2219, JIS 5052, AA 6063 and AA 7079) and stainless steel (SUS 304) irradiated for a long time with high energy bremsstrahlung have been studied fundamentally and compared with each other. After the concentrations of major alloying elements and impurities in the above samples were determined by means of photon-activation, proton-activation and emission spectrochemical analyses, they were irradiated with 30 and 200 MeV bremsstrahlung. As the results, it was proved that the intensities of radioactivities induced in the aluminum alloys are greatly affected by those major and minor components, but are remarkably lower than that in the stainless steel. (author)

  4. Computed Tomography-guided Radiofrequency Ablation for Sub-diaphragm Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety and Efficacy of Inducing an Artificial Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Arai, Yasuaki; Ishii, Hiroaki; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of artificial pneumothorax induction to perform computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for sub-diaphragm hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). From June 2008 to October 2010 at our institution, 19 HCCs (16 patients) were treated using CT-guided RFA after artificial pneumothorax induction. A 23-G needle was inserted into the liver surface at a site of 2 connected pleurae without lung tissue. After a small amount of air was injected, the pleural space widened, creating a small pneumothorax. Additional air was insufflated via a newly inserted 18-G cannula to raise the lung away from the planned puncture line for RFA. The electrode was then advanced transthoracically. Ablation was performed using a cool-tip electrode with manual impedance control mode. The injected air was then aspirated as much as possible. Artificial pneumothorax was successfully induced in all cases. The average total volume of injected air in each case was 238ml. No artificial pneumothorax-related complication occurred; lung injury occurred in one case during RF electrode insertion. No local progression occurred during follow-up. Recurring HCCs were observed in eight patients. Artificial pneumothorax induction is safe and effective for CT-guided RFA of sub-diaphragm HCCs, which are difficult to locate on US. PMID:27339208

  5. Evaluation of a risk communication approach for maintenance staff working with induced radioactivity in medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote consensus building on decommissioning operation rules for medical linear accelerators in Japan, we carried out a risk communication (RC) approach mainly providing knowledge for maintenance staff regarding induced radioactivity. In February 2012, we created a booklet (26 pages) to present an overview of the amended law, the mechanism and the distribution of induced radioactivity showing the actual radiation dose rate around a linear accelerator and actual exposure doses to staff. In addition, we co-sponsored a seminar for workers in this field organized by the Japan Medical Imaging and Radiological Systems Industries Association to explain the contents of this booklet, and answer questions regarding induced radioactivity of linear accelerators as an RC program. As a result, the understanding of staff regarding the regulations on maximum X-ray energy on linear accelerators (P<0.05), and the outline of clearance systems (P<0.01), were facilitated by RC. In addition, we found that about 70% of maintenance staff considered that the cooling time for decommissioning operation depended on the situation. Our RC approach suggests that consensus building should be used to make rules on decommissioning operations for linear medical accelerators. (author)

  6. Simulation by using the lattice Boltzmann method of microscopic particle motion induced by artificial cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Suresh; Che, Woo Seong; Mannoor, Madhusoodanan; Suh, Yong Kweon

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the results obtained from the simulation of particle motion induced by the fluid flow driven by an array of beating artificial cilia inside a micro-channel. A worm-like-chain model is used to simulate the elastic cilia, and the lattice Boltzmann equation is used to compute the fluid flow. We employ a harmonic force at the extreme tip of each cilium to actuate it. Our simulation methods are first validated by applying them to the motion of a single cilium and a freely falling sphere. After validation, we simulate the fluid flow generated by an array of beating cilia and find that a maximum flow rate is achieved at an optimum sperm number. Next, we simulate the motion of a neutrally buoyant spherical particle at this optimum sperm number by tracking the particle motion with a smoothed profile method. We address the effect of the following parameters on the particle velocity: the gap between cilia and particle, the particle size, the cilia density, and the presence of an array of intermediate particles.

  7. Natural radioactivity contents in tobacco and radiation dose induced from smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the causative factors for cancer-inducing mechanisms in humans is radioactive elements present in tobacco leaves used in the manufacture of cigarettes. Smoking of tobacco and its products increases the internal intake and radiation dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides that are considered to be one of the most significant causes of lung cancer. In this work, different commercial types of cigarettes, cigar and moassel were collected from market. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra and 214Bi (238U series), 228Ac and 228Ra (232Th series), 40K and man-made 137Cs were measured in tobacco using gamma-ray spectrometer. Results show that the average concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 4.564, 3.940 and 1289.53 Bq kg-1, respectively. This reflects their origin from the soil by root uptake and fertilisers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Concentration of 137Cs was 0.348 Bq kg-1 due to root uptake or deposition onto the leaf foliage. For smokers, the annual effective dose due to inhalation of 238U varied from 49.35 to 139.40 μSv-1 (average 104.27 μSv y-1), while of 232Th from 23.86 to 111.06 μSv y -1 (average 65.52 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose resulting from 137Cs was varied from 10.96 to 24.01 nSv y-1 (average 19.41 nSv y-1). (authors)

  8. Analysis of micro-composition of biological tissue by means of induced radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Dunn, R.W.

    1948-05-24

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers promises a wealth of information regarding the biochemical role of most elements and their components. Usually a radioactive sample of the element to be studied is administered to the plant or animal in a convenient form, and its distribution and rate of exchange are determined in later assays. This technique has, however, certain limitations, two of which will be discussed here: (1) radioactive isotopes are not generally useful for measurements of the concentration of elements in the body or its parts. They can be used only to give a measure of the rate of exchange of the elements and (2) the use of radioactive isotopes for tracer experiments requires that the radiation dose delivered to the tissue should be small in order not to disturb normal biological function.

  9. Prophylactic effect of Ca2+- deficient artificial perilymph perfusion on noise-induced hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴启; 于宁; 孙建和; 赵立东

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prophylactic effect of low calcium concentration perilymph on noise-induced hearing loss. Methods Forty guinea pigs with normal hearing weighing 250-350 g were assigned to five groups (8 in each group): (1) Ca2+-deficient perilymph perfusion (CDP) for 2 h; (2) white noise (120 dB SPL) exposure (WNE) only for 1 h, (3) combination of calcium-deficient perilymph perfusion and white noise (120 dB SPL) exposure (WNE+CDP); (4) normal artificial perilymph (NAP) perfusion for 2 h; and (5) white noise exposure + normal artificial perilymph perfusion (WNE+NAP) for 2 h. Compound action potentials (CAP) evoked by click was recorded from round window every 15 min. The cochleae from 5 animals in each group were examined with scanning electron microscope. Results The CAP for group 1 experienced a threshold shift (TS) of 15-26 dB, while group 2 yielded a 46-59 dB TS and group 3 a 37-45 dB TS; no threshold shift occurred in group 4. The CAP TS in group 5 was 33-64 dB. The CAP TS of group 3 was less than that of group 2. After one hour of noise exposure, the CAP TS of group 3 were 45.92±2.90 dB and 59.30±3.95dB in group 2. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between groups 3 and 2. The CAP TS of group 3 was less than that of group 5 at the points of 1, 1.5 and 2 h after noise exposure. There was a significant difference between groups 3 and 5 (P<0.01). Stereocilia of 89 OHC3 were in disarray in five cochleae after noise exposure in group 2. The cuticular plates of 8 OHC2,3 sank and the stereocilia became fused in only one animal cochlea after noise exposure in group 3 combined with low calcium perilymph perfusion. Conclusions Low calcium concentration appears to participate in preventing noise-induced hearing loss and the rising of calcium concentrations in inner hair cells after noise exposure, which may have been due to the opening of calcium channels in inner hair cells during noise exposure. The mechanism of the prophylactic effect might be

  10. Results 2005 of the surveillance of the artificial radioactivity levels of aquatic ecosystems in the basin of Seine-Normandy. Riviere 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Set up in 2004 by the A.C.R.O. the citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation (R.I.V.I.E.R.E.) aims at making a follow-up of the radioactive contamination of the aquatic ecosystems on the scale of the Seine-Normandy pond: from Nogent-on-Seine to La Hague and from the Mont-Saint-Michel to the Treport. The peculiarity of this network, which also makes its strength is to associate strictly all those who wish to appropriate the knowledge of the radioactivity levels around to them. With R.I.V.I.E.R.E., the citizen is at the same moment an author and an actor of the surveillance of his environment as his information. An approach defended by the A.C.R.O. since about 20 years and which has no equivalent anywhere else. This project has four main objectives: to know the levels and the tendencies of the present radioactivity in the main aquatic ecosystems of the Seine-Normandy widened pond, and so feed a data base including more than 3000 analysis (limited to the gamma radioactivity and to the tritium); to allow the citizens who put a lot to appropriate the knowledge and the indispensable references to understand the radioactivity of their environment; to establish a support in the public information about the radioactivity in environment; to supply data to the national network of measures of the radioactivity in environment, network established by decree recently and in charge of the evaluation of the public exposure. (N.C.)

  11. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  12. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  13. Several observables sensitive to the symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions induced by high energy radioactive beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Gao-Chan; Li Bao-An; Zuo Wei

    2005-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent hadronic transport model, effects of the symmetry energy on several observables in heavy-ion collisions induced by radioactive beams at intermediate energies are studied. It is found that rapidity distribution of the isospin asymmetry of nucleon emissions, transverse momentum distribution of the ratio of free neutrons to protons at mid-rapidity, kinetic energy distribution of the ratio of π-/π+ as well as evolution of the isospin fractionation are all sensitive to the symmetry energy.

  14. A Calculation of the radioactivity induced in PWR cluster control rods with the origin and casmo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity induced in PWR cluster control rods during reactor operation has been calculated using the computer programme ORIGEN. Neutron fluxes and spectrum conditions as well as the strongly shielded cross sections for the absorber materials Ag, In and Cd have been obtained by running the cell and assembly code CASMO for a couple of typical cases. The results show that Ag-110m, Fe-55 and Co-60 give the largest activity contributions in the interval 1-10 years after the end of irradiation, and Ni-63 and Cd-113m in a longer time perspective. (author)

  15. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam 7Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be (Sα = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass (58Ni) and heavy (208Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×105 pps 7Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems

  16. Measurement and analysis of radioactivity induced in steels and a vanadium alloy by 14-MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.; Forrest, R. A.; Freiesleben, H.; Kovalchuk, Va. D.; Kovalchuk D, Vi.; Markovskij, D. V.; Seidel, K.; Tereshkin, V. I.; Unholzer, S.

    2000-12-01

    Samples of the structural material of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (SS316), of the low-activation steels MANET and F82H, and of the vanadium alloy V4Ti4Cr were irradiated with D-T fusion neutrons. The radioactivities induced were determined after irradiation several times during decay by γ-spectroscopy. The results were analysed with the European Activation System (EASY-97). In order to validate EASY-97, the total activities of the samples are compared, and ratios of calculated-to-experimental values for the individual activities are derived and discussed.

  17. Artificial-reflex stimulation for FES-induced standing with minimum quadriceps force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.J.; Boom, H.B.K.; Hermens, H.J.; Zilvold, G.

    1990-01-01

    A control strategy is proposed to decrease quadriceps activity during standing. Modified on/off (or artificial reflex) control is used: a non-numerical or finite-state control scheme based on feedback of knee angle and angular velocity. The control strategy is evaluated in paraplegic patients in an

  18. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (131I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, 131I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the 131I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of 13...

  19. Alloy development for fast induced radioactivity decay for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cr-Mo ferritic (martensitic) steels and austenitic stainless steels (primarily type 316 and variations on that composition) are the leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment produces long-lived radioactive isotopes. These isotopes lead to difficult radioactive waste disposal problems once the structure is removed from service. Such problems could be reduced by developing steels that contain only elements that produce radioactive isotopes that decay to low levels in a reasonable time (tens of years instead of hundreds or thousands of years). This report discusses the development of such steels by making elemental substitutions in the steels now under consideration. Molybdenum must be replaced in the Cr-Mo steels; nickel and molybdenum both must be replaced in the austenitic stainless steels (the nitrogen concentration must be limited, and niobium, maintained to extremely low levels). Appropriate substitutions are tungsten for molybdenum in the Cr-Mo steels and manganese for nickel in the austenitic stainless steels. Indications are that suitable ferritic steels can be developed, but development of a nickel-free austenitic stainless steel with properties similar to the Cr-Ni stainless steels appears to be much more complex

  20. Measurement of induced radioactivities for the evaluation of internal exposure at high energy accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At high-intense and high energy accelerator facilities, accelerator components are exposed to primary and/or secondary high energy particles during machine operation. As a result, these become radioactive and the radioactivities are accumulated with operation time. When workers engage in maintenance work such as cutting, welding, etc. in the areas with residual activities. These become a source of internal exposure through the inhalation of radioactive airbornes as well as a source of external exposure. The estimation of external doses to workers is relatively easy by directly measuring the radiation fields by pertinent radiation counters. While the internal dose depends very much on the kinds of radioactive nuclides and their concentrations in air. In a routine survey for internal dose evaluation, airborne activities are filtered and their activities on the filter are measured with a GM counter with an automatic sample changer at KEK (the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). Ordinarily many filter samples have to be measured with a relatively short counting time, so this gross beta counting is a practical way in a routine procedure. In order to evaluate the internal dose from these countings, it is necessary to examine precisely the kinds of radioactivities and their concentrations collected on the filters by a Ge semiconductor detector, and the correlation between the gross beta counting and the actual dose has to be made clear in advance. However, kinds of radioactivities and their concentrations depend very much on production rates of individual nuclides and time variations after beam-off. First, in order to elucidate the production rates of individual nuclides and their concentrations after beam-off, metal samples of Al, Fe, Cu, Steel, etc., which are principal materials used in accelerator facilities, were irradiated at various places in the tunnel of KEK-500MeV and 12GeV proton synchrotrons. By using these irradiated samples, we examined

  1. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, G. Lorimer; Olthof, Nick; Venema, Annemeike; Don, Sanneke; Wijers, Marijke; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of our self-awareness, but is disrupted in many neurological, psychiatric, and psychological conditions that are also characterized by disruption of skin temperature regulation, sometimes in a single limb. We hypothesized that skin temperature in a specific limb could be disrupted by psychologically disrupting the sense of ownership of that limb. In six separate experiments, and by using an established protocol to induce the rubber hand illusion, we demonstrate that skin temperature of the real hand decreases when we take ownership of an artificial counterpart. The decrease in skin temperature is limb-specific: it does not occur in the unstimulated hand, nor in the ipsilateral foot. The effect is not evoked by tactile or visual input per se, nor by simultaneous tactile and visual input per se, nor by a shift in attention toward the experimental side or limb. In fact, taking ownership of an artificial hand slows tactile processing of information from the real hand, which is also observed in patients who demonstrate body disownership after stroke. These findings of psychologically induced limb-specific disruption of temperature regulation provide the first evidence that: taking ownership of an artificial body part has consequences for the real body part; that the awareness of our physical self and the physiological regulation of self are closely linked in a top-down manner; and that cognitive processes that disrupt the sense of body ownership may in turn disrupt temperature regulation in numerous states characterized by both. PMID:18725630

  2. Response of native flora to inducible genotoxic damage from increased radioactivity around NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not generally known that the first serious failure of nuclear power plant (NPP) technology with loss of human lives occurred in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Czechoslovakia) in January 1976. A year later the second accident finally broken reactor A1 with large radioactive contamination. This material was later (in 1980) washed into the nearby drainage by the heavy rain. In cleaning procedure, the contaminated soil particles contaminated the slopes of the drainage. These spots have the shape of 'blurs' about 15 cm wide with a scale of contamination from 0,067; 0,15; 2,38; 9,5; 45.5 up to 322 kBq/kg 137Cs. The research was done in cooperation with the Institute of Tumorbiology, University of Vienna, within the grant Action Austria - Slovak Republic. Details of radioactivity at the area were obtained thanks to the Research Institute of the Nuclear Energy in Trnava, Slovakia. In our ten years long-term study of contaminated soil around nuclear power plant (NPP) Jaslovske Bohunice 24 species of local flora were used to show impact of these accidents. The 19 km long banks of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP waste water recipient has been identified as contaminated by 137Cs. In total, more than 67,000 m2 of river banks have been found as being contaminated at levels exceeding 1 Bq 137Cs/g of soil. Used phytotoxic and cytogenetic -in situ' tests were extended by analyses of pollen grains. Although the dose of some samples of radioactive soil was relatively high (322 kBq kg-1) no any significant impact on the biological level of tested wild plant species was observed. Possible explanation (such as adaptation and resistance) is discussed. (author)

  3. Does Artificial Ascites Induce the Heat-Sink Phenomenon during Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of the Hepatic Subcapsular Area?: an in vivo Experimental Study Using a Rabbit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. Materials and Methods A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group...

  4. Artificial antigen-presenting cells plus IL-15 and IL-21 efficiently induce melanoma-specific cytotoxic CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yu; Yuan Fang; Xi Li; Nuo Zhou; Yong-Xiang Zhao; Xiao-Ling Lu; Jian He; Sodaly Mongkhoune; Yi Peng; Yuan Xie; Jing Su; Su-Fang Zhou; Xiao-Xun Xie; Guo-Rong Luo

    2013-01-01

    To develop a novel artificial antigen-presenting system for efficiently inducing melanoma-specific CD8+CD28+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Methods: Cell-sized Dynabeads® M-450 Epoxy beads coated with H-2Kb:Ig-TRP2180-188 and anti-CD28 antibody were used as artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) to induce melanoma-specific CD8+CD28+CTL responses with the help of IL-21 and IL-15. Dimer staining, proliferation, ELISPOT, and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted to evaluate the frequency and activity of induced CTLs. Results: Dimer staining demonstrated that the new artificial antigen-presenting system efficiently induced melanoma TRP2-specific CD8+CD28+ CTLs. Proliferation and ELISPOT assays indicated that the induced CTLs rapidly proliferate and produce increased IFN-γ under the stimulation of H-2Kb:Ig-TRP2-aAPCs, IL-15, and IL-21. In addition, cytotoxicity experiments showed that induced CTLs have specific killing activity of target cells. Conclusions: The new artificial antigen-presenting system including aAPCs plus IL-21 and IL-15 can induce a large number of antigen-specific CD8+CD28+ CTLs against the melanoma. Our study provides evidence for a novel adoptive immunotherapy against tumors.

  5. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam {sup 7}Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, M., E-mail: marco.mazzocco@pd.infn.it; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Lay, J. A.; Molini, P.; Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Di Meo, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133, Napoli (Italy); La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Silvestri, R. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Acosta, L. [Departamento de Fìsica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Fernandez-Garcia, J. P. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), 30 Reactorului St., 077125 Magurele (Romania); and others

    2015-10-15

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam {sup 7}Be (S{sub α} = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass ({sup 58}Ni) and heavy ({sup 208}Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×10{sup 5} pps {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems.

