WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactively contaminated land

  1. [Statistical prediction of radioactive contamination impacts on agricultural pasture lands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature data analysis, the rationale is given for the use of probabilistic approaches to solve the problems of estimation of a long-lived radionuclide uptake in animal products. Methods for statistical prediction of radioactive contamination consequences for agricultural pasture lands have been devised and implemented in the form of models and program modules. These offer the estimation of radionuclide transfer between the links of an agricultural chain, taking into account variability in the migration parameters, estimation of soil contamination limits based on the preset risk levels for the stuffs produced and statistical coordination of standards. An illustration is given of the application of the above methods using statistical characteristics of 137Cs migration parameters in the soil-plant-animal produce chain. Further trends have been formulated in the development of the risk concept as applied to the assessment of radioecological situations of radioactive contamination of the agricultural land.

  2. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5x10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and to fibres 1.0x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12,300kBq m(-2)). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3x10(-3) m2 kg(-1)) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  3. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Van Hees, M. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and to fibres 1.0 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m{sup -2}). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740 kBq m{sup -2}). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050 kBq m{sup -2} for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  4. NERIS workshop. Lasting contaminations and land development. After Fukushima: the possibility of a lasting radioactive contamination; Atelier NERIS. Contaminations durables et developpement des territoires. Apres Fukushima: l'eventualite d'une contamination radioactive durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The document contains the contributions proposed during a workshop and the content of discussions after these contributions. For the first day, case studies are thus reported and commented: land contamination in Japan after the Fukushima accident, the CENTRACO plant accident, medium and long term stakes within the context of a lasting contamination by pesticides (the case of chlordecone pollution in the French West Indies), the complex and multiple actor challenges in the case of long duration radiological contamination for land agriculture, a lasting contamination in urban environment (the case of Metaleurop). The second session addressed the conditions and means for preparedness of local actors to a lasting radioactive contamination: the Norwegian approach, how to take the post-accidental perspective into account in the local safeguard plans, the PRIME project (research project on radio-ecological sensitivity indices and multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial territory), the pilot radiation protection project of the Montbeliard district, the OPAL project (to provide the local information commissions with post-accidental zoning information on the different French nuclear sites)

  5. The phyto-remediation of radioactively contaminated land - a feasible approach or just bananas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, Victoria A [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Soil is an essential component of all terrestrial ecosystems and is under increasing threat from human activity. Techniques available for removing radioactive contamination from soil and aquatic substrates are limited and often costly to implement; particularly over large areas. Frequently, bulk soil removal, with its attendant consequences, is a significant component of the majority of contamination incidents. Alternative techniques capable of removing contamination or exposure pathways without damaging or removing the soil are therefore of significant interest. An increasing number of old nuclear facilities are entering 'care and maintenance', with significant ground contamination issues. Phyto-remediation - the use of plants' natural metabolic processes to remediate contaminated sites is one possible solution. Its key mechanisms include phyto-extraction and phyto-stabilisation. These are analogues of existing remedial techniques. Further, phyto-remediation can improve soil quality and stability and restore functionality. Information on the application of phyto-remediation in the nuclear industry is widely distributed over an extended period of time and sources. It is therefore difficult to quickly and effectively identify which plants would be most suitable for phyto-remediation on a site by site basis. In response, a phyto-remediation tool has been developed to address this issue. Existing research and case studies were reviewed to understand the mechanisms of phyto-remediation, its effectiveness and the benefits and limitations of implementation. The potential for cost recovery from a phyto-remediation system is also briefly considered. An overview of this information is provided here. From this data, a set of matrices was developed to guide potential users through the plant selection process. The matrices take the user through a preliminary screening process to determine whether the contamination present at their site is amenable to phyto

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL STANDARD «SAFE LIFE OF THE POPULATION ON RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES. SAFE USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS. THE BASIC FRAMEWORK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of the Federal target program «Managing the consequences of radiation accidents for the period till 2015» the National Standard «Safe life of the population on radioactive contaminated territories. Safe use of agricultural lands. The basic framework» has been developed. Its aim is to ensure safe use of agricultural lands in the areas affected by radiation incidents, accidents and disasters.

  7. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  8. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  9. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  10. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  11. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per

    2006-01-01

    relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of surface soil at Narssarssuk couldconstitute a small risk to humans visiting the location if radioactive particles are resuspended in the air so that they might be inhaled....

  12. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  13. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-09-02

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  14. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  15. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. I. Model description and scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk Mv, Marcel van der; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    The economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs was evaluated taking the spatial variability of environmental conditions into account. Two sequential GIS-embedded submodels were developed for a spatial assessment, which allow for spatial variation in soil contamination, soil type, and land use. These models were applied for four SRC production and four energy conversion scenarios for the entire contaminated area of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia and for a part of the Bragin district, Belarus. It was concluded that in general medium-scale SRC production using local machines is most profitable. The areas near Chernobyl are not suitable for SRC production since the contamination levels in SRC wood exceed the intervention limit. Large scale SRC production is not profitable in areas where dry and sandy soils predominate. If the soil contamination does not exceed the intervention limit and sufficient SRC wood is available, all energy conversion scenarios are profitable.

  16. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  18. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  19. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  20. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

  1. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  2. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.; and others

    2007-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs.

  3. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-12-07

    This report summarizes results from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during July, August, and September, 1956. Included are data on radioactive contamination in effluent gases, on vegetation, in the atmosphere, in Hanford wastes, in the Columbia River and related waters, in test wells, and in drinking water. (ACR)

  4. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire collectif de la contamination des terrains par la radioactivite presente a Gif sur Yvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  5. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The continual monitoring of environmental radioactive levels in Fukushima, Japan following the nuclear plant accident in March 2011 provides our society with valuable information in two ways. First, the collected data can be used as an indicator to assess the progress of decontamination efforts. Secondly, the collected data also can be used to understand the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the environment which leads to further understanding of the landform processes. These two aspects are inseparable for us to understand the effects of radioactive contamination in a dynamic environmental system. During the summer of 2016, 27 soil core samples were collected on a farmer's land (rice paddies and forest) in Fukushima, about 20 km northwest of the nuclear plant. Each core was divided into 2.0 - 3.0 cm slices for the Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131 level measurement. The collected data is being analyzed from multiple perspectives: temporal, spatial, and geophysical. In the forest area, even on the same hillslope, multiple soil types and horizon depths were observed which indicates the challenges in assessing the subsurface radioactive isotope movements. It appears that although highly humic soils show higher or about the same level of radioactivity in the surface layers, as the depth increased, the radioactivity decreased more in those samples compared with more sandy soils. With regard to the direction a slope faces and the sampling altitudes, the correlation between those attributes and radioactivity levels is inconclusive at this moment. The altitude might have affected the fallout level on a single hillslope-basis. However, to determine the correlation, further sampling and the detailed analysis of vegetation and topography might be necessary. Where the surface soil was scraped and new soil was brought in, former rice paddy surface layers did show three-magnitude levels lower of radioactivity in the top layer when compared with forest soils. At the foot of forest

  6. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  7. Biological detectors of radioactive contamination in the Baltic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagge, P; Salo, A

    1967-01-01

    Some bottom and pelagic animals are described, which could be used as indicators of radioactive contamination in Baltic environments, and some preliminary data on their concentrating rates and factors...

  8. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  9. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km{sup 2}, the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km{sup 2} or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km{sup 2} are posted as surface contamination and 10 km{sup 2} are posted as underground contamination.

  10. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-15

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of {sup 239,240}Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq {sup 239,240}Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of

  11. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, April-June 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-10-28

    This report summarizes the results from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during April, May, and June, 1957. Included are data on contamination in effluent gases, on vegetation, in the atmosphere, in Hanford wastes, in the Columbia River and related waters, and in drinking water. (ACR)

  12. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. II. Monte Carlo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Perk, Marcel; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of two sequential GIS-embedded submodels, which evaluate the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, was performed to allow for variability of environmental conditions that was not contained in the spatial model inputs. The results from this analysis were compared to the results from the deterministic model presented in part I of this paper. It was concluded that, although the variability in the model results due to within-gridcell variability of the model inputs was considerable, the prediction of the areas where SRC and energy conversion is potentially profitable was robust. If the additional variability in the model input that is not contained in the input maps is also taken into account, the SRC production and energy conversion appears to be potentially profitable at more locations for both the small scale and large scale production scenarios than the model predicted using the deterministic model.

  13. Land contamination activity data interpretation from Fukushima Daiichi accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäckel, Bernd S., E-mail: bernd.jaeckel@psi.ch [PSI, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bevilacqua, Arturo, E-mail: a.bevilacqua@iaea.org [IAEA, Wagramer Strasse 5, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Ducros, Gerard, E-mail: gerard.ducros@cea.fr [CEA Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (France); Gauntt, Randall, E-mail: rogaunt@sandia.gov [SNL, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stuckert, Juri, E-mail: juri.stuckert@kit.edu [KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Radiochemical analysis of activity sources from land contamination. • Calculation of activity release from unit 3. • Analysis of origin of land contamination from units 1–3. - Abstract: Radioactive aerosols were released during the accident from the units 1–3 of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Release paths were due to leakage from the containment through the reactor building into the environment, due to containment venting and due to the explosions of the reactor buildings of the units 1, 3 and 4. The release due to containment venting can normally be estimated by dose measurements in the release stacks but for the other release paths there is no direct dose measurement available. Dose measurements away from the reactors only showed the release of fission products, but necessarily cannot identify the source of the radioactivity. Using the ratio of the activity measurements of the Cesium nuclides Cs-134g and Cs-137 allows the comparison with the ratios examined in the spent fuel pools and also the turbine halls of the three destroyed reactor cores. From the analysis of more than 1600 activity measurements in the area north-west from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant it could be proved, that mostly the units 1 and 3 are responsible for the land contamination in this area. The local contamination measured at the Fukushima Daiichi site is mainly caused by aerosol release from unit 2 and the sea water contamination origins from all three of the degraded reactor cores.

  14. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  15. Contamination analysis of radioactive samples in focused ion beam instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelan, Audrey Ruth; Brey, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) instrument's to analyze and prepare samples that are radioactive requires attentiveness to the materials that are dislodged and free inside the chamber. Radioactive sputtered material must be understood even when observed at trace concentrations. Measurements using liquid scintillation counting and high purity germanium detectors were used to evaluate contamination on accessible surfaces inside a focused ion beam chamber that was used in the preparation of samples that were radioactive. The maximum removable contamination found was 0.27 0.4 Bq cm(-2), on the focused ion beam wall with 0.24 0.019 Bq cm(-2) on the door. Although these magnitudes of removable contamination are inconsequential for activation products, these same magnitudes of actinides, for example 239Pu, would represent 3.2% of an Annual Limit of Intake. This might be considered significant if one examines the relatively infrequent use of this device for the preparation of radioactive samples. Predicted activities of sputtered material were found using the software Transport of Ions in Matter, estimating that 0.003% of a radioactive samples activity is released into the FIB chamber. A used secondary electron detector's activity was measured to be 383.7 8.1 Bq. Preferential build-up of sputtered materials due to temperature or static charge gradients was considered. No temperature gradients were observed. Static charge gradients were measured inside the chamber varying between 0.057% below the mean to 34% higher than the mean. However, the magnitudes of contamination measured did not correlate to static charge gradients. Deposition in the chamber appears to have no mechanical cause but rather is sporadic however, measureable. Experience to date has been limited to samples of low activity; nevertheless, contamination inside the chamber was observed. Users should anticipate higher levels of readily dispersible radioactive contamination within the FIB as sample activity

  16. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

    2010-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 – 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

  17. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  18. Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

    Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

  19. [On the problem of biodiagnostics under conditions of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnova, O B; Shcheglov, A I; Stolbova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The possibilities of biodiagnostics methods (bioindication and bioassay) have been analyzed for conditions of radioactive contamination of natural ecosystems components. The prospects of using biodiagnostics data to address some practical radioecology problems are discussed. The data on dynamics of long-term indicators in the ecosystems contaminated after the Chernobyl accident are shown. The authors have formulated a number of provisions relating to the accumulative bioindication for structural components of forest ecosystems (arboreal and herbaceous vegetation, mosses, lichens, higher fungi).

  20. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy prefere...

  1. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  2. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of (137)Cs (90)Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of (137)Cs...

  3. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.i [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Cappella, F. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Dubovik, A.M. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); D' Angelo, S. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Galashov, E.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Grinyov, B.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Nagornaya, L.L. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Nozzoli, F. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Podviyanuk, R.B.; Polischuk, O.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Prosperi, D. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-21

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO{sub 4} samples. One of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background {gamma} spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the best ZnWO{sub 4} samples are estimated to be less than 0.002 mBq/kg ({sup 228}Th and {sup 226}Ra), the total {alpha} activity is 0.18 mBq/kg. The {beta} active {sup 65}Zn and the {alpha} active {sup 180}W have been detected in ZnWO{sub 4} crystals. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of the ceramic components of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background {gamma} spectrometry. Some ideas for future improvement of the radiopurity level of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators are briefly discussed.

  4. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  5. Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, Andrew B. [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: A.Cundy@brighton.ac.uk; Hopkinson, Laurence [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Whitby, Raymond L.D. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    Reactions involving iron play a major role in the environmental cycling of a wide range of important organic, inorganic and radioactive contaminants. Consequently, a range of environmental clean-up technologies have been proposed or developed which utilise iron chemistry to remediate contaminated land and surface and subsurface waters, e.g. the use of injected zero zero-valent iron nanoparticles to remediate organic contaminant plumes; the generation of iron oxyhydroxide-based substrates for arsenic removal from contaminated waters; etc. This paper reviews some of the latest iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation, their current state of development, and their potential applications and limitations.

  6. Determining radioactive aerosol concentrations using a surface radioactive contamination measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, R; Johnova, K; Kozlovska, M; Otahal, P; Vosahlikova, I

    2015-06-01

    For experiments with dispersed radioactive aerosols in a radon-aerosol chamber (RAC), it is desirable to know the activity of the radioactive aerosols applied in the RAC. A COLIBRI TTC survey metre with an SABG-15+ probe (Canberra, USA) was purchased for this purpose. The probe is designed for surface contamination measurements, and it is intended to measure the activity of aerosols deposited on the filters during experiments in the RAC. Since the probe is calibrated in a different geometry, its response in the authors' experimental geometry was simulated by a Monte Carlo method. The authors present a Monte Carlo model using MCNPX and an experimental verification of this probe model.

  7. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Atsunao Marui; Adrian H. Gallardo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damagedthree reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuc...

  8. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  9. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 48 CFR 945.603-71 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Inventory 945.603-71 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR 109-45.50. ... contaminated personal property. 945.603-71 Section 945.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  11. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs. October-December 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-02-06

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, and December 1955. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, selfabsorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 5 refs.

  12. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilcher, G.E.; Soldat, J.K.; Carey, Z.E.

    1955-04-20

    This publication summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, and September 1954. Samples were collected by Regional Survey forces. These samples were analyzed by the Control Laboratory of the Control Unit. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, back-scatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by the Control Services group. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct smples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII which discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and its effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil and water. 9 refs.

  13. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-24

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, September, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VI. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 10 refs.

  14. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1955-10-10

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, and September, 1955. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 6 refs.

  15. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, April-June 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-08-07

    This document summarized the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period April, May, and June, 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  16. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, October-December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-02-25

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, and December, 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  17. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, October-December 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-28

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, December, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of sort half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VI. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  18. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, January-March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-05-28

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period January, February, and March 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 7 refs.

  19. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, January-March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-06-17

    The document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period January, February, and March, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 9 refs.

  20. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  1. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  2. Memorandum of the Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum presents clarifying guidance for establishing protective cleanup levels for radioactive contamination at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites.

  3. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  5. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, T.I., E-mail: tbanks@berkeley.edu [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Freedman, S.J. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Inoue, K. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Koga, M. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Mitsui, T. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); and others

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  6. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T I; Wallig, J; Ybarrolaza, N; Gando, A; Gando, Y; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Kishimoto, Y; Koga, M; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yoshida, H; Yoshida, S; Kozlov, A; Grant, C; Keefer, G; Piepke, A; Bloxham, T; Fujikawa, B K; Han, K; Ichimura, K; Murayama, H; O'Donnell, T; Steiner, H M; Winslow, L A; Dwyer, D A; McKeown, R D; Zhang, C; Berger, B E; Lane, C E; Maricic, J; Miletic, T; Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Sakai, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Downum, K E; Gratta, G; Efremenko, Y; Perevozchikov, O; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Heeger, K M; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assortment of interchangeable radioactive sources could be attached to a weight at the end of the cable. All components exposed to the radiopure liquid scintillator were made of chemically compatible UHV-cleaned materials, primarily stainless steel, in order to avoid contaminating or degrading the scintillator. To prevent radon intrusion, the apparatus was enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing inside a glove box, and both volumes were regularly flushed with purified nitrogen gas. An infrared camera attached to the side of the housing permitted real-time visual monitoring of the cable's motion, and the system was controlled via a graphical user interface.

  7. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafe A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC. The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  8. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafe, A; Mortazavi, S M J; Joharnia, A; Safaeyan, Gh H

    2016-09-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  9. Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per

    A survey of radioactive pollution on land in the Thule area from an airplane accident in 1968 was carried out during 2007 and 2008. The results show levels of plutonium in soil at Narsaarsuk ranging from background values around 39 Bq m-2 up to levels of 1.7 MBq m-2. Local sub-areas of sizes...... the occurrence of radioactive particles in air. This involved col-lection of airborne particles with an air sampler, collection of airborne particles on sticky foils, collection of rain samples and collection of particles that could be resuspended by wind from the soil surface to the air. Small amounts...... no sign of resuspension of such particles from the soil. Local areas with elevated levels of radioactive pollution in soil were found at Kap Atholl and Grønnedal 15-20 km south of Narsaarsuk. Here the levels were lower than those in the Narsaarsuk area but clearly above background. It was not possible...

  10. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  11. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  12. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  13. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  14. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbak, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protection's recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,000-10 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 10-1000, and it should be recalled that the

  15. Water contamination, land prices, and the statute of repose

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Chamblee; Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken; Joseph R. Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    We examine how water contamination risk from an inactive hazardous waste site is capitalized into surrounding vacant land prices. After public knowledge of the first instance of off-site contamination, we find that shallow groundwater contamination potential is negatively capitalized into land prices, as is proximity to a known contaminated well. Public knowledge of...

  16. Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, P.

    2011-10-15

    A survey of radioactive pollution on land in the Thule area from an airplane accident in 1968 was carried out during 2007 and 2008. The results show levels of plutonium in soil at Narsaarsuk ranging from background values around 39 Bq m-2 up to levels of 1.7 MBq m-2. Local sub-areas of sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousands of square metres show elevated levels above 10 kBq m-2 of plutonium. Based on geostatistical analysis, the total amount of plutonium in soil at Narsaarsuk is estimated at 270 GBq (100 g). Investigations were carried out at Narsaarsuk to determine the occurrence of radioactive particles in air. This involved collection of airborne particles with an air sampler, collection of airborne particles on sticky foils, collection of rain samples and collection of particles that could be resuspended by wind from the soil surface to the air. Small amounts of plutonium were found in air and rain samples, but the derived concentrations in air were very low corresponding to typical back-ground levels in Europe in the range 1-10 nBq m-3. A few small particles were found on the soil surface with activities up to 1000 Bq plutonium but the air and rain samples showed no sign of resuspension of such particles from the soil. Local areas with elevated levels of radioactive pollution in soil were found at Kap Atholl and Groennedal 15-20 km south of Narsaarsuk. Here the levels were lower than those in the Narsaarsuk area but clearly above background. It was not possible within this project to carry out a systematic survey of the entire region. Hence, it cannot be excluded that there may be more local sub-areas than those identified with elevated levels of radioactive pollution in soil. Screening surveys were carried out at Thule Air Base, Moriusaq, Saunders Island and Wolstenholme Island. The results showed background levels in soil at these locations which means that no sign of radioactive pollution from the accident was found at these locations. (Author)

  17. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

    1996-12-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials.

  18. Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

    2011-01-01

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

  19. Radioactive contamination in Croatia by phosphate fertilizer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bituh, Tomislav [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: tbituh@imi.hr; Marovic, Gordana [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: marovic@imi.hr; Franic, Zdenko [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: franic@imi.hr; Sencar, Jasminka [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: jsencar@imi.hr; Bronzovic, Maja [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: mvrtar@imi.hr

    2009-03-15

    The contents of natural radionuclides (radium, uranium and potassium) were measured in the area of a phosphate fertilizer factory in central Croatia, as a part of extended and still ongoing monitoring program of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia that is performed by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb. Activity concentrations in all analysed media (waste water, trickling water from piezometers, phosphogypsum deposit and final products) considerably fluctuated, especially in phosphogypsum and waste water. Mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in waste phosphogypsum was measured to be 483 {+-} 190 Bq kg{sup -1}. Based on that value, it was estimated that 4 million m{sup 3} of phosphogypsum that have been deposited up to now contain about 4.3 x 10{sup 12} Bq, i.e. about 200 g of {sup 226}Ra. However, effective dose for an adult that would be incurred by consumption of water from nearby wells was estimated to be 5.3 {+-} 1.3 {mu}Sv. The results show that {sup 226}Ra activities cause effective doses, which are below the recommended maximum as the estimated annual {sup 226}Ra effective dose does not exceed 0.1 mSv as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  20. The radioactive contamination spots on the French territory; Les taches de contamination radioactive sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The principal objective of this work was to produce a document gathering and interpreting the available data about the land and food contamination consecutive to the Chernobyl accident, and giving an evaluation of the sanitary impact resulted from it, by focusing on the the most severe cases. To summarize the average dose received by French populations estimated in 1986 is between less than 0.025 mSv in the west of France and 0.4 mSv in the east. The doses equivalent to the thyroid in 1986 have been evaluated between 0.5 and 2 mSv with maximum values reaching 15 mSv for five years children. for some particular cases the doses calculated could reach values of 1.5 mSv in 1986 and 1 mSv in 1997 (exposure during a long time to contaminated areas and exclusive consumption of contaminated foods). By another way it could be justified to adopt an epidemiological inquiry relative to the thyroid cancers of child in some chosen areas of East of france ( Jura and Corsica for example), in order to answer to the interrogations of the populations and physicists though the doses estimated do not seem to lead to an observable risk excess. (N.C.)

  1. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of this...

  2. Investigating the contamination of accelerated radioactive beams with an ionization chamber at MINIBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Zidarova, Radostina

    2017-01-01

    My summer student project involved the operation and calibration of an ionization chamber, which was used at MINIBALL for investigating and determining the contamination in post-accelerated radioactive beams used for Coulomb excitation and transfer reaction experiments.

  3. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  4. Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Tanahara, Akira; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The release of radioactive materials due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised concern regarding the biological impacts of ingesting radioactively contaminated diets on organisms. We previously performed an internal exposure experiment in which contaminated leaves collected from polluted areas were fed to larvae of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from Okinawa, which is one of the least polluted localities in Japan. Using the same experimental system, in the pr...

  5. Dalgety Bay: Managing the risks from historic radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, P. [Scottish Environment Protection Agency (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Discrete radioactive items have been detected on a public beach at Dalgety Bay, Fife near Edinburgh, Scotland since 1990. Dalgety Bay is a New town built on the site of a former military airfield which serviced and decommissioned planes between 1917 and 1959. In 2011, monitoring of the affected foreshore reported hundreds of radium sources on the beach with activities up to 76 MBq. Immediate actions included closure of part of the beach, additional signs and an intensification of the monitoring and recovery programme. In order to determine the potential source and magnitude of the problem a programme of investigation was commissioned by both SEPA and the UK's Ministry of Defence MoD. The investigation programme revealed that the coastline at parts of the bay was made largely of ash and clinker the result of burning of wastes at the time the air base was operational. The depth of these deposits is variable but at times can be metres thick and extent several metres inland. This made ground contained radium sources which were being exposed on the foreshore as marine action eroded the coastline. Current monitoring and recovery programmes continue to recover over 100 sources each month from the beach which is around 800 m long in entirety. The potential health consequences of encountering such a source ranged according to the potential exposure scenario. For walkers passing through the area the external doses are practically zero, however if people remove material either inadvertently or deliberately doses from skin contact can be significant. For the skin doses initial estimates of doses have indicated that the dose rates were around 1 Gray per hour per MBq (to 1 cm{sup 2} ) to the 70 micron skin thickness recommended by ICRP[1] (ICRP, 89). For ingestion doses can be in excess of 100 mSv. The major variables defining the committed effective dose are the initial activity and the diverse range in solubility which is from zero to 36%. The potential doses to date give

  6. Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the

  7. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  10. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  11. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  12. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. H...... from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter....

  13. Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Hamadan Nuclear Medicine Centers Using Wipe Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rostampour

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: In centers 1 and 2, most of the radioactive contamination occurred under the hood due to labeling of radiopharmaceuticals activity. Also, in center 3, the highest contamination rate belonged to patients’ corridor that could be due to frequent the area. According to this subject, necessary measures in this regard should be considered by the department responsible for health physics.

  14. Radioactive contamination of {sup 7}LiI(Eu) crystal scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.it [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Budakovsky, S.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F. [INFN sezione Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); D' Angelo, S. [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); and others

    2013-03-11

    The radioactive contamination of two 26 g samples of low background lithium iodide crystal scintillators doped by europium and enriched in {sup 7}Li to 99.9% ({sup 7}LiI(Eu)) has been investigated by scintillation method at the sea level, and by ultra-low background HPGe γ spectrometry deep underground. No radioactive contamination was detected. In particular, the contamination of the crystal scintillators by {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th does not exceed 1 mBq/kg, and the activity of {sup 40}K is less than 0.5 Bq/kg.

  15. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  16. Tools for modeling radioactive contaminants in chip materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, F.; Kaouache, A.; Saigné, F.; Touboul, A. D.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Warot, G.; Bruguier, O.

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive pollutants are naturally present in microelectronic device materials and can be an issue for the reliability of devices. The main concern is alpha emitters that produce high-energy particles (a few MeV) that ionize the semiconductor and then trigger soft errors. The question is to know what kinds of radionuclides are present in the device, their location in the device and the abundance of each species. In this paper we describe tools that are required to address the issue of radioactive pollutants in electronic devices.

  17. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  18. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  19. Local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium at a farm in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive cesium concentration in soil was measured at 27 sections with 5 points per section, and surface dose of ground was measured at 10 sections with 13 points per section at a farm in Fukushima to assess local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium. As for the cesium in soil, averages of the coefficient of variance (CV) and the maximum/minimum ratio in each section were 49% and 4.9, respectively. As for the surface dose, average of its CV in each section was 20% and the maximum/minimum ratio reached a maximum of 3.0. These findings suggest that exact evaluation of soil contamination with cesium is difficult. Small changes or differences in soil contamination may not be detected in studies of the environmental radioactivity.

  20. Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period April, May, June 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paas, H.J.; Singlevich, W.

    1950-04-03

    This report summarizes the measurements made for radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the quarter April through June 1949. This belated document is issued for the records to fill in the gap for the quarterly reports not issued in 1949 because of personnel shortage at that time. Although the data summarized in this report were already reported in the H. I. Evirons Reports for the months involved, it is still of value to study the data combining the three months of data which give better opportunity to evaluate the trends and patterns of the levels of radioactive contamination emanating from the various sources at the Hanford Works. This document discusses: meteorological data and radioactive contamination in vegetation, the atmosphere, rain, Hanford wastes, the Columbia River, and in drinking water and test wells.

  1. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bq g{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behaviour patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size. (author).

  2. An investigation of awareness on the Fukushima nuclear accident and Radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Chul; Song, Young Ju [Dept. of Consumer Safety, Korea Consumer Agency, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate Korean people's awareness about impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan and radioactive contamination caused by it. The respondents of the survey were 600 adults who resided in the Seoul metropolitan area. The survey results show that the majority of respondents were concerned about impact of radiation leakage that might have an effect on our environment. They were worried about radioactive contamination of foodstuffs, particularly fishery products and preferred to acquire information through TV(49.8%) or the Internet(31.3%). Meanwhile, respondents mentioned that the information on the Fukushima nuclear accident and radioactive contamination had not been sufficient and they didn't know well about the follow-up measures of the government on the accident. Most respondents answered that information on radioactive contamination levels and safety of foods and environment was most needed. The results of this study could be useful to enhance awareness on radioactivity and improve risk communication on nuclear power plant accidents.