  6. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically. PMID:25233912

  7. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  8. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J. [USDA Forest Service; Vukovich, Mark A. [USDA Forest Service; Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service; Blake, John I. [USDA Forest Service

    2013-06-10

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (≥25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  9. Studies of ionising radiation induced bystander effects in 3D artificial tissue system and applications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. The bystander effect cannot be comprehensively explained on the basis of a single cell reaction. It is well known that an organism is composed of different cell types that interact as functional units in a way to maintain normal tissue function. Therefore the radiation response is not simply the sum of cellular responses as assumed in classical radiobiology, predominantly from studies using cell cultures. Experimental models, which maintain tissue-like intercellular cell signalling and 3D structure, are essential for proper understanding of the bystander effect. Our work relates to experimentation with novel 3D artificial human tissue systems available from MatTek Corporation (Boston, USA). Air-liquid interface culture technique is used to grow artificial tissues, which allow to model conditions present in vivo. The Gray Cancer Institute (Northwood, UK) charged particle microbeam was used to irradiate tissue samples in a known pattern with a known number of 3He2+ particles or protons. After irradiation, the tissues models were incubated for 3 days, fixed in 10 % NBF, paraffin embedded and then sliced into 5 μm histological sections located at varying distances from the plane of the irradiated cells. We studied in situ apoptosis and markers of differentiation. Significantly elevated bystander induced apoptosis was observed with 3'-OH DNA end-labelling based technique in 3D artificial tissue systems. Our results also suggested an importance of proliferation and differentiation status for bystander

  10. Artificial granularity in two-dimensional arrays of nanodots fabricated by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F; Sachser, R; Huth, M [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Strauss, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysik, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Andrusenko, I; Gorelik, T; Kolb, U [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Welderweg 11, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Goethe-Universitaet, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-17

    We have prepared 2D arrays of nanodots embedded in an insulating matrix by means of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition using the W(CO){sub 6} precursor. By varying the deposition parameters, i.e. the electron beam current and energy and the raster constant, we obtain an artificial granular material with tunable electrical properties. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity and of the current-voltage characteristic suggests that the transport mechanism is governed by electron tunneling between artificial grains. In order to understand the nature of the granularity and thus the microstructural origin of the electronic transport behavior, we perform TEM and micro-Raman investigations. Independent of the deposition parameters, TEM measurements show that the dots are constituted of amorphous tungsten carbide clusters embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Micro-Raman spectra show two peaks, around 690 and 860 cm{sup -1} associated with the W-C stretching modes. Higher frequency peaks give information on the composition of the matrix. In particular, we measure a peak at about 1290 cm{sup -1}, which is associated with sp{sup 3} carbon bonds. Furthermore we detect the so-called D and G peaks, at about 1350 and 1560 cm{sup -1}, associated with the vibration modes of the sp{sup 2} carbon bonds. The analysis of the position of the peaks and of their relative intensity suggests that the composition of the matrix is between nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon.

  11. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  12. Osmosis-induced swelling of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in constant total stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, E.; Marien, A.; Smets, S.; Li, X.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Sillen, X.

    2010-11-01

    In geological disposal conditions, contact of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste, which contains high amounts of the hygroscopic and highly soluble NaNO 3, with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste, and in subsequent leaching of the embedded NaNO 3 and radionuclides. The swelling of and the NaNO 3 leaching from non-radioactive Eurobitum samples, comprised between two stainless steel filters and in contact with 0.1 M KOH, was studied in restricted (semi-confined) swelling conditions, i.e. under a constant total stress, or counterpressure, of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 MPa ( i.e. oedometer conditions). Four tests were stopped after hydration times between 800 and 1500 days, and the samples were analyzed by micro-focus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The complete set of data enabled a consistent interpretation of the observations and lead to an improved understanding of the phenomenology of the water uptake, swelling, and NaNO 3 leaching in restricted swelling conditions. Under the studied conditions, the bituminous matrix surrounding the NaNO 3 crystals and pores with NaNO 3 solution behaved as a highly efficient semi-permeable membrane, i.e. osmotic processes occurred. In the main part of the leached layers, a high average NaNO 3 concentration and related to this a high osmotic pressure prevailed, explaining why in the studied range the swelling was not measurably affected by the counterpressure. At the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer was formed, contributing to the slow release of NaNO 3 compared to the water uptake rate. A fully coupled Chemo-Hydro-Mechanical (CHM) constitutive model has been developed that integrates the key processes involved and that reproduces satisfactorily the results; this is presented in another work. Combination of the experimental and the modelling study allow to conclude that under semi

  13. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  14. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  15. Induced polarisation and the assessment of sorption/diffusion at radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced polarisation is a geophysical technique used in mineral exploration in search of metallic ore deposits. Clay minerals also polarise when subjected to an electric current, although the mechanism differs from that of metallic bodies, and involves, amongst other properties, the clay mineral species, the interlayer spacing of the clay, and the nature and abundance of mobile ions in the pore fluid. As a result, it was proposed that induced polarisation of clays could be used as a method for determining their permeability and diffusivity. The work carried out in developing experimental procedures, and evaluating the feasibility of the proposal is presented in this report. (author)

  16. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966); Etude de la radioactivite artificielle du milieu marin par spectrometrie gamma (1962-1966)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results described in this study are relative to the artificial radioactivity of such elements as zirconium-95, niobium-95, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, cerium-141, cerium-144 and praseodymium-144 which were present in the atmospheric fallout between 1962 and 1964, and their incidence in superficial marine waters. Various physical, chemical or biological processes are studied by a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometry technic, using those radioelements as 'tracers'. The change of state in sea water of an important fraction (about 50 per cent) of the radioactive particles going into the soluble phase - this phenomenon was not expected for those radioelements - controls the processes of accumulation in the planktonic biomass and the diffusion towards deeper waters. On the other hand, an 'in situ' spectrometry method is described. It enables the direct measurement in the sea of very low concentrations of some gamma ray emitters. The application of this method has made possible to carry out numerous observations in the surface waters of the Western Mediterranean sea and in the Bay of Biscay. It is shown that the mixing depth is closely connected to the depth of the thermocline. An accumulation process at this level is observed. The diffusion coefficients are similar to the thermal turbulent coefficient. The existence during several months of 'compartments' is established for the surface waters of the Bay of Biscay. From the establishment of the budget of fall-out, a comparative study shows that the rate of radioactive fallout on the maritime zone considered is always two to three times higher than on the neighbouring continental regions. Several explanations of this phenomenon are discussed. (author) [French] Les resultats decrits dans cette etude concernent la radioactivite artificielle sous forme de zirconium-95, niobium-95, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, cerium-141, cerium-144 et praseodyme-144 apportee par la retombee

  17. Electric effects induced by artificial seismic sources at Somma-Vesuvius volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Di Maio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a series of self-potential measurements at Somma-Vesuvius volcanic area acquired in conjunction with an active seismic tomography survey. The aim of our study is both to provide further confirmation to the occurrence of seismo-electric coupling and to identify sites suitable for self-potential signal monitoring at Somma-Vesuvius district. The data, which were collected along two perpendicular dipoles, show significant changes on the natural electric field pattern. These variations, attributable to electrokinetic processes triggered by the artificial seismic waves, were observed after explosions occurred at a distance less than 5 km from the SP dipole arrays. In particular, we found that the NW-SE component of the natural electric field was more sensible to the shots than the NE-SW one, and the major effects did not correspond to the nearest shots. Such evidences were interpreted considering the underground electrical properties as deduced by previous detailed resistivity and self-potential surveys performed in the study area.

  18. Processes of radiation-induced defect formation in quartz. III. Artificial amethyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that during gamma irradiation of r-crystals of amethyst in the dose range 104-106 R there are processes of migration of electron-alkali ion pairs (e-, Me+) and e-, H+ from O- Me+ and O-H+ groups of structural defects to triply coordinate Si↑ ions near interstitial iron ions. These processes create the necessary conditions for occurrence in the dose range 3 x 105-107 R of processes of countermigration of Me+ and H+ ions. With irradiation of amethyst by doses of over 106 R, the formation of marked concentrations of broken Si-O bonds causes the processes of migration of pairs e-, Me+ from growth defects to these radiation traps. The proposed model of radiation-stimulated processes explains the kinetics of the change in the main parameters of the optical absorption spectra in the UV, visible, and IR regions, acoustic (f = 1 MHz) and dielectric (f = 1 kHz) losses of artificial amethyst under gamma irradiation

  19. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron or X-ray beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons, based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γn) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γn) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. For electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10 to 11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. (author)

  20. Artificially induced hotspots in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 mesa terahertz sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yang; Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Benseman, Timothy

    Mesa-shaped devices comprising stacked Intrinsic Josephson Junctions (IJJs) in the high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 can be used as compact sources of coherent terahertz radiation. Achieving high emission levels of THz emission power from these devices depends on efficient synchronization of the approximately 600 IJJs in the stack. Theoretical simulations of stacked IJJs, as well as some empirical results, suggest that thermal inhomogeneity of the stack may enhance THz emission power. There are a number of possible mechanisms by which this might occur, including a hotspot acting as a local resistive shunt for the IJJs (thus altering the spread of bias voltages in the stack and the junction damping dynamics) or by local self-heating reducing the phase-stiffness of the superconducting condensate in critical locations. Here we report results of artificially inducing local heating in these devices with thin film micro-heaters patterned on their surfaces, in order to determine which mechanism(s) could be responsible for self-heating-induced THz emission enhancement. Sample patterning was performed at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, an Office of Science user facility, supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Force induced and electron stimulated STM manipulations: routes to artificial nanostructures as well as to molecular contacts, engines and switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially invented to image surfaces down to atomic scale, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been further developed in the last few years to an operative tool, with which atoms and molecules can be manipulated at low substrate temperatures at will with atomic precision in different manners by using solely the tip-adparticle forces. In this way various artificial structures on nanoscale have been created and in situ characterized with the STM. Such structures as well as single molecules can be investigated by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) both with respect to their local electronic and even vibrational properties. Modifications of single molecules can be induced by using the tunnelling electron current: Rotations, diffusional jumps, vibrational excitations, desorption, dissociation and even association can be induced in individual molecules, often in a rather precise way by tuning the voltage into the energy levels of specific vibrations or electronic levels. These possibilities give rise to startling new opportunities for physical and chemical experiments on the single atom and single molecule level. Here a brief overview on results obtained with these new techniques is given

  2. A Novel Approach for Blast-Induced Flyrock Prediction Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminaton Marto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flyrock is one of the major disturbances induced by blasting which may cause severe damage to nearby structures. This phenomenon has to be precisely predicted and subsequently controlled through the changing in the blast design to minimize potential risk of blasting. The scope of this study is to predict flyrock induced by blasting through a novel approach based on the combination of imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA and artificial neural network (ANN. For this purpose, the parameters of 113 blasting operations were accurately recorded and flyrock distances were measured for each operation. By applying the sensitivity analysis, maximum charge per delay and powder factor were determined as the most influential parameters on flyrock. In the light of this analysis, two new empirical predictors were developed to predict flyrock distance. For a comparison purpose, a predeveloped backpropagation (BP ANN was developed and the results were compared with those of the proposed ICA-ANN model and empirical predictors. The results clearly showed the superiority of the proposed ICA-ANN model in comparison with the proposed BP-ANN model and empirical approaches.

  3. Induced radioactivity of materials by stray radiation fields at an electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Rokni, S H; Gwise, T; Liu, J C; Roesler, S

    2002-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, aluminum, copper and iron were irradiated in the stray radiation field generated by the interaction of a 28.5 GeV electron beam in a copper-dump in the Beam Dump East facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectroscopy and other techniques. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. The calculated activities are compared to the experimental values and differences are discussed.

  4. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Heng [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xie Jie [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhao Jingquan [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: zhaojq@iccas.ac.cn

    2007-01-15

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the L{sub CM} with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of L{sub CM} with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC.

  5. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the LCM with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of LCM with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC

  6. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a (12)C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u(-1). Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  7. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a (12)C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u(-1). Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible. PMID:27280308

  8. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a 12C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u‑1. Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  9. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  10. Changes of decay rates of radioactive 111In and 32P induced by mechanic motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The changes of decay rates of radionuclide 111In(electron capture) and 32P(β decay) induced by exter-nal mechanic motion are studied. The results indicate that,in the external circular rotation in clockwise and anticlockwise centrifuge on Northern Hemisphere(radius 8 cm,2000 r/min) ,the half life of 111In compared with the referred(2.83 d) is decreased at 2.83% and increased at 1.77%,respectively;the half life of 32P compared with the referred(14.29 d) is decreased at 3.78% and increased at 1.75%,respec-tively. When the clockwise and anticlockwise rotations increase to 4000 r/min,the half life of 111In is decreased at 11.31% and increased at 6.36%,respectively;the half life of 32P is decreased at 10.08% and increased at 4.34%,respectively. When the circular rotation is removed,the decay rates of 111In and 32P return back to the referred,respectively. It is found that the external circular rotations in clockwise and anticlockwise centrifuge selectively increased and decreased the decay rates of 111In and 32P,respec-tively,and the effects are strongly dependent on the strength of circular rotation. It is suggested that these effects may be caused by the chiral interaction.

  11. Piezomagnetic effects induced by artificial sources at Mt. Vesuvius (Italy: preliminary results of an experimental survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Napoli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to put new constrains on magnetic effects associated with mechanical stresses, high frequency monitoring of the geomagnetic field was carried out during a seismic tomography experiment (TOMOVES'96 project at Mt. Vesuvius. Eight proton precession and one Cesium magnetometers were installed along a profile on the SW flank of the volcano to observe possible magnetic changes induced by explosions. Measurements were performed at different sampling frequencies (10 Hz, 0.5 Hz and 0.1 Hz. A remarkable change in the intensity of the magnetic field was observed in only one case. The magnetic transient lasted 12-13 min, reaching the maximum amplitude of slightly less than 15 nT.

  12. Artificially induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in surgical subjects: its implications in clinical and basic cancer research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Aoyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical samples have long been used as important subjects for cancer research. In accordance with an increase of neoadjuvant therapy, biopsy samples have recently become imperative for cancer transcriptome. On the other hand, both biopsy and surgical samples are available for expression profiling for predicting clinical outcome by adjuvant therapy; however, it is still unclear whether surgical sample expression profiles are useful for prediction via biopsy samples, because little has been done about comparative gene expression profiling between the two kinds of samples. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 166 samples (77 biopsy and 89 surgical of normal and malignant lesions of the esophagus were analyzed by microarrays. Gene expression profiles were compared between biopsy and surgical samples. Artificially induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (aiEMT was found in the surgical samples, and also occurred in mouse esophageal epithelial cell layers under an ischemic condition. Identification of clinically significant subgroups was thought to be disrupted by the disorder of the expression profile through this aiEMT. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study will evoke the fundamental misinterpretation including underestimation of the prognostic evaluation power of markers by overestimation of EMT IN past cancer research, and will furnish some advice for the near future as follows: 1 Understanding how long the tissues were under an ischemic condition. 2 Prevalence of biopsy samples for in vivo expression profiling with low biases on basic and clinical research. 3 Checking cancer cell contents and normal- or necrotic-tissue contamination in biopsy samples for prevalence.

  13. Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m -45 waves, predominantly in the morning sector, thought to be brought about by the drift-bounce resonance processes. Conjugate observations from the Polar CAM-MICE instrument indicate the presence of a non-Maxwellian ion distribution function. Further statistical analysis has been undertaken, using the Polar TIMAS instrument, to reveal the prevalence and magnitude of the non-Maxwellian energetic particle populations thought to be responsible for generating these wave types.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  14. Artificially induced polyploidization in Humulus lupulus L. and its effect on morphological and chemical traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Skomra, Urszula

    2013-12-01

    Chemically induced polyploids were obtained by the colchicine treatment of shoot tips of Humulus lupulus L. 'Sybilla'. Flow cytometry revealed that most of the treatments resulted in the production of tetraploids. The highest number of tetraploids was obtained when explants were immersed in 0.05% colchicine for 48 h. A field experiment was conducted to compare diploid and tetraploid plants and assess the effect of genome polyploidization on the morphological and chemical characteristics. Tetraploids showed significant differences in relation to diploids. They had thinner and shorter shoots. The influence of chromosome doubling was also reflected in the length, width and area of leaves. The length of female flowers in the tetraploids was significantly shorter than that observed in diploids. Tetraploids produced a diverse number of lupuline glands that were almost twice as large as those observed in diploids. The most distinct effect of genome polyploidization was a significant increase in the weight of cones and spindles. Contents of major chemical constituents of hop cones was little affected by ploidy level. Total essential oils were significantly lower than those in diploids. However there was a significant increase in the proportion of humulene, caryophyllene and farnesene, oils desired by the brewing industry. PMID:24399911

  15. Urease-induced calcification of segmented polymer hydrogels - a step towards artificial biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Nicolas; Meuris, Monika; Dech, Stephan; Godde, Julia; Tiller, Joerg C

    2014-09-01

    Natural organic/inorganic composites, such as nacre, bones and teeth, are perfectly designed materials with exceptional mechanical properties. Numerous approaches have been taken to synthetically prepare such composites. The presented work describes a new way of mineralizing bulk materials on a large scale following the approach of bioinduced mineralization. To this end, a series of polymer conetworks with entrapped urease were prepared. After polymerization, the entrapped urease shows high enzymatic activity. The bioactive polymer conetworks were then treated with an aqueous mixture of urea and CaCl2. The urease-induced calcification indeed allows formation of carbonate crystals exclusively within the hydrogel even at room temperature. The influence of network composition, degree of cross-linking, immobilized urease concentration and temperature of calcification were investigated. By varying these parameters, spherical, monolithic clusters, as well as bar-like nanocrystals with different aspect ratios in spherical or dendritic arrays, are formed. The grown nanocrystals improve the stiffness of the starting material by up to 700-fold, provided that the microstructure shows a dense construction without pores and strong interaction between crystals and network. The process has the potential to generate a new class of hybrid materials that would be available on the macroscopic scale for use in lightweight design and medicine.

  16. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to natural and artificial materials from cultural heritages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, Maria; Gennaro, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Schillaci, Tiziano, E-mail: tschillaci@unipa.i [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Tranchina, Luigi [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.18, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an applied physical technique that has shown in recent years its great potential for rapid qualitative analysis of materials. Thanks to the possibility to implement a portable instrument that perform LIBS analysis, this technique is revealed to be particularly useful for in situ analysis in the field of cultural heritages. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potentiality of LIBS technique in the field of cultural heritages, with respect to the chemical characterization of complex matrix as calcareous and refractory materials for further quantitative analyses on cultural heritages. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses were used as reference. Calibration curves of certified materials used as standards were obtained by XRF analyses. The LIBS measurements were performed with a new mobile instrument called Modi (Mobile Double pulse Instrument for LIBS Analysis). The XRF analyses were performed with a portable instrument ArtTAX. LIBS and XRF measurement were performed on both reference materials and samples (bricks and mortars) sampled in the ancient Greek-Roman Theatre of Taormina. Although LIBS measurements performed on reference materials have shown non linear response to concentrations, and so we were not able to obtain quantitative results, an integrated study of XRF and LIBS signals permitted us to distinguish among chemical features and degradation state of measured building materials.

  17. A novel method to detect pressure-induced sensor attenuations (PISA) in an artificial pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Nihat; Cameron, Fraser; Buckingham, Bruce A; Wilson, Darrell M; Chase, H Peter; Maahs, David M; Bequette, B Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) provide real-time interstitial glucose concentrations that are essential for automated treatment of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Miscalibration, noise spikes, dropouts, or pressure applied to the site (e.g., lying on the site while sleeping) can cause inaccurate glucose signals, which could lead to inappropriate insulin dosing decisions. These studies focus on the problem of pressure-induced sensor attenuations (PISAs) that occur overnight and can cause undesirable pump shut-offs in a predictive low glucose suspend system. The algorithm presented here uses real-time CGM readings without knowledge of meals, insulin doses, activity, sensor recalibrations, or fingerstick measurements. The real-time PISA detection technique was tested on outpatient "in-home" data from a predictive low-glucose suspend trial with over 1125 nights of data. A total of 178 sets were created by using different parameters for the PISA detection algorithm to illustrate its range of available performance. The tracings were reviewed via a web-based analysis tool by an engineer with an extensive expertise on analyzing clinical datasets and ~3% of the CGM readings were marked as PISA events which were used as the gold standard. It is shown that 88.34% of the PISAs were successfully detected by the algorithm, and the percentage of false detections could be reduced to 1.70% by altering the algorithm parameters. Use of the proposed PISA detection method can result in a significant decrease in undesirable pump suspensions overnight, and may lead to lower overnight mean glucose levels while still achieving a low risk of hypoglycemia.

  18. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  19. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  20. Environmental radioactivity and drinking water supply. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enrichment of radioactivity in the sediments reflects the radioactive pollution of the surface waters. As a result of the good retention capacity of the subsoil and the slow water transport in the unsaturated zone the groundwater was protected against the fallout as expected; even in karst areas only very low concentrations of artificial radioactivity were found in the groundwater. In drinking water no artificial radioactivity was detected in most samples. Only in very few cases the radioactivity of drinking water from surface waters exceeded just the detection limits. The investigations confirmed the previous findings, that the exposition path over drinking water may be neglected compared with other exposition routes. (orig./HP)

  1. Numerical Simulation and Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Predicting Welding-Induced Distortion in Butt-Welded 304L Stainless Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanareddy, V. V.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthukumaran, S.; Vasantharaja, P.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, artificial neural network modeling has been employed for predicting welding-induced angular distortions in autogenous butt-welded 304L stainless steel plates. The input data for the neural network have been obtained from a series of three-dimensional finite element simulations of TIG welding for a wide range of plate dimensions. Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis was carried out for 304L stainless steel plates during autogenous TIG welding employing double ellipsoidal heat source. The simulated thermal cycles were validated by measuring thermal cycles using thermocouples at predetermined positions, and the simulated distortion values were validated by measuring distortion using vertical height gauge for three cases. There was a good agreement between the model predictions and the measured values. Then, a multilayer feed-forward back propagation neural network has been developed using the numerically simulated data. Artificial neural network model developed in the present study predicted the angular distortion accurately.

  2. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery; Radioactivite. Centenaire de la decouverte de la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpak, G. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Tubiana, M. [Academie de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Bimbot, R. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  3. Radioactivity and food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation are used to destroy microorganisms and insects or to prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity are produced in the irradiated food

  4. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  5. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  7. Resent Progress in Research on Calibration Instrument for Radioactive Aerosol Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; CHEN; Yong-yong; WU; Chang-ping; XING; Yu; MENG; Jun; YANG; Qiao-ling

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol monitors are widely used in monitoring the radioactivity concentration of the artificial nuclides in gaseous effluents from the nuclear facilities.An on-developing calibration instrument for radioactive aerosol monitors consists of an α and β aerosol generating unit,aerosol transferring unit,measurement unit of radioactivity concentration of aerosol for instruments calibrated and the waste gas

  8. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  9. Radioactivity Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  12. Probabilistic siting analysis of nuclear power plants emphasizing atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases and radiation-induced health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation is made of probabilistic evaluation schemes for nuclear power plant siting. Effects on health attributable to ionizing radiation are reviewed, for the purpose of assessment of the numbers of the most important health effect cases in light-water reactor accidents. The atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants is discussed, and there is presented an environmental consequence assessment model in which the radioactive releases and atmospheric dispersion of the releases are treated by the application of probabilistic methods. In the model, the environmental effects arising from exposure to radiation are expressed as cumulative probability distributions and expectation values. The probabilistic environmental consequence assessment model has been applied to nuclear power plant site evaluation, including risk-benefit and cost-benefit analyses, and the comparison of various alternative sites. (author)

  13. Use of artificial tracers in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has convened an Advisory Group Meeting with the following objectives: To define the role of artificial radioactive tracers for water tracing in comparison with other non-radioactive tracers. To evaluate the real needs of artificial radioactive tracers in hydrology. To identify the fields for which artificial radioactive tracers are useful as well as those in which they can be substituted by other tracers. To discuss the strategy to be adopted to overcome the difficulties derived from the restrictions on the use of radioactive tracers in hydrology. The meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters from 19 to 22 March 1990, and was attended by 30 participants from 15 Member States. The conclusions and recommendations are that the use of artificial radioactive tracers should be restricted to cases where other tracers cannot be used or do not provide the same quality of information. Tritium, iodine-131, bromine-82, chromium-51 in the form of Cr-EDTA, technetium-99m obtained from 99Mo-generators and gold-198 as an adsorbable tracer are, practically, the only radionuclides used for water tracing. The use of other radionuclides for this purpose does not appear to be necessary, possible and/or convenient. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Regional blood flow distribution in dog during induced hypotension and low cardiac output. Spontaneous breathing versus artificial ventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Viires, N; Sillye, G; Aubier, M.; Rassidakis, A; Roussos, C

    1983-01-01

    Respiratory muscle blood flow and organ blood flow was studied in two groups of dogs with radioactively labeled microspheres to assess the influence of the working respiratory muscles on the regional distribution of blood flow when arterial pressure and cardiac output were lowered by pericardial tamponade. In one group (n = 6), the dogs were paralyzed and mechanically ventilated (Mv), while in the other (n = 6), they were left to breathe spontaneously (Sb). Cardiac output fell to 30% of contr...

  15. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  16. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  17. Ablation from artificial or laser-induced crater surfaces of silver by laser irradiation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Larsen, N.B.

    1999-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated particles from silver irradiated at 355 nm has been studied. The angular distribution from craters prepared by more than 10(4) shots exhibits only minor changes compared with that from a nonirradiated target. The distribution from artificial cylindrical...... craters of a depth comparable to the laser spot dimensions is about one order of magnitude smaller at large exit angles than that from a flat target....

  18. Processing semblances induced through inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs, presumed biological parallels of K-lines proposed for building artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjumon I Vadakkan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of virtual internal sensation - namely, semblion. Neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization induce semblions enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI. Suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system are explained.

  19. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  20. Numerical Simulation Study of Re-liquefaction of Artificial Island Induced by Aftershocks%人工岛余震再液化数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡记磊; 唐小微; 张西文

    2015-01-01

    主震结束后,余震引起的再液化会对土工结构物带来进一步的严重灾害。以人工岛为研究对象,基于 FE-FD 耦合有限元方法,考虑有无余震、不同余震大小和主余震不同时间间隔因素,探讨对人工岛再液化灾害的影响规律。研究结果表明:主震结束后,随着超孔隙水压力的消散,人工岛砂土层液化区域逐渐减小,余震发生时液化区域又开始扩展,甚至可能大于主震结束时的液化区域面积,且其灾害程度比无余震发生时的要大得多;随着主、余震的时间间隔增加,间隔期的土层固结排水很大程度地提高人工岛的抗再液化能力,当超孔隙水压力消散完后,在相同余震等级情况下很难再次达到完全液化;随着余震峰值加速度的增加,人工岛的沉降量和水平侧移量都随之增加,再次液化时间点会向前提前数秒,主震结束后,随着土层的固结排水,人工岛的沉降会继续增加,甚至超过主震引起的沉降量,而水平侧移的产生主要发生在地震液化过程中,在后续的固结排水中几乎不变;余震发生前,如果人工岛的砂土土层仍处于液化状态,则液化层可能会起到隔震作用,减轻余震对岛体造成的灾害。%Re-liquefaction induced by aftershocks causes serious hazards on soil structures after the end of the main shock.In this study,the influences of aftershocks on an artificial island are discussed based on the FE-FD coupling finite element analysis method at different scales of after-shocks and interval time between the main shock and aftershock.The results indicate that with dissipation of excess pore-water pressure after the main shock,liquefied areas in the sand layer of the artificial island gradually decrease;however,the liquefied areas expand rapidly when an after-shock occurs,and can possibly be larger than the liquefied areas induced by the main shock;the extent of

  1. Radionuclides induced by environmental neutrons. Discovery of natural radioactive Eu and Co isotopes and their contribution to the evaluation of Atomic-bombing neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, Kazuhisa [Kanazawa Univ., Low Level Radioactivity Lab., Tatsunokuchi, Ishikawa (Japan); Yousef, Ahmed M. [South Valley Univ. (Egypt)

    2001-06-01

    Radioactive europium and cobalt isotopes induced by environmental neutrons have been discovered by low-background Ge detector installed in Ogoya underground laboratory. Specific activities of {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu and {sup 155}Eu and {sup 60}Co were measured for recent and old europium and cobalt reagents. Observed activities are 0.06-0.52 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 152}Eu, 0.09-0.16 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 154}Eu and 0.005-0.16 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 155}Eu and 0.007-0.083 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 60}Co. Contribution of natural {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co in Atomic-bomb exposed samples are found to be negligible low and less than 10%, respectively. (author)

  2. Walter Russell's concepts as the basis for an alternative view on radioactivity induced oxygen-ozone depletion and food chain pollution; and as the basis for alternative fuels, materials, energy production, and radioactive waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics with supporting data will be presented: The transmutation of atmospheric nitrogen into carbon 14 and tritium via radioactivity as a source of omnipresent food and water pollution, and the possible correlation of oxygen transmutation into carbon 14 and tritium by the same mechanisms as well as into sulfur. Walter Russell's four pole field dual polarity control as a basis for transmutation will be discussed with reference to past and contemporary results of experimentation on this basis. Extension of the concepts into free hydrogen energy fuel, nitrogen fertilizers, other materials production,and transmutation of radioactive wastes into non radioactive elements will be discussed

  3. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbreicht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2013 includes data concerning the following issues: sources of natural and artificial radioactivity, radon in buildings, radioactive materials in construction materials and industrial products, nuclear weapon tests, the consequences of reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima, nuclear facilities, occupational exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials in research and technology, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents and specific incidents.

  4. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  5. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  6. History of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the historical development of the physics of atoms and nuclei. After a consideration of the ancient Greek philosophy concerning atoms the behaviour of gases is discussed with regards to statistical mechanics. Then the developement of chemistry from alchemy is described. Thereafter the early studies of gas discharges are described with regards to the electronic structure of atoms. In this connection the periodic system of elements is considered. Then the detection of the α-radiation of Uranium by Becquerel and the detections of M. and P. Curie are described. Thereafter the radiactive decay of nuclei is discussed. Then a popular introduction into nuclear structure is given with special regards to artificial radioactivity and nuclear fission. Finally nuclear reactors, the atomic bombs, applications of radionuclides, and problems of radiation protection are described. (HSI)

  7. The effect of Amaranth oil on monolayers of artificial lipids and hepatocyte plasma membranes with adrenalin-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelisyeyeva, O P; Semen, K O; Ostrovska, G V; Kaminskyy, D V; Sirota, T V; Zarkovic, N; Mazur, D; Lutsyk, O D; Rybalchenko, K; Bast, A

    2014-03-15

    In this paper the oil from seeds of Amaranthus cruentus L. (AmO) was shown to be an efficient modulator of the physical chemical properties of artificial lipid and rat hepatocyte plasma membranes. AmO improved the membrane stability, their stress resistance and the adsorption of neurotensin to plasma membranes with the distinct biphasic interactions being observed even after adrenalin stress exposure. The analysis of pro-/antioxidant balance in rat blood revealed a mild prooxidant activity after AmO intake, which was accompanied by accumulation of oxidative destruction products in plasma membranes. This prooxidant action of AmO was corroborated in vitro in an adrenalin autooxidation model. On the other hand, the observed improved resistance to adrenalin stress in AmO supplemented rats was associated with an antioxidant response in blood and plasma membrane studies. The AmO effects can be attributed to the modulation of the metabolic pathways involved into oxygen and free radical homeostasis.

  8. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  9. Radioactive alchemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  10. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  11. Predicted neutron yield and radioactivity for laser-induced (p,n) reactions in LiF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D C; McNaney, J M

    2009-01-30

    Design calculations are presented for a pulsed neutron source comprising polychromatic protons accelerated from a metal foil by a short-pulse laser, and a LiF converter in which (p,n) reactions occur. Although the proton pulse is directional, neutrons are predicted to be emitted relatively isotropically. The neutron spectrum was predicted to be similar to the proton spectrum, but with more neutrons of low energy in the opposite direction to the incident protons. The angular dependence of spectrum and intensity was predicted. The (p,n) reactions generate unstable nuclei which decay predominantly by positron emission to the original {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F isotopes. For the initial planned experiments using a converter 1mm thick, we predict that 0.1% of the protons will undergo a (p,n) reaction, producing 10{sup 9} neutrons. Ignoring the unreacted protons, neutrons, and prompt gamma emission as excited nuclear states decay, residual positron radioactivity (and production of pairs of 511 keV annihilation photons) is initially 4.2MBq decaying with a half-life of 17.22 s for 6 mins ({sup 19}Ne decays), then 135Bq decaying with a half-life of 53.22 days ({sup 7}Be decays).

  12. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963); Etude du comportement dcs aerosols radioactifs artificiels. Applications a quelques problemes de circulation atmospherique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [French] L'objectif de ce travail consiste a examiner le comportement des aerosols radioactifs introduits dans l'atmosphere par les explosions nucleaires, pour en deduire les lois les plus generals de la circulation et diffusion atmospheriques. Apres avoir dresse un tableau d'ensemble des aerosols radioactifs presents, on examine la validite et la precision des methodes de mesure de leur concentration, au niveau du sol et en haute atmosphere, ainsi que de leur depot a la surface du sol. On met ainsi en evidence l'existence d'une barriere equatoriale tropospherique; l'aspect discontinu et saisonnier des transferts stratosphere-troposphere; le role des precipitations et de l'auto-filtration seche, dans les processus de nettoyage de la basse atmosphere. Ces etudes permettent de decrire le comportement general des poussieres d'origine stratospherique et d'ameliorer le bilan de la contamination radioactive du globe. (auteur)

  13. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron — or X-ray beam sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboutet, H.; Aucouturier, J.

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons ( BX rays), based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γ n) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γ n) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. We conclude that for electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10-11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. There is only a small increase of induced activity as the energy changes from 5 to 10 MeV, for the same total applied dose.

  14. Geochemical Effects of Induced Stream-Water and Artificial Recharge on the Equus Beds Aquifer, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heather C. Ross; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer is part of a strategy implemented by the city of Wichita, Kansas, to preserve future water supply and address declining water levels in the aquifer of as much as 30 feet caused by withdrawals for water supply and irrigation since the 1940s. Water-level declines represent a diminished water supply and also may accelerate migration of saltwater from the Burrton oil field to the northwest and the Arkansas River to the southwest into the freshwater of the Equus Beds aquifer. Artificial recharge, as a part of the Equus Beds Ground-Water Recharge Project, involves capturing flows larger than base flow from the Little Arkansas River and recharging the water to the Equus Beds aquifer by means of infiltration or injection. The geochemical effects on the Equus Beds aquifer of induced stream-water and artificial recharge at the Halstead and Sedgwick sites were determined through collection and analysis of hydrologic and water-quality data and the application of statistical, mixing, flow and solute-transport, and geochemical model simulations. Chloride and atrazine concentrations in the Little Arkansas River and arsenic concentrations in ground water at the Halstead recharge site frequently exceeded regulatory criteria. During 30 percent of the time from 1999 through 2004, continuous estimated chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River at Highway 50 near Halstead exceeded the Secondary Drinking-Water Regulation of 250 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations in shallow monitoring wells located adjacent to the stream exceeded the drinking-water criterion five times from 1995 through 2004. Atrazine concentrations in water sampled from the Little Arkansas River had large variability and were at or near the drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 3.0 micrograms per liter as an annual average established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine

  15. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  16. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  17. Novel approaches to the analysis of nuclear and other radioactive materials - Improving detection capability through alpha-gamma coincidence, alpha-induced optical fluorescence and advanced spectrum analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ihantola, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear and other radioactive materials pose a special concern in the proliferation of nuclear weapons, reactor accidents or through criminal acts. To prevent the adverse effects of the use of these materials, novel approaches for their detection and analysis are required. The objective of the research in this thesis was to improve the detection and characterisation of nuclear and other radioactive materials with radiometric methods. Radioactive sources can be detected and identified base...

  18. 人工诱导龙血竭与野生龙血竭化学成分的比较研究%The comparative study on the chemical constituents of artificial induced and wild Dragon's Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 肖宇晴; 袁盛磊; 于浩飞; 王兴红; 张荣平

    2011-01-01

    对人工诱导龙血竭与野生龙血竭的化学成分进行比较研究,为人工诱导龙血竭是否能替代其野生龙血竭提供依据,解决龙血竭资源极其紧张的问题.采用HPLC法.选用Waters Nova-Pak C18色谱柱(φ3.9 mm×150 mm,5 μm),检测波278 nm,柱温40℃,进样量10μL,以乙腈-0.4%磷酸(体积比30:70)为流动相;流速1.0 mL/min.结果:龙血竭和人工诱导龙血竭均具有相对保留时间14.2,19.9 min的2个共有峰,且HPLC峰形相似度较高.%To solve the problem of Dragons Blood resource exhaustion,the chemical constituents of artificial induced and wild Dragons Blood were compared, and the evidence whether artificial induced Dragons Blood can replace wild Dragons Blood was provied.Using HPLC, Waters Nova - Pak C18 column, detection wavelength 278 nm,column temperature 40 ℃, acetonitrile -0.4% phosphate( V/V = 30∶70) as mobile phase,flow rate 1 mL/ min and injection volume 10 μL.Both artificial induced and wild Dragons Blood have two common peaks, relative retention rime 4.2,19.9 min, and the similarity degree of HPLC chromatographic peak shape was high.Therefore,the chemical constituents of artificial induced and wild Dragons Blood were similar.Artificial induced Dragon & Blood can replace wild Dragon's Blood, but pharmacological experiments were still needed for further study of their differences.

  19. Does Artificial Ascites Induce the Heat-Sink Phenomenon during Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of the Hepatic Subcapsular Area?: an in vivo Experimental Study Using a Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Choi, Dong Il; Lim, Hyo K. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the 'W' group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups 'W' and 'R' throughout the procedures (39.2+- 0.4 .deg. C in group W and 33.4+-4.3 .deg. C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4+-237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0+-468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6+-665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group 'C' rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region

  20. Processing Semblances Induced through Inter-Postsynaptic Functional LINKs, Presumed Biological Parallels of K-Lines Proposed for Building Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I.