  3. Report on residual radioactive materials on public or acquired lands of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    This report identifies sites located on public or acquired lands of the United States containing residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste (excluding waste resulting from the production of electric energy) and was developed in accordance with the provisions of Section 114(b) of Public Law 95-604, "Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978," enacted on November 8, 1978. Additionally, the report specifies which Federal agency has jurisdiction over such sites and, where appropriate data were available, provides a description of the radiological status of each of the sites reported. For purpose of providing a timely report t o t h e Congress, a termination date of May 31, 1979 was established for the receipt, correlation, and analysis of the input data. As of this date, residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste have been identified by six Federal agencies at 48 sites throughout the United States. Table 1 on page vi provides a summary listing of the number of sites under the jurisdiction of each of these reporting agencies. A cross listing in tabular form by affected state is presented in Table 2 on page viii. Of the 48 sites reported, 36 are located i n three western states - Colorado (27 sites), Wyoming (5 sites), and Utah (4 sites). Based upon t h e data submitted, the sites were categorized into three broad radiological status categories -- controlled, unstabilized, and risk to the public. At controlled sites, the residue is stabilized, access t o t h e site is controlled, the s i t e is well monitored, and does not currently constitute a risk to the public. At sites in the unstabilized category, a probability exists for the spread of contamination. Sites in the risk category contain residue which represents a long-term risk to the public under present conditions. Of the 48 reported sites,. 9 (approximately 19%) could be classified in the controlled category; 38 (approximately 79%) were in the unstabilized category and

  4. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  5. Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation.

  6. Working towards an integrated land contamination management framework for Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Kabari; Coulon, Frédéric; Prpich, George

    2016-11-15

    Over the past five decades, Nigeria has developed a number of contaminated land legislations to address the damage caused primarily by oil and gas exploitation activities. Within these legislations exists elements of risk assessment and risk-based corrective action. Despite this progress, we argue that contaminated land management approaches in Nigeria need further development to be able to integrate new scientific information, and to address environmental, economic, and social values. By comparison, advanced contaminated land regimes in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America (USA) apply a number of integrative approaches (e.g. sustainability appraisal, liability regime, funding mechanisms, technology demonstration) that enable them to meet the environmental, economic, and social needs of their populations. In comparison, Nigerian governance lacks many of these mechanisms and management of contaminated land is ad hoc. In this paper we propose an integrated risk assessment framework for Nigeria that incorporates the principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement into the decision-making processes for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management. The integrated approach relies on transparency to promote acceptance and build trust in institutions, and uses stakeholder engagement to address data deficiencies. We conclude this paper with a roadmap for how Nigeria might implement such an integrative approach into their existing contaminated land regulatory system, as well as identify a series of policy priorities that should be addressed.

  7. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  8. Investigation of radioactive pollution on land at Thule and assessment of radiation doses; Undersoegelse af radioaktiv forurening paa landjorden ved Thule og vurdering af straaledoser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    Risoe National Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area, Greenland, after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of this research are described in the report ''Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land''. Based on this report, the National Board of Health made an assessment of radiation doses and the risk for individuals in the Thule area. The results of the assessment are described in the report ''The Thule accident. Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination''. The present report is a summary of these two reports. (ln)

  9. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as atool for decision makers and planners and constitutes a basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas....

  10. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  11. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  12. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  13. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T. [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I. [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A. [Scientific Production Association ``Typhoon``, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  14. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  15. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, Nikolai [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, 53 Melnikov Street, Kyiv 04050 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nick@rpi.kiev.ua

    2005-03-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available {sup 137}Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The {sup 137}Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  16. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  17. Radioactive Contamination Tenacity on Building Substrate – 17417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick; Boxall, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Radiological decontamination is an essential enterprise that has become more important over the last four decades due to unfortunate accidents and the threat of terrorist actions. Decontamination can be an effective, beneficial alternative for the cleanup of radiological contamination events; however, the costs and benefits need to be balanced against those for complete removal and demolition of contaminated areas or facilities. Demolition and removal are often the first options considered in such circumstances as decontamination may be thought of as slow and costly. Decontamination has advantages, including significant waste reduction over demolition. In areas with buildings of cultural or societal importance, demolition may not be an option. Three decontamination evaluation test series are the focus of this article: SIMCON 1 and 2 (i.e., simulated contamination), and Urban RDD (radiological dispersal device, i.e., a dirty bomb detonation). These test series revealed that different contaminants respond differently during decontamination. This was found to be true with both SIMCON and Urban RDD simulant tests. SIMCON 2 especially demonstrated that chemically different contaminants respond differently to different decontamination methods: cesium appears to be less tenacious (more easily removed) than zirconium using chemical methods. These differences were underscored by the Urban RDD tests where americium and cobalt tended to precipitate on high pH surfaces (such as concrete), making them easier to remove, while cesium and strontium were essentially unaffected by surface pH and were imbibed more strongly into the substrate pore structure. While authorities argue over the contributions of contaminant chemistry and substrate morphology, the clear answer is that each has a contribution to the tenacity of a contaminant. Knowing how these characteristics interact will make us better at decontamination in the field. This knowledge refutes the efforts of perhaps well

  18. 32 CFR 644.528 - Return of contaminated leased land to owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Return of contaminated leased land to owners. 644... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.528 Return of contaminated leased land to owners. Where leased land has been contaminated, whether excess to military requirements or being used, it...

  19. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination; Caracterisation de mousses dulcaquicoles comme indicateurs de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    1994-12-16

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Building classification trees to explain the radioactive contamination levels of the plants; Construction d'arbres de discrimination pour expliquer les niveaux de contamination radioactive des vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, B

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this thesis is the development of a method allowing the identification of factors leading to various radioactive contamination levels of the plants. The methodology suggested is based on the use of a radioecological transfer model of the radionuclides through the environment (A.S.T.R.A.L. computer code) and a classification-tree method. Particularly, to avoid the instability problems of classification trees and to preserve the tree structure, a node level stabilizing technique is used. Empirical comparisons are carried out between classification trees built by this method (called R.E.N. method) and those obtained by the C.A.R.T. method. A similarity measure is defined to compare the structure of two classification trees. This measure is used to study the stabilizing performance of the R.E.N. method. The methodology suggested is applied to a simplified contamination scenario. By the results obtained, we can identify the main variables responsible of the various radioactive contamination levels of four leafy-vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, spinach and leek). Some extracted rules from these classification trees can be usable in a post-accidental context. (author)

  1. Melioration of the radiocesium contaminated land

    CERN Document Server

    Epifanova, I E

    2012-01-01

    A method is described of radiocesium fixation in soils contaminated by this radionuclide. To immobilize radiocesium, the soil surface is treated with aqueous hexacyanoferrate solution of alkaline metals. It has been experimentally shown that application of K4 [Fe(CN)6]{\\bullet}3H2O at a rate of 1,3g/kg soil reduces the fraction of exchangeable 137Cs 100-fold (100 times). The method is effective for the plots where contamination is concentrated in the top 1 - 2 cm soil layer.

  2. Survey on radioactive contamination in Beijing following the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Wan, Ling; Ma, Yongzhong; Li, Huijuan; Meng, Qinghua; Kong, Yuxia; Zhu, Weijie; Wu, Dapeng; Cui, Limeng

    2013-09-01

    The radioactive contamination in Beijing caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident was monitored. In this research, samples of air, rainwater, surface water and vegetables in Beijing were collected and measured to estimate the radioactive contamination levels in Beijing. During the period from the 15th to the 41st day after the first emission of radioactive material (first emission) from the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) on 12 March 2011, obvious radioactive contamination was found in the Beijing air samples. The maximum concentration of I-131 was 5.89 mBq m(-3) in the air samples detected on the 22nd day after the first emission, and the maximum concentration of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was found on the 20th day after the first emission. Except for one sample of rainwater, no artificial radionuclides associated with Fukushima were found in surface water. The measurement results showed that there was no harm to the health of local Beijing residents.

  3. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  4. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  5. On the Analytic Estimation of Radioactive Contamination from Degraded Alphas

    CERN Document Server

    Kadel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The high energy spectrum of alpha particles emitted from a single isotope uniformly contaminating a bulk solid has a flat energy spectrum with a high end cutoff energy equal to the maximal alpha kinetic energy ($T_{\\alpha}$) of the decay. In this flat region of the spectrum, we show the surface rate $r_b\\text{\\,(Bq/keV-cm}^{2})$ arising from a bulk alpha contamination $\\rho_b$ (Bq/cm$^3$) from a single isotope is given by $r_b =\\rho_b \\Delta R/ 4 \\Delta E $, where $\\Delta E = E_1-E_2>0\\ $ is the energy interval considered (keV) in the flat region of the spectrum and $\\Delta R = R_2-R_1$, where $R_2$ ($R_1$) is the amount of the bulk material (cm) necessary to degrade the energy of the alpha from $T_{\\alpha}$ to $E_2$ ($E_1$). We compare our calculation to a rate measurement of alphas from $^{147}$Sm, ($15.32\\%\\,\\pm\\,0.03\\%$ of Sm($nat$) and half life of $(1.06\\,\\pm\\,0.01)\\times\\,10^{11} \\text{yr}$, and find good agreement, with the ratio between prediction to measurement of $100.2\\%\\pm 1.6\\%\\,\\text{(stat)}\\pm...

  6. Biotesting of radioactively contaminated forest soils using barley-based bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

  7. Radioactive contamination in liquid wastes discharged to ground at the separations facilities through December, 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurray, B.J.

    1967-02-15

    This document summarizes the amounts of radioactive contamination discharged to ground from chemical separations and laboratory facilities through December, 1966. Detailed data for individual disposal sites are presented on a month-to-month basis for the period of January through December, 1966. Previous publications of this series are listed in the bibliography and may be referred to for specific information on measurements and radioactivity totals prior to January, 1966. Several changes in crib nomenclature were made during 1965. These changes are noted on the individual tables so reference may be made to them in previous reports.

  8. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  9. A compact ultra-clean system for deploying radioactive sources inside the KamLAND detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banks, T.I.; Freedman, S.J.; Wallig, J.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Bloxham, T.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Han, K.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H.M.; Winslow, L.A.; Dwyer, D.A.; McKeown, R.D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B.E.; Lane, C.E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; Downum, K.E.; Gratta, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K.M.; Detwiler, J.A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact, ultra-clean device used to deploy radioactive sources along the vertical axis of the KamLAND liquid-scintillator neutrino detector for purposes of calibration. The device worked by paying out and reeling in precise lengths of a hanging, small-gauge wire rope (cable); an assort

  10. Development of analytical methods and survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. N.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Chung, G. H.; Kang, M. J.; Kim, H. R.; Park, D. W.; Choi, C. S.; Kwak, J. H.; Kwak, S. Y.

    2008-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a survey of the radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). Recently, CODEX added and departmentalised new monitoring radionuclides including alpha and beta radionuclides. The purpose and scope of this study is 1) the development of analysis method for gamma emitting radionuclides({sup 60}Co, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 192}Ir) and tritium radionuclides added at new CODEX version. 2) survey and analysis of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs collected from the open markets (the imported and domestic products including North Korea products). Based on deeply examination of the various international standard procedures, the new method for analyzing gamma emitting radionuclides({sup 60}Co, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 192}Ir) was developed and applied to radioactive analysis of the foodstuffs. 200 foodstuffs were analyzed(150 imported foodstuffs including 11 samples of North Korea product and 50 domestic foodstuffs). The 137Cs radionuclide among the regulation radionuclides({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of the Korea food code and the added radionuclides({sup 60}Co, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 192}Ir) at new CODEX version is only detected in the imported foodstuffs but its level is far below the maximum permitted level. This study also developed analytical methods for additional radionuclides(3H) of CODEX. In the normal case, it will be enough only to survey the radioactive contamination for foodstuffs using the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of the Korea food code without the analysis of the added radionuclides at new CODEX version. However, when the radioactivity more than the regulation level is measured, the added

  11. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  12. Resource and radioactivity survey in southern Victoria Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, E.J. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence); Dreschhoff, G.; Crisler, K.; Tessensohn, F.

    1977-10-01

    This report describes the first systematic attempt at a gamma-ray survey of the exposed rocks in a portion of Antarctica. The area examined is in the Transantarctic Mountains between 76/sup 0/45' and 78/sup 0/30'S and extends from the Ross Sea coast to the ice sheet. Rock radioactivity was examined with the aim of assessing the uranium resource potential of the area. In the course of the airborne survey many results were obtained relating to: mobility of U in the study area; an area of fluorite bearing marble being discovered; pegmatities at Mt. Dromedary and Roaring Valley; granites in the area; volcanics; and metasediments. A calibration test and airborne gamma-ray measurement techniques were used for these, but ground checks were made where significant anomalies were detected. 2 figures.

  13. Uptake of radioactive and stable Co and Zn isotopes by barley plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. V.; Lavrent'eva, G. V.; Pivovarova, Yu. A.; Anisimov, V. S.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Co and Zn on the accumulation of 60Co and 65Zn by plants was studied in experiments with growing barley on a soddy-podzolic soil and a chernozem containing the radionuclide and increasing concentrations (from the background level to a high degree of contamination) of the corresponding metal. The root uptake of 60Co was directly related to the soil contamination with Co and its accumulation in the plants, while an inverse relationship was observed between the activity of 65Zn in the plants and the content of Zn in the soil. It was concluded that the transfer of the radionuclide into the plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination depended, on the one hand, on the mobile reserve of the stable nuclide in the soil and the solid phase potential to release its ions into the soil solution and, on the other hand, on the requirement of the plants for this element and the uptake rate of its ions by the roots from the solution.

  14. Risk-based land management towards sustainable management of contaminated land in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegter, J. [Technical soil protection committee (TCB) (Netherlands); Lowe, J.; Kasamas, H. [Ministry of Environment (BMLFUW) (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    The Risk-based Land Management (RBLM) concept developed during the course of the CLARINET concerted action to provide a framework for development of policy, research and practice in sustainable management of contaminated land. It focuses on legacy contamination (contamination resulting from past practices) and allows for regional and site-specific solutions in policy and other decision-making across Europe. The RBLM concept aims to assist policy makers and regulators, as well as other stakeholders, in making balanced and informed decisions to achieve sustainable management of land. The common ground in contaminated land policies in the EU countries is increasing with their stronger interaction with spatial planning and water-/soil protection and their longer time perspective of sustainable enviromental management. Current contaminated land approaches focus on sustainable solutions which will manage the contamination effectively and restore the social, environmental and economic value of the land. The RBLM concept provides a framework to structure the decision-making process to achieve sustainable solutions. (orig.)

  15. Enhanced phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankong, P; Visoottiviseth, P; Khokiattiwong, S

    2007-08-01

    In an attempt to clean up arsenic (As) contaminated soil, the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer and rhizosphere microbes on arsenic accumulation by the silverback fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, were investigated in both greenhouse and field experiments. Field experiments were conducted in Ron Phibun District, an As-contaminated area in Thailand. Soil (136-269 microg As g(-1)) was collected there and used in the greenhouse experiment. Rhizosphere microbes (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from roots of P. calomelanos growing in Ron Phibun District. The results showed that P-fertilizer significantly increased plant biomass and As accumulation of the experimental P. calomelanos. Rhizobacteria increased significantly the biomass and As content of the test plants. Thus, P-fertilizer and rhizosphere bacteria enhanced As-phytoextraction. In contrast, rhizofungi reduced significantly As concentration in plants but increased plant biomass. Therefore, rhizosphere fungi exerted their effects on phytostabilization.

  16. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van, E-mail: msbatalha@oi.com.b, E-mail: rvangenuchten@yahoo.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Bezerra, Camila Rosa, E-mail: camila.rosabz@gmail.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  17. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, H M; Cleveland, B T; Doucas, G; Gagnon, N; Jelley, N A; Kraus, C; Lawson, I T; Majerus, S; McGee, S R; Myers, A W; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Rosten, R C; Stonehill, L C; VanDevender, B A; Van Wechel, T D

    2011-01-01

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  18. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keeffe, H.M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Burritt, T.H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cleveland, B.T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Doucas, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gagnon, N. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Jelley, N.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Kraus, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Lawson, I.T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Majerus, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); McGee, S.R.; Myers, A.W. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Poon, A.W.P. [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Robertson, R.G.H., E-mail: rghr@u.washington.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rosten, R.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2011-12-11

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two 'hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the {sup 3}He proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  19. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H

    2004-11-15

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  20. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  1. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  2. The sensitivity of different environments to radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, B L; Carini, F; Barabash, S; Berkovskyy, V; Brittain, J E; Chouhan, S; Eleftheriou, G; Iosjpe, M; Monte, L; Psaltaki, M; Shen, J; Tschiersch, J; Turcanu, C

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes modelling calculations carried out to determine the sensitivity of various rural and semi-natural environments to radionuclide contamination by (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (131)I released during a major nuclear accident. Depositions of 1000 Bq/m(3) were assumed for each radionuclide. Four broad types of environments were considered: agricultural, forest or tundra, freshwater aquatic, and coastal marine. A number of different models were applied to each environment. The annual dose to a human population receiving most or all of its food and drinking water from a given environment was taken as a broad measure of sensitivity. The results demonstrated that environmental sensitivity was highly radionuclide specific, with (137)Cs generally giving the highest doses during the first year, especially for adults, in terrestrial and freshwater pathways. However, in coastal marine environments, (131)I and (239)Pu were more significant. Sensitivity was time dependent with doses for the first year dominating those for the 2nd and 10th years after deposition. In agricultural environments the ingestion dose from (137)Cs was higher for adults than other age groups, whereas for (90)Sr and (131)I, the ingestion dose was highest for infants. The dependence of sensitivity on social and economic factors such as individual living habits, food consumption preferences, and agricultural practices is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Some aspects of the rehabilitation of agricultural lands contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oulianenko, L.N.; Filipas, A.S.; Diachenko, I.V.; Stepanchikova, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    In increasing anthropogenous impacts on the environment, the problem of obtaining plant products with minimal content of toxicants becomes more and more challenging. This problem is particularly relevant in the farming regions of Russia subjected to the effects of the accidents in the south Urals and Chernobyl, since reduction of radionuclide content in agricultural products is still among the main ways of decreasing the dose burdens for population. The situation is aggravated by the fact that to date, implementation of traditional methods connected first of all with the introduction as special agrotechnical methods and justified in the early post-accidental period is not as efficient as it was before. At the same time, it is just now that particular attention is given to the problems of plant production ecologization, which is especially important for lands subjected to technogenous contamination. From this point of view, biologically active substances (BAS) are of interest beyond any doubt. These substances are applied as regulators of plant growth, for increase of crop productivity and resistance to abiotic or biotic factors, and having potential ability of regulating the transfer of mineral substances into plants. The data available on the BAS application on radioactively contaminated lands confirm their effect on the processes of radionuclide transport in the chain: soil-plant-harvest. All these considerations give grounds for using this approach to minimize chemical toxicants in plant products, and to rehabilitate lands under conditions of their technogenous contamination.

  4. 32 CFR 644.524 - Reporting contaminated land to the General Services Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting contaminated land to the General... and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.524 Reporting contaminated land to the General Services Administration. Contaminated areas, except industrial properties...

  5. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-27

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  6. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  7. Multiple Methods for Assessing the Dose to Skin Exposed to Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeau, J; Heinmiller, B E; Corrigan, M

    2017-04-28

    There is the possibility for a worker at a nuclear installation, such as a nuclear power reactor, a fuel production facility or a medical facility, to come in contact with radioactive contaminants. When such an event occurs, the first order of business is to care for the worker by promptly initiating a decontamination process. Usually, the radiation protection personnel performs a G-M pancake probe measurement of the contamination in situ and collects part or all of the radioactive contamination for further laboratory analysis. The health physicist on duty must then perform, using the available information, a skin dose assessment that will go into the worker's permanent dose record. The contamination situations are often complex and the dose assessment can be laborious. This article compares five dose assessment methods that involve analysis, new technologies and new software. The five methods are applied to 13 actual contamination incidents consisting of direct skin contact, contamination on clothing and contamination on clothing in the presence of an air gap between the clothing and the skin. This work shows that, for the cases studied, the methods provided dose estimates that were usually within 12% (1σ) of each other, for those cases where absolute activity information for every radionuclide was available. One method, which relies simply on a G-M pancake probe measurement, appeared to be particularly useful in situations where a contamination sample could not be recovered for laboratory analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  9. Decontamination effects of detergents on the market for radioactive surface contamination. Their comparative test (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Takasaki, Koji; Horiuchi, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Yasunaka, Hideo; Izumi, Yuichi [Japan Environment Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    There happens frequently radioactive surface contamination on human body and skin under radiation works in controlled area. The surface contamination should be removed from the body and the skin as soon as possible for radiation control and exposure management. Titanium oxide paste, which is reserved as detergent for radioactive surface contamination, has satisfactory results and reliability for decontamination effects. The titanium oxide paste, however, has a short preservation period, and must be exchanged and supplied every several months. Decontamination tests for 22 kinds of detergents on the market were carried out with swine skin and radiation materials, Cs-137 and Ru-106. Radiation solution of Cs-137 or Ru-106 was dropped on the swine skin sample, which was left for 5 min or 40 min as it is. Radioactivity of the sample was measured before and after washing of the detergents. Decontamination effects of the detergents for Cs-137 were similar to those for Ge-144 which were tested in the previous year. The decontamination effects for Ru-106, however, were remarkably lower than those for both cases of Cs-137 and Ge-144. (M. Suetake)

  10. Radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms. Current measured values (State: 2013); Radioaktive Kontamination von Speisepilzen. Aktuelle Messwerte (Stand: 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabai, Eva; Hiersche, Lydia

    2015-01-15

    The report includes the current measured values (2013) of the radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms in Southern Germany (Cs137 and K-40) and discusses the relation radio-cesium intake and radiation exposure now and and the future.

  11. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  12. PECULIARITIES OF CURRENT DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN LIVING IN THE TERRITORIES RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines peculiarities of current dose assessment for the children living in the territories radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The results of annual exposure dose assessment for the children of various age groups and adult population of three subject territories of the Russian Federation referred to the zones of radioactive contamination are presented. A comparison of obtained estimations is done.

  13. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  14. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univeristy, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural {sup 40}K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.

  15. Disposal facilities on land for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes: guidance on requirements for qauthorisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This document, published by the Environmental Agency, contains guidance on the principles and requirements against which applications for authorisation to build or operate a land-based specialised disposal facility for solid low or intermediate level wastes, will be assessed, with the aim of protecting the public from hazards which may arise from their disposal to the environment. The guide provides information on terms used, the framework governing radioactive waste disposal and the Agencies` expectations of applicants, including radiological and technical requirements. (UK).

  16. Short rotation coppice for revaluation of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Thiry, Y; Gommers, A; Goor, F; Jossart, J M; Holm, E; Gäfvert, T; Roed, J; Grebenkov, A; Timofeyev, S; Gäufert, T

    2001-01-01

    When dealing with large-scale environmental contamination, as following the Chernobyl accident, changed land use such that the products of the land are radiologically acceptable and sustain an economic return from the land is a potentially sustainable remediation option. In this paper, willow short rotation coppice (SRC) is evaluated on radiological, technical and economic grounds for W. European and Belarus site conditions. Radiocaesium uptake was studied in a newly established and existing SRC. Only for light-texture soils with low soil potassium should cultivation be restricted to soils with contamination levels below 100-370 kBq m-2 given the TFs on these soils (5 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(-3) m2 kg-1) and considering the Belarus exemption limit for firewood (740 Bq kg-1). In the case of high wood contamination levels (> 1000 Bq kg-1), power plant personnel working in the vicinity of ash conveyers should be subjected to radiation protection measures. For appropriate soil conditions, potential SRC yields are high. In Belarus, most soils are sandy with a low water retention, for which yield estimates are too low to make production profitable without irrigation. The economic viability should be thoroughly calculated for the prevailing conditions. In W. Europe, SRC production or conversion is not profitable without price incentives. For Belarus, the profitability of SRC on the production side largely depends on crop yield and price of the delivered bio-fuel. Large-scale heat conversion systems seem the most profitable and revenue may be considerable. Electricity routes are usually unprofitable. It could be concluded that energy production from SRC is potentially a radiologically and economically sustainable land use option for contaminated agricultural land.

  17. A PLS-Based Weighted Artificial Neural Network Approach for Alpha Radioactivity Prediction inside Contaminated Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianguo Tuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range alpha detection (LRAD has been used to measure alpha particles emitting contamination inside decommissioned steel pipes. There exists a complex nonlinear relationship between input parameters and measuring results. The input parameters, for example, pipe diameter, pipe length, distance to radioactive source, radioactive source strength, wind speed, and flux, exhibit different contributions to the measuring results. To reflect these characteristics and estimate alpha radioactivity as exactly as possible, a hybrid partial least square back propagation (PLSBP neural network approach is presented in this paper. In this model, each node in the input layer is weighted, which indicates that different input nodes have different contributions on the system and this finding has been little reported. The weights are determined by the PLS. After this modification, a variety of normal three-layered BP networks are developed. The comparison of computational results of the proposed approach with traditional BP model and experiments confirms its clear advantage for dealing with this complex nonlinear estimation. Thus, an integrated picture of alpha particle activity inside contaminated pipes can be obtained.

  18. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  19. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  20. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  1. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and (137)Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ((137)Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  3. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  4. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are su...

  5. MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL AT GRAZING PADDOCK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ime Ebenso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  6. Pollution, contamination and future land use at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M; Shukla, S; Jeitner, C; Ramos, R; Tsipoura, Nellie; Donio, M

    2008-10-01

    Scientists interested in contamination normally deal only with pollution itself, not with people's perceptions of pollution or the relationship between pollution and land use. The overall objective of this article was to examine the relationship between people's perceptions of pollution and their views on future land use. People were interviewed at an Earth Day Festival near the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on Long Island, New York. On an open-ended question, people thought that BNL should be left as it is, or maintained as a preserve, park or conservation area, or used for environmental research. Almost no one thought that it should be used for housing or industrial purposes. When asked to rate a list of possible future land uses, maintaining BNL as a National Environmental Research Park for research and for recreation were rated the highest (nuclear storage was rated the lowest). This was consistent with the subjects' views that pollution was the greatest concern about BNL. The congruence between perceptions about concerns or problems and future land use preferences suggests a unified view of management of contaminated sites, such as BNL, at least among a group of people whose environmental interests were evident by their presence at the event.

  7. Contaminated land clean-up using composted wastes and impacts of VOCs on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J C; Akinola, M; Nason, M A; Tandy, S; Healey, J R; Jones, D L

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes experiments that demonstrate the effects and potential for remediation of a former steelworks site in Wales polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Under field conditions, PAH-contaminated soil was composted in-vessel, with or without organic feedstocks, receiving forced aeration for 80 days followed by 4 months maturation. Treatments compared PAH removal in contaminated soil to contaminated soil mixed with three different organic waste mixes after composting and after composts were spread to land. After composting, PAH concentrations declined in all treatments, by up to 38%. Sixteen months after the composts were landspread and vegetation was established, only those containing contaminated soil with organic additions exhibited further PAH removal, by up to 29%. Composting resulted in a decline in the relative concentration of small PAHs, whereas the landspreading-vegetation phase saw a decline in the relative concentration of medium PAHs in two of the three composts exhibiting PAH removal. Under controlled glasshouse conditions, vegetated soil columns of differing depths were exposed to VOCs from beneath. VOC vapour affected both shoot and root growth and soil microbial activity; effects varied with distance from the VOC source. This work demonstrated that on-site remediation of aged PAH-contaminated land can be successfully initiated by in-vessel co-composting followed by land spreading and vegetation, within a practical timeframe.

  8. Radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms. Current measured values (State: 2014); Radioaktive Kontamination von Speisepilzen. Aktuelle Messwerte (Stand: 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabai, Eva; Hiersche, Lydia

    2015-09-15

    The report on the radioactive contamination of different wild edible mushrooms in southern Germany summarizes the actual situation in 2014 in comparison with the data since 2005. The mushrooms were fund in the regions contaminated as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl 1986. The data for Cs-137 and K-40 contamination of a large amount of wild edible mushrooms are tabulated for different sampling sites. Measured data of the years 2004 to 2013 are included.