    2011-01-01

    The internal sensation of memory, which is available only to the owner of an individual nervous system, is difficult to analyze for its basic elements of operation. We hypothesize that associative learning induces the formation of functional LINK between the postsynapses. During memory retrieval, the activation of either postsynapse re-activates the functional LINK evoking a semblance of sensory activity arriving at its opposite postsynapse, nature of which defines the basic unit of internal sensation – namely, the semblion. In neuronal networks that undergo continuous oscillatory activity at certain levels of their organization re-activation of functional LINKs is expected to induce semblions, enabling the system to continuously learn, self-organize, and demonstrate instantiation, features that can be utilized for developing artificial intelligence (AI). This paper also explains suitability of the inter-postsynaptic functional LINKs to meet the expectations of Minsky’s K-lines, basic elements of a memory theory generated to develop AI and methods to replicate semblances outside the nervous system. PMID:21845180

  1. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are gathered 1)the decrees (99-686 and 99-687) of the 3 rd of August 1999 relative to the researches on radioactive waste management. A local committee of information and follow-up has to be established on the site of each underground facility. The composition of this committee is determined here (99-686). 3 people will from now on be jointly ordered by the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry and by the Secretary of State of Industry to conduct a preliminary dialogue for the choice of one or several sites on which previous works should be made before the construction of an underground facility (99-687). They take the opinion of the people's representatives, the associations and the concerned population and inform the Ministers of Environment, Energy and Research of the collected information. 2)the decree of the 3 rd of August 1999 authorizing the 'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs' (ANDRA) to install and exploit an underground facility located in Bure (Meuse) and intended to study the deep geological deposits where could be stored radioactive wastes. (O.M.)

  2. The natural radioactivity of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the approximately 1200 isotopes presently known more than 900 are radioactive. The nuclei of these isotopes are unstable and decay spontaneously emitting ionizing gamma-, alpha- or beta-radiation. The overwhelming majority of known radioactive isotopes have been obtained artificially; only a few are natural. Numerous investigations have shown that many of the natural radioactive isotopes can be grouped into three radioactive families. Each such family is characterized by the existence of one long-lived isotope - the family parent, one gaseous isotope of radon, intermediate radioactive decay products and final stable isotopes of atomic weights 206, 207 and 208. No such generic relationship has been established among the remaining natural radioactive isotopes. The purpose of the book, in contrast to some recent review works, is to present, in addition to a summary of reference data characterizing the radioactivity levels of various components of the biosphere, a description of those phenomena and regularities which will apparently make it possible to understand more completely the basic dynamics of the natural radioactivity of the biosphere and, consequently, contribute to a more correct interpretation of radiation-hygiene in each specific case

  3. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, G. Lorimer; Olthof, Nick; Venema, Annemeike; Don, Sanneke; Wijers, Marijke; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of our self-awareness, but is disrupted in many neurological, psychiatric, and psychological conditions that are also characterized by disruption of skin temperature regulation, sometimes in a single limb. We hypothesized that skin temperature in a specific limb could be disrupted by psychologically disrupting the sense of ownership of that limb. In six separate experiments, and by using an established protocol to induce the rubber h...

  4. Determination of pharmacokinetic processes in body organs on the basis of the box model and, by analogy, of laws of radioactive disintegration of naturally occurring and artificially activated isotope families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work described is based on the simple law of degradation and disintegration for pharmaceutical substances. The transport, storage and, possibly, accumulation of beneficial and harmful pharmaceuticals in the organs of the human body are analysed using the box model. The studies are not restricted to asymptotic conditions occurring after continuous treatment with a particular drug but also investigate into the so-called stabilisation phase immediately after the beginning of medication, which is described mathematically. This phase is shown to be subject to a set of rules that are much more complex than those responsible for asymptotic substance levels. The analytical procedures used here are described on the basis of typical cases drawn from medical practice. The laws derived from these observations can, by analogy, also be applied to the radioactive disintegration of isotope families. They also permit formulas to be determined for the activity of multiple-link chain members. The report proceeds by discussing cases, where the baseline substance is the result of nuclear chain reacting. The last issue to be treated within the scope of this study is the radioactive disintegration and simultaneous activation of isotope families. (orig./MG)

  5. Alternatives of applications in the information taking with artificial radioactive tools in the mature fields of the South region; Alternativas de aplicaciones en la toma de informacion con herramientas radiactivas artificiales en los campos maduros de la region Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, J.L

    2005-07-01

    In this work it is widely described the application of the saturation control tool (RST) used in the campo Rodador (Mexico), and shortly the registration tools of location monitoring (RMT) and the Monitor tool of the location operation (RPM) used for the evaluation in site of the mature wells, had being at the present time these three tools with nuclear reaction mechanisms to obtain the water saturation and of hydrocarbon by means of the Neutron capture (PNC) and Inelastic scattering (IS). Both tools have been designed to help to the evaluation of the mature wells in the locations. Starting from measurements made through the lining pipe applying nuclear techniques used by these tools of registrations to derive the water saturation and of hydrocarbon. In this work the basic principles of radioactivity and their application in the radioactive tools are described as well as the operative aspects of the tools before mentioned, some practical applications of the saturation control tool are presented and a technical study of cost-benefit and it is shown as the technology advances have allowed to carry out considerable progresses in the taking of information of the mature wells helping by this way, to build better geological models in the locations that help to increase the hydrocarbon production in wells that have many years of exploitation. (Author)

  6. Radioactive Cs in the estuary sediments near Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Imoto, Junpei; Furuki, Genki; Ochiai, Asumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Nanba, Kenji; Ewing, Rodney C; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The migration and dispersion of radioactive Cs (mainly (134)Cs and (137)Cs) are of critical concern in the area surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Considerable uncertainty remains in understanding the properties and dynamics of radioactive Cs transport by surface water, particularly during rainfall-induced flood events to the ocean. Physical and chemical properties of unique estuary sediments, collected from the Kuma River, 4.0km south of the FDNPP, were quantified in this study. These were deposited after storm events and now occur as dried platy sediments on beach sand. The platy sediments exhibit median particle sizes ranging from 28 to 32μm. There is increasing radioactivity towards the bottom of the layers deposited; approximately 28 and 38Bqg(-1) in the upper and lower layers, respectively. The difference in the radioactivity is attributed to a larger number of particles associated with radioactive Cs in the lower part of the section, suggesting that radioactive Cs in the suspended soils transported by surface water has decreased over time. Sequential chemical extractions showed that ~90% of (137)Cs was strongly bound to the residual fraction in the estuary samples, whereas 60~80% of (137)Cs was bound to clays in the six paddy soils. This high concentration in the residual fraction facilitates ease of transport of clay and silt size particles through the river system. Estuary sediments consist of particles Radioactive Cs desorption experiments using the estuary samples in artificial seawater revealed that 3.4±0.6% of (137)Cs was desorbed within 8h. More than 96% of (137)Cs remained strongly bound to clays. Hence, particle size is a key factor that determines the travel time and distance during the dispersion of (137)Cs in the ocean. PMID:26874771

  7. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  8. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurebayashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sakurai, H., E-mail: sakurail@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Doshita, N. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, F. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Horiuchi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki 036-8561, Aomori (Japan); Tajima, Y. [Institute of Arts and Sciences, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Oe, T. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sato, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Gunji, S. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Inui, E. [Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kondo, K. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Iwata, N. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sasaki, N. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki 036-8561, Aomori (Japan); Matsuzaki, H. [Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Kunieda, S. [Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-1195, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10{sup –9} PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×10{sup 13} was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  9. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10-9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×1013 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  10. Fluorescent turn-on sensing of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in artificial urine sample with sensitivity down to nanomolar by tetraphenylethylene based aggregation induced emission molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoyu; Wang, Jianguo; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Guanxin; Liu, Yaling; Lin, He; Zhang, Guilan; Li, Yongdong; Fan, Xiaolin

    2016-11-15

    A tetraphenylethylene based aggregation induced emission (AIE) probe, TPEPyE, bearing a positively charged pyridinium pendant was designed and synthesized. The positively charged TPEPyE can efficiently bind to the negatively charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through electrostatic interactions between the two oppositely charged species. As a result, upon the addition of LPS into the PBS solution of TPEPyE, this probe aggregated immediately onto the surface of LPS and resulted over 22-fold of fluorescence enhancement. TPEPyE exhibited good selectivity and high sensitivity toward LPS in PBS buffer solution and the detection limit was calculated to be 370 pM (3.7ng/mL). More notably, TPEPyE also retained good sensitivity and selectivity in artificial urine system (with much higher ionic strength) with the detection limit down to nanomolar. Moreover, this probe can also make a distinction between gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), making it a promising sensor for clinical monitoring of urinary tract infections. PMID:27155117

  11. Autonomous oscillation/separation of cell density artificially induced by optical interlink feedback as designed interaction between two isolated microalgae chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Won, June; Song, Simon; Maeda, Mizuo

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a designed interaction between two isolated cell populations of Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, separately confined in two 25-square micro-aquariums of lab-on-chip size. The interaction was realized by interlinking two identical optical feedback systems, which measured the cell distribution. To analyze the cell populations, we measured the cell distribution in the 25 squares and irradiated the cells with a blue light pattern as an external stimulus. The cell distribution dataset was exchanged between the two systems. Governed by a designed interaction algorithm, the feedback systems produced a dynamic blue light illumination pattern that evoked the photophobic responses of both species. We also induced autonomous cell density oscillation and cell distribution separation and clustering, and analyzed how the types and diversities of the photophobic responses affected the oscillation period and separation and clustering. We conclude that artificial interlink feedback is a promising method for investigating diverse cell-cell interactions in ecological communities, and for developing soft-computing applications with living cells.

  12. Cloning of the Koi Herpesvirus Genome as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Demonstrates That Disruption of the Thymidine Kinase Locus Induces Partial Attenuation in Cyprinus carpio koi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, B.; Fournier, G.; Michel, B.; Delforge, C.; Raj, V. Stalin; Dewals, B.; Gillet, L.; Drion, P.; Body, A.; Schynts, F.; Lieffrig, F.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. This goal was achieved by the insertion of a loxP-flanked BAC cassette into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. This insertion led to a BAC plasmid that was stably maintained in bacteria and was able to regenerate virions when permissive cells were transfected with the plasmid. Reconstituted virions free of the BAC cassette but carrying a disrupted TK locus (the FL BAC-excised strain) were produced by the transfection of Cre recombinase-expressing cells with the BAC. Similarly, virions with a wild-type revertant TK sequence (the FL BAC revertant strain) were produced by the cotransfection of cells with the BAC and a DNA fragment encoding the wild-type TK sequence. Reconstituted recombinant viruses were compared to the wild-type parental virus in vitro and in vivo. The FL BAC revertant strain and the FL BAC-excised strain replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC revertant strain induced KHV infection in koi carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental strain, while the FL BAC-excised strain exhibited a partially attenuated phenotype. Finally, the usefulness of the KHV BAC for recombination studies was demonstrated by the production of an ORF16-deleted strain by using prokaryotic recombination technology. The availability of the KHV BAC is an important advance that will allow the study of viral genes involved in KHV pathogenesis, as well as the production of attenuated recombinant candidate vaccines. PMID:18337580

  13. Halogenated solvent interactions with N,N-dimethyltryptamine: formation of quaternary ammonium salts and their artificially induced rearrangements during analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Simon D; Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Dempster, Nicola; Riby, Philip G; Gartz, Jochen; Alder, John F

    2008-07-01

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 1a are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. This particular attribute attracts great interest from a variety of scientific and also clandestine communities. Our recent research has confirmed that DMT reacts with dichloromethane (DCM), either as a result of work-up or storage to give a quaternary N-chloromethyl ammonium salt 2a. Furthermore, this was observed to undergo rearrangement during analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with products including 3-(2-chloroethyl)indole 3 and 2-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline 4 (2-Me-THBC). This study further investigates this so far unexplored area of solvent interactions by the exposure of DMT to other halogenated solvents including dibromomethane and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The N-bromomethyl- and N-chloroethyl quaternary ammonium derivatives were subsequently characterised by ion trap GC-MS in electron and chemical ionisation tandem MS mode and by NMR spectroscopy. The DCE-derived derivative formed at least six rearrangement products in the total ion chromatogram. Identification of mass spectrometry generated by-products was verified by conventional or microwave-accelerated synthesis. The use of deuterated DCM and deuterated DMT 1b provided insights into the mechanism of the rearrangements. The presence of potentially characteristic marker molecules may allow the identification of solvents used during the manufacture of controlled substances, which is often neglected since these are considered inert. PMID:18455334

  14. Radioactivity and Environment. Radioactividad y Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Leon, J.G. (Jefe de Seguridad Nuclear de la Fabrica de Juzbado. Empresa Nacional de Uranio. (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Radioactivity is one of the most studied natural phenomena. Most of irradiation suffered by the human being is produced by natural sources. The second source in order of importance is nuclear medicine. The average level of radiation received by the man is 2.4 mSv/year and this value can be modified naturally in 20-30%. The author provides a review on radioactivity sources like natural (cosmic rays, extraterrestrial radiation, internal earth radiation, radon) and artificial (Nuclear explosions, professional exposure, nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and accidents).

  15. On the formation of non-radioactive copper during the production of 64Cu via proton and deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on enriched 64Ni targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine production of 64Cu commonly exploits the 64Ni(p,n) or 64Ni(d,2n) reactions. Above specific threshold energies, however, non-radioactive 63Cu and/or 65Cu are also co-produced. The non-radioactive (cold) Cu can significantly decrease the specific activity (SA) of 64Cu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. Based on nuclear model calculations for the formation of non-radioactive Cu isotopes, theoretical specific activities (TSA) for 64Cu were estimated. Reported current production methods, however, often yield SA values that are lower than the corresponding TSA predictions by more than an order of magnitude. Most of the non-radioactive Cu causing this has been found to originate from sources other than co-production, indicating that there is still significant potential for method improvement. (author)

  16. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  17. Gamma-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in targeted and bystander human artificial skin models and peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Christophe; Dickey, Jennifer; Bonner, William; Sedelnikova, Olga

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable. In addition to exposure from cosmic rays, the sun and radioactive substances, modern society has created new sources of radiation exposure such as space and high altitude journeys, X-ray diagnostics, radiological treatments and the increasing threat of radiobiological terrorism. For these reasons, a reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of dose and time exposure to IR is essential. We developed a minimally invasive diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of a phosphorylated variant of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules forms a gamma-H2AX focus in the chromatin flanking the DSB site that can be detected in situ. We analyzed gamma- H2AX focus formation in both directly irradiated cells as well as in un-irradiated "bystanders" in close contact with irradiated cells. In order to insure minimal invasiveness, we examined commercially available artificial skin models as a surrogate for human skin biopsies as well as peripheral blood lymphocytes. In human skin models, cells in a thin plane were microbeamirradiated and gamma-H2AX formation was measured both in irradiated and in distal bystander cells over time. In irradiated cells DSB formation reached a maximum at 15-30 minutes post- IR and then declined within several hours; all cells were affected. In marked contrast, the incidence of DSBs in bystander cells reached a maximum by 12-48 hours post-irradiation, gradually decreasing over the 7 day time course. At the maxima, 40-60% of bystander cells were affected. Similarly, we analyzed blood samples exposed to IR ex vivo at doses ranging from 0.02 to 3 Gy. The amount of DNA damage was linear in respect to radiation dose and independent of the age or sex of the blood donor. The method is highly reproducible and highly sensitive. In directly irradiated cells, the number of gamma-H2AX foci peaked

  18. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Radioactive iodine therapy improves the survival rate of patients with papillary ... and benefits of RAI therapy with your doctor. Radioactive iodine therapy cannot be used to treat anaplastic (undifferentiated) and ...

  19. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  20. Artificial cold exposure induced stroke in renovascular hypertensive rats and its association with cold-inducible RNA binding protein mRNA expression in brain tissue and blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High incidence of stroke at interchange period of autumn and winter was demonstrated by epidemiological survey, and the specific causes should be further investigated.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of artificial cold exposure on the incidence of stroke in renovascular hypertensive rats (RHR), and analyze the association with blood pressure and cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) mRNA expression in brain tissue.DESIGN: A completely randomized grouping design, a randomized control animal trial.SETTINGS: Lab of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University; Department of Chemistry, Open laboratory of Chemical Biology, Institute of Molecular Technology for Drug Discovery and Synthesis, University of Hong Kong.MATERIALS: Male SD rats (n =460), weighing 80- 100 g were obtained from Guangdong Province Health Animal Unit. A modified RXZ-300A intelligent artificial climate cabinet (Ningbo Jiangnan Instrument Co.,Ltd., China).METHODS: The experiment were processed in the Lab of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and the Open Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Institute of Molecular Technology for Drug Discovery and Synthesis, University of Hong Kong from October 2004 to November 2005. Rats (n =400) were operated to establish 2-kidney 2-clip RHR model as described previously. The sham-operated rats (n =60) served as normotensive controls. Eight weeks later, 300 of RHR were randomly selected according to their systolic blood pressure (SBP) and divided into 3 sub-groups (n =100 per group): mild hypertensive group (SBP of 160 - 200 mm Hg), moderate hypertensive group (SBP of 200 - 220 mm Hg) and severe hypertensive group (SBP > 220 mm Hg). Each group was further divided into two groups (n =50) under ACE and non-ACE. Normal sham-operated SD rats (n =60), SBP < 140 mm Hg, were randomly divided into two groups: Sham-operated control group (n =30) under ACE and non-ACE. To establish the ACE and non

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  2. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik.; Noh, Hyung Ah [Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2000. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  6. Comparative observation of primiparae undergone drug-induced abortion or artificial abortion on subsequent pregnancy%初产妇药物流产与人工流产术后对再妊娠影响的对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘东海; 叶娉婷

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较初产妇药物流产后和人工流产术后对再妊娠的影响,为选择合适、安全的流产方式提供临床参考.方法:采用回顾性调查方法对135例有人工流产术史、126例有药物流产史及130例无流产史的初产妇进行比较,观察其妊娠期和分娩期并发症的发生情况以及妊娠结局.结果:妊娠期人流组先兆流产发生率明显高于药流组和无流产组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.993,P0.05).分娩期人流组产后出血、胎盘粘连和胎盘残留的发生率明显高于药流组和无流产组,χ2分别为22.146、12.211、9.387,P值均0.05).结论:初产妇药物流产后对再次妊娠影响小于人工流产术后,可考虑作为临床终止早孕的首先选择.%Objective :To observe the efforts of drug-induced aboition or aitifirial aboition for primiparous women on their subsequent pregnancies for cliniral evidence to determine a safe and adequate means for termination of pregnancy. Methods: Retrospective comparative study was performed in 135 primiparae undergone artificial aboition, 126 with drug-induced aboition history and 130 primiparity without aboition to examine outcomes of subsequent pregnancy and complications associated with gestation and delivery. Results : Higher incidence of threatened aboition during the gestation period was found in women undergone artificial aboition as compared with those with drug-induced aboition or without aboition history. The difference was significant ( x2 = 14. 993 , P 0. 05 ). Similarly, Mothers with a history of artificial aboition had significantly higher incidence of postpaitum hemorrhage, placenta! adherence and residual placenta in labor than those experienced drug-induced aboition or no aboition ( x2 - 22. 146, x2 -12.211, x2 - 9. 387 , respectively ,P 0. 05 ). Conclusion-. Ding-induced aboition for prhnigravidas seem to produce less effects on their subsequent pregnancies than artificial intervention, and may be recommended as

  7. Radioactivity analyses of food and drinking water in China following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To summarize the analytical results of radioactivity in the food and drinking water nationwide following the Fukushima nuclear accident, and to evaluate its possible contamination to the public health in China. Methods: According to the national standard methods and IAEA, FDA correlative references,the scheme was established on sampling and measurements in food and drinking water after the breakout of the accident. The quality control was requested on the sampling, analyses and data report. Results: Trace artificial radioactive isotope of 131I was measured in spinach samples on 2 April 2011 in Beijing. Subsequently 131I was found in 10 kinds of growing leaves vegetables (open field)nationwide. The maximum detectable activity of 131I in vegetables was about 3.1 Bq/kg. Since 3 May 2011, the concentration of 131I has been below the detection limits.No artificial radionuclide was detectable in all of milk, drinking water and marine products samples during March to December, 2011. Conclusions: The food and drinking water measurements in China following the Fukushima nuclear accident denoted that the minor amounts of 131I in vegetables might result in very low absorbed dose and induce no impact on human health. The maximum detectable activity of 131I in vegetables was close to that reported in European countries,and much less than that measured in China immediately after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. (authors)

  8. Records of Gamma Radiation from the Ground and Beta Radiation from Radioactive Debris in Sweden, 1950–1955. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Sievert, Rolf M.

    2011-01-01

    The γ radiation of the ground from natural and artificial radioactivity, and the β radiation from radioactive debris in the atmosphere, have been recorded in Sweden since 1950. On several occasions increased radioactivity has been observed, sometimes producing effects by far exceeding the variations of the normal level. Observations are reported on the influence of rain and snowfall, with and without the effects caused by transportation of radioactive debris from nuclear explosions...

  9. Natural radioactivity and human mitochondrial DNA mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Lucy; Forster, Peter; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Willkomm, Horst; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Radioactivity is known to induce tumors, chromosome lesions, and minisatellite length mutations, but its effects on the DNA sequence have not previously been studied. A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. We sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control pop...

  10. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bruyère, D. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Laperche, V.; Michel, K. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-07-01

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis. - Highlights: • Application of a series of artificial neural networks (ANN) to quantitative LIBS • Matrix-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Concentration-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Series of quantitative ANN models dedicated to the analysis of data subsets • Relative error of prediction lower than 20% for LIBS analysis of soil samples.

  11. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  12. Six-year experiences in the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An islandwide network for environmental radioactivity monitoring established in 1974 is described with reference to (1) measurement of radioactive fallout from nuclear testings, (2) environmental monitoring for nuclear power plants and a radioactive waste disposal site, (3) a site specially designated by the government, and (4) installations involving radiation. Naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides are equally emphasized. All significant results are reported and discussed. (H.K.)

  13. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  14. Radioactivity introduction and history, from the quantum to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    As a comprehensive review of radioactivity from natural and artificial sources on earth and radiation of cosmic origins, this book provides users with a chronological account of the significant historical events on the topic dating from 1895 to the present, along with an introduction to the atom and its nucleus.

  15. Radioactive tracers in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans during the last four decades have proved invaluable tools for study of many processes in marine water columns and sediments. Both global and close-in fallout of radioactivity from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing have distributed these radionuclides widely, and in amounts sufficient to be useful as tracers. An additional source of considerable significance and tracer potential comes from coastal discharges of European nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. The nature of these sources, types and amounts of radionuclides introduced and the time histories of their introduction generate a variety of tracer distributions which illuminate a broad spectrum of physical and chemical processes active over a wide range of timescales. Depending on their respective chemistries, artificial radionuclides have been demonstrated to exhibit both conservative and non-conservative properties in the oceans. Some examples are given of the uses made of soluble, conservative tracers for the study of oceanic transport processes and of non-conservative tracers for studies of processes which move them to, and mix them within, marine sediments. Sampling and measurement techniques which have been used in these studies are described

  16. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km2, with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  17. Comparison of cross-sectional hardness and transverse microradiography of artificial carious enamel lesions induced by different demineralising solutions and gels

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, A C; Moron, B M; Comar, L P; Wiegand, A.; Buchalla, W.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to correlate surface (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH) with microradiographic parameters of artificial enamel lesions; (2) to compare lesions prepared by different protocols. Fifty bovine enamel specimens were allocated by stratified randomisation according to their initial SH values to five groups and lesions produced by different methods: MC gel (methylcellulose gel/lactic acid, pH 4.6, 14 days); PA gel (polyacrylic acid/lactic acid/hydroxyapatite, pH ...

  18. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  19. Comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, E; Yoshizawa, Y; Aburai, T

    2000-12-01

    Gas lantern mantles containing radioactive thorium have been used for more than 100 years. Although thorium was once believed to be indispensable for giving a bright light, non-radioactive mantles are now available. From the radioactivities of the daughter nuclides, we estimated the levels of radioactivity of 232Th and 228Th in 11 mantles. The mantles contained various levels of radioactivity from background levels to 1410 +/- 140 Bq. Our finding that radioactive and non-radioactive mantles are equally bright suggests that there is no advantage in using radioactive mantles. A remaining problem is that gas lantern mantles are sold without any information about radioactivity.

  20. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  1. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  2. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  3. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  4. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  6. Biokinetics of radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biokinetics of radioactive compounds in the human organism represent the central notion in this work, consisting of a theoretical and an experimental part. The first chapter contains definitions and explanations on the importance of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in clinical therapy and pharmaceuticals research as well as for assessing radiation exposure and radiation hazards. Chapter 2 describes the bases of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in the medical and non-medical sector, and biokinetics. Chapter 3 deals with obtaining biokinetics data for radioactive compounds from investigations in animals and man, evaluation of measurements, transferring data obtained by animal experiments to man, and with the variability of biokinetics data. In Chapter 4 the results of comprehensive studies in literature on the biokinetics of radioactive compounds are summarized. They relate to three areas: professional and environmental incorporation of radioactive compounds, use of radioactive pharmaceuticals in therapy and research, and incorporation of radioactive compounds by embryo and fetus in consequence of the uptake of radioactive compounds by the mother. Chapter 5 gives an assessment of radiation hazards from radioactive compounds in connection with occupational radiation exposure and nuclear diagnostics in vivo, and a comparison with other risks. For that purpose the concept of effective dose equivalent is applied in connection with suitable risk coefficients to professional and nuclear-medical radiation exposure. Chapter 6 is dedicated to measurement of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in man using conventional devices. The object of Chapter 7 is measurement of the biokinetics of radioactive pharmaceuticals in man by means of single photon emission computed tomography. (orig./MG)

  7. Natural and artificial radioactivity in soils of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 222 Rn, 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs were studied in soils of a forest zone located at 3000 m altitude in the central portion of Mexico. the radon concentrations in different soil horizons were determined with solid state nuclear track detectors and the concentrations of 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs in soil samples were measured with a gamma spectrometer at low level coupled to a High purity Ge detector. The results indicate differences of a magnitude order in the radon concentrations inside the studied area. The levels of 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs are discussed as function of the perturbation grade of the soil and atmospheric pollution. (Author)

  8. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper.

  9. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  10. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  11. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  12. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  13. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  14. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  15. Measurement of natural and 137Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öksüz, I.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A.; Aksan, S.

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope 137Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the 40K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of 137Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  16. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  17. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Moreira Xavier; André Gomes de Lima; Camila Rosa Moraes Vigna; Fabíola Manhas Verbi; Gisele Gonçalves Bortoleto; Karen Goraieb; Carol Hollingworth Collins; Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira Bueno

    2007-01-01

    The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medi...

  18. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  19. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  20. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  1. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ilse Skokan; P. Christian Endler; Beatrix Wulkersdorfer; Dieter Magometschnigg; Heinz Spranger

    2007-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the b...

  2. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  3. Characteristics and Disposal Categorization of Solid Radioactive Waste from the Front End of the Uranium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper categorization of radioactive waste forms the basis for defining its disposal method. In particular, it is the basis for defining the disposal policy for solid radioactive waste from the front end of the uranium fuel cycle to identify scientifically its characteristics, in view of the differences in regulatory approach between artificial radioactive waste and NORM waste. The paper examines the disposal policy and practice in China and other countries for solid radioactive waste from the front end of the uranium fuel cycle and discusses the confusion in disposal of the waste as artificial radioactive waste. The radionuclide composition and characteristics of the solid radioactive waste from the front end of the uranium fuel cycle are investigated in detail and a new idea that such waste needs to be disposed of and categorized as NORM waste is proposed. (author)

  4. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  6. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  7. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  8. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  9. Two-proton radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Bertram; Ploszajczak, Marek

    2007-01-01

    In the first part of the present review paper, experimental results which lead to the discovery of two-proton radioactivity are reviewed. Beyond two-proton emission from nuclear ground states, we also discuss experimental studies of two-proton emission from excited states populated either by nuclear beta decay or by inelastic reactions. In the second part, we review the modern theory of two-proton radioactivity. An outlook to future experimental studies and theoretical developments will concl...

  10. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  11. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  12. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  14. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: http://cern.ch/rp-sources/request This link is also available from the radioactive sources service main page: http://cern.ch/rp-sources From now on, please submit your request via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  15. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql-1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql-1. Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year-1. (author)

  16. Radioactive dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is the second of a five part series on the technical evaluation of a number of dust monitoring instruments and the characterization of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The data reported here pertain to an experimental study conducted under laboratory controlled conditions in a Long-Lived Radioactive Dust Test Facility (LLRDTF) designed for this purpose. This study was carried out with a twofold purpose in mind, namely, for the characterization of dust and LLRD, and for the evaluation of a variety of monitoring instruments, including cascade impactors, optical particle counters, nylon cyclones, open face filter samplers, and α-particle personal dosimeters, the latter normally used for α-particle radiation exposure purposes. Several non-radioactive and radioactive dusts were characterized. The non-radioactive dusts were SiC, Al2O3, talcum powder, corn starch and flour, while uranium tailings were used as a radioactive dust. Clear differences in instrument performance were observed for the various measurements made

  17. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  18. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  19. Literature in focus: The history of radioactivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    René Bimbot, an expert in nuclear physics, will be coming to present his book - The History of Radioactivity. The work provides a summary of our accumulated knowledge of radioactivity and its applications, from its discovery to the present day. Presented in layman's terms, and backed by plenty of illustrations, the work creates the link between the rudimentary knowledge available in the times of Becquerel and the Curies and contemporary physics. It takes us on a great physics adventure, from the nucleus to the quark, from artificial radioactivity to radiotherapy, from the discovery of fission to nuclear reactors, not forgetting dating methods. Finally, the work provides a wealth of practical information on radiation and on matters relating to nuclear waste. A former Research Director at the CNRS, a heavy-ion physicist at the Orsay Nuclear Physics Institute, René Bimbot is no stranger to CERN. At the beginning of the 1980s, he worked on the CERN Synchrocyclotron, before joining the GANIL experiment in 1985...

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  1. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  2. 含倾斜砂土夹层的人工岛地震液化灾害分析%Analyses of seismic liquefaction induced disaster in artificial island with sloping sand layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡记磊; 唐小微; 白旭; 张西文

    2015-01-01

    Liquefaction due to strong earthquake easily causes permanent displacement and strain of sloping sand layer in the fundament and induces the phenomena of flow slides,and then brings serious damages to the superstructure. Considering sloping sand layers' gradient, thickness, depth and seawater level synthetically, a two-dimensional offshore artificial island model was simulated numerically by FE-FD coupling finite element analysis method.The experimental results indicate that these four influence factors have different effects on the large deformation of artificial island in the course of seismic liquefaction.The influence of gradient is the greatest,and the influence of seawater level is the most non-obvious,and especially,its effect on excess pore water pressure is very small. Lateral spreading of artificial island j ust occurs after total liquefaction of saturated sloping sand layer in the course of seismic,which is a limit slide along the slope during a period of time.Its degree of damage is much bigger than that of damage induced by liquefaction of horizontal sand layer,and it easily causes serious differential settlement and damage of revetment of artificial island. These analytical results can provide reference for hazard evaluation of offshore engineering due to seismic liquefaction.%强地震易造成地基中倾斜砂土夹层液化后产生永久变形和位移,并诱发流滑现象,进而对上部结构产生严重破坏。基于 FE-FD耦合有限元方法,综合考虑倾斜砂土夹层的坡度、厚度、埋深以及海水水位因素,对某近海人工岛二维结构模型进行了数值模拟分析。结果表明:砂土层的坡度、厚度、埋深以及水位因素对人工岛的地震液化灾害有着不同程度的影响,其中坡度的影响最显著,而水位的影响最不明显,特别是水位对超孔隙水压力增长的影响非常小。人工岛的侧向扩展是在地震过程中饱和倾斜砂土夹层完全液化被

  3. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-12-19

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  4. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 226Ra, 228Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241Am, 7Be, 60Co, 55Fe, 3H, 131I, 54Mn, 95Nb, 210Pb, 210Po, 106Ru, 125Sb, 228Th, 232Th, and 95Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g-1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  5. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226Ra and 228Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210Pb and progeny 210Bi and 210Po. These are found in combination with 226Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  6. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  7. Radioecological observations in the trace-measurement and dosimetric evaluation of radioactive traces in the air; Radiooekologische Beobachtungen bei der Spurenmessung und dosimetrische Bewertung radioaktiver Spuren in der Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Wershofen, Herbert [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Umweltradioaktivitaet

    2014-03-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Weekly measurement of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K, long-time measurement series, natural radioactive nuclides, artificial radioactive nuclides, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238-240}Pu, the radioecology of {sup 129}I, dosimetric evaluation of radioactive traces in air. (HSI)

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  10. Levels of Radioactivity in the Cuban Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.A.; Asencio, M.D.; Caravaca, A.M.; Morell, E.S.; Claro, R.M

    1998-07-01

    The National Sampling Programme has been initiated to determine the levels of natural and artificial radioactivity in the Cuban Marine Environment. Samples of water, sediment and marine life were analysed. The levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Po, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in components of the marine environment are described. The materials and methods used for the work are those recommended by the Centre of Radiation Protection and Hygiene and accepted internationally. (author)

  11. Radioactivity - superstition and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  12. Method of packaging radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the leaching of radioactive waste in marine environment. Method: Fillers are placed between a drum can and an inner cage for charging radioactive wastes in order to prevent the leakage of the radioactive wastes from the drum can. Leaching inhibitors for radioactive materials are mixed with the fillers made of organic substance such as asphalts and plastics. The leaching inhibitors are made of materials in the similar chemical form to that of the radioactive materials in the wastes and mixed into the fillers to the saturation limit of dissolution. For the radioactive wastes containing spent adsorbents for iodine, the inhibitors are made of silver nitrates. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. The radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different types of radioactive waste are presented in this paper in the frame of the official categories which take into account their dangerousness and the lifetimes of their radioactivity. It is indicated how the less dangerous of them are handled in France. The ways of protecting the environment from the more dangerous ones (high activity and long lifetimes) are object of studies. Scientific questions, in the field of chemistry and physical chemistry, related to the implementation of deep underground repository facilities with full respect of nuclear safety are presented. (authors)

  14. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  15. Your radioactive garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet on radiation risks from nuclear waste is based on lectures given by the author at Westminster School (United Kingdom) and elsewhere during 1986. A description is given of naturally-occurring radioactivity, and the health risks due to this radiation. The types of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry are described, including low-level wastes, short-lived and long-lived intermediate-level wastes, and high level wastes. These wastes are discussed with respect to their potential health risks and their disposal underground. (U.K.)

  16. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  18. Radioactivity yesterday and today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an exhibition on the history of radioactivity from Homer to Oppenheimer has been organised in the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris, this article first recalls some atom characteristics and interactions between electrostatic forces within the atom. The author recalls how radioactivity has been unexpectedly discovered at the end of the 19. century, recalls the first works of characterization performed by Marie Curie and those performed by other scientists who perceived the opportunities for various applications. More recent works are also addressed like other forms of nucleus disintegrations, the generation of heavy ion beams, and double beta decay

  19. Residual radioactivity measurements at Indus accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-1 and Indus-2 are two Synchrotron Radiation Sources (SRS) operational at RRCAT, Indore. Indus-1 and Indus-2 are designed for maximum electron beam energy of 450 MeV and 2.5 GeV respectively. During shut down of these accelerators for maintenance purpose, residual radioactivity measurements were carried out. The residual radioactivity formation in various parts of the high energy electron accelerators is due to the beam loss taking place at these locations. The present paper describes the recent residual radioactivity measurements carried out at the electron accelerators of Indus Accelerator Complex and the radio-isotopes identified. The maximum dose rate due to induced activity obtained is 30 μSv/h, near dipole-5 of booster synchrotron after 12 h of cooling time. In case of Indus-1 and Indus-2 SRS the dose rate due to induced radioactivity is found to be of the order of 2 - 3 μSv/h. The radio isotopes identified at these beam loss locations are beta emitters that do not pose serious external hazard to the working personnel. However, precautions are to be observed while doing maintenance on activated components. The paper describes the measurements in detail with the results. (author)

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Lee, Hae Young; Yang, Chan Sun [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  1. Monitoring of airborne radioactivity (radon, thoron and daughters; radioactive dust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes resulting in airborne radioactivity from uranium and thorium ores are discussed. Measurement methods for radioactive dust, radon and thoron gas and radon and thoron daughters are described and assessed. The monitoring equipment required for measurement of airborne radioactivity is described

  2. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  3. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  4. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  5. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3H, 137Cs and 90Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226Ra, 228Th and 40K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  7. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  8. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site. http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  9. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  10. Development of an experimental set-up for the measurement of neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections of highly radioactive fissile nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companis Iulia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of many actinides is complicated by the difficulty in separating capture γ-rays from the large fission-fragment prompt γ-ray background. For example, current estimates of the capture cross section of 233U show large discrepancies, with differences of more than 20%. To improve the accuracy of data, a new experimental set-up for the simultaneous measurement of the neutron-induced capture and fission cross sections was designed, assembled and optimized. The measurements will be performed at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility in Belgium, where neutron cross sections can be measured over a wide energy range with high energy resolution. The fission detector consists of a dedicated multi-plate high-efficiency ionization chamber (IC. The γ-rays produced in capture reaction are detected by an array of C6D6 scintillators. Fission γ–rays are distinguished from capture γ–rays by the anticoincidence signals from the IC and the C6D6 detectors. For the undetected fission events a correction has to be applied based on the efficiency of the IC that should be high and known with a high accuracy. The performance of the IC during dedicated test experiments is presented, focusing on the determination of the detection efficiency.