  9. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies. PMID:27430163

  10. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Eged, K. [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  11. Evaluation of systemic exposure resulting from wounds contaminated by radioactive products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the systemic consequences of wounds contaminated by radioactive products. It is concerned exclusively with internal exposure. The issue of local dosimetry in the wound is not dealt with. The principal objective of the document is to help practitioners with the procedures that they have to follow. The interpretative model proposed is sufficiently general to be applied to all the different situations usually encountered. The model makes it possible to carry out a dosimetric estimation quickly after an incident. A follow-up over prolonged periods will sometimes be necessary, in particular for serious contaminations. Suggestions are made concerning the way in which data collected in this way should be interpreted. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  13. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  14. Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Tanahara, Akira; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-09-23

    The release of radioactive materials due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised concern regarding the biological impacts of ingesting radioactively contaminated diets on organisms. We previously performed an internal exposure experiment in which contaminated leaves collected from polluted areas were fed to larvae of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from Okinawa, which is one of the least polluted localities in Japan. Using the same experimental system, in the present study, we further examined the effects of low-level-contaminated diets on this butterfly. Leaves were collected from two localities in Tohoku (Motomiya (161 Bq/kg) and Koriyama (117 Bq/kg)); two in Kanto (Kashiwa (47.6 Bq/kg) and Musashino (6.4 Bq/kg)); one in Tokai (Atami (2.5 Bq/kg)); and from Okinawa (0.2 Bq/kg). In addition to the effects on the first generation, we examined the possible transgenerational effects of the diets on the next generation. In the first generation, the Tohoku groups showed higher rates of mortality and abnormalities and a smaller forewing size than the Okinawa group. The mortality rates were largely dependent on the ingested dose of caesium. The survival rates of the Kanto-Tokai groups were greater than 80%, but the rates in the Tohoku groups were much lower. In the next generation, the survival rates in the Tohoku groups were below 20%, whereas those of the Okinawa groups were above 70%. The survival rates in the second generation were independent of the locality of the leaves ingested by the first generation, indicating that the diet in the second generation was the determinant of their survival. Moreover, a smaller forewing size was observed in the Tohoku groups in the second generation. However, the forewing size was inversely correlated with the cumulative caesium dose ingested throughout the first and second generations, indicating that the diet in the first generation also influenced the forewing size of the second generation. Biological

  15. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  16. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  17. Potential for contamination during removal of radioactive seeds from surgically excised tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classic, K L; Brunette, J B; Carlson, S K

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a scalpel or electrocautery to remove radioactive sealed sources ("seeds") from surgically excised tissue could damage the seed and cause it to leak its radioactive contents. Attempts were made to cut or burn Oncura Model 6711 non-radioactive seeds while in pig muscle or on a stainless steel plate. Additionally, one active 125I seed was purposely charred using pressure with an electrocautery knife to see whether the casing could be damaged. Electron microscopy scanning was performed on the dummy seeds to determine if the integrity of the metal casing had been compromised. Two types of leak tests were performed on the active seed to verify the presence or absence of loose contamination. The seed casing was not damaged from either use of a scalpel or electrocautery when the seed was in tissue. The active seed was not found to be leaking after applying pressure with an electrocautery knife while the seed was on a stainless steel plate. We conclude that removal of active Model 6711 seeds from surgically excised tissue can be done safely with a scalpel or electrocautery because constant, firm pressure cannot be applied to the seed. This is likely true for seeds made of similar materials.

  18. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: andrea.petrucci@enea.it [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)

    2015-10-11

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  19. Simulations of long-term health risk from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for up to 1000 years following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be considered by model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include:groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Off-site population and individual doses and cancer risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. Some simulation results for the Barnwell site are presented. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  1. Capacity of blood plasma is higher in birds breeding in radioactively contaminated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders P.; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Environmental pollution in general, and radioactive contamination in particular, may deeply affect host-parasite relationships and their consequences for the evolution of organisms. The nuclear accident that occurred more than 30 years ago in Chernobyl resulted in significant changes in diversity and richness of microbial communities that could influence characteristics of animal-bacteria interactions, including host immune responses and competitive interference by bacteria. Given the high mortality rate of birds breeding in radioactively contaminated zones, those with stronger defences against infections should experience significant fitness advantages. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterized antimicrobial capacity of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from different Ukrainian populations (subject to a gradient of ionizing radiation) against 12 bacterial species. We also quantified constitutive innate immunity, which is the non-specific first barrier of protection of hosts against microbial parasites. We found a positive association between specific antimicrobial capacity of individual hosts and radiation levels in breeding habitats even after controlling for other confounding variables such as sex and age. However, no significant relationship was found between immunocompetence (non-specific response) and background radiation. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that radiation selects for broad antimicrobial spectra of barn swallows, although not for all bacterial strains. We discuss these results in the framework of host-parasite evolution under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:28662048

  2. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2012-06-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas.

  4. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Dikarev, V.G.; Zyablitskaya Ye.Ya.; Oudalova, A.A.; Spirin, Ye. V; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external {beta}- and {gamma}-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute {gamma}-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years.

  5. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  6. Emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by radioactive material and management of the hospitalization path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Muni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The organization that has to face the radiological emergencies in a nuclear disaster or terroristic attack must be carefully planned. In the hospitals with a level one Emergency Department, it is possible to draw a pathway for the contaminated patients, based on internal resources and on the recommendations of the nuclear medicine associations (as AIMN – Associazione Italiana di Medicina Nucleare; SNM – Society of Nuclear Medicine. The “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” hospital in Alessandria is a modern hospital and is the reference of an extended area, for its many highly specialized departments. In this background, and in a hospital with a level one Emergency Department, there are three qualified departments, able to play a primary role in the emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by nuclear materials: Emergency Department, Nuclear Medicine Unit and Health Physics Unit. Therefore the Alessandria Hospital is suitable to admit patients potentially contaminated by radioactive material, to determ i n e the level of contamination, to decontaminate them in the emergency decontamination area, to hospitalise and treat them in the nuclear medicine rooms.

  7. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Issues in public health: assuaging concern from contaminated land resulting from land use dynamics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H

    2001-01-01

    The anthropogenic disturbance of pristine natural areas caused by land use and transformation from one use to another as a result of increased pressure from demographic changes and the economics of this shrinking resource can result in adverse health hazards for the community. This paper appraises the consequential impact of land use dynamics, its assessment and measures required to assuage this overlooked public health issue. The anthropogenic impact from land use in Malaysia from the industrial sector alone points toward the potential capacity to cause adverse health hazards. A deficiency in assessing this impact due to limited information has resulted in the inability to establish the extent of this problem. Several necessary measures to establish the extent of the problem involving ways to characterise contaminated land and the evolution of a strategy to resolve it are discussed.

  9. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  10. 32 CFR 644.530 - Conditions in conveying land suspected of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contamination. 644.530 Section 644.530 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.530 Conditions in conveying land suspected of contamination. The following conditions, appropriately modified to conform to local law, will be included...

  11. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  12. Radioactive contamination of dietary components of the roe deer in the forests of Zhytomirske Polesie of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Volodymyr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on radioactive contamination of dietary components of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in Zhytomirske Polesie (Ukraine. Studies were conducted on two research plots in forests with similar levels of radioactive contamination, 29 ± 8 kBq/m2 - 55 ± 17 kBq/m2, in mixed coniferous forests and mixed broadleaved forests, which are the dominant forest types of the area. The highest level of radionuclide accumulation was observed in young oak seedlings.

  13. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  14. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  15. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel' , V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu' Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  16. Manual on restoration strategies for radioactive-contaminated sites. RESTRAT-TD 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Brendler, V.; Nordlinder, S.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Bousher, A

    1999-06-01

    This report is submitted as Technical Deliverable No. 14 against the requirements of the RESTRAT (Restoration Strategies for radioactively contaminated Sites and their Close Surroundings) Project. In this manual the methodology for ranking restoration options is explained and applied to example sites that are representative for major categories of contaminated sites. Potentially relevant techniques for restoration of contaminated sites are identified and characterised and the data collected included on a CD-ROM. For the ranking of the restoration options, a multi-attribute utility (MAU) type of analysis has been chosen with a view to the various categories of attributes that are being taken into account: radiological health detriment; economic costs; social factors. The methods of assessing the attributes and converting the attribute values into utility values for the scoring of the options are explained. The models applied for assessing the collective dose to the population and for the ranking of the remediation options (MAU analysis) are explained and the software included on two CD-ROMs added to the manual.

  17. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  18. Reduction of radioactive waste from remediation of uranium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Gook; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, Jong Won [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Great amounts of solid radioactive waste (second waste) and waste solution are generated from the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil. To reduce these, we investigated washing with a less acidic solution and recycling the waste solution after removal of the dominant elements and uranium. Increasing the pH of the washing solution from 0.5 to 1.5 would be beneficial in terms of economics. A high content of calcium in the waste solution was precipitated by adding sulfuric acid. The second waste can be significantly reduced by using sorption and desorption techniques on ampholyte resin S-950 prior to the precipitation of uranium at pH 3.0.

  19. Potential health risks from radioactive contamination of saltmarshes in NW England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubina; Plater, A J; Nolan, P J; Mauz, B; Appleby, P G

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the detection of Sellafield-derived (137)Cs and (241)Am in contaminated saltmarshes from North-West England, UK, with a view to assessing the radiological impacts from radioactivity stored within the sediment record. The surface activities from these radionuclides were found in the range between 73 and 851 Bq kg(-1) whereas peak activities ranging from 383 to 12690 Bq kg(-1) were found below the surface of the upper marsh at a depth of approximately 5-20 cm. Potential radioactive exposure to humans from these highly active radionuclides comes mainly from direct exposure and resuspended dust inhalation for different saltmarsh users, which may be exacerbated by the remobilisation of radionuclides resulting from saltmarsh erosion. The total annual minimum, maximum and 'best estimate' doses ranging from 11 to 972 μSv y(-1), fall below the ICRP-recommended annual dose limit, but the highest estimated total effective dose (972 μSv y(-1)) for a marsh user falls within 97% of the recommended dose limit and the highest 'best estimate' total annual doses of 110 and 307 μSv y(-1) for Dee estuary and Biggar marshes, respectively, are almost 3 and 4 times higher than the estimated doses that are based on existing surface activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  1. Preliminary criteria for shallow-land storage/disposal of low-level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A. L.

    1979-09-01

    Preliminary criteria for shallow land storage/disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment were developed. Criteria which address the establishment and operation of a storage/disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid wastes are discussed. These were developed from the following sources: (1) a literature review of solid waste burial; (2) a review of the regulations, standards, and codes pertinent to the burial of radioactive wastes; (3) on site experience; and (4) evaluation of existing burial grounds and practices. (DMC)

  2. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  3. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  4. Recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap from the nuclear cycle and spin-off for other application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quade, U.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980ies, Siempelkamp foundry in Krefeld, Germany, developed a process to melt medium and slightly radioactive metals from decommissioning and maintenance works in nuclear power plants. Since 1989, in the CARLA melting plant which is licensed according to the German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV, metals are being molten which, for the largest part, can be reused. Since 1998, in a second plant, the GERTA melting plant, metals with a content of mercury up to 1 weight %, natural radioactivity up to 500 Bq/g and other chemical contaminations are being molten and completely decontaminated, so that these metals can be reused in the steel cycle. The following text is describing the melting process, acceptance criteria for contaminated scrap and recycling paths for the produced ingots and slags.

    La fundición Siempelkamp en Krefeld, Alemania, desarrolló, en los años 80, un proceso para fundir metales mediana y levemente radioactivos, procedentes de reparaciones o desmantelamiento de plantas nucleares. En la planta de fundición CARLA, que cumple los requisitos del decreto de protección contra radiaciones de la República Federal de Alemania, se funden metales desde 1989, de los cuales la mayor parte puede ser utilizada nuevamente. Desde 1998, en una segunda planta, fundición GERTA, se funden y descontaminan totalmente, metales de hasta un 1 % de peso de mercurio, con una radioactividad natural de hasta 500 Bq/g y con otros contaminantes químicos. De este modo los metales pueden ser nuevamente utilizados en el ciclo metálico. El texto adjunto describe el método para el fundido, los criterios para aceptar chatarra contaminada y las vías de utilización para los bloques de metal y escorias generadas en el proceso.

  5. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chun-Ping, E-mail: chunping@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m{sup 3} of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, U, and {alpha}-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 {mu}m filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb {beta}-emitters, {alpha}-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously

  6. Management of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods in Spain. Establishment of a common framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Montero, M.; Oltra, C.; Sala, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Gallego, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales - UPM-ETSII (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident with radiological consequences affecting the quality of foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and in general, consumer goods, the European Union and its Member States, have developed radiation protection general guidelines to manage such situations. In this context, there are recommendations and standards, at international (Codex Alimentarius -FAO/OMS-, IAEA) and regional levels (EURATOM Directives) based on activity concentrations in different products and maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. These levels are based on certain assumptions about the consumption of contaminated products. However, the application of these guidelines is not easy, as shown after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Several factors converge in this situation. First, is the national regulation of each country, that can decide on the maximum radioactivity levels in food consumed within the country. Other is the misinterpretation of the guidelines that where originally developed for specific conditions. Finally, rejection attitudes of consumers and general public towards foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and goods according to their provenience, must also be taken into account. Aware of this reality, the European Union is funding within its 7. Framework Programme for R and D projects to help optimize European response to radiological emergencies, including those involving contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods. Specifically, this is the overall objective of the PREPARE Project (Innovative Integrative Tools and Platforms to be Prepared for Radiological Emergencies and Post-Accident Response in Europe) within the framework of NERIS Platform (European Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery). PREPARE project is intended to develop strategies, guidelines and tools for the management of foodstuffs and consumer goods contaminated with radioactivity, considering not only the Public Administration, as

  7. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  8. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  9. Information Management System Supporting a Multiple Property Survey Program with Legacy Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Ron; Chambers, Douglas; Wiatzka, Gerd; Dupre, Monica; Callough, Micah; Benson, John; Santiago, Erwin; van Veen, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative is a project mandated and funded by the Government of Canada to remediate properties with legacy low-level radioactive waste contamination in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario. The management and use of large amounts of data from surveys of some 4800 properties is a significant task critical to the success of the project. A large amount of information is generated through the surveys, including scheduling individual field visits to the properties, capture of field data laboratory sample tracking, QA/QC, property report generation and project management reporting. Web-mapping tools were used to track and display temporal progress of various tasks and facilitated consideration of spatial associations of contamination levels. The IM system facilitated the management and integrity of the large amounts of information collected, evaluation of spatial associations, automated report reproduction and consistent application and traceable execution for this project.x. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Airborne mapping of radioactive contamination. Results from a test in Finland, RESUME95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, S.; Smethurst, M.A. [Geological Survey of Norway (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Geological Survey of Norway participated in the exercise RESUME95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment 95) in Finland, during August 1995. The purpose of the exercise was to 1) test preparedness in the Nordic countries for accidents involving the release and dispersal of radioactive material, 2) compare results from the different teams participating in the exercise, 3) establish routines for the exchange of data and 4) investigate the possibility of international assistance in the event of nuclear accidents. The Geological Survey of Norway carried out a survey over three test areas (area I, II and III). All three areas were contaminated with man made radionuclides in the days following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The Cesium-137 contamination level was reported to be about 50 kBq/m{sup 2} in area I, and this area was used for calibration. In area II mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration was carried out. Detection of hidden artificial radiation sources were the main purpose in area III. This report describes the exercise - RESUME95, field operations, calibration, mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration and detection of hidden point sources. Results are presented as colour maps. (au).

  11. RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF MEDICINAL HERBS IN SOME GOMEL REGION DISTRICTS BORDERING ON THE TERRITORY OF BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sapegin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study results of radioactive contamination of medicinal herbs with 137 Cs in some Gomel region districts bordering on the territory of Bryansk region of Russia are given.168 plants of 88 species belonging to 76 genuses and 37 families and 16 soil samples have been analyzed. The most contaminated with 137 Cs medicinal herbs were found out in Chechersk and Vetka districts. Local contamination with radionuclide is typical for Dobrush and Korma districts of Gomel region.Safe use of medicinal herbs by the population is possible only under radiological control.

  12. Foodstuff contamination and pattern of consumption by population of foremost radioactively contaminated territories in Ukraine during the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianets, M; Piven, N; Gunko, N; Korotkova, N; Sribna, V

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The goal of the study was to estimate, from the perspective and in terms of hygienic provisions, the level of local food contamination by 137Cs and their pattern of consumption by residents of foremost radionuclide contaminated territories of Ukraine (Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts) in the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster. Materials and methods. The article presents analytical data from the National Statistics Office of Ukraine concerning production and consumption of agricultural products in the territories of foremost severe radioactive contamination (TRC) i.e. Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts (provinces). Data on levels of food contamination (milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, wild mushrooms and berries) received from the regional radiological control centers (RCC) and sanitary and epidemiological agencies/bureaus (SEA) were analyzed. According to results of questionnaire survey of residents in TRC of investigated regions (oblasts) the public awareness of radioactive contamination levels in local food production, their level of consumption and the use of cooking measures to reduce internal dose were assayed. Analytical, mathematical, statistical, sociological, and software engineering methods were applied. Results and conclusions. It was found that in the country and in study areas as well there is more than a half decrease of milk and meat production and consumption, and almost half times increased production of potato. It was shown that locally produced food and wide use of wild berries and mushrooms are dominated in the diet of TRC residents in the remote period after the Chornobyl disaster. Ecological and hygienic monitoring of foodstuffs in TRC proves the probability of product consumption with high content of radioactive materials. Residents territories of the foremost severe radioactive contamination in Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts are aware about possible contamination of locally produced food with substances of Chornobyl origin

  13. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  14. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  15. History and environmental setting of LASL near-surface land disposal facilities for radioactive wastes (Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T). A source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.A.

    1977-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. The LASL Materials Disposal Areas examined in this report, Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T, are solid radioactive disposal areas with the exception of Area T which is a part of the liquid radioactive waste disposal operation. Areas A, G, and T are currently active. Environmental studies of and monitoring for radioactive contamination have been done at LASL since 1944.

  16. A comprehensive study of the spread of radioactive contamination in the geological medium near Lake Karachai, Chelyabinsk oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Malkovsky, V. I.; Tarasov, N. N.; Dikov, Yu. P.

    2010-02-01

    The spread of radioactive contamination in the subsurface medium near Lake Karachai is considered. The complexity of this process requires a comprehensive approach to its study. The source of radioactive contamination is overviewed. The map of faults in subsurface medium is considered in order to determine the prevailing direction of contaminated groundwater flow. Photometry in observation wells has been used for structural geological estimation of transport properties of the shallow aquifer, where contaminated groundwater is moving. This study was carried out along with hydrochemical logging, which makes it possible to estimate the dynamics of contamination of subsurface medium and vertical distribution of groundwater contamination. Special attention is paid to transport of radionuclides in the form of radiocolloid particles. Groundwater samples were taken from various depths corresponding to different contamination levels near Lake Karachai. The depth intervals of sampling were determined from the data of hydrochemical logging. Ultrafiltration through membranes with a specific pore size in combination with gamma spectrometry was used to characterize radionuclide transfer with colloidal particles differing in size. The local elemental composition of the radiocolloid surface was studied by Auger spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of radiocolloid particles were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with consecutive etching of the particle surface by argon ions for a certain depth. The data obtained indicate that radiocolloid particles are heterogeneous and an organic shell consisting of humic and fulvic acids and technogenic organic compounds coat their surface.

  17. Distribution of Land Use to Purify Contaminated Groundwater by Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Tase, N.; Fukami, K.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nitrate results from over-fertilizing and/or inadequate disposal of livestock excreta has been large-scale problem in agricultural area. Because nitrate is primarily transported to streams via ground water flow, explaining actual condition of groundwater is needed to propose an effective measure for the conservation and restoration of sound nitrogen cycle in agricultural river catchments. The purpose of this research was to clarify a triangular relationship between the groundwater quality and flow system, river water quality and land use. The experimental field is located on a slope from Tsukuba tableland to bottomland, which is a part of Nishi- Yata River watershed in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The site area is about 0.0675 square kilometers and the altitude varies from 24 m to 19 m. Land use of tableland, bottomland and intermediate between them are forestland, paddy field and cropland, respectively. Groundwater quality and level were monitored for the year 2004. During the study period significant differences were not observed in groundwater ionic concentrations. Relative high concentrations of dissolved nitrate were detected in cropland (3 - 43 mg/l) and forestland (74 - 179 mg/l). It revealed that there was a purification zone in the paddy field and the area around its 2-4m and denitrification eliminates nitrate-nitrogen. The pressure head converted into hydraulics head, and the groundwater flow were calculated. According to the results, it seems that groundwater flow from tableland to the riverbed through bottomland. It is presumed that groundwater cultivated in cropland with chemical fertilizer pass through the purification zone of nitrate. On the other hand, it is assumed that groundwater containing nitrate originated from inadequate disposal of livestock excreta discharge from forestland does not pass through the depth of this spot. It is suggested that considering flow system of groundwater to manage distribution of land use

  18. Radioactive contamination in Norwegian fish and seafood 1960-2013: time trends and geographical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Svaeren, Ingrid; Liebig, Penny Lee [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Brungot, Anne Lene; Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Norwegian marine waters are home to some of the world's richest fishing grounds. In 2011, Norway was the world's twelfth largest fishery nation, and the world's second largest exporter of seafood. Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish and seafood is therefore of major importance to Norwegian consumers and the fishery industry. Monitoring of radioactive pollution in Norwegian fish and seafood has been ongoing in various ways since the early 1960's. During the 1960's, different species of fish from the Barents Sea were analysed for 'total mean beta activity minus potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)'. Although not directly comparable to current measurements, these were probably the highest observed concentrations in fish during the whole monitoring period. Contamination levels decreased substantially during the late 1960's as a result of the decrease in global fallout, biological elimination of the radioactive elements and the short physical half-lives of some beta-emitters. Monitoring was more or less terminated in the following years, and little data exists from the 1970's and early 1980's, though monitoring was resumed following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Today, different species of commercially important fish and crustacean species (as well as other species), are sampled on a regular basis from the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and Norwegian fjords. The samples are analysed mainly for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and, additionally, a selection of the samples are analysed for technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu) and polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po). This study summarizes results from the monitoring during the period 1960 to 2013. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood from Norwegian marine waters have been generally low during the past 20 to 25 years (up to 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}(fresh weight) in different species of fish in the

  19. 32 CFR 644.529 - Supplemental agreement with owner of contaminated leased land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental agreement with owner of contaminated leased land. 644.529 Section 644.529 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... contaminated leased land. In the event that it becomes necessary to pay damages to a lessor in lieu...

  20. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  1. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research; Control de la contaminacion radiactiva superficial en el ambito de la investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-11-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  4. Radioactive contamination of the marine environment: Uptake and distribution of3H in Dunaliella bioculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, S.; Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-03-01

    The marine flagellate Dunaliella bioculata, which is easily cultivated under laboratory conditions, is a suitable organism for assessing the importance of the radioactive contamination by3H bound to organic molecules. We have studied the uptake of the following tritiated precursors: thymidine-methyl-3H, adenine-2-3H, uridine-5-3H, l-leucine-4-3H, glycine-2-3H, l-arginine-3.4-3H, 1-aspartic acid-2. 3-3H, 1-phenylalanine-2.3-3H, D-glucose-2-3H and D-glucose-6-3H. Under the experimental conditions (2000 lux; incubation time 30 min), all tritiated molecules are taken up by D. bioculata. Their intracellular concentration may reach that of the external medium. However, leucine and adenine accumulate in the algae: their respective concentrations are 10 and 100 times higher than in the culture medium. The molecular distribution of3H has been studied by various biochemical techniques and by sieve chromatography on sepharose 4B. It has been found that more l-leucine-4-3H is incorporated into acid and acetone soluble substances than into proteins. Adenine-2-3H is mainly incorporated into macromolecules of biological significance (RNA, DNA). CsCl gradient centrifugation has shown that the total DNA of Dunaliella is constituted by a major (ϖ=1.707 g/cm3) and by a minor (ϖ=1.693 g/cm3) component.

  5. In-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, J S; McKeever, S W S

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y, and sup 9 sup 9 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm sup 3) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y but is unsuitable for measuring sup 9 sup 9 Tc in soil. The second objective ...

  6. Determination of the depth of localized radioactive contamination by 137Cs and 60Co in sand with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jamie C; Mellor, Matthew; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2011-10-01

    A method to determine the depth of buried localized radioactive contamination nonintrusively and nondestructively using principal component analysis is described. The γ-ray spectra from two radionuclides, cesium-137 and cobalt-60, have been analyzed to derive the two principal components that change most significantly as a result of varying the depth of the sources in a bespoke sand-filled phantom. The relationship between depth (d) and the angle (θ) between the first two principal component coefficients has been derived for both cases, viz. d(Φ) = x + y log(e) Φ where x and y are constants dependent on the shielding material and the γ-ray energy spectrum of the radioactivity in question, and φ is a function of θ. The technique enables the depth of a localized radioactive source to be determined nonintrusively in the range 5 to 50 mm with an accuracy of ±1 mm.

  7. Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kameesy, S U; Salama, E

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive contamination in air dust particles of Cairo atmosphere from the Fukushima accident was detected by the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique. Analysis of the spectra obtained by using an High-Purity Germanium detector showed that there were some traces of (131)I and (134, 137)Cs. Estimate and study of concentration of those radionuclides were done over a period of about 5 months after the accident. Comparison with corresponding results in different countries all over the world has been performed.

  8. Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

    2005-05-15

    Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These

  9. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters.

  10. Food after Fukushima--Japan's regulatory response to the radioactive contamination of its food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Gijs; Kobayashi, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident in Fukushima triggered a process of regulatory action, inspections, and market restrictions that has deeply affected the Japanese food market. When higher than permissible levels of radioactivity entered the food chain, the Japanese Government had to take strong measures to protect consumers. At the same time, it had to explore ways to avoid disproportionate penalties on the producers from the affected region. This article examines Japan's regulatory response to the nuclear accident and the legal instruments the government accordingly employed. Our analysis follows four regulatory steps that were taken by the government to safeguard the food chain: the establishment of maximum permissible levels for radioactive levels in food; the adoption of guidelines on how to monitor these levels; the restriction of the distribution and consumption of excessively contaminated food and, finally, where and when possible, the lifting of these restrictions. This article discusses how the Food and Drug Administration has come to adopt informal guidance (agency advice that influences regulated entities but does not carry the force and effect of law) as its primary method of policymaking, as opposed to more formalized procedures like notice-and-comment rulemaking or case-specific adjudication. Using major developments in administrative law and modifications to FDA's regulatory regime as milestones, the article traces how and why FDA's use of informal guidance to fulfill its statutory mandate has changed over the past century. Along the way, the article identifies important doctrinal questions that persist today, namely (1) whether informal advisory opinions bind FDA and (2) the degree of judicial deference guidance documents should receive under the Supreme Court's decisions in Chevron and Mead. The article attempts to resolve these doctrinal ambiguities. It then undertakes a normative analysis of FDA's increasing reliance on informal guidance, and conclude that

  11. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  12. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

    1999-06-15

    The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process

  13. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  14. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  15. The status of the peripheral blood in fish from radioactively contaminated Techa river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryapitsina, G.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Shaposhnikova, I.; Andreev, S.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Low-level radioactive had been releasing to the Techa River from 1949 to 1956. During that period over 76 million m{sup 3} of waste water was released into the river with total activity of 1.1*10{sup 17} Bq. In 2012 we examined the erythrocytes in peripheral blood of fish (roach, perch, pike), inhabiting different part of the Techa River. Sampling was conducted twice a year (in May and in August) at three stations with various levels of radioactive contamination. Station RT1 in the upper reach, RT2 in the middle reach and RT3 in the lower reach of the river. An average above-background content of {sup 90}Sr in the body of fish inhabiting the Techa River is given in the table. Fish from the nearby Miass River was used as a control group. Blood was taken from the tail vein of live fish. We examined number of nucleated cells in peripheral blood, relative and absolute number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes, immature and mature forms of blood cells of the erythroid line, leukocytes of different types. At least 1,000 blood cells were analyzed for each fish. The most expressed effects were registered in the analysis of the status of the peripheral blood erythrokaryocytes. In summer period increased proliferative activity of erythroid cell lineage was observed in fish from the Techa river as compared to fish from Miass river: at station RT2 the amount of dividing erythrokaryocytes in the peripheral blood (the sum of the parameters for 3 species of fish) was statistically significantly 1.4 times higher than that in the control; at station RT1 - it was 4 times higher. In the studied species of fish caught at station RT1 in summer period the number of dividing erythrokaryocytes was statistically significantly higher than that in the control populations: in roach - 4 times, in perch - 8 times, in pike - 2 times higher. Increase in the number of proliferating erythroid cells in blood allows for the maintenance of the number of mature erythrocytes in the blood of

  16. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  17. An exercise of stake holders involvement and multi-criteria decision aid for radioactively contaminated milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcanu, C.O. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Hardeman, F.; Carle, B. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    This paper focuses on a multi-criteria structuring process with stakeholders participation and illustrates its findings from a questionnaire conducted in the Belgian context. A multidisciplinary approach is adopted, which follows the practical problem in parallel with the methodological steps of multi-criteria decision aid. The chosen case study regards the countermeasures for the management of radioactively contaminated milk. This is motivated by the importance of milk in the food chain and the rapid transfer to milk of some radionuclides, such as{sup 131}I or {sup 137}Cs. The time framework addressed covers the early to intermediate phases of a radiological emergency. In case of milk, the limited storage facilities, as well as the constraints on the storage time of the fresh product (maximum 72 hours) lead to a certain time pressure on the decision process. The purpose of our analysis is twofold: on the one hand to provide support in case of a real crisis, but most importantly, to improve emergency preparedness and response and to facilitate exercises and training. The stakeholders interviewed range from real decision makers to representatives of the production and processing sectors. As expected, the points of view are sometimes divergent and therefore the results of the questionnaire are discussed and suggestions are formulated for conciliating the various points of view that come into play. The type of stakeholders process carried out is expected to ensure a higher degree of acceptability of the methodologies and tools employed. In the last section, provisional conclusions are drawn and directions for further development are envisaged. (N.C.)