  11. Development of an experimental set-up for the measurement of neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections of radioactive fissile nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companis I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new experimental set-up for a simultaneous measurement of neutron induced capture and fission cross sections was designed, assembled and optimized. The measurements will be performed at GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility in Belgium, where neutron cross sections can be measured over a wide energy range with high energy resolution. The fission events detector consists of a dedicated multi-plate high efficiency fission ionization chamber (IC. The γ-rays produced in capture reaction are detected by an efficient array of C6D6 scintillators. Fission γ-rays events are distinguished from capture events by the anticoincidence signals from the IC and the C6D6 detectors. For the undetected fission events a correction has to be applied with respect to the efficiency of the IC that should be high and known with a high precision. Another important issue is the good separation between fission-fragment (FF and the high alpha pile-up. The performances of the IC during test experiments are presented, focusing in particular on the detection efficiency.

  12. AKTIS Nr. 12: To better understand radioactive aerosol deposit in order to better measure it; Radio-induced lesions: a new step towards healing; Modelling the collapse of an immersed grain column; To better model soot deposit; Towards the prediction of the leakage rate of containment enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the main results of researches undertaken by the IRSN in the field of radiation protection, nuclear safety and security. The topics herein addressed are: radio-induced lesions as a new step towards healing (case of injection mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of induced severe colorectal lesions), the modelling of the collapse of an immersed grain column (to study the nuclear fuel behaviour in an accidental situation through a modelling of fluid-grain interactions), a better understanding of radioactive aerosol deposit (to study particle or aerosol deposits after radioactive releases in the atmosphere in case of accident), a better modelling of soot deposits (in case of fire), the prediction of leakage rates of containment enclosures (ageing phenomena of installations, systems and equipment, with the case of cracks due to material ageing and resulting in confinement losses which could thus be quantified)

  13. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  14. Artificial vision workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  15. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  16. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  17. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  18. Nuclear physics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive beam production through two different mechanisms: acceleration of radioactive nuclei, and production of secondary beams from projectile fragmentation is overviewed. Some topics of the applications of radioactive beams in nuclear physics, such as identification and study of exotic nuclei, neutron halos, nuclear astrophysics and medical applications are discussed. (K.A.). 24 refs., 8 figs

  19. Radio-ecological aspects in artificial groundwater recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In increasing extent surface waters, especially those of rivers and streams, are contaminated by radionuclides. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the possibility of impairement of the quality of artificially recharged groundwater and drinking water by radionuclides. Hazards for man are possible by drinking water, that was affected by waste and during exposition to air, as well as indirectly by irrigation water and the food chain. In a model calculation using realistic conditions the order of magnitude of these hazards for man by incorporation of radioactively contaminated artificially recharged drinking water are to be assessed. Here the parameters are discussed which must be considered in such an assessment. The model includes the use of river water for artificial recharge. All models and assessments assume the most unfavourable preconditions, which may lead to an impact to man. (orig.)

  20. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  1. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  2. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  3. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. PMID:25497990

  4. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Medhat Moustafa E.; Singh Vishwanath P.; Shirmardi Seyed P.

    2015-01-01

    In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative ana...

  5. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  6. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals; La radioactivite et les mineraux uraniferes francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Boisson, J.M.; Leydet, J.C. [Association Francaise de Micromineralogie, 13 - Carry le Rouet (France); Meisser, N. [Universite BFSH, Musee Geologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1998-07-01

    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  7. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  8. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  9. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  10. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  11. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  12. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  13. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  15. Radioactive material storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make a spent fuel accommodating box movable and accommodate spent fuels at a position farther than the side wall of the storage installation and to draw the spent fuel near to the side wall with the lapse of the storage time, thereby attenuating the radiation effectively and increasing the storage capacity. Constitution: A space (box) accommodating radioactive materials is made movable, and the radiation is effectively shielded by the attenuation of the radioactive materials in storage due to the lapse of the storage time and the shielding of the radiation due to the liquefied shielding material up to the shielding wall of the storage installation, whereby the shielding wall of the storage installation is made thin and the capacity in the installation is enlarged, thus the accommodation capacity, that is, the storage capacity being increased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Radioactive substances decontamination exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In common with all hospitals prepared to accept casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has a contingency plan for dealing with them. Such plans are prepared by each hospital after discussion between the hospital's radiation protection adviser and its accident and emergency staff. As in virtually all hospitals with such plans those in this hospital have never had to be used. As part of an ongoing evaluation of all contingency arrangements an exercise was held to see how well the arrangements for dealing with radioactive contamination worked in practice. We report the results of the exercise since the practical problems we experienced must be common to all similar plans and might be of use to other hospitals. (author)

  17. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I1/I2) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author)

  18. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m3). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author)

  19. Radioactivity and deep geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to recent developments in energy politics renewable energies get more and more importance in Germany. This is especially true for geothermal energy representing a promising option for the environmentally sound and secure generation of heat and electricity. But there are a lot of very emotional discussions due to radioactive residues and wastes produced by a geothermal plant. Thus this paper compares radioactivity resulting from geothermal energy with radioactivity coming from other natural sources. In doing so it becomes obvious that naturally radioactive sources exist in all parts of the ecosphere (i.e. air, water, soil). The paper shows also that the specific activities of radioactive elements from geothermal energy in form of residues and waste emerge from radioactive decay of nuclides and that their radiation is not higher than the radiation of other naturally occurring radioactive elements. (orig.)

  20. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  1. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  2. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B.F. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.P. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  3. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  4. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  5. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report different aspects of the radioactivity in the environment of the Slovak Republic for the period of 2004 - 2006 years are reported. This report is published only on the Enviroportal.sk. The following aspects of the radioactivity in the environment are reviewed there: Electricity production in nuclear power plants and their consumption; Natural sources of ionisation radiation; Man-made sources of ionisation radiation; Safety of exploitation of the nuclear power plants on the territory of the Slovak Republic; International Nuclear Event Scale; Basic information about influence of radiation on health of population and about evaluation methods; Influence of physical risk factors (including of ionisation radiation) in the working environment on formation of occupation diseases; Collective doses of occupation in NPPs; Health state of population in the locality of the NPP Mochovce; Food contamination by ionisation radiation; Radiation monitoring network; Legislative directives about population health protection against ionisation radiation action; Decommissioning of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (EBO V-1); Conception of the back fuel cycle and treatment of spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes; Project of territorial-economic development of the Trnava region after decommissioning of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  7. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  8. RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND EXCITED CABLES WITH ARTIFICIAL RIVULET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明; 刘慈军; 徐幼麟; 项海帆

    2002-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of response characteristics of cables with artificial rivulet is presented.A series of cable section models of different mass and stiffness and damping ratio were designed with artificial rivulet.They were tested in smooth flow under different wind speed and yaw angle and for different position of artificial rivulet.The measured response of cable models was then analyzed and compared with the experimental results obtained by other researchers and the existing theories for wind-induced cable vibration.The results show that the measured response of horizontal cable models with artificial rivulet could be well predicted by Den Hartog' s galloping theory when wind is normal to the cable axis.For the wind with certain yaw angles, the cable models with artificial rivulet exhibit velocity-restricted response characteristics.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  10. Influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of particles in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; McFarlane, Joanna; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity can influence surface interactions, but its effects on particle aggregation kinetics have not been included in transport modeling of radioactive particles. In this research, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to investigate the influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Radioactivity-induced charging mechanisms have been investigated at the microscopic level, and heterogeneous surface potential caused by radioactivity is reported. The radioactivity-induced surface charging is highly influenced by several parameters, such as rate and type of radioactive decay. A population balance model, including interparticle forces, has been employed to study the effects of radioactivity on particle aggregation kinetics in air. It has been found that radioactivity can hinder aggregation of particles because of similar surface charging caused by the decay process. Experimental and theoretical studies provide useful insights into the understanding of transport characteristics of radioactive particles emitted from severe nuclear events, such as the recent accident of Fukushima or deliberate explosions of radiological devices.

  11. Field tests using radioactive matter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of field tests with explosive dispersal of a radioactive substance (RaS) are presented. The paper deals with tests exploiting artificial obstacles as a continuation and expansion of the tests used in this study performed in free area described previously. The essential goal of the tests was to estimate the distribution of the released RaS in the case of intentional abuse of radioactive sources and to get a set of data applicable to testing physical or mathematical models of propagation. Effects of different geometrical and meteorological conditions on the distribution of dispersed RaS were studied via the assessment of dose rate, surface and volume activities, aerosol mass and activity aerodynamic diameters. The principal results can be summarised as follows: the prevalent proportion of the activity of the radionuclide dispersed by an explosion (born by the blast wave and by air convection) is transferred to the detection system/collecting pads essentially within the first minute. Enhanced aerosol mass concentrations were also detected within the same period. The RaS carried by the blast wave passed through the polygon (50 m) within<1 s. An expected crucial impact of meteorological conditions at the moment of the explosion and shortly after was proved by the tests. (authors)

  12. The intrusion of low-level radioactive waste into Dublin Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial radionuclides principally caesium-137 and caesium-134, derived from Sellafield effluents are present at low concentrations in the marine environment of Dublin Bay. Results of a survey of radioactivity levels in the Western Irish Sea are presented in this report and an estimate is given of the annual dose equivalent to members of the Irish fish consuming population from radiocaesium

  13. On the optimal regulation of technologically. Enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost effectiveness, ethics and consistency of TENORM regulation were examined by comparing the existing regulation with a hypothetical regulation derived from ideal legislation procedures. The comparison revealed the necessity of risk-based regulation, consideration for ethics as well as optimal usage of regulation resources, and problems of existing discrepancy between artificial and natural radioactivity regulations. (author)

  14. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide;

    Artificial vesicles represent ideal candidates as a model for artificial cells. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery (cell-free expression systems) can be incorporated into vesicles and allow the synthesis of proteins. Vesicles were shown to fuse...... vesicles in the presence of peptides. This project may present a step towards personalized drug delivery. Specific drugs or prodrugs enclosed into vesicles may be released upon an external signal related to a disease, e.g. a tumor, to activate gene expression and synthesis of fusion peptides to induce...

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  16. Food and water radioactivity surveillance system in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    natural radionuclides and reporting levels for artificial radionuclides; b) The highest values for 137Cs and 90 Sr have being registered in the Sub-Carpathians region, the most affected regions due to the Chernobyl accident. Conclusions: The radioactive surveillance results shows levels of radioactivity for drinking water and food stuffs without significant health impacts for health status of the population. (author)

  17. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  18. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  19. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  20. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  1. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10-5 Bq/g; Cs137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10-5 Bq/g. Cs137 is radioactive so Cs137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  3. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  4. Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

    2011-11-01

    José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

  5. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  6. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  7. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  8. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

  9. Services for a radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Services for a radioactive environment are introduced through a plug in an enclosure for the radioactive environment. The plug is connectable to the enclosure by means of a double door unit so that removal of the plug can be effected without disturbing the integrity of the radioactive environment. To enable the plug to be removed, one of the doors is used to seal the enclosure, and the other door used to cover that portion of the plug that has been exposed to the radioactive environment. (author)

  10. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  11. Radioactive waste: Issues and debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management in general has always been in terms of regulation Environmental, a subject of attention but also voltages. Radioactive waste management is no exception to the rule and concentrates, sometimes irrationally, the vast majority industry fears nuclear. The first difficulty is to define radioactive waste, which raises further questions with regard to the case law on this topic and reactions of stakeholders. One of the other components of the debate on radioactive waste is the ability of different actors to ensure sustainable waste management Radioactive in optimum conditions in terms of nuclear safety.This results in the acceptance management solutions by the public.

  12. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  13. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  14. CONTAMINACIÓN RADIACTIVA AMBIENTAL EN EL NEOTRÓPICO ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION IN NEOTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osores, J, M.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental radioactive pollution is produced mainly by the use of natural or artificial radioactive substances, the use of the nuclear power and nuclear weapons, constituting a great danger of contamination for the nature and the humanity; since many residues of these polluting materials have been scattered by all the earth. The risks of the radioactive contamination for the people and the environment depend on the nature of the radioactive contaminant, the pollution level and the extension of the contamination; since all the radiations are genotoxics, the probability of genetic alterations and production of mutations is going to depend on the exposure degree of the cells of an organism. In the last years, the environmental radioactive pollution hazards due to artificial radionuclides were reduced considerably, the scientific community has paid special interest in the contamination with natural radioactive elements like for example the radon released within the underground mines that the probability of occurrence of cancer of lung between the workers and the accumulation of different materials NORMS in mining activities increases, especially in the uranium zones of Pozo de Caldas (Brazil and Macusani (Peru, zones of phosphoric operation of rocks (Bayovar or polimetalic mining; the inadequate treatment of these materials is going to produce an important radiological impact and to alter to the habitat of different communities from plants and animals in the region.

  15. Artificial radioactivity in edible parts of giant clam mollusc from Mururoa atoll from 1967 to 1990. Health physics aspect. Radioactivite artificielle dans les parties comestibles d'un mollusque (Benitier) de l'atoll de Mururoa entre 1967 et 1990. Interpretation sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R. (Service mixte de controle biologique, 91 - Montlhery (FR)); Arnould, C. (Laboratoire d' etudes et de surveillance de l' environnement, Papeete, Tahiti, (Polynesie francaise))

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides concentration by giant clams is associated with feeding habit. It's also a main food for polynesian atolls inhabitants, elsewhere than Mururoa island because this mollusc is not consumed like all the other fishery products from this atoll lagoon. Nevertheless measurements of ten artificial radionuclides are performed in edible parts of giant clams fished from Mururoa lagoon since the beginning of nuclear tests. The decay of radionuclides concentration is described versus time. To go further on we have computed the dose-equivalent for internal exposure of an eventual giant clams eater. It is estimated that the resulting risk of malignancy is below than 1 per 10 000.

  16. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  17. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  18. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  19. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  20. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  1. Neutronic measurements of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the general matters involved in the radioactive waste management and the different non destructive assays of radioactivity. The neutronic measurements used in the characterization of waste drums containing emitters are described with more details, especially the active neutronic interrogation assays with prompt or delayed neutron detection: physical principle, signal processing and evaluation of the detection limit. (author)

  2. Radioactive wastes problem in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of CSOP Near Surface Repository of radioactive wastes in Rozan (Poland) and description of storage facilities was presented. This place is systematically controlled (e.g. measurements of radioactive contamination of the surface air, ground water, soil, grass and cereals). Contamination by tritium near by storage facilities was observed

  3. Radioactive beams and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain lectures and contributed papers submitted to the second INR (Kiev's) International School on Nuclear Physics (Kiev, June 25 -July 2, 1991). The following sections were included in the Proceedings: Radioactive Beam Facilities, Application of Radioactive Beams in the Investigations of Nuclear Reactions, Exotic Nuclei and Clusters, Polarization Phenomena, Astrophysics and Others

  4. North American radioactive beam initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of existing radioactive beam facilities in North America, two new initiative (the Oak Ridge Radioactive Ion Beam Facility and the IsoSpin Laboratory) are described in some detail. An evaluation of which nuclei these facilities will be able to study, that cannot be studied with stable targets and beams, also is presented

  5. Public debate - radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  6. Introduction to the problems of the radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small book intended to provide basic information to non-specialists about the nature and the risks of radioactive wastes. The subject is developed through five chapters: Ch. I underlines the idea that the XX Century nuclear reactors and 'artificial' radioactivity to that naturally occurring in the Earth since the last event of the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the Solar System, some 4500 millions of years ago; Ch. II describes the ordered universal set of atomic units (nucleidic chart) responsible for all the kinds of known matter, and their transformation rules by which radioactivity is created. Ch. III explains the properties of radioactive wastes as a result of their radionuclide content; Ch. IV puts into perspective the hazards of this kink of wastes by comparison to other common occurring wastes generated by human activity; and finally; Ch. V refers to the risks of the Earth (as a cosmic repository), in order to provide a natural reference level to assess the risk legacy that we will afford to future generations. (Author)

  7. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  8. Radioactive contamination at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic weapons tests were conducted in Australia at three locations between 1952 and 1963. There were twelve trials where nuclear explosions took place (major trials), and many other trials where devices and components associated with the development of atomic weapons were burnt or exploded with conventional explosives (minor trials). Radioactive residues from the major trials have not proved to be of radiological consequence in the long term, and it has been estimated that remaining activation and fission products will cease to be of any concern beyond about 2030. Between 1960 and 1963, however, a series of safety trials involving plutonium were carried out at the Taranaki site at Maralinga, where twelve firings were conducted in three series of trials from firing pads within a few hundred metres of each other, leading to the local dispersion of some 22 kilograms of plutonium-239

  9. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  10. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  11. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  12. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  13. Ionizing radiation, cancer induction and radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred years of observations of ionizing radiation have led to a number of major discoveries, including [1] ionizing radiation induces gene mutations in animals at a rate linearly proportional to dose, [2] certain cancers are induced by relatively high doses at a rate that is linearly proportional to the dose, [3] exposure of the fetus to very low doses of x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of cancer developing during childhood, and [4] many cancers result from somatic mutations in genes that control the normal growth and differentiation of cells. Cancers induced by ionizing radiation are likely therefore to result from somatic mutations, as first predicted by H. J. Muller in 1927. Large scale man-made releases of radioactive fallout have occurred and pose a cancer hazard. A special case is the risk of thyroid cancer to infants who ingest the radioiodines in such fallout. Ongoing epidemiological studies of persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 may eventually help to quantify risks associated with very low radiation doses and low dose rates. Governments and societies will need to be better prepared to cope with any future releases of radioactive fallout. (author)

  14. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  15. Development of artificial empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  16. Radioactivity in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was dedicated to the study of the background levels of 210Po and natural gamma emitters as 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 212Pb and 212Bi in coffee powder and in coffee beverage; also the artificial 137Cs was determined. In the coffee powder the mean 210Po activity resulted 7.25 ± 2.25 x 10-2 Bq kg-1. 40K showed a mean activity of 907.4 ± 115.6 Bq kg-1. The mean activity concentration of 214Pb and 214Bi, indicators of 226Ra, given as mean value of the two radionuclides, resulted 10.61 ± 4.02 Bq kg-1. 228Ac, 228Ra indicator, showed a mean activity concentration of 13.73 ± 3.20 Bq kg-1. The mean activity concentration of 212Pb, 224Ra indicator, was 8.28 ± 2.88 Bq kg-1. 208Tl, 224Ra indicator, presented a mean activity concentration of 11.03 ± 4.34 Bq kg-1. In all samples, the artificial 137Cs resulted below the detection limit (2.0 Bq kg-1). The arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210Po extraction in coffee beverage resulted 20.5 ± 6.9. The percentage of transfer of gamma emitters, 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 212Pb, 208Tl resulted of 80.0, 33.5, 24.7, 30.0, 35.1 and 53.5 % for 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 212Pb and 208Tl respectively. (author)

  17. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  18. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  19. CT staging of lung cancer: the role of artificial pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role of artificially induced pneumothorax in the evaluation of the chest wall and mediastinal invasion in patients with peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma. CT scans of 22 patients obtained after induced pneumothorax were evaluated. All patients had peripheral lung mass abutting the pleura on a routine CT scan. Room air of 200-400ml was introduced through intrathoracic negative pressure initially, followed by pressure injection through the 18 gauge long bevelled needle under fluoroscopic control. Conclusively, CT with artificial pneumothorax added more information than conventional CT in the evaluation of the chest wall or mediastinal invasion by lung cancer without notable risk

  20. Measurement Of Radioactivity Levels And Assessment Of Radioactivity Hazards Of Soil Samples İn Karaman, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ağar, O.; Boztosun, I.; Korkmaz, M E; Özmen, S. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the levels of the natural and artificial radioactivity in soil samples collected from surrounding of Karaman in Turkey were measured. Activity concentrations of the concerned radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 40 % at 1.332 MeV. The results obtained for the 238U series (226Ra, 214Pb and 214Bi), 232Th series (228Ac), 40K and fission product 137Cs are discussed. To evaluate the radiological ...