  18. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

  19. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1994; Skazenia promieniotworcze srodowiska i zywnosci w Polsce w 1994 roku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J. [Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1994. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1993. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting form the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 {mu}Sv per capita of the Polish population in 1994. (author). 16 refs, 23 tabs, 6 figs.

  20. Radioactively contaminated areas: Bioindicator species and biomarkers of effect in an early warning scheme for a preliminary risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sónia [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto & CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research & GreenUP/CITAB-UP, Porto (Portugal)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Knowing the most used biomarkers and bioindicators used in radioactive areas. • Understanding of the response similarities between human and non-human biota. • Identifying the knowledge gaps. • Proposing an early warning scheme, to perform a screening evaluation of radioactive areas. • Permitting routine assessments without disturbing and alarming local populations. - Abstract: Concerns about the impacts on public health and on the natural environment have been raised regarding the full range of operational activities related to uranium mining and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle (including nuclear accidents), nuclear tests and depleted uranium from military ammunitions. However, the environmental impacts of such activities, as well as their ecotoxicological/toxicological profile, are still poorly studied. Herein, it is discussed if organisms can be used as bioindicators of human health effects, posed by lifetime exposure to radioactively contaminated areas. To do so, information was gathered from several studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrate species and humans, living in these contaminated areas. The retrieved information was compared, to determine which are the most used bioindicators and biomarkers and also the similarities between human and non-human biota responses. The data evaluated are used to support the proposal for an early warning scheme, based on bioindicator species and on the most sensitive and commonly shared biomarkers, to perform a screening evaluation of radioactively contaminated sites. This scheme could be used to support decision-making for a deeper evaluation of risks to human health, making it possible to screen a large number of areas, without disturbing and alarming local populations.

  1. Radioactive contamination processes during 14-21 March after the Fukushima accident: What does atmospheric electric field measurements tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.; Miyagi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Ionizing radiation from the radioactive material is known to increase atmospheric electric conductivity, and hence to decrease vertical downward atmospheric DC electric field at ground level, or potential gradient (PG). In the past, the drop of PG has been observed after rain-induced radioactive fallout (wet contamination) after nuclear tests or after the Chernobyl disaster. After the nuclear accident Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that started 11 March 2011, the PG also at Kakioka, 150 km southwest from the FNPP, also dropped a by one order of magnitude. Unlike the past examples, the PG drop was two-stepped on 14 March and 20 March. Both correspond to two largest southward release of radioactive material according to the data from the radiation dose rate measurement network. We compare the Kakioka's PG data with the radiation dose rate data at different places to examine the fallout processes of both on 14 March and on 20 March. The former turned out to be dry contamination by surface wind, leaving a substantial amount of fallout floating near the ground. The latter turned out to be wet contamination by rain after transport by relatively low-altitude wind, and the majority of the fallout settled to the ground at this time. It is recommended that all nuclear power plant to have a network of PG observation surrounding the plant. Takeda, et al. (2011): Initial effect of the Fukushima accident on atmospheric electricity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15811, doi:10.1029/2011GL048511. Yamauchi, et al. (2012): Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement, Ann. Geophys., 30, 49-56, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-49-2012.

  2. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TCparks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, accumulator plants, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  3. Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes in sediments from Cooper Creek, Western Arnhem Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostick, A. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia); ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia)], E-mail: alison.frostick@cdu.edu.au; Bollhoefer, A. [ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia); Parry, D.; Munksgaard, N. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia); Evans, K. [ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Protection of the environment post-mining is a key objective of rehabilitation, especially where runoff and erosion from rehabilitated mine sites could potentially lead to contamination of the surrounding land and watercourses. As part of an overall assessment of the success of rehabilitation at the former Nabarlek uranium (U) mine, an appraisal of stable lead (Pb) isotopes, radionuclides and trace metals within sediments and soils was conducted to determine the off site impacts from a spatial and temporal perspective. The study found localised areas on and adjacent to the site where soils had elevated levels of trace metals and radionuclides. Lead isotope ratios are highly radiogenic in some samples, indicating the presence of U-rich material. There is some indication that erosion products with more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios have deposited in sediments downstream of the former ore body. However, there is no indication that the radiogenic erosion products found on the mine site at present have significantly contaminated sediments further downstream of Cooper Creek.

  4. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  5. Reconstruction of {sup 131}I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, Nikolai [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, 53 Melnikov Street, Kyiv 04050 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: ntalerko@mail.ru

    2005-07-01

    The evaluation of {sup 131}I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The {sup 131}I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne {sup 131}I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of {sup 137}Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of {sup 131}I soil contamination obtained from the {sup 129}I measurements.

  6. Methods for studying the radioactive contamination of plants (1963); Methodes d'etude de la contamination radioactive des vegetaux (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Jeanmaire, L.; Michon, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The authors first define the doctrine which led to the devising of a method for studying the radioactive pollution of plants, based on the use of simple techniques, having the possibility of being adapted for routine work, and so devised that each stage is proceeded with only if the preceding one justifies it. For each stage a study is effected comparing the results obtained by the use of more exact techniques. The second part describes in detail the techniques used. (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie lea auteurs definissent la doctrine qui leur a permis d'elaborer une methode d'etude de la pollution radioactive des vegetaux, basee sur l'utilisation de techniques simples, se pretant au travail de serie et concues de telle maniere que chaque etape n'est abordee que si la precedente le justifie. Chaque etape fait l'objet d'une etude qui compare les resultats a ceux obtenue par des techniques plus precises. La deuxieme partie decrit dans le detail les techniques utilisees. (auteurs)

  7. Characterization and calibration of a novel detection system for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carconi, P; De Felice, P; Fazio, A; Petrucci, A; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Stevanato, L; Cester, D; Pastore, P

    2017-08-01

    Characterization and calibration measurements were carried out at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA on the TAp WAter RAdioactivity (TAWARA) Real Time Monitor system recently developed for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities. Reference radiations and radionuclides were chosen in order to reflect energy ranges and radiation types of the major water radioactive contaminants possibly arising from environmental, industrial or terroristic origin. The following instrument parameters were tested: sensitivity, selectivity, background, short/long term stability, linearity with respect to activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei river on cytogenetic characteristics of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Medvedeva, M. [Institute of Biophysics SB Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Muratova, E. [Institute of Forest SB Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River, one of the world's largest rivers, is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian facilities producing weapons-grade plutonium (the Mining-and-Chemical Combine, MCC), which has been in operation for many years. Aquatic plants are an important component of water ecosystems, which can accumulate high levels of radionuclides and, thus, can be used in bio-monitoring and bioremediation. The purpose of the study was to assess levels of radionuclides and to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in samples of submerged plants collected in different parts of the Yenisei River. The following species were studied: Fontinalis antipyretica, Batrachium kauffmanii, Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and various Potamogeton species. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 330 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2003-2012. Detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of aquatic plants of the Yenisei River revealed large-scale contamination of aquatic plants as far as 250 km downstream of the MCC. Before the last MCC reactor was shut down in 2010, about 30 radionuclides, including uranium and transuranium elements, were detected in the biomass of aquatic plants. The highest concentration factors of the major radionuclides were obtained for Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton lucens. Samples of the plants collected after the shutdown of the reactor contained considerably lower activity levels of artificial radionuclides, and their diversity was significantly decreased. Results of cytogenetic investigations of aquatic plants collected when the reactor was still operating (2003-2009) suggest that at the MCC discharge site and downstream the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in ana-telophase and metaphase cells of the plants was considerably higher (up to 30%) than in the control

  9. Heterogeneity of (90)Sr radioactive contamination at the head part of the East Ural radioactive trace (EURT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modorov, M; Seleznev, A; Mikhailovskaya, L

    2017-02-01

    1: We measured (90)Sr concentrations and beta particle flux density (BPFD) in 44 soil samples collected from four soil profiles across a central transect on the head of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT). The relationship between BPFD and (90)Sr concentration of each soil sample can be characterised by a linear regression model; (90)Sr concentration in the upper 12 cm soil layer can thus be assessed by measuring BPFD in the soil surface. 2: The BPFD on the soil surface was measured at 969 points at seven sites with linear dimensions ranging from 140 × 20 m to 140 × 320 m. The correspondence of (90)Sr concentration in the 12 cm soil layer with its BPFD value was calculated for each of these seven sites. Eighty (80) % of (90)Sr concentration measurements in the 12 cm soil layer in each model site differed by a factor of 2.0-5. The variability of (90)Sr concentration increased significantly in the 12 cm upper soil layer over territories with visual features of landscape disturbance (pits, trenches). The ratio of maximum to minimum concentration of (90)Sr varied from 6.1 to 6.6 in the 12 cm soil layer over territories without visual features of anthropogenic soil disturbance. 3: The (90)Sr concentration was measured in the skeletons of 34 juvenile Microtus oeconomus individuals weighing less than 12.5 g and trapped at the four model sites in July. The assessment of (90)Sr concentration in the 12 cm soil layer was conducted for each point where an animal was trapped. The relationship between (90)Sr concentration in soil and in the skeleton was characterised by a linear regression model with a determination coefficient of 0.51. 4: The concentration ratio for (90)Sr from soil to skeleton (CRskeleton-soil) was 2.0 ± 0.1 for M. oeconomus over the territory of the EURT, which is consistent with the minimum value of the same CRskeleton-soil for M. oeconomus from the Chernobyl area (Chesser et al., 2000). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. New research discovery may mean less radioactive contamination, safer nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-20

    Murph has now made another nanoparticle breakthrough that could benefit various work environments such as nuclear power plants. Murph and her team have created nanoparticle treated stainless steel filters that are capable to capturing radioactive vapor materials. Just like air filters capture dust and dirt, these filters are capable of capturing large amounts of radioactive vapors. The new research may one day mean that nuclear power plant workers, and other workers in related fields, will have a safer working environment.

  11. Sediment transfer in coastal catchments exposed to typhoons: lessons learnt from catchments contaminated with Fukushima radioactive fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-04-01

    Several coastal catchments located in Northeastern Japan received significant radioactive fallout following the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011, with initial 137Cs activities exceeding 100 kBq m-2. Although radiocesium poses a considerable health risk for local populations, it also provides a relatively straightforward tracer to investigate sediment transfers in catchments exposed to spring floods and heavy typhoons in late summer and early fall. This study focused on two catchments (the Niida and Mano Rivers) covering a surface area of 450 km² that drain the main radioactive plume. A database of radiocesium activities measured in potential source samples (n=260) was used to model radiocesium dilution in 342 sediment deposit samples collected at 38 locations during 9 different sampling campaigns conducted every 6 months from Nov. 2011 to Nov. 2015. The dilution of the initial radiocesium contamination in sediment was individually calculated for each of the 342 samples using a distribution model. Results show that the proportion of heavily contaminated sediment increased from 27% to 39% after the occurrence of typhoons in 2013 (with rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm in 48 hours) and from 29% to 45% after the 2015 spring floods, illustrating the occurrence of soil erosion and resuspension of contaminated material stored in the river channel. In contrast, the occurrence of a very strong typhoon in September 2015 (up to 450 mm in 48h) led to the dilution and the flush of the contamination to the Pacific Ocean, with the proportion of heavily contaminated material decreasing from 45 to 21%. This case study in catchments impacted by the Fukushima accident illustrates their high reactivity to both human activities and rainfall. These results will improve our understanding of sediment transfers in similar coastal mountainous environments frequently exposed to heavy rainfall.

  12. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2017-03-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. The state of the art on the dry decontamination technologies applicable to highly radioactive contaminants and their needs for the national nuclear fuel cycle developent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K.W.; Won, H.J.; Jung, C.H.; Chol, W.K.; Kim, G.N.; Moon, J.K

    2000-12-01

    This report is intended to establish their needs to support the dry decontamination activities applicable to highly radioactive contaminants based on the requirement of technologies development suggested from the national nuclear fuel cycle projects, such as DUPIC, advanced spent fuel management and long-lived radionuclides conversion. The technology needs associated with decontamination addressed the requirements associated with the efficiency of decontamination technology, the reduction of secondary wastes, applicabilities and the remote operation. And also, Characterization and decontamination technologies for various contaminants are reviewed and analysed. Based on the assessment, Unit dry decontamination processes are selected and the schematic flow diagram for decontamination of highly radioactive contaminants.

  14. Tracking the early dispersion (2011-2013) of radioactive sediment in coastal catchments draining Fukushima contamination plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, O.; Lepage, H.; Chartin, C.; Lefevre, I.; Ayrault, S.; Ottle, C.; Bonte, P. [CEA/LSCE (France); Onda, Y. [CRIED Tsukuba University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident that occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km{sup 2} radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. This mountainous region occupied by a dominance of forests and paddy fields is drained to the Pacific Ocean by several coastal rivers that flow across inhabited areas relatively spared by initial radioactive fallout. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers in order to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of radioactive sediment storage in those catchments as their radiations may lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. In addition, the transfer of contamination to plants and animals may affect human activities in the region. As river discharge and sediment concentration data have not been available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods were developed to track the dispersion of contaminated sediment across coastal catchments. The first method relied on measurements of the {sup 110m}Ag:{sup 137}Cs ratio in both soils and river sediment. We thereby identified a partial export of contaminated sediment from inland mountain ranges - exposed initially to the highest radionuclide fallout - to the coastal plains as soon as in November 2011, after a series of violent typhoons. This export was then amplified by the spring snow melt in 2012. However, due to the relatively rapid decay of {sup 110m}Ag (half-life of 250 days), an alternative method was developed to continue tracking sediment. We therefore used local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. We supported the interpretation of the dose rate measurements by running a simple connectivity model that evaluates the extent of

  15. Application of receptor-specific risk distribution in the arsenic contaminated land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ng, Shane; Wang, Gen-shuh; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-11-15

    Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk distribution to facilitate scenario analysis of contaminated land management. A contaminated site risk map model (ArcGIS for risk assessment and management, abbreviated as Arc-RAM) was constructed by combining the four major steps of risk assessment with Geographic Information Systems. Sampling of contaminated media, survey of exposure attributes, and modeling of multimedia transport were integrated to produce receptor group-specific maps that depicted the probabilistic spatial distribution of risks of various receptor groups. Flexible risk management schemes can then be developed and assessed. In this study, a risk management program that took into account the ratios of various land use types at specified risk levels was explored. A case study of arsenic contaminated land of 6.387 km(2) has found that for a risk value between 1.00E-05 and 1.00E-06, the proposed flexible risk management of agricultural land achieves improved utilization of land. Using this method, the investigated case can reduce costs related to compensation for farmland totaling approximately NTD 5.94 million annually.

  16. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bonnie L.; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate 0.7-12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change.

  17. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2013 and FY2014 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff, which supports National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  18. Programs of recovery of radioactive wastes from the trenches and land decontamination of the radioactive waste storage center; Programas de recuperacion de los desechos radiactivos de las trincheras y de descontaminacion del predio del centro de almacenamiento de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-06-15

    In this report there are the decontamination program of the land of the Radioactive Waste Storage Center, the Program of Recovery of the radioactive waste of the trenches, the recovery of polluted bar with cobalt 60, the recovery of minerals and tailings of uranium and of earth with minerals and tailings of uranium, the recovery of worn out sealed sources and the waste recovery with the accustomed corresponding actions are presented. (Author)

  19. Distribution of radioactive Cesium in trees and effect of decontamination of forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Tokizawa, T.; Nakayama, S. [Fukushima Environmental Safety Center, Headquarters of Fukushima Partnership Operations, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fukushima (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    In decontamination pilot projects conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), many different techniques were tested to determine their applicability to remediate areas evacuated after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident following the Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. In addition to buildings, roads and farmland, the forest adjacent to living areas was one of the main decontamination targets. The projects evaluated the radioactive contamination of trees and the effectiveness of decontaminating a highly contaminated evergreen forest. This forest was located 1.3 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and is dominated by Japanese cedar trees and fir trees. As the first step, three Japanese cedar trees and three fir trees were cut down and the distributions of radioactive cesium (Cs) were measured in each. The total concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the leaves and branches were about 1 MBq/kg for both cedar and fir trees, and were appreciably higher than in the bark for cedar. The concentrations in the outer part of the trunks (under the bark) were lower, on the order of 10 kBq/kg, and those in the core of the trunks were lower than 1 kBq/kg for both kinds of trees. The observation that the Cs concentrations are higher in the outer part of trees, is compatible with the assumption that radio-Cs was mostly adsorbed on the surface of trees and partly penetrated into the trunks through the bark. Evolution of air dose rates in a 100 x 60 m pasture adjacent to the forest was monitored during decontamination of the forest and of the pasture itself. The dose rates in the pasture decreased drastically after stripping contaminated topsoil from the pasture and decreased slightly more after stripping contaminated topsoil of the forest floor and pruning the trees. Cutting down and removing 84 trees in the outermost area (10- m width) of the forest also slightly decreased these dose rates. After decontamination, the

  20. [Radioactive caesium contamination in Inago and sustainability of Inago cuisine in Fukushima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Ryota; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saeki, Shinjiro; Uchiyama, Sho-ichi; Yoshida, Makoto; Takamatsu, Yuki; Fugo, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Inago (edible grasshoppers, Oxya spp.) was a popular food in the Fukushima area, before the reactor accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011. We investigated the radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 contained in Inago captured in Sukagawa, Motomiya, Inawashiro, Date, and Iidate in Fukushima prefecture in 2011 and 2012. The maximum combined radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Inago was 60.7 Bq/kg, which is below the maximum permitted level (100 Bq/kg) in foods established by the government of Japan in April 2012. Furthermore, conventional cooking processes decreased the radioactivity in cooked Inago to under 15.8 Bq/kg, a quarter of that in uncooked Inago. Therefore, we concluded that the health risk of eating Inago is low.

  1. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific.

  2. Evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba for contamination with radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takada, Kenta; Sato, Eisuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Takao; Yoshimura, Yousuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, and traces of these materials were detected in Tsukuba. Because radioactive materials can adhere to vegetables, the authors made a qualitative evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba, estimated internal exposure dose based on quantitative measurement results, and investigated several decontamination methods. Qualitative analysis of vegetable contamination was done by autoradiography. Quantitative analysis was done using a high-purity germanium detector. To assess decontamination, two methods were tested: one with running water and the other with boiling water. In addition, boiled soup stock was measured. In the qualitative evaluation by autoradiography, radioactive materials were not uniformly distributed but adhered to vegetables in clumps and hot spots. In the quantitative evaluation to measure contamination of outer and inner leaves of sanchu lettuce, it was observed that the concentration of I was 8,031.35 ± 764.79 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 115.28 ± 20.63 Bq kg in the inner leaves. In addition, the concentration of Cs was 1,371.93 ± 366.45 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 9.68 ± 15.03 Bq kg in the inner leaves. This suggests that one can greatly reduce internal exposure dose by removing the outer leaves if one has to eat vegetables just after a nuclear accident. In the decontamination assessment, a decontamination efficiency of up to 70% was achieved by boiling vegetables for 20 min.

  3. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI (Sweden); Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Autority, STUK (Finland); Andersson, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  4. Radioactively contaminated metallic materials: the search for a global solution; Materiales metalicos con contaminacion radiactiva: en busca de una solucion global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, S.

    2009-07-01

    Radioactively contaminated metallic materials: the search for a global solution. Tarragona hosted the first International Conference on Control and Management of Inadvertent Radioactive Material in Metal Scrap, which was sponsored by the IAEA and organised by various Spanish entities, among them the CSN. The meeting served for the exchange of ideas and precautionary measures, a field in which Spain already has a long and recognised experience, and focussed on the voluntary Protocol, endorsed by the majority of the Spanish steelyards. (Author)

  5. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Ping; SHU Wensheng; LI Zhian; LIAO Bin; LI Jintian; SHAO Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimization of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  6. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Shu, Wensheng; Li, Zhian; Liao, Bin; Li, Jintian; Shao, Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimal of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  7. The risk of contaminated land: a critique of the current legislation in England and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    ANGHELUTA, Cristina R.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. The risk of contaminated land implies a risk to developers, a risk to politicians and a risk to the general public (in addition to the environmental health risk). This risk is the risk of becoming liable or accountable. The government legislation on contaminated land is implemented in England under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 Part IIA (and its amendments), which requires for the Local Authorities to identify contaminated land in their area and determine the severity of the...

  8. Novel Approach for the Remediation of Radioactive Cesium Contaminated Soil with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO Dispersion Mixture in Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallampati S. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study, first time we developed a nano-Fe/Ca/CaO dispersion mixture based remediation and volume reduction method of real radioactive cesium contaminated soils. After soil samples treated with 10wt% of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO dispersion mixtures, emitting radiation intensity was reduced from 4.00 μSv/h to 0.95 μSv/h in non-magnetic fraction soils. While, after treatment, about 30wt% magnetic and 70wt% nonmagnetic fraction soils were separated, and it’s condensed radioactive cesium concentration was about 80% and 20%, respectively. By this way, cesium contaminated soil volume can be reduced. These preliminary results appear to be very promising and the simple mixing with the addition of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation and separation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil in dry conditions.

  9. 77 FR 4398 - Safety Advisory Notice: Return of Radioactively Contaminated Tissue Holders Purchased From Bed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Contaminated Tissue Holders Purchased From Bed Bath and Beyond AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Safety Advisory Notice. SUMMARY: PHMSA has been notified that Bed Bath and... of the contaminated tissue holders that they should arrange with Bed Bath and Beyond for their...

  10. Digital Autoradiography as a novel complementary technique for the investigation of radioactive contamination in nuclear facilities under dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haudebourg, Raphael; Fichet, Pascal [Laboratory of Analyses and Operators Support, French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commision (CEA), Saclay Center, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Goutelard, Florence [NucLab, CEA Marcoule Center, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The detection (location and quantification) of nuclear facilities to be dismantled possible contamination with low-range particles emitters ({sup 3}H, other low-energy β emitters, a emitters) remains a tedious and expensive task. Indeed, usual remote counters show a too low sensitivity to these non-penetrating radiations, while conventional wipe tests are irrelevant for fixed radioactivity evaluation. The only method to accurately measure activity levels consists in sampling and running advanced laboratory analyses (spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, pyrolysis...). Such measurements generally induce sample preparation, waste production (destructive analyses, solvents), nuclear material transportation, long durations, and significant labor mobilization. Therefore, the search for the limitation of their number and cost easily conflicts with the necessity to perform a dense screening for sampling (to maximize the representativeness of the samples), in installations of thousands of square meters (floors, wells, ceilings), plus furniture, pipes, and other wastes. To overcome this contradiction, Digital Autoradiography (D. A.) was re-routed from bio molecular research to radiological mapping of nuclear installations under dismantling and to waste and sample analysis. After in-situ exposure to the possibly-contaminated areas to investigate, commercial reusable radiosensitive phosphor screens (of a few 100 cm{sup 2}) were scanned in the proper laboratory device and sharp quantitative images of the radioactivity could be obtained. The implementation of geostatistical tools in the data processing software enabled the exhaustive characterization of concrete floors at a rate of 2 weeks / 100 m{sup 2}, at lowest costs. Various samples such as drilled cores, or tank and wood pieces, were also successfully evaluated with this method, for decisive results. Thanks to the accurate location of potential contamination spots, this approach ensures relevant and representative

  11. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application.

  12. Protocol to treat people with wounds contaminated with radioactive material standpoint of radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Amanda Gomes; Tauhata, Luiz; Reis, Arlene Alves; Cruz, Paulo Alberto Lima da, E-mail: amandglird@gmail.com, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.br, E-mail: prof.arlenealves@gmail.com, E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertelli Neto, Luiz, E-mail: lbertelli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Health Physics Measurements, Radiation Protection, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    People who work in research laboratories, radioisotope production center or nuclear artifacts, nuclear medicine center, or allocated in the vicinity of nuclear facilities that suffered accidents or bombardment, may be subject to wound with radioactive material should have special treatment and follow a protocol of care. If insoluble, much of the material will be retained at the wound site and the treatment is based on human anatomical structure and need to be evaluated the deposition, retention, and release for dosimetric purpose. The incorporation of soluble material may enter in the blood stream, distributed through the body and be deposited in organs, causing committed dose of ionizing radiation, before being excreted. The behavior and the assessment of radiation exposure mechanism are described with the use of biokinetic models. Upon the occurrence of these events, the first aid care of these people should follow a well-established procedure according to the scenario, the degree of severity of each case and type of radioactive material involved. This paper seeks to establish a protocol for first care of people with wounds containing radioactive material as part of the preparation for their care in specialized medical center. Measurements were made with radionuclides, characteristic of each occurrence scenario, appropriate detectors for each situation, with the performance expected for each type or model for the depth of location, activity and committed dose rates involved, using tissue-equivalent material. Moreover, the estimated the activity and internal dose were made using the conversion factor obtained with AIDE software for radionuclide of interest. (author)

  13. Cadastral valuation of lands polluted with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, O. A.; Tsvetnov, E. V.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Romashkina, A. D.; Ermiyaev, Ya. R.

    2016-11-01

    The major method to correct the cadastral value of land for contamination with radionuclides is to reduce it by the sum of expenses necessary for land remediation and for special measures ensuring the obtaining of agricultural and forestry products satisfying safety norms. Lands contaminated with radionuclides and used in agriculture and forestry are often removed from the system of land taxation. In this case, their cadastral value becomes an excessive element of the state cadaster of real estate. An approach toward cadastral valuation of such lands suggested by the authors assumes the creation of a system of compensation payments as the main source of financing of land rehabilitation and soil conservation measures. An original system of calculation of such payments has been tested for radioactively contaminated lands in Plavsk district of Tula oblast. It is argued that compensation payments for radioactively contaminated agrocenoses should be higher than those for natural cenoses.

  14. Composting systems for the bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semple, K.T.; Fermor, T.R. [Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Chlorophenols are among the most environmentally hazardous and intractable xenobiotic compounds. Particular attention is being paid to pentachlorophenol (PCP). The microflora found in PCP-augmented compost and PCP-contaminated soils from Finland and the US were screened for their putative PCP-degradative abilities using both liquid and solid-state enrichment techniques. These putative degraders were isolated on R8 agar containing PCP. The capabilities of the putative PCP-degrading organisms, several of which are actinomycetes, were characterized in liquid culture using high-performance liquid chromatography and radiorespirometry. These isolated organisms have been found to colonize composts, and radiorespirometric studies are under way using [universally labeled (U)-{sup 14}C]PCP to determine the ability of these composts to mineralize the {sup 14}C-label to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in small-scale composting units. The next stage will investigate mixes of chlorophenol-contaminated soils with enriched composts, thus evaluating the potential to remediate chlorophenol-contaminated soils.

  15. Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

    1993-11-01

    From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains.

  16. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (psoil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (psoil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  18. Structural and thermal properties of the Poly(styrene-ethyl acrylate) polymeric scintillation material for surface radioactive contamination measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Sang; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Emulsion polymerization is a unique chemical process widely used to produce waterborne resins with various colloidal and physicochemical properties. These emulsion polymers find a wide range of applications such as synthetic rubbers, thermoplastics, coatings, adhesives, binders, rheological modifiers, plastics pigments, standards for the calibration of instruments, polymeric supports for the purification of proteins and drug delivery system, etc. Polystyrenes are widely employed as matrices in order to dope scintillating dyes for alpha and beta radiation sensors. For example, BC-400 (Bicron Direct Saint-Gobain, MA), a polyvinyltoluene-based scintillator doped with PPO and POPOP, is the best existing plastic scintillator for alpha particle detection. Using emulsion polymerization technique described in a previous communication, experiments have been performed to investigate the detection performance with the scintillators contents. In this paper, the properties of the polymer for radioactive contaminant measurement observed under various condition of polymerization and variously EA contents.

  19. Radioactive contaminants in the subsurface: the influence of complexing ligands on trace metal speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, W

    2007-07-01

    The modeling of the behavior of hazardous materials under environmental conditions is among the most important applications of natural and technical sciences for the protection of the environment. In the field of radioactive waste management, the hazardous material consists to a large extent of actinides and fission products from nuclear power plants, in addition to lesser amounts from other sources such as waste from medicine, industry and research facilities. Equilibrium thermodynamics is one of the pillars which support safety analyses of repositories for radioactive waste. Thermodynamic constants are used in modeling reference pore waters, calculating radionuclide solubility limits, deriving case specific sorption coefficients, and last but not least in analyzing experimental results. It is important to use the same database throughout these modeling activities to guarantee internally consistent results. The research presented here consists of approaches to resolve the problems related to thermodynamic equilibrium constants and solubility of solid phases in the field of radioactive waste management. The thesis is composed of a series of manuscripts published between 1999 and 2005. Three different levels of problem solving strategies are presented. (i) Critical and comprehensive reviews of the available literature, which are necessary in order to establish a reliable thermo chemical database that fulfils the requirements for rigorous modeling of the behavior of the actinides and fission products in the environment, are shown. The first series of manuscripts, entitled 'Thermodynamic data: Facts and fiction', is devoted to aqueous carbonate complexes of ferric iron and nickel. Our experimental and review work allowed to close some important gaps, especially concerning nickel carbonate complexes. These topics and other reviews finally were summarized in the Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB), which is the official chemical thermodynamic

  20. Preparedness of households and catering establishments for incidents involving radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, H

    2005-01-01

    This short paper describes a number of investigations carried out to ensure preparedness for crises involving radioactivity to catering operations and private households in Finland. The specific recommendations for catering kitchens during crises were published in 1994. A study to determine the level of adherence to these recommendations is summarised here, together with its findings and subsequent recommendations. Another study on the pre-planning of crisis menus is described. New challenges for the catering kitchens are touched upon. A crisis food preparation booklet for households is described and based on consumers' attitudes suggestions are made for how this can be improved in the future.

  1. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle.

  2. Mineralogical and geomicrobial examination of soil contamination by radioactive Cs due to 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Junji; Nomura, Nao; Matsushita, Shin; Kudo, Hisaaki; Fukuhara, Haruo; Matsuoka, Shiro; Matsumoto, Jinko

    Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.

  3. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2014-12-01

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. 2. ed.; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Derakshani, Nahid; Drobig, Matthias; Koenig, Mario; Mentfewitz, Joachim; Prast, Hartmut; Uelpenich, Gerhard; Vidmayer, Marc; Wilbert, Stefan; Wolf, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    The recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense (analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations) cover the following topics: Requirements for sampling, description of the materials (chemical, biological and radioactive contaminated materials), decontamination, sample transport and protocol documents.

  5. CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandria, F; Ardito, R; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Cai, X Z; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carrettoni, M; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Dafinei, I; Dally, A; De Biasi, A; Decowski, M P; Deninno, M M; de Waard, A; Di Domizio, S; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Fang, D Q; Farach, H; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Foggetta, L; Freedman, S; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Heeger, K M; Huang, H Z; Ichimura, K; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Keppel, G; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Kraft, S; Lenz, D; Li, Y L; Liu, X; Longo, E; Ma, Y G; Maiano, C; Maier, G; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Newman, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rampazzo, V; Rimondi, F; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Terenziani, G; Tian, W D; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wang, B; Wang, H W; Whitten, C A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Xu, N; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhu, B X; Zucchelli, S

    2011-01-01

    The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

  6. Radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Report no. 3 from the national surveillance programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brungot, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Caroll, J.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Brown, J.; Rudjord, A.L.; Boee, B.; Hellstroem, T

    1999-07-01

    The data collected as part of the National Surveillance Programme indicate that radioactivity in the water surrounding Norway remains at low levels. In fish and shrimps, {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations are approximately 1.2 Bq/kg or less. {sup 137}Cs levels in the water surrounding Norway have decreased significantly since their peak concentrations detected around 1980. However, in recent years the variation in radiocesium concentration in the sea water can largely be explained by variations in the water exchange with the Baltic Sea. The influence of Chernobyl fallout on the concentrations of these radionuclides is clearly seen. The levels decrease with increasing distance away from the Baltic Sea. Other radionuclides, i.e. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 60}Co and {sup 241}Am were found in low concentrations only. The reprocessing plant at Sellafield in United Kingdom began operating a new waste treatment in 1994. This has resulted in changes in the composition of radionuclides being discharged into the sea as waste. As a result, the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the waters surrounding Norway has increased in recent years and the highest levels of radioactivity detected in marine biota during the surveillance program were for {sup 99}Tc in lobster. The increase in {sup 99}Tc is also clearly observed in seaweed.

  7. Contaminants in Sludge: Implications for Management Policies and Land Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentel, Steven K.

    2003-07-01

    Policies on sludge (or biosolids) management vary widely, particularly when decisions must be made on what to do with the final product. This paper examines the two principal rationales with which such decisions are made, and through which scientific knowledge is included in the process. These rationales are risk analysis (risk assessment and management), and the criterion of sustainability. Both are found to be potentially arbitrary due to the difficulty in defining the individual constituents necessary to relate environmental phenomena to environmental policy. To place the difficulties in a practical context, this paper presents research results from three recent projects concerned with contaminants in sludge (phosphorus, flocculant polymers, and polymer-surfactant aggregates), and uses the findings to exemplify the dilemma encountered in policy making. A path forward is proposed. (author)

  8. Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Huan; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-10-15

    Because soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, in this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts in urban area of northeastern Mainland China. From April 2014 to May 2015, more than 9000 soil samples were collected. Detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed applying real-time quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates for each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 30.3% of all samples. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model was used to evaluate the effect of land use and intrinsic soil properties on the risk of contamination with oocysts. Jackknife analysis revealed that the likelihood for positive results is significantly enhanced in soil originating from foci of human habitation, wood land and grass land. Furthermore, soil temperature and humidity significantly influence the probability of contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Our findings indicate that land use may affect distribution of T. gondii oocysts in urban areas.

  9. Accuracy and conservatism of vapour intrusion algorithms for contaminated land management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bonders, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a view on the suitability of screening-level vapour intrusion (VI) algorithms for contaminated land management. It focuses on the accuracy and level of conservatism for a number of screening-level algorithms used for VI into buildings. The paper discusses the published evidence o

  10. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE`s Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  11. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  12. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p radioactive contamination was not significant. Being female, middle-to-low educational status and unemployed were additional risk factors for psychological distress. This dual-disaster was associated with a moderate prevalence of psychological distress in the area. The impact of the earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  14. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-09-30

    There were approximately 926 m(3) of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (90)Sr, U, and α-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb β-emitters, α-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously eliminate particles and adsorb ionic radionuclides from water.

  15. Uncertainty of measurement or of mean value for the reliable classification of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Katy A; Ramsey, Michael H

    2010-12-15

    Classification of contaminated land is important for risk assessment and so it is vital to understand and quantify all of the uncertainties that are involved in the assessment of contaminated land. This paper uses a case study to compare two methods for assessing the uncertainty in site investigations (uncertainty of individual measurements, including that from sampling, and uncertainty of the mean value of all measurements within an area) and how the different methods affect the decisions made about a site. Using the 'uncertainty of the mean value' there is shown to be no significant possibility of 'significant harm' under UK guidance at one particular test site, but if you consider the 'uncertainty of the measurements' a significant proportion (50%) of the site is shown to be possibly contaminated. This raises doubts as to whether the current method using 'uncertainty of the mean' is sufficiently robust, and suggests that 'uncertainty of measurement' information may be preferable, or at least beneficial when used in conjunction.

  16. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  17. Incorporation of Socio-Cultural Values in Damage Assessment Valuations of Contaminated Lands in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Akujuru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Damages on contaminated land have been mostly assessed for developments subsisting on the land, neglecting the goods and services derived from the land which possess only socio-cultural values. This paper aims to ascertain the importance of socio-cultural values in the total economic value of contaminated land, drawing from the experience of a coastal community oil spillage in the Niger Delta. The paper examines what constitutes a valuable interest on contaminated land and how socio-cultural factors are valued in the damage assessment process. After reviewing the literature and decided cases, a questionnaire survey was conducted and a sample valuation report was analysed. It is concluded that there exists a socio-cultural interest on contaminated land which professional valuers do not reflect in damage assessment claims. It is recommended that any comprehensive damage assessment requires the incorporation of socio-cultural values in the valuations.

  18. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    population of the territories impacted by radioactive contamination is provided with conditions in compliance with radiation safety requirements and hygienic specifications.Since January 1987 according to radiation and hygienic monitoring in the Oryol region, the local foodstuff did not exceed the hygienic specifications on radiation. In the territories included in the zone of radioactive contamination, the economic activities may be carried out without special protective measures for decrease of caesium-137 and strontium-90 content in produce, there are no restrictions on picking of wild-growing berries, herbs and mushrooms.Being direct participants of development and carrying out of activities for the region protection in case of emergency situation at the radiation hazardous site, we believe that the data presented in this article may be useful both for experts and general population.

  19. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  20. On-Chip Microplasmas for the Detection of Radioactive Cesium Contamination in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Joffrion

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On-chip microplasmas have previously been used in designing a compact and portable device for identifying pollutants in a water sample. By exciting a liquid sample with a high energy microdischarge and recording the spectral wavelengths emitted, the individual elements in the liquid are distinguishable. In particular, this study focuses on cesium, a contaminant from nuclear incidents such as the collapse of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. This article shows that not only can the presence of cesium be clearly determined at concentrations as low as 10 ppb, but the relative concentration contained in the sample can be determined through the discharges’ relative spectral intensity.

  1. Handbook: Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated with Explosive or Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), styphnate , are highly susceptible to initiation. Primary and 2,6-DNT, which are impurities in production-grade explosives often...2,4-DNT. Signaling flares contain barium , strontium, or other "*Peak often observed but only recently Identified. metal nitrates. Source: U.S. Army...contaminants; for example, the limit for tritium is 20,000 regenerable-once they become saturated with pCi/L, while the limit for barium -140 is only 90 pCi/L

  2. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  3. Suspected radioactive contamination: evaluation of 45 Israeli citizens potentially exposed to polonium-210 in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Havkin, Ofra; Davidovitch, Nadav; Poles, Lion; Shapira, Chen

    2008-02-01

    The lethal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenco with the radioactive element polonium-210, and the risk that many civilians (including Israeli citizens) who were in the same location in London at the same time were exposed to radiation, was an unprecedented event in the western world. This was only the second known death due to 210Po, a natural alpha radiation-emitting element. A task team was created to handle the event. The team comprised representatives from the Ministry of Health's advisory committee for radiological events (which includes the Israel Defense Force, the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission and the Ministry of Environmental Protection), the Public Health Services Central District, and a public relations expert. Forty-seven people were located and underwent an epidemiological inquiry, and urine samples for detection of 210Po were sent abroad to a specialized laboratory. The radiotoxicological results were analyzed and evaluated by the expert team and follow-up recommendations were made. This unfamiliar and potentially stressful scenario was handled successfully by a multi-organizational multidisciplinary task team. The joint work of the task team was a real-life "exercise" simulating a radiological event in Israel. This team has recommended further evaluation of various vital missions in the event of any possible future radiological event, with special emphasis on a proactive communication approach to the media and the public.

  4. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decision-making support on rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories based on the use of site-specific PRANA DSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Mirzeabassov, O.A.; Okhrimenko, I.V.; Pichugina, I.A. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga reg. (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    spatial analysis of radioactive contamination; - contamination of agricultural production (plant growing and animal husbandry, including farm and private production); - external and internal doses to the population for radionuclides under consideration (for each settlement of region under consideration, including site-specific aspects of behaviour, food-basket forming and contamination of farm, private and forest production); - radiological risks caused by irradiation of the population; - protective measures (CMs) in the long-term period after an accident and estimation of the results of their implementation; - multi-criteria assessment of CMs effectiveness; - implementation of radiation protection principles (as well as existing requirements of international and national standards and legal regulations); - decision-making support on protection of the population and rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated territories both on local and regional/district levels (from separate settlement/field up to group of settlements/farms and region as a whole). The GIS-DSSs indicated are considerable different from CS RODOS, EDSS and others. This work is carried out by Russian scientists (RRC KI, OINPE, RRC IB, IRG and BCAHR) and EU/Norway collaborators within the ISTC project no.1224. (author)

  6. Nature of radioactive contamination of components of ecosystems of streamflows from tunnels of Degelen massif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitskiy, A V; Lukashenko, S N

    2015-06-01

    The paper provides data on environmental contamination due to radionuclides' migration with water. As a result of investigations there was obtained data on character of contamination of soil cover, surface water and underflow from tunnels of Degelen massif. Character of radionuclides' spatial distribution in environment was also shown. Mobility ranges of radionuclides' vertical and horizontal movements have been established in soils both across and along the stream flow. There was also shown a possibility to forecast radionuclides' concentration in soil by specific activity of these radionuclides in water. Different concentrations of radionuclides in associated components of the ecosystem (surface waters - ground waters - soils) have shown disequilibrium of their condition in this system. Generalization of investigation results for tunnel water streams' with water inflows, chosen as investigation objects in this work, allows to forecast radionuclides' behavior in meadow soils and other ecosystems of water streams from tunnels of Degelen test site. Based on analysis of curves, describing radionuclides' behavior in horizontal direction, we can forecast, that at this stage (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu would not be distributed more than 1.5 km from the access to the daylight surface, (90)Sr - not more than 2 km. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consequences of long-term radioactive contamination of aquatic environment by anthropogenic radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Dzyubenko, E.N. [Department of Freshwater Radioecology, Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, S.I.; Nazarov, A.B. [State Specialised Scientific and Production Enterprise ' Chernobyl Radioecological Centre' of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Ukraine, Shkol' naya Str. 6, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    The distribution of the main dose-formed radionuclides in components of aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone and effects of chronic irradiation on biota during last decade was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts registered in range from 1.3 mGy year{sup -1} to 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}. The heightened chromosome aberration rate in the embryo tissue of snails (up to 27 %) and in the root meristems of higher aquatic plants (up to 18 %) was determined. In hemo-lymph of snails from contaminated lakes the quantity of death cells averages 36-44 %, the part of phagocytic cells averages 41-45 %, as well as decrease of the young amebocytes quantity to 10-20 %. The high level of parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods of the common reed in the most contaminated lakes within the exclusion zone was registered. Above mentioned phenomenon may testify upon the decreasing of the parasitic stability of plant under impact of long-term radiation exposure. (authors)

  8. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety, and Health Div.

    1996-12-31

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ({sup 241}Am), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  9. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  10. Radioactivity and fluoride contamination derived from a phosphate fertilizer plant in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, N M; Sharshar, T; Elnimr, T; Mousa, M A

    2009-01-01

    The environmental pollution caused by the wastewater from a phosphate fertilizer plant in Egypt was investigated. The concentrations of radionuclides and fluoride in phosphate fertilizer (raw materials, end products and by-products) and other types of fertilizer samples were measured. The concentrations of these elements were also measured in environmental samples (water, sediment and plant) collected from the proximity of outlet of wastewater discharge pipes of the phosphate fertilizer company. The fluoride concentration was ranged from 0.03 to 0.25mg/g, 0.002 to 0.006mg/g, 0.42 to 1.88mg/g and 0.44 to 7.3mg/l for phosphate fertilizer, other types of fertilizer, sediment and water samples, respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra were ranged from 244 to 1312Bq/kg, 0.6 to 12.1Bq/kg, 15.4 to 33.8Bq/kg, 0.06 to 1.3Bq/l and 8.9 to 17.3Bq/kg for phosphate fertilizer, other types of fertilizer, sediment, water and plant samples, respectively. The (232)Th activity concentrations were ranged from 0.7 to 24Bq/kg, 0.7 to 14.5Bq/kg, 10.4 to 19.3Bq/kg, 0.02 to 0.16Bq/l and 2.0 to 29.8Bq/kg for these samples, respectively. Also, the (40)K activity concentrations were ranged from 2.1 to 1.4Bq/kg, 2.1 to 5313Bq/kg, 128 to 281Bq/kg, 0.14 to 0.6Bq/l and 686 to 977Bq/kg for these samples, respectively. Low content of (137)Cs was determined in only two phosphate fertilizer samples (F2 and F3; mean 1.3Bq/kg) and in most of sediment samples (with range 1.0-2.4Bq/kg). The radium equivalent, as a radiation hazard index, was ranged from 284 to 1316, 9.6 to 432 and 47 to 70Bq/kg for phosphate fertilizer, other types of fertilizer and sediment samples, respectively. The results indicated that the wastewater polluted with fluoride produced from the phosphate fertilizer company may be affecting the environment. The radioactivity content measurements indicated that the environment may be slightly affected with low concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th isotopes due to the

  11. Restoration strategies for radioactive contaminated ecosystems (RESTORE). Mastering events of the past - Nuclear fission safety programme E.2: restoration of severely contaminated territories. Final report 1996 - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G.; Semioschkina, N.

    2000-07-01

    The RESTORE project has focused on the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) applied to areas of the NIS contaminated by radioactive fallout based upon an understanding of such processes. It incorporates spatial variation in radioecological processes which can influence transfer of radionuclides via foodstuffs to man including soil type, ecosystem, food production systems and flooding, such factors are not considered in existing models. Special emphasis has been placed on the identification of key pathways using the knowledge incorporated into the EDSS and developing strategies whereby the dose via these pathways could be effectively reduced, in particular by enabling the population to understand and influence their own exposure. The main objectives of the project were: Identification of major pathways of radiation exposure, resulting from the Chernobyl accident, within different contaminated ecosystems within the NIS; Collation of spatial data to allow, using geographical information systems (GIS), the identification of areas with high radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs, high fluxes of radionuclides or elevated doses; Development of practical and cost effective countermeasure strategies, targeted at key pathways, which will enable affected populations to understand and influence their own radiation exposures; Assessment of the potential importance of flooding for the redistribution and remobilization of radionuclides into food production systems; Application of this knowledge to develop an environmental decision support system (EDSS) providing a tool to identify vulnerable areas or groups and allow assessment of countermeasure strategies; Independently assess the radiological situation following nuclear weapons tests within the semipalatinsk test site (STS), Kazakhstan which was the most important nuclear weapons testing area within the USSR. (orig.)

  12. [Efficiencies of contamination source for flooring and some materials used in unencapsulated radioactivity handling facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Yoshizawa, M; Minami, K

    1990-09-01

    The efficiencies of contamination source, defined in ISO Report 7506-1, were experimentally determined for such materials as flooring, polyethylene, smear-tested filter paper and stainless steel plate. 5 nuclides of 147Pm, 60Co, 137Cs, 204Tl and 90Sr-Y were used to study beta-ray energy dependence of the efficiency, and 241Am as alpha-ray emitter. The charge-up effect in the measurement by a window-less 2 pi-proportional counter was evaluated to obtain reliable surface emission rate. The measured efficiencies for non-permeable materials, except for two cases, are more than 0.5 even for 147Pm. The ISO recommendations were shown to be conservative enough on the basis of present results.

  13. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in Polish surface waters in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplińska, M; Kardaś, M; Rubel, B; Fulara, A; Adamczyk, A

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination in Polish surface waters has been monitoring since 1994. Surface water samples from six lakes and the Vistula and Oder Rivers were collected in spring and autumn 2012 and 2013. The mean (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations were 3.92 ± 0.40 and 4.49 ± 2.00 mBq L(-1), respectively. Correlations were identified between the radionuclide concentrations and meteorological conditions and the original fallout distribution from the Chernobyl disaster. The annual average radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different from the concentrations found between 1994 and 2011. The (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations have been decreasing only slowly.

  14. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  15. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination; Schema anatomo-physiologique du tractus gastro-intestinal a prendre en consideration pour le calcul des niveaux de contamination Radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, Association EURATOM-CEA, Niveaux de Contamination (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [French] Cette note a pour objet de rassembler les donnees anatomiques et physiologiques du tractus gastrointestinal, chez l'adulte et chez l'enfant, et d'en deduire un schema standard qui puisse servir de base au calcul des niveaux de contamination de la chaine alimentaire par les substances radioactives. (auteur)

  16. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Rudjord, A.L. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, B. [Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Vollebekk (Norway)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and presence of {sup 60}Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. {sup 60}Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. (2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs.

  17. FRAMEWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT USED IN CONTAMINATED LAND MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; BARDOS,R.P.; MAROT,C.; MARIOTTI,R.

    2000-06-01

    Effective contaminated land management requires a number of decisions addressing a suite of technical, economic and social concerns. This paper offers a common framework and terminology for describing decision support approaches, along with an overview of recent applications of decision support tools in Europe and the USA. A common problem with work on decision support approaches is a lack of a common framework and terminology to describe the process. These have been proposed in this paper.

  18. Accuracy and conservatism of vapour intrusion algorithms for contaminated land management

    OpenAIRE

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bonders, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a view on the suitability of screening-level vapour intrusion (VI) algorithms for contaminated land management. It focuses on the accuracy and level of conservatism for a number of screening-level algorithms used for VI into buildings. The paper discusses the published evidence of the accuracy of VI algorithms and puts the conservatism is a broader regulatory perspective, including advice on how to deal with variation. In closing further research needs are provided.

  19. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  20. The rationale for simple approaches for sustainability assessment and management in contaminated land practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, R Paul; Bone, Brian D; Boyle, Richard; Evans, Frank; Harries, Nicola D; Howard, Trevor; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2016-09-01

    The scale of land-contamination problems, and of the responses to them, makes achieving sustainability in contaminated land remediation an important objective. The Sustainable Remediation Forum in the UK (SuRF-UK) was established in 2007 to support more sustainable remediation practice in the UK. The current international interest in 'sustainable remediation' has achieved a fairly rapid consensus on concepts, descriptions and definitions for sustainable remediation, which are now being incorporated into an ISO standard. However the sustainability assessment methods being used remain diverse with a range of (mainly) semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches and tools developed, or in development. Sustainability assessment is site specific and subjective. It depends on the inclusion of a wide range of considerations across different stakeholder perspectives. Taking a tiered approach to sustainability assessment offers important advantages, starting from a qualitative assessment and moving through to semi-quantitative and quantitative assessments on an 'as required' basis only. It is also clear that there are a number of 'easy wins' that could improve performance against sustainability criteria right across the site management process. SuRF-UK has provided a checklist of 'sustainable management practices' that describes some of these. This paper provides the rationale for, and an outline of, and recently published SuRF-UK guidance on preparing for and framing sustainability assessments; carrying out qualitative sustainability assessment; and simple good management practices to improve sustainability across contaminated land management activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the Canadian Arctic with land farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudyn, K.; Poland, J.S.; Rutter, A.; Rowe, R.K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Land farming is a process where petroleum contaminated soils are spread out in a layer 0.3-0.5 cm thick. Nutrients are added and the soils are mixed periodically, as both oxygen and water are necessary for aerobic petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. This paper discusses a trial land farm established at Resolution Island, Nunavut. Three truckloads of contaminated soil were excavated from 2 areas and displaced to a previously leveled area. Heavy equipment was used to homogenize the soil and evenly distribute material to each of four test plots, measuring 5 by 5 metres with a depth of 0.3 metres. Rock material was removed manually throughout the lifetime of the farm. Each plot was subjected to a different regime: a control plot with no action except soil collection; daily rototilling; rototilling every 4 days; and rototilling every 4 days with the addition of fertilizer. Plots were re-sampled after 16, 32, 17, 349, and 369 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus were added to the plot in the form of granular agricultural fertilizers. Results in all 4 plots showed a dramatic decrease in contaminant levels with time, possibly because disturbance of the soil in the creation of the land farm created conditions that promoted loss. Levels were calculated using chromatograms of extracted soil samples. For the 3 plots with no fertilizer, levels indicated that no measurable bioremediation was taking place. The addition of fertilizer is low maintenance and economical. However, the fertilized plot was also rototilled, so it is not yet known how important soil aeration is in assisting bioremediation. Laboratory experiments and the construction of a large scale land farm in 2004 should lead to the development of an optimal land farm operation protocol. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 239/249}Pu), and americium ({sup 241}Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements.

  3. PECULIARITIES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl accident has influenced greatly all spheres of life of the affected territories, changing the life-style of the local population. [1, 2]. Investigation of the radionuclides behavior in natural conditions becomes more and more important which is connected with the fact that radionuclides are drawn into substances rotation and are actively accumulated by the plants and animals, that means that they become integral link of the food chains and are of a great importance in the functioning of the ecosystems. Deposition of radionuclides in the forest system is often higher than in agricultural arrears. Specific ecological features of the forests often lead to the high degree of accumulation of contaminating radionuclides. Organic matter high content in the forest soil and its stability increase the transfer of radionuclides from soil into plans which lead to high content of radionuclides in lichens, mosses, mushrooms and berries. Radionuclides transfer to game in such conditions could bring to the situation when some people actively consuming game meet will be highly exposured.

  4. A STUDY OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF MARINE BIOTA AFTER THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 134Cs and 137Cs contents have been studied in 44 samples of the marine biota including four species of brown and red algae (11 samples, four species of invertebrates (8 samples and ten species of fish (25 samples. The samples have been collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and in the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan within the framework of the Russian monitoring program that started in 2011 to study environmental consequences of the accident at “Fukushima-1” NPP. In 2011–2012, total activity of both cesium radioisotopes for all the samples analyzed did not exceed 1 Bq kg–1 (wet weight. This value is negligible compared to the safe level of 130 Bq kg–1 (for 137Cs for the fish consumption in Russia. 134Cs, a marker of the Fukushima-derived contamination, has been determined at a level of 0.2–0.4 Bq kg–1 (wet weight for three samples of pacific saury (Cololabis saira collected from areas near Shikotan Island in Sempember 2011 and 2012. The study shows that the Fukushima accident has no considerable impact on radiation conditions in the Kuril-Kamchatka region of the Northwest Pacific Ocean and in the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan.

  5. Special RADMIL report. Assessment of the past and present implications of radioactive contamination of Lancashire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The county of Lancashire in the United Kingdom has a unique relationship with the nuclear industry in respect of the number of nuclear facilities within or close to its boundaries. This special Radiation Monitoring in Lancashire (RADMIL) report collates data collected from 1976 to 1994 to provide a dose reconstruction for that period. It is shown that the radiation exposure of the population of Lancashire has decreased over the past twenty years. This has been due largely to a decrease in the authorised discharges from the facilities at Sellafield. Despite the fact that the advisory public dose limits have been reduced fivefold over the period, the dose to the most exposed groups has been consistently below those limits. Present contamination of the Lancashire environment is much reduced by comparison with earlier years. The accumulated effect of past discharges will mean that little further improvement can be expected, however. Similarly, dose levels to the populations are also expected to remain steady unless discharges increase again. This data compilation will form a baseline against which RADMIL can compare the results of future monitoring. (17 figures, 38 tables, 182 references) (UK).