  1. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  2. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Moreira Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medicinal, industrial and food applications of ionizing radiation. The text leads the reader to reflect on the subject and to consider its various aspects with scientific and technological maturity.

  3. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  4. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  5. Droplet Microfluidics for Artificial Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnamaraju, Srikoundinya; Steckl, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Droplet interface bilayer is a versatile approach that allows formation of artificial lipid bilayer membrane at the interface of two lipid monolayer coated aqueous droplets in a lipid filled oil medium. Versatility exists in the form of voltage control of DIB area, ability of forming networks of DIBs, volume control of droplets and lipid-oil, and ease of reformation. Significant effect of voltage on the area and capacitance of DIB as well as DIB networks are characterized using simultaneous optical and electrical recordings. Mechanisms behind voltage-induced effects on DIBs are investigated. Photo induced effect on the DIB membrane porosity is obtained by incorporating UVC-sensitive photo-polymerizable lipids in DIB. Photo-induced effects can be extended for in-vitro studies of triggered release of encapsulated contents across membranes. A droplet based low voltage digital microfluidic platform is developed to automate DIB formation, which could potentially be used for forming arrays of lipid bilayer membranes.

  6. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  7. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  8. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...... as chemzymes that catalyze conjugate additions, cycloadditions, and self-replicating processes. The focus will be mainly on cyclodextrin-based chemzymes since they have shown to be good candidate structures to base an enzyme model skeleton on. In addition hereto, other molecules that encompass binding......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...

  9. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  10. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  11. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  12. Approval of radioactive consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)

  13. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  14. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  15. Management of radioactive wastes produced by users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users

  16. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  17. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  18. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  19. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model.

  20. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model. PMID:26948762

  1. Radioactive decay data tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals

  2. Radioactive iodine removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive iodine removing device of an off-gas processing step in a spent fuel reprocessing facility, spiral structures having an inclination of more than about 20deg is disposed at the inside of an iodine adsorbent packing portion, and dampers are disposed at a packing inlet and a discharging exit for iodine adsorbents respectively. After completion of discharge of the iodine adsorbents, a damper disposed in the midway of a adsorbent packing pipeline is opened for packing the iodine absorbents. The iodine adsorbents used have a spherical shape of 10 to 20 mesh (1 to 2mm), and the adsorbents are packed uniformly both radially and vertically to the packing portion upon injection of the adsorbents and, as a result, the packing portion can be made compact. Further, since the discharged iodine adsorbents can be contained in a vessel directly or in a different vessel having an excellent containing performance by taking the dimension of the vessel into consideration, it is possible to reduce the generation amount of wastes than that in a conventional case. (N.H.)

  3. Experience with radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 11, 1970, the reactor top continuous air monitor (CAM) showed an increase in particulate air activity of an unusual nature. A check of the CAM filter with a multi-channel analyzer indicated that the majority of the activity was due to Cs-138 , Cs-139 , Rb-89 , and Rb-90 , which indicated a probable fuel element leak. The CAM filter was changed and rechecked several times, but the rubidium and cesium radionuclides were consistently identified. The procedure was followed by removing three fuel elements at a time. Since the CAM was the only instrument picking up radioactivity, it was used as the primary radiation monitor. During the search for the leaky fuel element, it was found that the element in position E-18 (triangle cut-out) was leaning against the top of the element in E-17. Particulate air activity originating from the rotating rack loading port on the reactor top was reported by OSU during the previous TRIGA Owner's Seminar. Short term relief can be obtained by inserting a standard CAM filter paper over the rotating rack loading tube opening, but this has not proved satisfactory for runs of one hour or longer. A simple filter system for the rotating rack was built, and is operated as part of the argon ventilation system. This appears to have solved the problem

  4. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose of radioactivity to which the average Norwegian consumer was exposed through the consumption of food during the year immediately following the Chernobyl accident was 0.15 mSv. Certain individuals with special dietary habits (large proportions of freswater fish and reindeer meat), and who live in regions particularly affected by radionuclide contamination, have been exposed to higher doses (0.4 to 1.8 mSv). These doses would have been considerably higher had not dietary advise been followed. Even though health risk assessments suggested in the spring of 1987 that it was reasonable to revoke the action levels then in force, they were nevertheless maintained after political consideration of the situation. Measures implemented in 1987 have resulted in a certain reduction of the dose to which the population has been exposed, and the associated costs have also fallen considerably in relation to the situation in 1986. The present report summarizes analytical results of monitoring and surveillance activities in 1987 and describes the measures introduced with regard to the various categories of food. Measures have been introduced primarily in connection with sheep meat production and reindeer farming, even if certain measures have been necessary also with regard to goat milk and cheese manufacture

  5. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  6. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  7. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  8. BN-350 decommissioning problems of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    storage of packed wastes. Currently the preliminary feasibility study is completed that concerns to construction in Mangystau region (close to BN-350 reactor plant) of special processing plant and disposal facility. Construction of radioactive waste processing plant and disposal facility should become the timely measure for solution of many problems on radioactive waste management. The number of other objectives are also being solved: Criteria development for radioactive waste classification; Substantiation of criteria limiting values for exemption from radiation account for material produced during decommissioning; Development of principles and methods for control of equipment, materials and wastes for reuse; Development of scenarios for reuse of materials, which would not induce the socially unacceptable exposure dose for population

  9. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)

  10. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  12. Environmental radioactivity measurements in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of the environmental radioactivity in Switzerland is the responsibility of the Swiss Federal Radioactivity Surveillance Commission KUeR. All laboratories specializing in environmental radioactivity measurements in Switzerland take part in the KUeR-sampling and measurement program. This program includes measurements of air, water, soil, grass, important food sources as well as the body radioactivity of human beings. Special environmental sampling and measurement programs are implemented in the vicinity of the operating Nuclear Power Stations (NPS) and those under construction. To confirm compliance with the licensing requirements the various activities include all measurements to assess any radiological consequences of NPS operation. Such requirements are drawn up for each power-station by the Nuclear Safety Division of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (ASK) and the KUeR. (author)

  13. Decontamination method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic radioactive wastes are immersed in a liquid nitrogen vessel above a freezing crusher and they are frozen to about -196degC. Then, impact shocks are applied to crush the radioactive wastes frozen by a rotary shearing shock crusher disposed below the freezing crusher. The thus obtained crushed materials are sent to a decontamination device and decontaminated. In this case, since the objective materials are crushed, any of a blast decontamination method, an electrolytic polishing decontamination method, a redox decontamination method and a chemical agent immersion decontamination method can be applied. Thereafter, the dose of remaining radioactivity of the decontaminated crushed materials is measured. With such procedures, the decontamination and the subsequent measurement for the radiation contamination dose can easily and certainly be conducted for metallic radioactive wastes such as pipes of a small diameter and complicated structures. (I.N.)

  14. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  15. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  17. Method of removing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paste prepared by mixing a mixed acid containing HF and at least one of HCl and HNO3 with a paste aid is coated at the surface of radioactive wastes, to dissolve the surface thereof. Water is jetted to remove the dissolved radioactive contaminants and the pastes from the surface of the radioactive wastes. Since the pastes are thus used, the amount of liquid wastes can be remarkably reduced compared with that in a conventional electrolysis method. Further, if it is confirmed that dose rate of the radioactive wastes after decontamination is lower than a predetermined level by adding a step of measuring the extent of contamination of the wastes before and after the steps, they can be handled hereinafter being regarded as ordinary wastes. (T.M.)

  18. National radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article briefs out the strategic management of radioactive wastes in Malaysia. The criteria and methods discussed are those promoted by UTN (Nuclear Energy Unit) which has been given the authority to carry out local research programs in nuclear energy

  19. Mental Models of Radioactivity and Attitudes towards Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. Previous research on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their attitudes towards radioactive waste, their willingness to accept it, indicated significant differences in answers of experts and lay persons, mainly regarding evaluation of the consequences of repository construction. Based on the findings of pilot investigations a mental model approach to the radioactivity, radioactive waste and repository was used as a method for development better risk communication strategies with local communities. The mental models were obtained by adjustment of the method developed by Morgan and co-workers where expert model of radioactivity is compared with mental model of lay people obtained through individual opened interviews. Additional information on trust, risk perception, role of main actors in the site selection process and their credibility was gained with the overall questionnaire on the representative sample of Slovenian population. Results of the survey confirm some already known findings, in addition we gained new cognitions and with analyses obtained the relationships and ratios between different factors, which are characteristics both for the general public and for the public, which is involved in the site selection process for a longer period and has been living beside a nuclear power plant for one generation. People have in general negative associations regarding the repository, the perceived risk for nuclear facilities is high, and trust in representatives of governmental institutions is low. Mental models of radioactivity, radioactive waste and the LILW repository are mostly irregular and differ from the experts' models. This is particularly valid for the models of radioactivity and the influences of

  20. Radioactivity in the Canadian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report by the National Research Council of Canada Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality summarizes data on exposures of human and non-human biota to radioactivity. For the radionuclides tritium, krypton 85, strontium 90, iodine 131, caesium 137, radium 226, radon 222 and plutonium 239. The report gives details of radioactive transformations, production, release, nuclear data, deposition, pathways for irradiation of human beings, occupational exposures, escape to the atmosphere, and annual limits on uptake. (D.N.)

  1. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  2. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  3. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  4. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  5. Study of radioactive materials with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation brings 3 major improvements compared to other X-ray sources usually used in laboratories. Its high brilliance permits the study of size-reduced samples, the low divergency of the beam gives the possibility to increase the angular resolution of the diffractometer and the spectrum of the X-photons which is continuous, allows the experimenter to chose a particular wavelength. Synchrotron radiation is becoming an important tool to investigate radioactive materials particularly burnt nuclear fuels. Zircon is the corrosion product that appears on fuel clad during irradiation, the use of synchrotron radiation with the right wavelength and a discerning incidence angle has clearly shown a crystallographic change of the zircon induced by heavy ion irradiation. X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation can give information on fission products which were till then undetected because of the lack of sensibility of previous methods. (A.C.)

  6. Methodology development for isotopic characterization of radioactive waste drum using mathematical simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety management of radioactive waste is one of the most important aspects of the nuclear technology development. The exact characterization of these radioactive waste is not an easy task, considering its isotope composition diversity, heterogeneous spatial distribution and mass density. One of these difficulties is to obtain the detector counting efficiency, since the infinite possible combination of activity and radioisotope position in waste drum becomes impracticable the preparation of the calibration standards. In this communication a methodology for radioisotope quantification in a 200 waste barrel is presented, using Monte Carlo simulation for data generation and Artificial Neural Network for data treatment. (author)

  7. [The history of radioactivity and its applications in hygiene and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Carmela Romana Natalina; Serarcangeli, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Since Antiquity, the observation of matter and its composition has been fascinating for the human mind. It represented the core of philosophical studies since the atomistic theory by Leucippus and Democritus, as well as of the opposed theory of elements by Empedocles, Plato and Aristoteles. Research on the atom, on its spontaneous or artificial disgregation, on the practical application of radioactive substances has strongly influenced daily life and the development of knowledge. Products containing radioactive substances have been used, often without regulation or control, in many scientific fields, as well as in medicine and cosmetics.

  8. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  9. Monitoring of the vegetable garden open air spinach and soil radioactivity in Beijing during the Japan Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect artificial radionuclide content in the spinach and soil in open air vegetable garden in Beijing during Fukushima nuclear accident and to study the radioactive contamination characteristics of the samples. Methods: 6 spinach samples and 3 soil samples in open air vegetable garden were obtained through continuously sampling. High-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry was used to analyze activity concentrations of artificial radionuclide131I etc in these samples. Results: Artificial radionuclide 131I was detected in the 6 open air spinach samples. Artificial radionuclide 137Cs was detected in 3 vegetable garden soil samples, trace amount of 131I was detected in 1 open-air surface soil sample alone. Conclusions: Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, spinach in Beijing's open-air vegetable garden was slightly polluted by artificial radionuclide 131I, with the highest values of pollution appeared around April 4, 2011, but it could not cause harm to human health. (authors)

  10. Study on CYCIAE-100 radiation field and residual radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Yuan-Jie; ZHANG Tian-Jue; JIA Xian-Lu; ZHOU Zheng-He; WANG Feng; WEI Su-Min; ZHONG Jun-Qing; TANG Chuan-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    The accelerators should be properly designed to make the radiation field produced by beam loss ual radiation field.The induced radioactivity in accelerator components is the dominant source of occupational radiation exposure if the accelerator is well shielded.The source of radiation is the beam loss when cyclotron is operating.In this paper,the radiation field for CYCIAE-100 is calculated using Monte Carlo method and the radioactive contamination near stripping foil is studied.A method to reduce the dose equivalent rate of maintenance staff is also given.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  12. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  13. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  14. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  15. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  16. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304

  17. Dating of wines, neutrino and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C dating of wines requires a heavy experimental technique implying the preparation of an alcoholic distillate and the use of a beta-radiation detector. Moreover the results have to be corrected in case the wine underwent a chaptalization process with sugar of a different age from that of grapes. A new method based on the detection of 137Cs is presented. 137Cs is an artificial gamma isotope that is produced in nuclear fission. Radioactivity measurement campaigns show a strong correlation between the quantity of 137Cs in wine and the year of production. The concentration of 137Cs varies from no traces in 1950 (<6 mBq/l) to 350 mBq/l in 1955 to 1070 mBq/l in 1963, since mid sixties a continuous decrease appears that lasts till now except for a short period pointed in 1986 when it peaks to 150 mBq/l, for 2000 the concentration is a few mBq/l. This chaotic curve is mainly due to the fallout of the atmospheric nuclear tests, that took place in the 1950-1963 years, and to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Today this technique allows to check the validity of the year of production of a less than 50 years old bottled wine and it does not require the uncorking of the bottle. (A.C.)

  18. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  19. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  20. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  1. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  2. LRT 2006: 2. topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques is intended to bring together experts in the field of low background techniques, especially applied to dark matter experiments, double beta decay experiments and neutrino detection in underground laboratories. This workshop has been organized into 7 sessions: 1) underground facilities (where a worldwide review is made), 2) neutron and muon induced background, isotope production, 3) low background counting techniques and low background detectors, 4) techniques for radon reduction, purified noble gases and liquid scintillator purification, 5) low levels on Pb-Bi-Po210 and surface background, 6) low radioactivity detector components and material purification, and 7) low radioactive techniques in other applications (particularly to check the geographical origin of food-products or to date wine. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  3. LRT 2006: 2. topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, P.; Piquemal, F.; Ford, R.; Yakushev, E.; Pandola, L.; Franco, D.; Bellini, F.; Hubert, Ph.; Laubenstein, M.; Abt, I.; Bongrand, M.; Schnee, R.; Dusan, B.; Chen, M.; Piquemal, F.; Nachab, A.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.; Navick, X.F.; Pedretti, M.; Wojcik, M.; Sekiya, H.; Kim, Y.; Kishimoto, T.; Dawson, J.; Borjabad, S.; Perrot, F.; Gurriaran, R.; Nikolayko, A.; Hubert, Ph

    2006-07-01

    This second topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques is intended to bring together experts in the field of low background techniques, especially applied to dark matter experiments, double beta decay experiments and neutrino detection in underground laboratories. This workshop has been organized into 7 sessions: 1) underground facilities (where a worldwide review is made), 2) neutron and muon induced background, isotope production, 3) low background counting techniques and low background detectors, 4) techniques for radon reduction, purified noble gases and liquid scintillator purification, 5) low levels on Pb-Bi-Po{sup 210} and surface background, 6) low radioactivity detector components and material purification, and 7) low radioactive techniques in other applications (particularly to check the geographical origin of food-products or to date wine. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  5. Artificial Life Meets Computational Creativity?

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    I (briefly) review the history of work in Artificial Life on the problem of the open-ended evolutionary growth of complexity in computational worlds. This is then put into the context of evolutionary epistemology and human creativity.

  6. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  7. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  8. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  9. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  10. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  11. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  12. Mechanical properties of artificial snow

    OpenAIRE

    Lintzén, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of snow have been a subject of research since the mid-20th century. Theresearch done is based on natural snow. During the last decades the winter business industryhas been growing and also the interest for constructing buildings and artwork of snow. Suchconstructions are generally built using artificial snow, i.e. snow produced by snow guns. Up tothe present constructions of snow are designed based on knowledge by experience. Only minorscientific studies on artificial sn...

  13. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  14. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  15. Radioactive wastes on Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common amount of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan makes up 235 million tons. In Semipalatinsk test site in the result of surface and underground explosions low-radioactive wastes have accumulated in the form of soils contaminated with radionuclides and these wastes could be buried during re-cultivation works. In the same time there are places contaminated with plutonium. These soils should be buried in special points. Volume of these wastes is estimated in 5,000 m3. In Kazakhstan there are one power nuclear reactor in Aktau, 3 research reactors on Semipalatinsk site territory and 1 in Almaty city. During operation of BN-350 power reactor in Aktau city till present day 10,000 m3 of different wastes have been accumulated. Great amount of wastes will appear in 2005 during the reactor decommissioning, common volume of processed and packaged wastes after BN-350 reactor out of operation will be estimated in 623,000 m3. In Kazakhstan system of gathering, processing, and transporting of radioactive wastes is not taken into operation yet. According of conception on radioactive wastes burial and IAEA recommendation part of wastes with volume 67,450 m3 (intermediate- and high-level radioactive wastes) are subjected to burial in points in geological formations

  16. Safe use of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  17. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  18. Out of the cleanroom, self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Gao, Yang; Wyss, Hans; Anderson, Patrick; den Toonder, Jaap

    2013-09-01

    Micro-sized hair-like structures, such as cilia, are abundant in nature and have various functionalities. Many efforts have been made to mimic the fluid pumping function of cilia, but most of the fabrication processes for these "artificial cilia" are tedious and expensive, hindering their practical application. In this paper a cost-effective in situ fabrication technique for artificial cilia is demonstrated. The cilia are constructed by self-assembly of micron sized magnetic beads and encapsulated with soft polymer coatings. Actuation of the cilia induces an effective fluid flow, and the cilia lengths and distribution can be adjusted by varying the magnetic bead concentration and fabrication parameters.