  6. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Special RADMIL report. Assessment of the past and present implications of radioactive contamination of Lancashire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The county of Lancashire in the United Kingdom has a unique relationship with the nuclear industry in respect of the number of nuclear facilities within or close to its boundaries. This special Radiation Monitoring in Lancashire (RADMIL) report collates data collected from 1976 to 1994 to provide a dose reconstruction for that period. It is shown that the radiation exposure of the population of Lancashire has decreased over the past twenty years. This has been due largely to a decrease in the authorised discharges from the facilities at Sellafield. Despite the fact that the advisory public dose limits have been reduced fivefold over the period, the dose to the most exposed groups has been consistently below those limits. Present contamination of the Lancashire environment is much reduced by comparison with earlier years. The accumulated effect of past discharges will mean that little further improvement can be expected, however. Similarly, dose levels to the populations are also expected to remain steady unless discharges increase again. This data compilation will form a baseline against which RADMIL can compare the results of future monitoring. (17 figures, 38 tables, 182 references) (UK).

  8. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  9. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  10. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  11. Using multiple indices to evaluate scenarios for the remediation of contaminated land: the Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Agostini, Paola

    2009-09-01

    The management of contaminated sites requires the investigation of different involved aspects (from socioeconomic to risk and technological issues) and the presentation of useful and condensed information to decision makers. For this purpose, indices are more and more recognized as effective and valuable tools. This paper presents specific indices created within the DEcision Support sYstem for REhabilitation of contaminated sites (DESYRE). DESYRE is a software which aids decision making for the rehabilitation of a large contaminated site (i.e., megasite) by the creation and comparison of different rehabilitation alternatives. The software is composed of six modules, each dealing with a specific aspect of the remediation process, ending with the decision module. In this module, scenarios (i.e., suitable solutions for the rehabilitation of the contaminated site including selected land use, socioeconomic benefits, remediation costs, time span, environmental impacts, technology set/s, and residual risk) are created and evaluated by means of suitable indices. Nine indices cover the socioeconomic, risk, technological, cost, time, and environmental impact aspects. Mathematical algorithms are used to calculate these indices by taking into account data collected during the analytical steps of the DESYRE system and elaborated through the support of the spatial analysis, which is embedded in the system. The case study of Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy is presented in order to document the effectiveness of developed indices in evaluating management solutions and presenting options to decision makers. For the purpose of this study, three different scenarios for the remediation of a part of the site of Porto Marghera (approximately 530 ha) are developed and compared. The three scenarios consider the industrial land use and deal with the contamination in soil caused by inorganic and organic compounds. The scenarios mainly differ for the number of the included remediation

  12. Assessment of temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after a nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A Ra; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chan; Seol, Jeung Gun [Radiation Safety Team, Korea Electric Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    It has been about 5 years since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which contaminated large area with radioactive materials. It is necessary to assess radiation dose to establish evacuation areas and to set decontamination goal for the large contaminated area. In this study, we assessed temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The dose assessment was performed based on Chernobyl model and RESRAD model for two evacuation lift areas, Kawauchi and Naraha. It was reported that deposition densities in the areas were 4.3-96 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 134}Cs, 1.4-300 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. Radiation dose to the residents depended on radioactive cesium concentrations in the soil, ranging 0.11-2.4 mSv y{sup -1} at Kawauchi area and 0.69-1.1 mSv y{sup -1} at Naraha area in July 2014. The difference was less than 5% in radiation doses estimated by two different models. Radiation dose decreased with calendar time and the decreasing slope varied depending on dose assessment models. Based on the Chernobyl dosimetry model, radiation doses decreased with calendar time to about 65% level of the radiation dose in 2014 after 1 year, 11% level after 10 years, and 5.6% level after 30 years. RESRAD dosimetry model more slowly decreased radiation dose with time to about 85% level after 1 year, 40% level after 10 years, and 15% level after 30 years. The decrease of radiation dose can be mainly attributed into radioactive decays and environmental transport of the radioactive cesium. Only environmental transports of radioactive cesium without consideration of radioactive decays decreased radiation dose additionally 43% after 1 year, 72% after 3 years, 80% after 10 years, and 83% after 30 years. Radiation doses estimated with cesium concentration in the soil based on Chernobyl dosimetry model were compared with directly measured radiation doses

  13. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  14. [Utilization of radionuclide therapy facility and assembly-temporary type therapeutic facility for medical treatment of radioactivity contaminated patients in nuclear emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satro, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-05-01

    Medical management of patients internally contaminated in nuclear emergency needs, in addition to general medical treatment, to evaluate doses due to intakes of radioactive materials, to conduct effective treatment with stable isotopes and chelating agents and to keep public away from radioactive materials in and excreted from patients. The idea of medical treatment for internal contamination is demonstrated in the general principles on medical management of victims in nuclear emergency issued by the Cabinet Office in Japan. However, if impressive number patients with internal contamination are generated, the current medical management scheme in nuclear emergency is not able to admit them. The utilization of radionuclide therapy facilities where patients with thyroid diseases are treated with radioisotope and assembly-temporary housing type treatment facilities dedicated for internal contaminated patients may be expected to complement the medical management scheme in nuclear emergency. The effect or more medical management system for patients internally contaminated may become one of the safety nets in the contemporary society that inclines to use nuclear energy on account of accessibility.

  15. A review of public concerns and reactions about food safety following a release of food contaminants (radioactive or otherwise)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B. [Department of Radiation Biology, St. Bartholomews and the Royal London School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This study was carried out, by questionnaire and personal interview, to assess the extent of the public's knowledge of the procedures employed by MAFF, and other agencies following a food contamination incident involving radioactive contamination. It was also designed to gauge the public's perception of relative risk from routine discharges into the environment and other agents. The study populations were located in 5 locations - 3 near nuclear facilities, and 2 control groups (1 close to a potential chemical polluting plant). The study was not intended to be rigorous (in terms of sex, age and socio-economic group) in random selection of subjects for interview but it was judged that a fairly representative selection of views was obtained from about 50 people at each location. Overall, and importantly, although about 60% claimed that some their diet was locally grown, most people even in these rural areas purchased nearly all of their food and milk in supermarkets. It was difficult to get the interviewees to take the concept of a large incident involving food bans seriously but they seemed to expect the local authority and the police to be prominent in announcing the news. They did not seem to have much confidence in the broadcast media but, when prompted, thought that a MAFF 'hot-line' would be of greatest use in obtaining on-going information. House to house leaf letting was also mentioned as an effective means of disseminating information. Every-one seemed to want more clear information about food contamination in advance of it becoming a real problem - although how they would react to this information was not clear. All groups were fairly conservative when asked about personal risk but became more extreme over risks to society as a whole, particularly in relation to transport and the environment. Overall, as expected, the public perception of relative risk was somewhat divorced from reality. Because of their geographical location and

  16. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乐昌; 王焰新; 吕俊文; 卢学实; 刘耀驰; 刘晓阳

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of radioactive pollutants, such as 222Rn, U, Th and 226Ra in the air, surface waters, soils and crops around the Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China, is studied. The mechanical, geochemical and biogeochemical processes responsible for the transport and fate of the radioactive elements are discussed based on the monitoring data. The pollutants concentrations of effluents from the mine tunnels were dependent on pH and which were controlled by biochemical oxidation of sulfide in the ore/host rocks. Radon anomalies in air reached 4 km from the tailings pile depending on radon release from the site, topography and climate. 238U and 226Ra abnormities in stream sediments and soil were 40-90 cm deep and 790-800 m away downstream. Anomalies of radioactive contaminants of surface watercourses extended 7.5-13 km from the discharge of effluents of the site mainly depending on mechanical and chemical processes. There were about 2.86 ha rice fields and 1.59 km stream sediments contaminated. Erosion of tailings and mining debris with little or no containment or control accelerated the contamination processes.

  17. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-08-30

    In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of (133)Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of (133)Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable (133)Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs and (137)Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583Bqkg(-1) after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100BqL(-1) total (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000Bqkg(-1) and 150BqL(-1) respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash.

  18. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  19. Summary of the NATO/CCMS Conference The Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and GroundWater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of contamination to land and groundwa- ter from improper handling of hazardous materials/ waste is faced by all countries. Also, the need for reliable, cost-effective technologies to address this problem at contaminated sites exists throughout the world. Many countrie...

  20. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  1. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

  2. The assumption of heterogeneous or homogeneous radioactive contamination in soil/sediment: does it matter in terms of the external exposure of fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2014-12-01

    The classical approach to environmental radioprotection is based on the assumption of homogeneously contaminated media. However, in soils and sediments there may be a significant variation of radioactivity with depth. The effect of this heterogeneity was investigated by examining the external exposure of various sediment and soil organisms, and determining the resulting dose rates, assuming a realistic combination of locations and radionuclides. The results were dependent on the exposure situation, i.e., the organism, its location, and the quality and quantity of radionuclides. The dose rates ranged over three orders of magnitude. The assumption of homogeneous contamination was not consistently conservative (if associated with a level of radioactivity averaged over the full thickness of soil or sediment that was sampled). Dose assessment for screening purposes requires consideration of the highest activity concentration measured in a soil/sediment that is considered to be homogeneously contaminated. A more refined assessment (e.g., higher tier of a graded approach) should take into consideration a more realistic contamination profile, and apply different dosimetric approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni

    2017-01-01

    stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality......Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production...... the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs...

  4. A System Dynamics Approach for the Integrative Assessment of Contaminated Land Management Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Finkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    of contamination extent, boundary conditions/limitations, stakeholders, etc.) has led to the proposal of tiered frameworks for site investigation, risk assessment and management, e.g. in the United Kingdom and in the USA. Recent policies request an increased emphasis on modelling (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive...... of Remediation Options) designed to facilitate the establishment of appropriate, cost-effective management schemes for achieving site-specific remediation objectives within reasonable timeframes. Preliminary assessment shall quickly provide reasonable estimates of current and future risks, as well......Contamination of land and groundwater by organic chemicals, particularly non-aqueous phase liquids, is a widespread problem that severely impacts human health, the environment and the economy at many urban sites all over the world. Complexity of the situation at these sites (in terms...

  5. Contamination of Community Potable Water from Land Grabbing: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Arduino

    2012-06-01

    The paper discusses the direct causes of water contamination (the use of fertilisers and pesticides and the presence of cattle and the indirect causes (unclear administrative boundaries, lack of participation and transparency, procedures not followed and limited resources. The negotiation process and its outcomes are described. From this study we conclude that stakeholder communication and transparency are key elements in anticipating and preventing the arising of such situations. Often, these are in short supply when large land deals occur. In this case, ex-post solutions were arrived at. Finally, the paper looks at the broader dimensions of land deals that pollute the water feeding a water supply scheme. Such situations are a clear violation of the human right to safe drinking water – an issue that has not yet been sufficiently documented in the literature and which merits further attention.

  6. Saline contamination of soil and water on Pawnee tribal trust land, eastern Payne County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, Donna L.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management reported evidence of saline contamination of soils and water in Payne County on Pawnee tribal trust land. Representatives of the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Geological Survey inspected the site, in September 1997, and observed dead grass, small shrubs, and large trees near some abandoned oil production wells, a tank yard, an pit, and pipelines. Soil and bedrock slumps and large dead trees were observed near a repaired pipeline on the side of the steep slope dipping toward an unnamed tributary of Eagle Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, initiated an investigation in March 1998 to examine soil conductance and water quality on 160 acres of Pawnee tribal trust land where there was evidence of saline contamination and concern about saline contamination of the Ada Group, the shallowest freshwater aquifer in the area. The proximity of high specific conductance in streams to areas containing pipeline spill, abandoned oil wells, the tank yard, and the pit indicates that surface-water quality is affected by production brines. Specific conductances measured in Eagle Creek and Eagle Creek tributary ranged from 1,187 to 10,230 microsiemens per centimeter, with the greatest specific conductance measured downgradient of a pipeline spill. Specific conductance in an unnamed tributary of Salt Creek ranged from 961 to 11,500 microsiemens per centimeter. Specific conductance in three ponds ranged from 295 to 967 microsiemens per centimeter, with the greatest specific conductance measured in a pond located downhill from the tank yard and the abandoned oil well. Specific conductance in water from two brine storage pits ranged from 9,840 to 100,000 microsiemens per centimeter, with water from the pit near a tank yard having the greater specific conductance. Bartlesville brine samples from the oil well and injection well have the greatest specific conductance, chloride concentration, and dissolved

  7. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem

  8. Land-Parcel Land-Use History as a Key to Site Selection for Documenting Soil Contamination Risk:a Case Study from Australian Suburbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jie; Ursula Pietrzak; Jim Peterson

    2005-01-01

    In that orcharding in early-to-mid twentieth century southeastern Australia involved use of certain heavy metal and As compounds in regular pest-control spray procedures, some interest attaches to the possibility that these landparcels are underlain by soils with above-background Cu, Pb and As levels. Interpretation of Land-cover changes allowed land parcels previously occupied by orchards to be identified in the 1950s through time-series air-photos. A comparison of soil analysis results referring to soil samples from control sites, and from land parcels formerly occupied by orchardists, shows that contamination (above-background)levels of cations in the pesticides can be found in the top 6 cm of former orchard soils. It is clear that digital spatial data handling and culturally-informed air photo interpretation has a place in soil contamination studies,land-use planning (with particular reference to re-development) and in administration of public health.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    between the sites. The first site was small, 5000 m2. Weeding and harvest were done manually, and the alternative was excavation of the contaminated soil followed by landfilling. The second site was 12 ha. Salix Vinimalis cultivation was assumed as entirely machine- based, and the alternative was covering the entire site with 0.5 m clean soil. Transport of soil would constitute the major environmental costs for the conventional remediation alternatives (excavation or covering), and cause 60-90% of the energy use, waste, use of fossil resources, land surface occupation, global warming, acidification, photochemical smog formation, and the global human toxicity of water, soil and air. Soil transports would cause 40% of water use, and less than 10% of the environmental effect on soil use, odour or local human toxicity. We calculated with clean soil transport of 30 km and a landfill 22 km from the smaller site. Biofuel cultivation would cause a lower environmental cost for all effect categories above, even when soil transport was ignored. This was in spite of the higher fertiliser use and the increased car transport for biofuel production compared to excavation or covering. The amount of fuel needed for covering the larger area was roughly equivalent to the amount needed for the agricultural equipment for Salix Vinimalis cultivation, but the total energy need for the conventional remediation was higher. This includes e.g. the energy needed for the production of plastic groundwater wells, production of equipment, production of fertiliser etc. Demand for arable area would increase as a result of the increasing demand for food and the increasing demand for biofuels. This spurred a detailed look at the land surface needed for the remediation alternatives. Contaminated soil occupies surface itself, and remediation leads to the exploitation of land beyond the location as well. In this study, the surface required beyond Salix Vinimalis cultivation has been included. That is to say

  10. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    There are several high level {sup 137}Cs anomaly zones detected in the deposits of the SW part of the Kara Sea. These anomaly zones were formed in the Ob' and the Enisey river estuaries due to the geochemical 'river-sea' boarder barrier. Level of radiocaesium specific activity reaches 120 Bq*kg{sup -1} in the deposits from these zones. Radiochemical enterprises occur in the both river basins. Their activity results in caesium-137 transfer into the river net. Vast area is contaminated by {sup 137}Cs after nuclear weapons in Semipalatinsk test-site and Kyshtym disaster in the Ob' river basin. Moreover, caesium comes to the Ob' and the Enisey river basins with global atmospheric fallout. The inflow of global fallout caesium-137 to the catchments is 660 kCi (320 kCi including radioactive decay) that is 4 times higher than {sup 137}Cs emission due to Fukushima disaster. Therefore, these river basins as any other huge catchment are an important sources of radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. The aim of our research is to study behavior of global fallout caesium-137 in the landscapes of the Ob and the Enisey river basins. We studied caesium-137 behavior on the example of first order catchments in taiga, wetland, forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-arid landscapes. Geographic information system (GIS) was made. The tenth-order catchments (n=154, Horton coding system) shape 20-groups due to topsoil properties controlling cesium mobility. Eleven first-order basins, characterized 7 groups of tenth order catchments, were studied. And 700 bulk-core soil samples were collected in 2011-2013. Cesium runoff is calculated for 3 first-order river basins in taiga and forest-steppe landscapes. Storage of global fallout caesium-137 declines from undisturbing taiga first-order river basin (90% of cumulative fallout including radioactive decay)> arable steppe and fores-steppe (70 - 75%)> undisturbing wetland (60%). Caesium-137 transfer is high in arable lands

  11. Assessment of reproductive capacity of estuarine plants Butomus umbellatus L. and Alisma plantago-aquatica L. from radioactively contaminated flood plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneva, A.V.; Majstrenko, T.A.; Rachkova, N.G.; Belykh, E.S.; Zainullin, V.G. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of RAS, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    It is known that the vegetation, along with the climatic conditions and soil type, is one of the key components of terrestrial ecosystems. They are also first to respond to the substrate contamination with radionuclides, metals and organic substances. Biological effects observed in natural plant populations are associated with both presence of mobile compounds of pollutants in abiotic components of the ecosystem and their role in the metabolism of the plant. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of water and sediment contamination with artificial radionuclides and toxic non-radioactive compounds, on the reproductive capacity of estuarial plants using seed germination. Contaminated sites are located in flood plain of the Techa River (Chelabinsk region, Russia) between Muslumovo and Brodokalmak settlements. Radioactive contamination of the territory resulted from increased specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and sediments due to the accidents on the Mayak Production Association. Reference sites were chosen in the flood plains of Brusianka and Sysert' rivers (Sverdlovsk region, Russia). Reference sites are located out of the Eastern Ural Radioactive Trace. Seeds of Butomus umbellatus L. and Alisma plantago-aquatica L., which are common estuarine plant communities in this area, were collected. Specific activities of dose-forming radionuclides in the Techa river water vary from 120 up to 200 mBq/l for {sup 137}Cs and from 26 up to 45 mBq/l for {sup 90}Sr; and in sediments 720-10150 Bq/kg and 600-1500 Bq/kg for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr correspondingly. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and sediments of both reference rivers do not exceed global fallout levels. B. umbellatus seeds germination was low for plant populations of both reference and contaminated sites. However, a significant (p<0.01) difference was found - the value was higher for reference populations (17.4 ±3.5 %) as compared with the ones from

  12. Dose reconstruction by EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel: application to the population of Zaborie village exposed to high radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A I; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Trompier, F; Stepanenko, V F; Skvortsov, V G; Borysheva, N B; Tikunov, D D; Petin, D V

    2004-02-01

    Individual irradiation doses were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the tooth enamel of the inhabitants of Zaborie, the most contaminated inhabited settlement not evacuated after the Chernobyl accident. Dose determination was performed using a specially developed automatic spectrum processing procedure. Spectrum processing was carried out in different operating modes, and average results were taken in order to reduce the contribution of uncertainty in dose determination caused by spectrum processing. The absorbed doses determined in enamel were corrected to take into account the contribution of natural background radiation and to determine the individual excess dose due to radioactive contamination of the territory. Individual excess doses are compared to calculated individualized doses to teeth, estimated using the local radioactive contamination levels, dose rates, and information concerning individual behavior. The individual excess doses measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the calculated individualized doses are fully independent. Mean square variation between results of two methods was found to be 34 mGy, which is consistent with error estimation for both methods. This result can validate both the methodology of signal processing presented here when using electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry of tooth enamel for low doses and the methodology of individualized dose calculation.

  13. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  14. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  15. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, M.M.; Kent, T.E.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a research facility owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. At ORNL, research is performed in a wide range of areas including nuclear energy research, environmental sciences, materials research, health and safety research, and production of radioisotopes. These activities generate 70 million gallons per year of process wastewater which is basically tap water and ground water containing trace amounts of radioactive compounds. This water is treated for removal of contaminants at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) before discharge to the environment.

  16. Eco-efficiency in contaminated land management in Finland: barriers and development needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Kosola, Marja-Leena; Hokkanen, Pekka; Haavisto, Teija

    2009-04-01

    In Finland the number of potentially contaminated sites totals ca. 20 000. The annual costs of remediation are 60-70 million euros. Excavation combined with disposal or off-site treatment is the most common soil remediation method. To define which factors make contaminated land management (CLM) eco-efficient and to study whether eco-efficiency has been considered in CLM decisions we carried out a literature survey, two stakeholder seminars, thematic interviews and a questionnaire study on economic instruments. Generally speaking, eco-efficiency means gaining environmental benefits with fewer resources. To assess its realization in CLM, it is necessary to have a more specific definition. In our study, we arrived at a list of several qualifications for eco-efficiency. It was also shown that eco-efficiency has hardly been a real issue in the selection of remediation techniques or generally, in the decision-making concerning contaminated sites. The existing policy instruments seem to be insufficient to promote eco-efficiency in CLM. Several concrete barriers to eco-efficiency also came up, urgency and lack of money being the most important. The scarcity of the use of in situ remediation methods and the difficulties involved in recycling slightly contaminated or treated soil were considered to be major problems. Insufficient site studies, inadequate or unsuitable methods for risk assessment and cost evaluation, and deficient and mistimed risk communication can also hinder the realization of eco-efficiency. Hence, there is a need to promote the use of more eco-efficient remediation techniques and to develop CLM policy instruments, guidelines, and participatory processes and methods to assess the eco-efficiency of CLM options.

  17. Transport behavior of radioactive caesium from forests contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident through river water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Ohyama, T.; Niizato, T.; Sato, H.; Yui, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has carried out 'the project on the Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminant in the Environment of Fukushima (F-TRACE project)' since the end of 2012. Radioactive caesium (Cs) has been distributed by the fallout by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F-NPP) accident, and forests in mountain areas have large amount of inventory of radioactive Cs and cover relatively large part of contaminated area of Fukushima. In this project, the transport behavior of radioactive Cs from the forests to biosphere and sea is evaluated by computer simulation based on the results of field observation and laboratory experiments. The results are used to predict evolution of effective dose of the residents in the affected area due to the transport, specify the dominant pathway of Cs, and propose effective methodology to constrain the transport along the pathway. This study reports the specific transport behavior of Cs observed in the basins of five rivers by means of the field investigation and laboratory experiments during the first year of the project. Radioactive Cs located at the crown was considered to be transported to the soil surface by litter fall, stem flow and canopy drip in the Japanese cedar tree forests. Even after two years since the accident, more than 90% of radioactive Cs was still been remained within 5 cm depth from the top of the soil, indicating that the distribution coefficient of radioactive Cs onto the specific minerals such as clay was significantly high. In the river, relatively higher dose rate was observed at the flood channel where fine-grained soil particles were trapped by growing vegetation, while low dose rate was observed beside the river channel where coarse sand or gravel accumulated. The results suggested that fine-grained soil particles containing minerals adsorbing large amount of radioactive Cs were transported in high water level and trapped by the vegetation. In the dam

  18. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    Increased land degradation is one possible, and important, consequence of global climate change. As reported by IPCC, warming is likely to be well above the global mean in central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and northern Asia, above the global mean in eastern Asia and South Asia, and similar to the global mean in Southeast and west Asia. Following these variation, agricultural face will abruptly be transformed in Iran which has been located in Middle East, west Asia. During 1951 to 2003 several stations in different climatological zones of Iran reported significant decrease in frost days due to rise in surface temperature. Also, some stations show a decreasing trend in precipitation (Anzali, Tabriz, Zahedan) while others (Mashad, Shiraz) have reported increasing trends. Based on land evaluation methodologies, a semi-empirical model named Pantanal within the new MicroLEIS DSS framework is used for assessing limitations for vulnerability of an area about 9000ha located in east Azerbaijan province of Iran is closed to Tabriz. The Pantanal approach is a land vulnerability evaluation model based on three kinds of information: I) monthly meteorological data; II) soil survey data; and III) agricultural management information. The major discussed agro contaminants were phosphorous, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides. Climate data such as mean average maximum and minimum temperatures for each month and total annual precipitation for last 20 consecutive years (1986-2006) were collected from Ahar meteorological station. The second scenario is based on projected changes in surface air temperature and precipitation for west Asia for the 2080s. In West Asia, climate change is likely to cause severe water stress in 21st century. In details, the mean temperature (°C) will increase 5.1, 5.6, 6.3 and 5.7 in winter, spring, summer and autumn respectively, in the future scenario at the study area. On the other hand, total precipitation will decrease 11 and 25 percent in winter and

  19. Effect of land use activities on PAH contamination in urban soils of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Ikhtiar; Rashid, Audil; Mahmood, Tariq; Khalid, Azeem

    2013-10-01

    Urbanization can increase the vulnerability of soils to various types of contamination. Increased contamination of urban soils with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) could relate to increased number of petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops-a phenomenon that needs to be constantly monitored. This study was undertaken to explore the soil PAH levels in Rawalpindi and Islamabad urban areas in relation to land use activities. Composite soil samples from petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops (n = 32) areas were evaluated for five PAHs--naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-and compared with control area locations with minimum petroleum-related activity (n = 16). Surface samples up to 3 cm depth were collected and extraction of analytes was carried out using n-hexane and dichloromethane. Prior to running the samples, standards (100 μg ml(-1)) were run on HPLC to optimize signal to noise ratio using acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.25 ml/min at 40 °C. Significant differences between petrol pump stations and mechanical workshop areas were observed for individual PAH as well as with control area soil samples. Naphthalene was found to be the most abundant PAH in soil, ranging from 2.47 to 24.36 mg kg(-1). Correlation between the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) level in soil and the total PAH concentration (r = 0.82, P PAH pollution. A clear segregation between petrogenic and pyrogenic sources of contamination was observed when low molecular weight PAHs detected in soil was plotted against high molecular weight PAHs. The former source comprised lubricants and used engine oil found at mechanical workshops, whereas the latter could be mostly attributed to vehicular emission at petrol pumps. The results indicate that PAH contamination in urban areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad has direct relevance with land use for petroleum activity. We conclude that in order to reduce the soil PAH exposure

  20. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    lower topographic elevations. Several mine adits, waste rock dumps are located along the main stream and a large tailings dump is found next to village Baiut just above the receiving floodplain. Predominant land cover is coniferous and mixed forests with agricultural lands on the downstream floodplain. METHODS Six samples at vaious depths were collected from the two major waste rock dumps in the headwater area, and the large tailings dump was also sampled for heavy metal source characterisation. 11 stream sediment samples were collected along the main surface water contamination transport pathway, and a further 11 soil samples were collected in 2 boreholes in the receptor floodplain in October 2008. Besides background stream sediment samples, samples from the exposed rock formations were also collected in order to capture natural background geochemistry in the studied mineralised area. The collected waste rock, stream sediment, soil and rock samples are analysed for total chemical composition (major elements and heavy metals) by ICP-MS spectroscopy, and XRD is used for the determination of mineralogical composition. Rock sample mineralogy is further investigated in thin-sections by petrological microscopy. According to EU legislation expectations, a special emphasis is taken on the determination of metal mobility from the waste rock dumps and various leaching tests are performed and compared including US EPA, USGS and ISO methods. A simple cathcment-based distributed sediment transport model (Jordan et al, 2005; Jordan et al. 2005, 2008) is used to decribe the pathways and quantities of particle-bound contamination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results show that (1) sediments are an efficient means for the preliminary inventory of mine contamination as a preparation for the more detailed hydrological sampling and assessment, and (2) the risk-based contamination assessment of mining sites often located in diverse geological, hydrological and landcover environment requires

  2. Assessment of toxicity of radioactively contaminated sediments of the Yenisei River for aquatic plants in laboratory assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.; Trofimova, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysic SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River has been subjected to radioactive contamination due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Rosatom) (MCC) producing weapon-grade plutonium for more than fifty years (1958-2010). As a result, high activities of long-lived artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Pu-238, 239, 241, Am-241) were deposited in sediments of the river. Bottom sediments of the Yenisei River downstream of the Krasnoyarsk city are also polluted with heavy metals because of industrial discharges and from the water catchment area. The purpose of this research was to estimate the ability of submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum to serve as indicators of toxicity of bottom sediments of the Yenisei River. Activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of aquatic plants sampled in the Yenisei River upstream of the MCC were below detection limit (< 0.5 Bq/kg of dry mass for Cs-137). The activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of macrophytes sampled in the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the MCC in autumn 2012 were (Bq/kg of dry mass): 67±4 for Co-60, 16±2 for Cs-137, and 8±1 for Eu-152. For eco-toxicological experiments, top 20-cm layers of bottom sediments (BS) were collected from the Yenisei River at three sites in the vicinity of the MCC (No. 2-4) and at one site upstream of the MCC (No. 1). Samples of sediments contained natural isotope K-40 (240-330 Bq/kg, fresh mass) and artificial radionuclides: Co-60 (up to 70 Bq/kg), Cs-137 (0.8-1400 Bq/kg), Eu-152, 154 (up to 220 Bq/kg), Am-241 (up to 40 Bq/kg). The total activity concentration of radionuclides measured on an HPGe-Gamma-spectrometer (Canberra, U.S.) in samples of BS No. 1-4 was 330, 500, 880 and 1580 Bq/kg of fresh mass, respectively. Apical shoots of submersed macrophytes were planted in sediments (6-9 shoots per sediment sub-sample in three replicates). Endpoints of shoot and root growth were used as toxicity indicators; the number of cells with chromosome

  3. Status of Activities on Rehabilitation Of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities and the Site of Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, V. G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Melkov, E. S; Ryazantsev, E. P.; Dikarev, V. S.; Gorodetsky, G. G.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Kuznetsova, T. I.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the program, the status, and the course of activities on rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated facilities and the territory of temporary radioactive waste (radwaste) disposal at the Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' (RRC KI) in Moscow as performed in 2001-2002. The accumulation of significant amounts of radwaste at RRC KI territory is shown to be the inevitable result of Institute's activity performed in the days of former USSR nuclear weapons project and multiple initial nuclear power projects (performed from 1950's to early 1970's). A characterization of RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is given. Described is the system of radiation control and monitoring as implemented on this site. A potential hazard of adverse impacts on the environment and population of the nearby housing area is noted, which is due to possible spread of the radioactive plume by subsoil waters. A description of the concept and project of the RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is presented. Specific nature of the activities planned and performed stems from the nearness of housing area. This paper describes main stages of the planned activities for rehabilitation, their expected terms and sources of funding, as well as current status of the project advancement. Outlined are the problems faced in the performance and planning of works. The latter include: diagnostics of the concrete-grouted repositories, dust-suppression technologies, packaging of the fragmented ILW and HLW, soil clean-up, radioactive plume spread prevention, broad radiation monitoring of the work zone and environment in the performance of rehabilitation works. Noted is the intention of RRC KI to establish cooperation with foreign, first of all, the U.S. partners for the solution of problems mentioned above.

  4. PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN A CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE: A STABLE AND RADIOACTIVE CARBON ISOTOPE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of soil gas compositions and stable and radioactive carbon isotopes in the vadose zone above an alluvial aquifer were conducted at an organic solvent disposal site in southeast Phoenix, AZ. The study investigated the source and movement of carbon dioxide above a plume of...

  5. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  6. Remediation of contaminated lands in the Niger Delta, Nigeria: Prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbey, Nenibarini; Sam, Kabari; Onyebuchi, Adaugo Trinitas

    2017-05-15

    Contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota) by crude oil has become a paramount interest in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Studies have revealed variable impacts of oil toxicity on the environment and exposed populations. The revelation gained much international attention in 2011 with the release of Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This has up scaled local and international pressures for urgent clean-up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland. Previous remediation attempts in the area had failed due to erroneous operational conclusions (such as conclusions by oil industry operators that the Niger Delta soil is covered by a layer of clay and as such oil percolation remains within the top soil and makes remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) suitable for the region) and the adoption of incompatible and ineffective approaches (i.e. RENA) for the complex and dynamic environments. Perennial conflicts, poor regulatory oversights and incoherent standards are also challenges. Following UNEP recommendations, the Federal Government of Nigeria recently commissioned the clean-up and remediation of Ogoniland project; it would be novel and trend setting. While UNEP outlined some measures of contaminated land remediation, no specific approach was identified to be most effective for the Niger Delta region. Resolving the technical dilemma and identified social impediments is the key success driver of the above project. In this paper, we reviewed the socio-economic and ecological impacts of contaminated land in the Niger Delta region and the global state-of-the-art remediation approaches. We use coastal environment clean-up case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation (sometimes in combination with other technologies) for remediating most of the polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Bioremediation

  7. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    between the sites. The first site was small, 5000 m2. Weeding and harvest were done manually, and the alternative was excavation of the contaminated soil followed by landfilling. The second site was 12 ha. Salix Vinimalis cultivation was assumed as entirely machine- based, and the alternative was covering the entire site with 0.5 m clean soil. Transport of soil would constitute the major environmental costs for the conventional remediation alternatives (excavation or covering), and cause 60-90% of the energy use, waste, use of fossil resources, land surface occupation, global warming, acidification, photochemical smog formation, and the global human toxicity of water, soil and air. Soil transports would cause 40% of water use, and less than 10% of the environmental effect on soil use, odour or local human toxicity. We calculated with clean soil transport of 30 km and a landfill 22 km from the smaller site. Biofuel cultivation would cause a lower environmental cost for all effect categories above, even when soil transport was ignored. This was in spite of the higher fertiliser use and the increased car transport for biofuel production compared to excavation or covering. The amount of fuel needed for covering the larger area was roughly equivalent to the amount needed for the agricultural equipment for Salix Vinimalis cultivation, but the total energy need for the conventional remediation was higher. This includes e.g. the energy needed for the production of plastic groundwater wells, production of equipment, production of fertiliser etc. Demand for arable area would increase as a result of the increasing demand for food and the increasing demand for biofuels. This spurred a detailed look at the land surface needed for the remediation alternatives. Contaminated soil occupies surface itself, and remediation leads to the exploitation of land beyond the location as well. In this study, the surface required beyond Salix Vinimalis cultivation has been included. That is to say

  8. Robustness and Radiation Resistance of the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly from Radioactively Contaminated Areas: A Possible Case of Adaptive Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2017-02-11

    The pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used to evaluate biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. Here, we examined the possibility that butterflies have adapted to be robust in the contaminated environment. Larvae (n = 2432) were obtained from adult butterflies (n = 20) collected from 7 localities with various contamination levels in May 2012, corresponding to the 7th generation after the accident. When the larvae were reared on non-contaminated host plant leaves from Okinawa, the normality rates of natural exposure without artificial irradiation (as an indication of robustness) were high not only in the least contaminated locality but also in the most contaminated localities. The normality rates were similarly obtained when the larvae were reared on non-contaminated leaves with external irradiation or on contaminated leaves from Fukushima to deliver internal irradiation. The normality rate of natural exposure and that of external or internal exposure were correlated, suggesting that radiation resistance (or susceptibility) likely reflects general state of health. The normality rate of external or internal exposure was divided by the relative normality rate of natural exposure, being defined as the resistance value. The resistance value was the highest in the populations of heavily contaminated localities and was inversely correlated with the distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. These results suggest that the butterfly population might have adapted to the contaminated environment within approximately 1 year after the accident. The present study may partly explain the decrease in mortality and abnormality rates later observed in the contaminated areas. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Radiocaesium soil-to-wood transfer in commercial willow short rotation coppice on contaminated farm land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommers, A; Gäfvert, T; Smolders, E; Merckx, R; Vandenhove, H

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of willow short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production as a revaluation tool for severely radiocaesium-contaminated land was studied. The effects of crop age, clone and soil type on the radiocaesium levels in the wood were assessed following sampling in 14 existing willow SRC fields, planted on radiocaesium-contaminated land in Sweden following Chernobyl deposition. There was only one plot where willow stands of different maturity (R6S2 and R5S4: R, root age and S, shoot age) and clone (Rapp and L78183 both of age category R5S4) were sampled and no significant differences were found. The soils differed among others in clay fraction (3-34%), radiocaesium interception potential (515-6884 meq kg(-1)), soil solution K (0.09-0.95 mM), exchangeable K (0.58-5.77 meq kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (31-250 meq kg(-1)). The soil-to-wood transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium differed significantly between soil types. The TF recorded was generally small (0.00086-0.016 kg kg(-1)), except for willows established on sandy soil (0.19-0.46 kg kg(-1)). Apart from the weak yet significant exponential correlation between the Cs-TF and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (R2 = 0.54) or the radiocaesium interception potential, RIP (R2 = 0.66), no single significant correlations between soil characteristics and TF were found. The wood-soil solution 137Cs concentration factor (CF) was significantly related to the potassium concentration in the soil solution. A different relation was, however, found between the sandy Trödje soils (CF = 1078.8 x m(K)(-1.83), R2 = 0.99) and the other soils (CF = 35.75 x m(K)(-0.61), R2 =0.61). Differences in the ageing rate of radiocaesium in the soil (hypothesised fraction of bioavailable caesium subjected to fast ageing for Trödje soils only 1% compared to other soils), exchangeable soil K (0.8-1.8 meq kg(-1) for Trödje soils and 1.5-5.8 meq kg(-1) for the other soils) and the ammonium concentration in the soil solution

  10. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu, E-mail: mitomay@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho, Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Sakita, Shogo [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho, Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Simion, Cristian [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Organic Chemistry, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the Cs extraction and immobilization in fly ash during water, methanol or n-MCaS extraction. - Highlights: • nMCaS suspension for cesium extraction and immobilization in fly ash was developed. • Enhanced cesium immobilization was done by nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • nMCaS unique and a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ({sup 133}Cs) and radioactive cesium species ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of {sup 133}Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of {sup 133}Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable {sup 133}Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg{sup −1134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg{sup −1} after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100 Bq L{sup −1} total {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg{sup −1} and 150 Bq L{sup −1} respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is

  11. Remediation of metal-contaminated land for plant cultivation in the Arctic/subarctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gorbacheva, Tamara T.; Ferreira, Carla S.

    2017-04-01

    Hazardous activities and/or industries involve the use, storage or disposal of hazardous substances. These substances can sometimes contaminate the soil, which can remain contaminated for many years. The metals can have severe effects of on ecosystems. In the Arctic/subarctic regions, the Kola Peninsula (66-70°N and 28°30'-41°30'E) in Russia is one of the seriously polluted regions: close to the nickel-copper smelters, the deposition of metal pollutants has severely damaged the soil and ground vegetation, resulting in a desert area. An area of 10-15 km around the smelters on the Kola Peninsula is today dry sandy and stony ground. A great amount of financial aid is usually required to recover theland. Considering cost performance, a pilot-scale (4ha) field test was carried out to investigate how to apply municipal sewage sludge for rehabilitation of degraded land near the Ni-Cu smelter complex on the Kola Peninsula. The above-mentioned field test for soil rehabilitation was performed while smelting activities were going on; thus, the survey fields were suffering from pollution emitted by the metallurgical industry, and may continue to suffer in the future. After the composting of sewage sludge, the artificial substratum made from the compost was introduced to the test field for the polluted-land remediation, and then willows, birches and grasses were planted on the substratum. The following remarkable points in pollution load were observed between the background field and the rehabilitation test field (e.g. polluted land): (i) the annual precipitation amount of SO42- (5668 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was over 5 times greater than that in the background field; (ii) the Pb amount (1.5 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was 29 times greater than that in the background field; (iii) the Co amount (10.9 g/ha) in the rehabilitation test field was 54 times greater than that in the background field; (iv) the Cu amount (752 g/ha) in the rehabilitation field

  12. Leaching and ponding of viral contaminants following land application of biosolids on sandy-loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Harrigan, Tim; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-12-15

    Much of the land available for application of biosolids is cropland near urban areas. Biosolids are often applied on hay or grassland during the growing season or on corn ground before planting or after harvest in the fall. In this study, mesophilic anaerobic digested (MAD) biosolids were applied at 56,000 L/ha on a sandy-loam soil over large containment lysimeters seeded to perennial covers of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), or planted annually to maize (Zea mays L.). Portable rainfall simulators were to maintain the lysimeters under a nearly saturated (90%, volumetric basis) conditions. Lysimeter leachate and surface ponded water samples were collected and analyzed for somatic phage, adenoviruses, and anionic (chloride) and microbial (P-22 bacteriophage) tracers. Neither adenovirus nor somatic phage was recovered from the leachate samples. P-22 bacteriophage was found in the leachate of three lysimeters (removal rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.2 log(10)/m). Although the peak of the anionic tracer breakthrough occurred at a similar pore volume in each lysimeter (around 0.3 pore volume) the peak of P-22 breakthrough varied between lysimeters (worm holes or other natural phenomena. The concentration of viral contaminants collected in ponded surface water ranged from 1 to 10% of the initial concentration in the applied biosolids. The die off of somatic phage and P-22 in the surface water was fit to a first order decay model and somatic phage reached background level at about day ten. In conclusion, sandy-loam soils can effectively remove/adsorb the indigenous viruses leached from the land-applied biosolids, but there is a potential of viral pollution from runoff following significant rainfall events when biosolids remain on the soil surface.

  13. New complex fertilizer 'Suprodit' to obtain safe agricultural productions on contaminated lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevich Ratnikov, Alexander; Sergeevich Anisimov, Vyacheslav; Nikoaevna Anisimova, Lidiya; Georgievich Sviridenko, Dmitry; Jurievna Balanova, Olesya

    2015-04-01

    ). The Cd accumulation by barley grain in sod-podzolic soil, contaminated with Cd6, Zn600, Cu390 mg/kg, when applying "SUPRODIT" was 2.5 times less than after industrial fertilizers (NPK and nitrophoska) application; the accumulation of Zn - 1.5 and 1.9 times less; the accumulation of Cu - 1.6 and 1.5 times less in comparison with NPK and nitrophoska, respectively. Applying of "SUPRODIT" constrain the accumulation of 137Cs in barley grain 1.2-1.3 times more efficiently than NPK and nitrophoska. Use "SUPRODIT" in technologies of cultivation of fodder crops on contaminated land in the districts of the Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation allow us to get a feed corresponding to acceptable levels on the content of 137Cs at a density of contamination 500-920 kBq/m2, which ensures that the milk will fit to corresponding maximum permissible concentration.

  14. Use of the land snail Helix aspersa for monitoring heavy metal soil contamination in Northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larba, R; Soltani, N

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic activities on soil quality using the land snail Helix aspersa as a bioindicator. Soil samples and snails were collected from several sites in Northeast Algeria during the summer and winter of 2010. All of the sites were chosen due to their proximity to industrial factories-a potential source of soil pollution via heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, and Fe) in soil samples was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activity levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), indicators of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, respectively, were measured in snails collected from each site. GST and AChE activity were found to vary between sites and by season. The highest levels of GST activity were registered during the summer at sites closest to potential sources of pollution. AChE activity levels also peaked during the summer with the highest values recorded at the site in El Hadjar. These increased levels of bioindicative stress response correlated with increasing metal concentration in soil samples collected at each site.

  15. Finnish policy approach and measures for the promotion of sustainability in contaminated land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jussi; Sorvari, Jaana; Tikkanen, Sarianne

    2016-12-15

    The importance of sustainability considerations in contaminated land management (CLM) is highlighted in policy frameworks all around the world. It means that while the reduction of risks to human health and the environment remains the main goal of CLM, a variety of other environmental factors as well as economic and social aspects have an increasing role in decision making. The success of finding the right balance between these considerations and incorporating them in the risk management approach defines the overall sustainability of the outcome. Although the concept and principles of sustainable CLM are already widely accepted, they have not been fully realized in national procedures. According to several studies this often results from the lack of explicit policy measures. A sound policy framework in conjunction with functional policy instruments is therefore a prerequisite for the attainment of sustainable practices. In Finland, the environmental administration along with other key stakeholder groups, including regional authorities, landowners, consultants, industries, research institutes and academia, has developed a national strategy and associated policy measures in order to promote sustainable CLM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  17. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  18. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  19. An analysis of the radioactive contamination due to radon in a granite processing plant and its decontamination by ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez-Elizondo, Pedro M; Gil-Lopez, Tomas; O'Donohoe, Paul G; Castejon-Navas, Juan; Galvez-Huerta, Miguel A

    2017-02-01

    This work focuses on studying concentration distribution of (222)Rn radioisotope in a granite processing plant. Using Computational Fluid Dynamic Techniques (CFD), the exposure of the workers to radiation was assessed and, in order to minimise this exposure, different decontamination scenarios using ventilation were analysed. Natural ventilation showed not sufficient to maintain radon concentration below acceptable limits, so a forced ventilation was used instead. Position of the granite blocks also revealed as a determining factor in the radioactive level distribution. Thus, a correct layout of the stored material and an adequate ventilation system can guarantee free of exposure to radiation zones within the studied workshop. This leads to a drastic fall in the exposure of the workers and consequently minimises their risk of developing aggressive illness like lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative radiological assessment of five European biosphere systems in the context of potential contamination of well water from the hypothetical disposal of radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Pinedo, P; Simon, I; Pröhl, G; Kowe, R; Chen, Q; Mobbs, S; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Katona, T; Eged, K; Kanyar, B

    2005-12-01

    In the framework of the BioMoSA project for the development of biosphere assessment models for radioactive waste disposal the Reference Biosphere Methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS was applied to five locations, situated in different European countries. Specific biosphere models were applied to assess the hypothetical contamination of a range of agricultural and environmental pathways and the dose to individuals, following contamination of well water. The results of these site-specific models developed by the different BioMoSA partners, and the individual normalised dose to the exposure groups were compared against each other. Ingestion of drinking water, fruit and vegetables were found to be among the most important pathways for almost all radionuclides. Stochastic calculations revealed that consumption habits, transfer factors, irrigation rates and distribution coefficients (Kd(s)) were the most important parameters that influence the end results. Variations in the confidence intervals were found to be higher for sorbing elements (e.g. (36)Cl, (237)Np, (99)Tc, (238)U, (129)I) than for mobile elements (e.g. (226)Ra, (79)Se, (135)Cs, (231)Pa, (239)Pu). The influence of daughter products, for which the distribution into the biosphere was calculated individually, was also shown to be important. This paper gives a brief overview of the deterministic and stochastic modelling results and the parameter sensitivity. A screening methodology was introduced to identify the most important pathways, simplify a generic biosphere tool and refine the existing models.

  1. Metrics for Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water at CAFO Land Application Site - Iowa Swine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the most common chemical contaminant found in ground water and there are increasing indications that agriculture contributes to this contamination. In the United States, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) are a common agricultural practice. CAFO lea...

  2. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMBIENT DOSE EQUIVALENT AND ABSORBED DOSE IN AIR IN THE CASE OF LARGE-SCALE CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY RADIOACTIVE CESIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aims of the study was an experimental determination of the conversion coefficient from ambient dose equivalent rate, Н*(10, to absorbed dose rate in air, D, in the case of radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident. More than 800 measurements of gamma-dose rates in air were performed at the typical locations (one-storey residential house, street, yard, kitchen-garden, ploughed field, undisturbed grassland, forest of rural settlements and their surroundings in the heavily contaminated areas of the Bryansk region, Russia in the period of 1996–2010. Five commercially available models of portable gamma-ray dosimeters were employed in the investigation. All tested dosimeters were included into the State register of approved measuring instruments of Russia. In all dosimeters, scintillation detectors are used as detection elements. A photon spectrometry technique is applied in the dosimeters to determine gamma dose rate in air. The dosimeters are calibrated in terms of exposure rate, X, absorbed dose rate in air, D, and ambient dose equivalent rate, Н*(10. A very good agreement was found between different dosimeters calibrated in the same units; the reading ratios were close to 1 and the correlation coefficients (Pearson’s or Spearman’s were higher than 0.99. The Н*(10/D ratio values were location-specific ranging from 1.23 Sv/Gy for undisturbed grasslands and forests to 1.47 Sv/Gy for wooden houses and asphalted streets. A statistically significant negative correlation (Spearman’s coefficient = -0.833; P<0.01; n=9 was found between the Н*(10/D ratio and the average energy of gamma-rays determined with a NaI(Tl-based gamma-ray monitor. For the whole area of a settlement and its surroundings, the average ratio of Н*(10 to D was calculated as 1.33 Sv/Gy. The overall conversion coefficient from ambient dose equivalent rate, Н*(10, to external effective dose rate, Ė, for adults was estimated

  3. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Nguyen Van

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg−1. Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g−1 and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment.

  4. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Ozaki, Akinori; Nguyen Tho, Hoang; Nguyen Duc, Anh; Tran Thi, Yen; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-05

    Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg(-1). Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g(-1) and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment.

  5. Short rotation coppice as alternative land use for Chernobyl-contaminated areas of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergey; Grebenkov, Alexander; Thiry, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in the Chernobyl-affected area to assess if short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production is a feasible alternative for contaminated land. Four willow clones were planted on sandy and peaty soil and the radiocaesium (137Cs) and radiostrontium (90Sr) transfer factors (TF) and yield relevant parameters were recorded during four growing seasons. The 137Cs and 90Sr soil-to-willow wood TF on sandy soil (second growing season) were on average 1.40+/-1.06 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and 130+/-74 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1), respectively. The 137Cs TF recorded for the peaty soil (fourth growing season or end of the first rotation cycle) was on average 5.17+/-1.59 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). The 90Sr-TF was on average 2.61+/-0.44 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). No significant differences between clones for the 137Cs and 90Sr-TF were observed. Given the high TFs and the high deposition levels, Belarus exemption levels for fuel wood were highly exceeded. The annual average biomass production for one rotation cycle on the peaty soil ranged from 7.8 to 16.0 t ha(-1) y(-1) for one of the clones, comparable with average annual yield figures obtained for western Europe. On the sandy soils, first-year yields were 0.25 t ha(-1) y(-1). These soils are not suitable for SRC production and should better be dedicated to pine forests or drought-resistant grasses.

  6. Novel energy crops for Mediterranean contaminated lands: Valorization of Dittrichia viscosa and Silybum marianum biomass by pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, María T; Madejón, Paula; Madejón, Engracia; Diaz, Manuel J

    2017-11-01

    Establishing energy crops could be a cost-efficient alternative towards the valorization of the plant biomass produced in contaminated lands, where they would not compete with food production for land use. Dittrichia viscosa and Silybum marianum are two native Mediterranean species recently identified as potential energy crops for degraded lands. Here, we present the first characterization of the decomposition of the biomass of these species during thermo-chemical conversion (pyrolysis). Using a greenhouse study we evaluated whether the quality of D. viscosa and S. marianum biomass for energy production through pyrolysis could be substantially influenced by the presence of high concentrations of soluble trace element concentrations in the growing substrate. For each species, biomass produced in two different soil types (with contrasted trace element concentrations and pH) had similar elemental composition. Behavior during thermal decomposition, activation energies and concentrations of pyrolysis gases were also similar between both types of soils. Average activation energy values were 295 and 300 kJ mol(-1) (for a conversion value of α = 0.5) for S. marianum and D. viscosa, respectively. Results suggest that there were no major effects of soil growing conditions on the properties of the biomass as raw material for pyrolysis, and confirm the interest of these species as energy crops for Mediterranean contaminated lands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-07-04

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioactive Probes of the Supernova-Contaminated Solar Nebula: Evidence that the Sun was Born in a Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Looney, L W; Fields, B D; Looney, Leslie W.; Tobin, John J.; Fields, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    We construct a simple model for radioisotopic enrichment of the protosolar nebula by injection from a nearby supernova, based on the inverse square law for ejecta dispersion. We find that the presolar radioisotopes abundances (i.e., in solar masses) demand a nearby supernova: its distance can be no larger than 66 times the size of the protosolar nebula, at a 90% confidence level, assuming 1 solar mass of protosolar material. The relevant size of the nebula depends on its state of evolution at the time of radioactivity injection. In one scenario, a collection of low-mass stars, including our sun, formed in a group or cluster with an intermediate- to high-mass star that ended its life as a supernova while our sun was still a protostar, a starless core, or perhaps a diffuse cloud. Using recent observations of protostars to estimate the size of the protosolar nebula constrains the distance of the supernova at 0.02 to 1.6 pc. The supernova distance limit is consistent with the scales of low-mass stars formation ar...

  9. Thermal, radioactive and magnetic properties of the lavas of the Mt Melbourne Volcanic Field (Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Armadillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of measurements of physical properties carried out on mafic lavas from the Mt Melbourne
    Volcanic Field, useful for interpretation of geophysical surveys designed to shed light on the structure of the
    crust. The thermal conductivity is comparable to that of glass and shows a clear negative dependence on porosity.
    The volume heat capacity and the thermal diffusivity are less variable. The concentration of the thermally
    important natural radioactive isotopes was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Lavas denoted a rather low
    heat-production rate, and the largest concentration of heat-producing elements (potassium, uranium, thorium
    was found in the trachyte samples. The magnetic susceptibility is more variable than the other physical properties
    and, among the several iron-titanium oxides, it appears primarily controlled by the ulvöspinel-magnetite solid
    solution series.

  10. Using geochemical fingerprinting to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination along coastal catchments of the Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Hugo; Laceby, J. Patrick; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Caroline, Chartin; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Several coastal catchments located in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Power Plant were impacted contaminated fallout in March 2011. Following the accident, typhoons and snowmelt runoff events transfer radiocesium contamination through the coastal floodplains and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Therefore it is important to understand the location and relative contribution of different erosion sources in order to manage radiocesium transfer within these coastal catchments and the cumulative export of radiocesium to the Pacific Ocean. Here we present a sediment fingerprinting approach to determine the relative contributions of sediment from different soil types to sediment transported throughout two coastal riverine systems. The sediment fingerprinting technique presented utilizes differences in the elemental geochemistry of the distinct soil types to determine their relative contributions to sediment sampled in riverine systems. This research is important as it furthers our understanding of dominant erosion sources in the region which will help with ongoing decontamination and monitoring efforts pertaining to the management of fallout radiocesium migration in the region.

  11. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic.

  12. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  13. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients metals and plant, in relation to their nutritional function. The combined results of metal concentration in soils and plants, BAC and translocation coefficients show that the plants considered seem to be rather highly tolerant

  14. Distribution and risk assessment of metals and arsenic contamination in man-made ditch sediments with different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsenga Kumwimba, Mathieu; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Muyembe, Diana Kavidia

    2016-12-01

    Ditches are subjected to a large input of nutrients, trace metals, and arsenic and the enhancement of sedimentation due to human activities. However, the influence of different types of land uses on the distribution and associated environmental risk of metals and arsenic in the Red purple Sichuan Basin remains largely unclear, which is needed for water management. This study was carried out to characterize metal/metalloid status in ditch sediments from different land uses. A total of 68 surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) were collected from open ditches distributed in different land use types, i.e., cultivated ditches (CD), barren land ditches (BLD), roadside ditches (RSD), and residential ditches (RD), within the Sichuan Basin. Mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Mn in both RD and RSD were above the soil background values of Sichuan Basin, but Cd in ditch sediments of the basin posed considerable ecological risk to the environment. Overall, metals/metalloid (except Pb) decreased in the following order of RD > RSD > BLD > CD. Of the different land use types in the hilly region, residential and roadside land uses were likely to adverse effects on aquatic life. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Mn, As, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, and Al were mainly influenced by natural weathering (erosion), while Pb might come from heavy vehicular traffic. The degree of contamination (Md), enrichment factor (EF), and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that Cd causes strong sediment pollution in the basin. Sediment quality guidelines SQG-Q values displayed that metals and arsenic created medium-low potential of adverse biological effects. These results provide baseline information on the metals and arsenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin. Awareness of land use type contributions to metals and arsenic requires that these man-made ditches be considered for their mitigation of pollutants in this region.