  19. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  20. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  1. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2002 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  2. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations

  3. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  4. Sources and fate of environmental radioactivity at the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources and fate of environmental radioactivity at the earth surface This is to link environmental radioactivity to RP in Africa? To describe the benefits of Africa from this field in terms of RP, safety and security policies. To create a mission and a vision to fulfil the needs of ONE PEOPLE, ONE GOAL, ONE FAITH. Sources, processes and fate of environmental radioactivity Previous experience helps setting up an African agenda.(1) Factors influencing cosmogenic radionuclides(2) Factors influencing artificial radionuclides: (a) nuclear weapon-tests (b) nuclear accidents (c) Energy, mining and industrial waste (3) Factors influencing the global Rn-222 and its daughters. (4) Dynamics of cycles of natural radioactivity, e.g. Pb-210. (5) Environmental radiotracers act as DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS to assess air and water quality and impacts of the atmospheric and hydrospheric compartments on ecosystems.6) Definition of base-lines for rehabilitation and protection. Climate influences sources/behaviour/fate of environmental radioactivity. Impacts on life forms in Africa would be severe. Assessing environmental radioactivity resolves these issue

  5. Radioactivity in drinking water - charasteristic values in the future drinking water regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Old and new limit values for the different parameters in water are presently being discussed during the actual amending of the Potable Water Decree. Professional circles have been frightened up by including specific radioactivity parameters. Initially the solution of the problem was seen in globally applying for an exemption from any control in Germany. This would surely be possible for almost all the potable water in the Federal Republic of Germany. In some highland regions of Thuringia, Saxony and Bavaria, however, natural radioactivity in ground water does not play an unimportant part. This paper will try to explain relations of its relevance for health and its multi-layered classification into environment for the new bulk of characteristic values of the total dose. On one hand it will be shown that no sufficient reduction to anthropogeneous radioactive ingredients in drinking water will be possible only by excluding radon and its dependent products. On the other hand natural radioactivity can exponentiate to harzardous quantities when consuming such potable water. The new bulk of characteristic values cannot meet the requirements in both cases. It is reasonable to do a more distinctive differentiation between natural and artificial radioactivity. The ranges of admissible values have not yet been marked out comprehensively for natural radioactivity so far. (orig.)

  6. Natural and artificial radioactivity in soils of forests; Radiactividad natural y artificial en suelo de bosques de coniferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, E.; Segovia, N.; Gaso P, M.I.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Morton, O.; Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Levels of {sup 222} Rn, {sup 40} K, {sup 235} U, {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cs were studied in soils of a forest zone located at 3000 m altitude in the central portion of Mexico. the radon concentrations in different soil horizons were determined with solid state nuclear track detectors and the concentrations of {sup 40} K, {sup 235} U, {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cs in soil samples were measured with a gamma spectrometer at low level coupled to a High purity Ge detector. The results indicate differences of a magnitude order in the radon concentrations inside the studied area. The levels of {sup 40} K, {sup 235} U, {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cs are discussed as function of the perturbation grade of the soil and atmospheric pollution. (Author)

  7. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    OpenAIRE

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-...

  8. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation.Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  10. Radioactive wastes, disposal sites wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two towns that were selected by the French government to home a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes, have withdrawn their bid. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) attributes this withdrawal to the unbearable pressure made by the opponents on the city councils despite the public information meetings that were held in the 2 cities. The selection rules included the presence of clay layers with a thickness of at least 50 m, the absence of seismic activity and zones containing exploitable resources like petroleum or metal ores were barred in order to avoid future unexpected drilling. (A.C.)

  11. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  12. Radioactive sources in chemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources including all radioactive materials exceeding exemption levels have to be registered in national databases according to international standards based on the recommendations ICRP 60 and a proper licensing should take place as described for example in the 96/29/EURATOM. In spite of that, unregistered sources could be found, usually due to the fact that the owner is not aware of radiation characteristics of sources. The material inventories of chemical laboratories are typical and most frequent example where radioactive sources could be found. Five different types of sources could be identified. The most frequent type are chemicals, namely thorium and uranium compounds. They are used not due to their radioactivity but due to their chemical properties. As for all other sources a stringent control is necessary in order to assure their safe use. Around hundred of stored radioactive chemical items were found during inspections of such laboratories performed by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration or qualified experts in a period December 2006 - July 2007. Users of such chemicals are usually not aware that thorium and uranium chemicals are radioactive and, as unsealed sources, they could be easily spilled out and produce contamination of persons, surfaces, equipment etc. The external exposure as well as the internal exposure including exposure due to inhalation could be present. No knowledge about special precautions is usually present in laboratories and leads to underestimating of a potential risk and unintentional exposure of the laboratory personnel, students etc. Due to the long decay times in decay series of Th -232, U-238 and U- 235 the materials are also radioactive today. Even more, in case of thorium chemicals the radioactivity increased substantially from the time of their production. The implementation of safety measures has been under way and includes a survey of the qualified experts, establishment of organizational structure in a

  13. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of surface active agents required for solidifying sodium sulfate-containing concentrated radioactive liquid wastes with asphalts. Method: Water soluble calcium compounds (calcium nitrate, etc.) are added to alkaline radioactive concentrated liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium sulfate to adjust the pH value of the liquid wastes to 4.5 - 8.5. The addition amount of the water soluble calcium compounds (based on the weight of the calcium ions) is set to about 2 - 5% of the sulfate ions in the liquid wastes. Then, surface active agents are added by 3 - 10 weight % to the solid contents in the liquid wastes. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet sets out United Kingdom government policy on the management of the effects of radioactivity accidents by the Health Service. Monitoring of persons affected will be undertaken by hospital staff in order to assess damage levels for the whole population as well as treat individuals, while general practitioners will disseminate information from the Department of Health. The National Response Plan is set out, covering incidents connected with the use or transport of radioactive substances, and emergency plans for incidents in civil nuclear installations. (UK)

  15. Radioactive Decays in Geant4

    OpenAIRE

    Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W.; Dieter H.H. Hoffmann; Lang, Philipp M.; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new pac...

  16. Variability of atmospheric depositions of artificial radioelements and their transfer into soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Habilitation thesis, I present the results and prospects of the main research topics that contribute to bettering our knowledge of the behaviour of artificial radioelements in the geosphere and biosphere. In the first chapter I present a summary of the research carried out for my thesis on the Oklo reactors. In the subsequent chapters I present my research work at the IRSN. The second chapter concerns the atmospheric depositions of radioactive contaminants. I have studied the principal environmental parameters involved in the empirical modelling of the transfer of artificial radioelements from the atmosphere to the soil. Here I essentially use measurements of artificial radioelements (137Cs, plutonium, americium) in soils that reveal the variability of accidental depositions further to the Chernobyl disaster (paragraph 2.1) and chronic radioactive depositions coming from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons (paragraph 2.2). In the third chapter I address the problem of transfers of artificial radioelements into the soil. The interest of this lies in the fact that these transfers represent serious risks for man. Taken over the long term (in the months and years that follow the depositing of radioactive elements on the ground and plants), the transfers of radioactive pollutants into the soil are responsible for the contamination of both plants (transfer via the roots) and underground water and surface water (transfer after vertical migration). My research work into the transfers of radioactive pollutants in soils is centred on vertical migrations and root transfers, as both these processes can be studied through environmental samplings and measurements. More precisely, I have studied the migrations of radioactive pollutants and their geochemical analogues in different types of soils (paragraph 3.1) and the variability of the activities of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the compartments of permanent grassland zones (soil, grass, milk and cheese

  17. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Previti, Alberto; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2012-12-01

    The follow-up of Fukushima radioactive plume resulting from the 11th March 2011 devastating tsunami is discussed for two Italian stations in the northern Apennines: Mt. Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of airborne particulate and artificial radioactivity referable to the arrival of the radioactive plume and its persistence and evolution. Analysis of back-trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. The Fukushima plume was first detected on 3rd April 2011 when high volume sampling revealed the presence of the artificial radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs. The highest activity concentrations of these nuclides were detected on 5th April 2011 at the Montecuccolino site. Fukushima radioactivity data at the two stations were usually comparable, suggesting a good vertical mixing of the plume; discrepancies were occasional and attributed to different occurrence of wet removal, typically characterized by a scattered spatial pattern. To understand the relevance to the local population of the extra dose due to the Fukushima plume, atmospheric activities of the related artificial nuclides were compared to those of the main natural radionuclides in ambient particulate, and found to be lower by over one order of magnitude. Radiation doses referable to Fukushima, maximized for a whole year occurrence at the highest activity level observed at our stations in the weeks affected by the Japanese plume, were estimated at 1.1 μSv/year.

  18. Measures to radioactive contamination connected with nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems on the environmental radioactivity due to nuclear power generation must be dealt with not only as the local problems in the regions around nuclear power plants but also as the environmental acitivity problems in global scale. Human security and protection are maintained by the regulation of releasing radioactive materials to the environment from all the facilities, not limited to nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and the safety control of environmental activity. The fundamental concept of the regulation and control of environmental activity and each system taken in U.K., U.S. and Japan are described first. Next, the present status of releasing radioactivity into the air and water in the world is explained in detail and the minute data are shown for the release into water. The underground and deep ocean disposals of solid wastes are described with calculation formulae obtained so far. Since the information on the aspect of exposure of human body to natural radiation is important for comparison when the influence of artificial activity is evaluated, the survey of the natural radiation and the conditions of activity due to nuclear tests and the peaceful uses of atomic energy are described, respectively. In Japan, the special committee on environmental safety investigated the possibility of materializing the numerical guide to ''as low as practicable'', and submitted the report showing ''target dose'' in light water reactor nuclear power plants to the Atomic Energy Comission of Japan, in which the dose for whole body exposure is proposed as 5 m rem/year and that for thyroid gland exposure due to radioactive iodine as 15 m rem/year. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the environmental samples counted by Kwangju Regional Monitoring Station were as follows : the year average of the gross-β radioactivity on the airborn dust was 108.5 mBq/m2 (after 5 hours) and 7.74 mBq/m2 (after 48 hours): on the fallout, precipitation and tap water, it was 2.4 MBq/km2 30 days, 54.2 Bq/L and 18.2 Bq/L respectively. Through this study, γ - spectrometric analysis showed there is no artificial radioactivity. The result the environmental radiation monitor counted for all year showed a range of 10.4 μ - 13.6 μR/h. There is no abnormality concerned with electronical unstability, machine disorder, atomic accidents or nuclear tests. To examine the basic data on the environmental radiation/radioactivity, radiational density of 137Cs on soil and tap water sources wasn't calculated throughout the region. On the rice and Chinese cabbage sample, they measured N.D - 33.6 Bq/Kg.dry. On the samples of milk and fish, they measured N.D.. In addition, on 60 sites, the environmental radiation monitor's analysis using a portable survey meter resulted in a mean of 6.72 - 14.4 μR/h. On the results of the gross- β radioactivity's analysis and γ-spectrometric analysis of the samples on com, Chinese cabbage, milk and fish, there was no significant abnormality to be considered. 137Cs appeared in almost all samples; however the amount 137Cs, which had been distributed allover Asia due to a nuclear test performed in China in 1970, was not serious

  20. Radiochemical contamination of bottom sediments of some natural and artificial lakes of Middle East Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the presence of some radioactive isotopes in the bottom sediments of two lakes, Piaseczno and Masluchowskie (Middle East of Poland) has been performed. Similar measurements were done at the Zalew Zemborzycki artificial water reservoir, filled up few years after the most intensive period of atmospheric nuclear explosions. It was estimated, that the concentration of radionuclides, especially of artificial origin was much greater in natural lakes than in examined artificial one. That testifies for an accumulation of radioactive substances on the bottom of the water tanks. The confirmation of this thesis may be the fact, that 85% of 137Cs detected in Zalew Zemborzycki comes from Chernobyl fallout while in natural lakes this isotope amounts only to 56-60%. Other isotopes, such as 210Pb, 226Ra, and 224Ra were detected in significant amounts. The radioactivity of 239,240Pu isotopes reaches 2.2-2.6 Bq/kg for the lakes and 0.7 for Zalew Zemborzycki. The 238Pu to 239,240Pu ratio suggests, that detected plutonium comes from world fallout. (author)

  1. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  2. Proceedings of the technical meetings 'Water, radioactivity and environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -available fraction in waters in a mining context: optimisation of the DGT tool (V. Phrommavanh, J. Drozdzak); 18 - AQUAREF, the national reference lab for aquatic environments monitoring (C. Feray); 19 - Advantages of effluents dispersion modeling for marine environment monitoring (P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 20 - Flux and review of the main artificial radionuclides in the Rhone river (F. Eyrolle-Boyer, D. Tournieux); 21 - Hydrological monitoring around the CEA-Cadarache site (C. Borgia); 22 - Monitoring of surface and underground waters at Paluel NPP site (P.Y. Hemidy, L. Fouchet); 23 - Water management and monitoring at Areva's Tricastin site (F. Brun); 24 - Interlaboratory tests for radioactivity measurements in drinking waters (R. Ameon); 25 - Chemical and microbiological review of drinking waters (B. Jedor); 26 - Review of radioactivity in drinking waters and perspectives (J. Loyen, N. Tchilian); 27 - Treatment of waters containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMS) (H. Paillard); 28 - Closing talk (P. Devin)

  3. Modelling radiation-induced phase changes in binary FeCu and ternary FeCuNi alloys using an artificial intelligence-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply a novel atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo model, which includes local chemistry and relaxation effects when assessing the migration energy barriers of point defects, to the study of the microchemical evolution driven by vacancy diffusion in FeCu and FeCuNi alloys. These alloys are of importance for nuclear applications because Cu precipitation, enhanced by the presence of Ni, is one of the main causes of hardening and embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels used in existing nuclear power plants. Local chemistry and relaxation effects are introduced using artificial intelligence techniques, namely a conveniently trained artificial neural network, to calculate the migration energy barriers of vacancies as functions of the local atomic configuration. We prove, through a number of results, that the use of the neural network is fully equivalent to calculating the migration energy barriers on-the-fly, using computationally expensive methods such as nudged elastic bands with an interatomic potential. The use of the neural network makes the computational cost affordable, so that simulations of the same type as those hitherto carried out using heuristic formulas for the assessment of the energy barriers can now be performed, at the same computational cost, using more rigorously calculated barriers. This method opens the way to properly treating more complex problems, such as the case of self-interstitial cluster formation, in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo framework.

  4. Monitoring of radioactivity in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are given on the monitoring of radioactive contamination of air and some food stuffe at world locations throughout Western South America, South Pacific and Africa during 1979. Data are included on the total β and γ activity and radionuclide content in air, milk and other environmental samples (131I, 90Sr, 137Cs)

  5. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  6. Keeping an Eye on Radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China sets up a national testing system for levels of radiation from various sources Radioactive iodine had been detected in the air above several regions of China,said China’s National Nuclear Emergency Coordination Committee on March 29.The regions include Heilongjiang

  7. Statistical aspects in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a summary of basic concepts and formulae important for the treatment of errors and for calculating lower limits of detection in radioactivity measurements. Special attention has been paid to practical application and examples which are of interest for scientists working in this field. (orig./HP)

  8. Detection limits for radioactivity counting

    OpenAIRE

    Manić G.; Manić Vesna M.; Vesić D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

  9. Detection limits for radioactivity counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

  10. Radioactive releases from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the various stages in the pathway from irradiated nuclear fuel to man as separate modules, in each of which mathematical models are derived to represent the transfer of radioactivity. It begins with the generation of the radioactive inventories within fuel, both fission products and the build-up of transuranic elements; the release from fuel is then considered for metal and oxide fuels, following which the effects of plate-out in the reactor circuit are discussed. There is then a detailed treatment of the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere including effective height of release, building entrainment, meteorological dispersion, mechanisms for ground deposition and the effects of the duration of release. Having specified the radioactive environment, its interaction with man is described including external exposures from γ-emitting plumes of activity and the estimation of depth doses, as well as the internal organ doses resulting from inhalation or ingestion of radioactivity. Finally, applications of the methods are described in reanalysing the 1957 Windscale accident and in the planning of procedures for reactor accident monitoring as well as in the implications of future reactor designs to assessments of accidental releases. A brief summary of the reactor siting criteria adopted in the U.K. and in the U.S.A. has also been given as a background against which to review the predictive techniques and results from the range of studies of accident considered. (author)

  11. PSP type radioactive luminous pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements are described on radioactive luminous pigments with 147Pm. The specific activity of the luminous pigments and their nominal initial brightness are tabulated. Technical inspection determines the specific and total activity, total salt content and content of radionuclide impurities. (E.S.)

  12. Mathematical problems in modeling artificial heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. U.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some problems arising in mathematical modeling of artificial hearts. The hydrodynamics of blood flow in an artificial heart chamber is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, coupled with an equation of hyperbolic type subject to moving boundary conditions. The flow is induced by the motion of a diaphragm (membrane inside the heart chamber attached to a part of the boundary and driven by a compressor (pusher plate. On one side of the diaphragm is the blood and on the other side is the compressor fluid. For a complete mathematical model it is necessary to write the equation of motion of the diaphragm and all the dynamic couplings that exist between its position, velocity and the blood flow in the heart chamber. This gives rise to a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations; the Navier-Stokes equation being of parabolic type and the equation for the membrane being of hyperbolic type. The system is completed by introducing all the necessary static and dynamic boundary conditions. The ultimate objective is to control the flow pattern so as to minimize hemolysis (damage to red blood cells by optimal choice of geometry, and by optimal control of the membrane for a given geometry. The other clinical problems, such as compatibility of the material used in the construction of the heart chamber, and the membrane, are not considered in this paper. Also the dynamics of the valve is not considered here, though it is also an important element in the overall design of an artificial heart. We hope to model the valve dynamics in later paper.

  13. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with I-131. Depending on the amount of radioactivity administered during your treatment, your endocrinologist or radiation ... it begins destroying the gland's cells. Although the radioactivity from this treatment remains in the thyroid for ...

  14. Radioactive solutions and reagents with certified activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international directory of radioactive solutions and reagents with certified activity is compiled. Data are given in tables on radioactivity concentration, uncertainty, volume, supplier, availability and form of solutions and reagents

  15. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Wattal

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  16. Maintaining knowledge of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [Knowledge - 'awareness or familiarity gained by experience (of a person, fact or thing)... a person's range of information ... the sum of what is known ... true, justified belief; certain understanding, as opposed to opinion.' The Oxford Concise English Dictionary.] Organisations responsible for the safe and effective management of radioactive waste will be aware of the value of information characterising the waste and the need for its preservation. In the United Kingdom the principal legal instrument controlling nuclear site activities is the Nuclear Installations Act (1990), which requires certain licence conditions to be fulfilled. One of the 35 conditions of the nuclear site licence demands that operators ensure that adequate records are kept relating to, inter alia, 'the location of all radioactive material, including nuclear fuel and radioactive waste'. Through the application of this licence condition, the relevant nuclear regulator, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), requires licensees to make arrangements for recording and preserving all the information that may be required in the future to ensure the safe management of radioactive material and radioactive waste. The majority of operators responsible for the long-term management of radioactive waste will establish systems for preserving information. In order for the system to deliver real benefits, there must be absolute clarity concerning what information is to be preserved, the reasons why it must be preserved, how it is to be managed over the long-term and who is responsible for its management. However, the decisive characteristic of this information management system that could make the difference between preserved liability and valued asset is the ability to access and interpret the information now and in the future. On first inspection, this characteristic appears obvious but how often are these systems established with the primary objective of preserving information when it should

  17. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  18. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  19. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  20. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.