  15. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms

  16. Genotoxicity and toxicity assay of multiple-pollutant exposure. Comparative analysis of water from natural reservoirs with contrast level of radioactive and chemical contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Geras' Kin, S.; Taskaev, A.; Shuktomova, I. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Bio-indication (using the anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay that was carried out on A. schoenoprasum L. meristematic root tip cells) and chemical analysis approaches for comparative analysis of water from natural reservoirs located near place of underground nuclear explosion with rock outburst (Perm region) and the radium production industry storage cell (Komi Republic) with contrast level of radioactive and chemical contamination was used for the first time. Even at very low levels of a specific activity both natural ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb), and artificial ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 230,240}Pu) radionuclides contribute significantly (59-91 %) to an induction of genotoxic and toxic effects. An alkaline, earth and heavy metals ions, weaken or enhancing an radionuclides exposure was changed a spectrum of cytogenetic disturbances. Our results clearly indicated that combined exposure of metal ions and radionuclides at levels officially adopted as permissible for a population may acted synergistically and result in significant damage on different biota species. (author)

  17. Radioactive contamination of arthropods from different trophic levels in hilly and mountainous areas after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Hatakeyama, Kaho; Takahashi, Sentaro; Adati, Tarô

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the influence of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem in hilly and mountainous areas of Fukushima Prefecture, chronological changes in the levels of radiocesium in arthropod species were investigated. From 2012 to 2014, arthropods from different trophic levels were sampled and the air radiation dose rates at the sampling sites were analyzed. The air radiation dose rates showed a significant and constant reduction over the 2 years at the sampling sites in Fukushima. The median radiocesium concentration ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) detected in the rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis, and the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, dropped continuously to 0.080 and 0.078 Bq/g fresh weight, respectively, in 2014. In contrast, no significant reduction in radioactive contamination was observed in the Jorô spider, Nephila clavata, in which the level remained at 0.204 Bq/g in 2014. A significant positive correlation between radiocesium concentration and the air radiation dose rate was observed in the rice grasshopper, the Emma field cricket and the Jorô spider. The highest correlation coefficient (ρ = 0.946) was measured in the grasshopper.

  18. [Assessment of erythrocytes pathology level in peripheral blood in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Stiazhkina, E V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Osipov, D I; Akleev, A V

    2012-01-01

    In summer 2009, the level of pathology of erythrocytes was assessed in the peripheral blood of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from the reservoirs for water-storage of low level radioactive waste of PA "Mayak". Roach from the Shershny reservoir and the Buffer reservoir (Chelyabinsk region) was used as a control. Radionuclide maintenance in water, sediment, and roach was determined and dose rates for the roach were calculated using the software package ERICA Assessment Tool 1.0 May 2009. It is revealed that chronic radiation exposure with the dose rates in the range from 0.8 up to 19 mGy/d leads to a twofold increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in peripheral blood, dose-dependent increase in the frequency of red blood cells with the nuclear pyknosis and causes no significant increase in the level oferythrocyte amitosis. It is suggested that the frequency rate of apoptosis in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the fish could be used in the biological monitoring of contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Radioactive contamination mapping of northeastern and eastern Japan by a car-borne survey system, Radi-Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shinomiya, Takayuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kodaira, Satoshi; Miyaushiro, Norihiro; Takashima, Yoshio; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a new car-borne survey system called Radi-Probe with a portable germanium gamma-ray spectrometer onboard a cargo truck, to identify radionuclides and quantify surface contamination from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The system can quickly survey a large area and obtain ambient dose equivalent rates and gamma-ray energy spectra with good energy resolution. We also developed a new calibration method for the system to deal with an actual nuclear disaster, and quantitative surface deposition densities of radionuclides, such as (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and kerma rates of each radionuclide can be calculated. We carried out car-borne survey over northeastern and eastern Japan (Tohoku and Kanto regions of Honshu) from 25 September through 7 October 2012. We discuss results of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rate H(∗)(10), (134)Cs and (137)Cs surface deposition densities, spatial variation of (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio, and the relationship between surface deposition densities of (134)Cs/(137)Cs and H(∗)(10). The ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was nearly constant within our measurement precision, with average 1.06 ± 0.04 in northeastern and eastern Japan (decay-corrected to 11 March, 2011), although small variations from the average were observed.

  20. Procedure for deriving qualitative contaminant attenuation maps from land type data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sililo, OTN

    2001-01-15

    Full Text Available covered by each soil type is quantified. The approach adopted here was to use land type data to derive soil characteristic maps per land type. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the soils characteristic maps were then combined with reported...

  1. Hygienic characteristics of radiation situation in the water area of The Ladoga Lake during salvaging of the radioactively contaminated experimental vessel “KIT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, a salvage operation of the waterlogged radioactive contaminated vessel in the water area of lake Ladoga was carried out. In 1953-1954, new radiological weapons or new radiological warfare agenst were tested on this vessel. By the beginning of works, the experimental vessel was on the ooze in the half-flooded condition at a depth of 4,5-6 meters. There were approximate 2000 m3 of contaminated water and silt, mixed with oil products inside the vessel. The aims of the study are to perform:1 the hygienic assessment of radiation situation on the place of the vessel berthing before, during and after ship salvaging; 2 the radiation risk assessment for the population of the region. The assessment of the radiological situation on the board and at the place of the vessel berthing was carried out on the base of dosimetric, spectrometric and radiochemistry surveys. The gamma ray exposure rate at a height of 1 m from the superstructures and main deck outer surfaces was on average 0,14 μSv/h andit did not exceeded 0,30 μSv/h. On the place of the vessel berthing, an increasing of concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 in samples of water, bottom sediments, and algae has been determined. Object posed no radiation hazard to the population of the region. However, some inhabitants, despite the ban, visited the vessel for recreation and fishing. Their potential exposure dose could reach 0,5 mSv/y. Ship salvaging included salvage pontoon launching, ship’s bottom isolation, liquid waste pumping from the vessel to the special tanker, ship raising and dockage, liquid waste remediation, discharge of remediated water in the water area of lake Ladoga, solidification of liquid waste remained in the vessel’s rooms. Liquid waste remediation and strict radiation control of each process prohibited significant hygienic degradation of the radiation situation in the water area of the lake Ladoga. An insignificant increasing of levels

  2. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  3. Financing Renewable Energy Projects on Contaminated Lands, Landfills, and Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information concerning financing tools and structures, as well as federal financial incentives that may be available for redeveloping potentially contaminated sites, landfills, or mine sites for renewable energy for site owners.

  4. Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpian, Preeda; Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha; Thunthaisong, Nasavan

    2003-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to monitor Pb and Cd contamination in grazing land located near a highway. Environmental media at different distances from highway (soil, grass, water, cow's forage, fertilizer, manure and milk samples) were collected from three sampling locations. Soil and grass were characterized by high metal mobility (soil with Pb: 5.25 +/- 0.71-14.59 +/- 1.17 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.038-0.33 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1), dry mass and grass with Pb: 0.76 +/- 0.05-6.62 +/- 0.18 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.17+/- 0.01-0.73 +/- 0.09 mg kg(-1), dry mass). One-way analysis of variane (ANOVA) was applied to find out the correlation between metal (total and bioavailable) concentrations in the soil and the distance from roadside. In most cases, the finding showed that plants growing nearer to the highway are usually exposed to more heavy metal accumulations than those away from the highway. In addition, a correlation was established between plant available metal concentrations and plant metal uptake concentrations. Analysis of fertilizer and manure showed considerable amount of metals (fertilizer with Pb: 1.53 +/- 0.06 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.038 mg kg(-1) and manure with Pb: 2.55-3.34 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.14-0.31 mg kg(-1)). Long-.term simultaneous application of fertilizer and manure on the commercial farm showed higher metal accumulation in the soil and plants than those of co-operative farm. Considerable concentrations of metals (Pb: 1.60-2.94 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.025-0.19 mg kg(-1)) were observed in fodder. The finding clearly demonstrated that there are seasonal variation in total daily metal intake by individual cow (Pb: 109.37 mg day(-1) (dry), 273.47 mg day(-1) (rainy) and Cd: 2.02 mg day(-1) (dry), 19.62 mg day(-1) (rainy)). The provisional tolerable weekly intake of heavy metals in cows is 390 microg Pb and 28 microg Cd per kg body weight in the rainy season and 156 microg Pb and 2 microg Cd per kg body weight in the dry season. The levels of metals

  5. 核设施退役产生的污染物料的再循环再利用%Recycle and Reuse of Radioactively Contaminated Materials from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永仙; 梁宇; 安凯媛; 崔安熙; 董毅漫

    2013-01-01

    简要阐述了核设施退役过程产生的主要污染物料---金属和混凝土的再循环和再利用情况,包括染物料的产生情况、再循环再利用途径、再循环再利用可参考的标准,以及几种污染物料的再循环再利用技术,以期对我国今后核设施退役产生的污染物料的管理提供技术支持。%The paper describes briefly the information on the recycle and reuse of radioactive materials (mainly metal and concrete ) arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities ,including the arisings of radioac-tively contaminated materials ,the opportunities of the recycle and reuse ,the factors influencing the practice of recycle and reuse of radioactive materials ,the approaches to recycle and reuse of radioactive materials .It may provide technological support for the management of radioactive materials .

  6. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  7. Radiocesium fallout in the grasslands on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan Islands due to Fukushima accident: the radioactive contamination of soil and plants in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Goncharova, Yu; Gromov, A; Kaduka, M; Romanovich, I

    2013-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the (134)Cs and (137)Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°-46.40° N and 142.73°-146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg(-1) and 210 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Within soil profile, (134)Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with (134)Cs, activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental (137)Cs and the new Fukushima-borne (137)Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of (137)Cs, the (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2) and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m(-2), respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived (137)Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2). For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m(-2

  8. Implementation in laboratories of Latin America of procedures of harmonized essay for the determination of the radioactive contamination of food; Implementacion en laboratorios de Latinoamerica de procedimientos de ensayo armonizados para la determinacion de la contaminacion radiactiva de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M. [CPHR (Cuba); Iglicki, F.A. [CNEA (Argentina); Aguirre G, J. [CNSNS, (Mexico); Melo F, A.C. de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (Brazil); Tomicic M, I.J. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, (Chile); Loria M, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas Nucleares y Moleculares, (Costa Rica); Diodati, J.M. [ARN, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (1429), (Argentina); Vasquez B, L.R. [Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, (Ecuador); Alarcon S, F.A. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares, El Salvador (El Salvador); Civil, M. [Laboratoire Veterinaire et de Controle de Qualite des Aliments, (Haiti); Naut M, B.C. [Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana (Dominican Republic); Odino M, M.R. [Direccion Nacional de Energia y Tecnologia Nuclear (Uruguay); Flores M, Y.R. [Direccion General de Energia Atomica, (Venezuela); Rossbach, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, (Austria)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    In Latin America, nowadays, it is not had harmonized essay procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods. Equally, the great diversity of institutions that in each country are devoted to carry out this control and the difference in the level that its possess the same ones in quality matter, its impose the necessity to implant a Quality Management System on the base of harmonized technical criteria that its help to obtain reliable analytical results. With this end, it was proposed and it was approved the ARCAL LXXIX regional project: 'Harmonization of the technical and specific requirements of quality for the control of the radioactive contamination of foods'. In this work the aspects more significant of the design and content of the Manual of technical procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods, elaborated in the marks of the one referred project are presented. The same one includes eight procedures for the previous treatment of the samples, the spectrometric determination of gamma emitters radionuclides, the determination of the alpha activity indexes and total beta, of {sup 131} I, {sup 89,90} Sr, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238,} {sup 239} Pu and {sup 3} H, using different methodologies validated in the region. The actions carried out to implement this Manual are also exposed. (Author)

  9. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  10. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  11. The effects of lead sources on oral bioaccessibility in soil and implications for contaminated land risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sherry; McIlwaine, Rebekka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Cox, Siobhan F; McKinley, Jennifer M; Doherty, Rory; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-threshold toxin capable of inducing toxic effects at any blood level but availability of soil screening criteria for assessing potential health risks is limited. The oral bioaccessibility of Pb in 163 soil samples was attributed to sources through solubility estimation and domain identification. Samples were extracted following the Unified BARGE Method. Urban, mineralisation, peat and granite domains accounted for elevated Pb concentrations compared to rural samples. High Pb solubility explained moderate-high gastric (G) bioaccessible fractions throughout the study area. Higher maximum G concentrations were measured in urban (97.6 mg kg(-1)) and mineralisation (199.8 mg kg(-1)) domains. Higher average G concentrations occurred in mineralisation (36.4 mg kg(-1)) and granite (36.0 mg kg(-1)) domains. Findings suggest diffuse anthropogenic and widespread geogenic contamination could be capable of presenting health risks, having implications for land management decisions in jurisdictions where guidance advises these forms of pollution should not be regarded as contaminated land.

  12. Radioactive contamination of the environment as a result of uranium production: a case study at the abandoned Lincang uranium mine, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Lechang(

    2002-01-01

    Atmosphere (in Chinese), Beijing: Atomic Energy Press, 1994, 40-46.[9]Li Yuxian, Investigation of Environmental Natural Radiological Level in Yunnan Province (in Chinese), Kunming: Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 1991.[10]OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), Environment Remediation of Uranium Production Facilities, A Joint NEA/IAEA Report, Paris: Pubie en Francais Sous le Titre, 1999, 57-58.[11]International Atomic Energy Agency, The Behaviour of Radium in Waterway and Aquifers, IAEA-TECDOC-301, Vienna: IAEA, 1984, 163.[12]Zhou Qunying, Gao Tingyao, Microbiology of Environmental Engineering (in Chinese), Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2000, 215.[13]Popescu-Tecuci, M., Georgescu, D., Filip, G., A study of the interference between radioactive ore dumps and vegetation aiming at the limitation of the contamination process in uranium mining areas, in Engineering Geology and the Environment (eds. Marinos, Koukis, Tsiambaos, et al.), Rotterdam: Balkema, 1997, 2097-2101.[14]International Atomic Energy Agency, Decommissioning of Facilities for Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores and Closeout of Residues, Technical Report Series No. 362, Vienna: IAEA, 1994, 9-11.

  13. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  14. Close deciphering of the sediment record of stable and radioactive contamination in the upper Seine estuary, over the last 50 years: a phosphogypsum legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrel, A.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Deloffre, J.; Dillies, R.; Rozet, M.; Solier, L.; Dubrulle-Brunaud, C.; Cossonnet, C.; Thomas, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Seine estuary is the outlet of a huge catchment area (the Basin of Paris), into which fine sediments and anthropogenic elements and substances end in. In the upper Seine estuary, stable and radioactive contaminants come both from upstream and from local in the industrialized agglomeration of Rouen. It is particularly challenging to decipher the relative contribution of these two sources due to the lack of historical data for most of the contaminants of concern. The key issue was the collection of two sediment cores: (1) in a flood plain of the lower Seine River and (2) in an old careening basin of the Rouen harbour which was not dredged since many decades. These cores were carefully dated using artificial radionuclide (atmospheric fallout from Chernobyl and nuclear weapon tests - 137Cs - or discharges in the river - 238Pu) and signal processing techniques and an accurate model age was obtained, yielding a 50 years long sediment record. Major elements, 44 trace elements and 14 naturally-occurring radionuclides (235U, 238U and 232Th series) were measured by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry. As some elements display no almost constant (Co, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hf, Nb, Rb, Sr, Ta, V) or continuous decreasing concentrations (Ag, As, Pb, Sb, Sn, W, Zn) since the early 60's, some others show much higher concentrations (Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Y and lanthanides, U and, to a lesser extent, Th series) from mid-60's to mid-80's, and only in the core collected in the Rouen harbour. Even if some minor contributions cannot be ruled out, it is likely that these huge excess concentrations (up to 50 times) are due to the phosphate fertilizer industry. In fact, between 1960 and 1984, the upper Seine estuary underwent big direct discharges of phosphogypsum (an acidic by-product of the process) from two plants located in the vicinity of the Rouen harbour, which peaked up to 1million tons per year in 1974. Cd and Bi are, from far, the most enriched stable elements (up to 300

  15. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  16. Land use changes and metal mobility: multi-approach study on tidal marsh restoration in a contaminated estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuchies, Johannes; Singh, Gurmeet; Bervoets, Lieven; Meire, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Inundation of formerly embanked areas in order to combine flood control and tidal marsh restoration will be applied increasingly. However, areas suitable for the implementation are often found to be contaminated. Re-inundation of metal contaminated soils can have consequences on total metal concentrations as well as metal mobility. In this study, metal mobility in a tidal marsh restoration project was evaluated based on the modified BCR sequential extraction method, concentrations of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and metal concentrations in plants. The results obtained from the sequential extraction suggest an increase in metal mobility following inundation due to the reduction of Fe and Mn oxides and the subsequent release of associated metals. However, the differences in results between sequential extraction and [SEM-AVS] may indicate that redistribution of the metals to the mobile fraction can be caused by sample processing. High AVS concentrations in newly deposited sediments in the restored marsh may indicate that the formation of insoluble metal-sulfide complexes will reduce metal mobility on the longer term. Processes following inundation of metal contaminated land are complex and different conditions prevailing in other sites or estuaries can result in different behavior of the trace metals. More in situ research is needed to get a better insight in the risks involved.

  17. COMPOSITE MODELING APPROACH AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS FROM LAND-DISPOSAL SITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Wang Pei-fang; Li Yong

    2003-01-01

    A composite modeling approach was presented for simulating the three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface transport of dissolved contaminants with transformation products. The approach was based on vertical infiltration and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone and 3-D groundwater flow and contaminant migration in the saturated zone. Moisture movement and groundwater flow were considered to be steady, but contaminant transport was treated as continuous and transient. The transformed unsaturated zone and saturated zone transport equations were solved numerically with different techniques. The model contains a 3-D solution to flow and transport in the saturated zone, as well as two-dimensional solutions to vertical cross-sectional and areal scenarios. In order to verify the composite modeling, extensive experiments were conducted in two large-scale variable-slope soil tanks of 1200cm in length, 150cm in width and 150cm in height. Sand soil was filled in the tank as the porous media. The solutions of KBr or NH4C1 were introduced into each soil tank from 80×37cm2 area sources located on the top of the porous medium. Results from numerical simulations were compared with the data from tests. Predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture and urbanization is increasing globally at the same time that climate extremes have increased in frequency and intensity. We review over 160 studies and show how the interaction between land use and climate variability alters the magnit...

  19. Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on hemodialysis facilities: an evaluation of radioactive contaminants in water used for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Daigo; Kuno, Tsutomu; Sato, Sumihiko; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Following the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, radioactive substances ((131) I, (134) Cs, (137) Cs) were detected in tap water throughout eastern Japan. There is now concern that internal exposure to radioactive substances in the dialysate could pose a danger to hemodialysis patients. Radioactive substances were measured in three hemodialysis facilities before and after purification of tap water for use in hemodialysis. Radioactive iodine was detected at levels between 13 and 15 Bq/kg in tap water from the three facilities, but was not detected by reverse osmosis membrane at any of the facilities. We confirmed that the amount of radioactive substances in dialysate fell below the limit of detection (7-8 Bq/kg) by reverse osmosis membrane. It is now necessary to clarify the maximum safe level of radiation in dialysate for chronic hemodialysis patients.

  20. Eco-efficiency in the risk management of contaminated land; Pilaantuneiden maa-alueiden riskinhallinnan ekotehokkuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorvari, J.; Antikainen, R.; Kosola, M.-L.; Jaakkonen, S.; Nerg, N.; Vaenskae, M.; Pyy, O.

    2009-09-15

    This report presents the results of the second phase of the project 'Ecoefficient risk management of contaminated soil and groundwater' (PIRRE2). The project is a follow-up of the PIRRE1-project where an internet based decision support system (DSS) was developed (available at www.ymparisto.fi /syke/pirre). The DSS includes data, guidance and recommendations on risk assessment, cost evaluation, the assessment of environmental impacts and risk communication. It also includes a calculation tool known as PIRTU which can be used site-specifically to compare the eco-efficiency of different risk management options. In the PIRRE2- project the eco-efficiency concept was broadened to cover a regional scale. Therefore, a literature review was conducted in order to identify and further develop indicators that are suitable for measuring regional eco-efficiency. As a result of this review, 14 indicators are proposed which depict the characteristics of the region, the number and properties of contaminated sites remediated annually including their emissions, energy consumption and the consumption of raw materials associated with remediation activities. The use of the indicators was demonstrated in three separate regions, i.e. The City of Helsinki and the areas corresponding e the territorial jurisdiction of the Pirkanmaa regional environment centre and the Kainuu regional environment centre, using data collated from the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The different characteristics of these regions were particularly evident as differences in the number of contaminated sites and treatment facilities for excavated contaminated soil as well as the differing characteristics of contamination (area of the sites, volume of contaminated soil). The results did not show clear changes or tendency in the regional eco-efficiency over time. Concerning the indicators of eco-efficiency, developing indicators that evince costs and risks was identified as an important development need. Such

  1. Contribution to the study of external contamination by radioactive products: skin contamination by radioactive cobalt in soluble form and decontamination; Contribution a l'etude de la contamination externe par des produits radioactifs: contamination cutanee par les cobalts radioactifs sous forme soluble et decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tymen, H.

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of the radioactive cobalt isotopes, which are present in reactor coolant systems of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), in the case of occupational skin exposure, and to study different therapies. Our experimental approach stems from standardized methods in skin pharmacology. In a first step, a physico-chemical study of a primary coolant water was carried out to characterize the soluble fraction of radio-cobalt and its skin affinity. The second step consisted in quantifying the diffusion through the skin, in vivo and in vitro in rats, and in vitro in human. Parallel experiments were carried out to study biokinetics of cobalt in rats, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Whatever the route of administration, cobalt diffuses easily in the organism. On the contrary, its skin absorption is very limited. In a fourth step, the influence of the skin injuries on absorption was estimated in vivo on rat skin. Several skin models were developed to standardize different injuries: excoriation, heat burns (convection, conduction) and chemical burns (acid or alkaline). Biokinetics study over 24 hours and histological study have shown a relation between skin absorption and stratum corneum alteration. In the latest step of this work, we compared the efficacy of various decontaminating agents administered under different galenic forms. Per (3, 6- anhydro, 2-O-carboxy-methyl)-{alpha}-cyclo-dextrin exhibited a significant efficacy for cobalt decontamination of skin. This macromolecule was tested in aqueous solution, in agarose gel and loaded on 'functionalized' fibers intended for development of new decontaminating tissues. (author)

  2. Origins and transport of aquatic dioxins in the Japanese watershed: soil contamination, land use, and soil runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Sato, Keisuke; Kim, Suejin; Suzuki, Tasuma; Park, Baeksoo; Saino, Reiko; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2009-06-15

    Significant dioxins accumulations in Japanese forests and paddy fields have been observed, and surface soil runoff caused by rainfall and irrigation (i.e., soil puddling in paddy fields) results in dioxins input into the aquatic environment. An extensive investigation into the origins and transport of aquatic dioxins in the Yasu watershed, Japan was conducted considering surface soil contamination level, land use, and type of soil runoff event (i.e., irrigation runoff [IR], rainfall runoff [RR], and base flow [BF]). Combined use of the chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay together with high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) efficiently enabled this study, so that origins, transport, and dynamic movement of aquatic dioxins in the watershed were revealed. The particulate organic carbon normalized particulate-dioxins WHO-toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration predicted by the CALUX assay (Spar) was found to be a convenient molecular marker to indicate origins of aquatic dioxins and clearly reflect surface soil contamination level, land use, and soil runoff events. Using experimental results and theoretical modeling, the annual loading amount of dioxins at the middle reach of the river was estimated to be 0.458 mg WHO-TEQ in 2004. More than 96.6% of the annual loading amount was attributed to RR and derived almost evenly from forest and paddy fields at the study location. Because the annual loading amount at the middle reach is less than 0.5% of the total dioxins accumulated in the upper basin, dioxins runoff from the Japanese watershed will continue. This study shows that the combined use of the bioassay with HRGC/HRMS can provide new insights into dioxins transport and fate in the environment.

  3. Geostatistical conditional simulation for the assessment of contaminated land by abandoned heavy metal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Adem; Yunsel, Tayfun Yusuf; Atici, Umit

    2008-02-01

    Abandoned mine workings can undoubtedly cause varying degrees of contamination of soil with heavy metals such as lead and zinc has occurred on a global scale. Exposure to these elements may cause to harm human health and environment. In the study, a total of 269 soil samples were collected at 1, 5, and 10 m regular grid intervals of 100 x 100 m area of Carsington Pasture in the UK. Cell declustering technique was applied to the data set due to no statistical representativity. Directional experimental semivariograms of the elements for the transformed data showed that both geometric and zonal anisotropy exists in the data. The most evident spatial dependence structure of the continuity for the directional experimental semivariogram, characterized by spherical and exponential models of Pb and Zn were obtained. This study reports the spatial distribution and uncertainty of Pb and Zn concentrations in soil at the study site using a probabilistic approach. The approach was based on geostatistical sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), which is used to yield a series of conditional images characterized by equally probable spatial distributions of the heavy elements concentrations across the area. Postprocessing of many simulations allowed the mapping of contaminated and uncontaminated areas, and provided a model for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of element concentrations. Maps of the simulated Pb and Zn concentrations revealed the extent and severity of contamination. SGS was validated by statistics, histogram, variogram reproduction, and simulation errors. The maps of the elements might be used in the remediation studies, help decision-makers and others involved in the abandoned heavy metal mining site in the world.

  4. A System Dynamics Approach for the Integrative Assessment of Contaminated Land Management Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Finkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Within the suggested tiered frameworks a gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of prioritising hot spots and streamlining the further planning process. In this paper, we give a brief glimpse of the decision support system CARO-Plus (Cost-efficiency Analysis...... of contamination extent, boundary conditions/limitations, stakeholders, etc.) has led to the proposal of tiered frameworks for site investigation, risk assessment and management, e.g. in the United Kingdom and in the USA. Recent policies request an increased emphasis on modelling (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive...

  5. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  6. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  7. Radioactive contamination in reindeer herders and other people in Kautokeino 1965-2010; Radioaktiv forurensning i befolkningen. Reindriftsutoevere og andre personer i Kautokeino 1965-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Skuterud, L.

    2012-07-01

    NRPA's measurements of radioactive caesium in reindeer herders and other people from Kautokeino in northern Norway were finalised in December 2010. This report summarises the monitoring program which was started in 1965.(Author)

  8. Fact Sheet: Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet was designed to be used by technical staff responsible for identifying and implementing flow and transport models to support cleanup decisions at hazardous and radioactive waste sites.

  9. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  10. Improving petroleum contaminated land remediation decision-making through the MCA weighting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Anopama; Boyle, Alexander Rohan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Internationally petroleum contamination is widespread, posing serious environmental risks including surface and groundwater contamination, thus remediation is essential. The implementation of remediation options is becoming more complex with the increasing influence of stakeholders on the outcome of decision-making processes. Acceptance of remediation schemes during implementation can be increased by involving stakeholders and the public in the decision-making stage. In petroleum remediation involving multiple stakeholders, Multicriteria Analysis has been employed due to its ability to incorporate the preferences of each stakeholder through weighting. The research focused on investigating ways to improve the weighting process. The study demonstrated the utility of SWING, and determined which type of participant and how many participants to include in the decision process, through the application of ELECTRE III and Weighted Summation. It was recommended that a mixture of stakeholders, the public and experts be involved. The total number of participants will be limited by the choice of participatory and weighting methods. The careful selection of participants, as well as the choice of participatory and weighting methods, can minimize the subjectivity involved in MCA weighting, thereby lending decisions in petroleum remediation greater legitimacy.

  11. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material shall be controlled in a manner that minimizes the spread of radioactive contamination. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source...

  12. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-10-30

    This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant (133)Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped (134)Cs and (137)Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that (134)Cs and (137)Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] treated soil were characterized using SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil included Ca/PO4 associated crystalline complexes. These results suggest that simple grinding treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] under dry conditions might be an extremely efficient separation and immobilization method for radioactive cesium contaminated soil.

  13. Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET. Calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68+; Entsorgung radioaktiv kontaminierter Reststoffe aus der Ga-68-PET. Berechnung eines Freigabewertes fuer Ge-68+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworksi, Lilli [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Stabsstelle Strahlenschutz und Abt. Medizinische Physik

    2017-05-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68 minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined.

  14. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~pH2) followed by basic (~pH12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40±16t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application.

  15. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (grass samples are being analysed for nutrients, heavy metals and metalloids by elemental analysis (EA) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). These results will be compared with grass samples collected from Cwm Dulais. Initial findings suggest that addition of biochar compost improved grass growth compared with unamended colliery spoil.

  16. Veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in mixed land use watersheds: from agricultural headwater to water monitoring watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrézic, A; Jardé, E; Soulier, A; Carrera, L; Marengue, E; Cailleau, A; Le Bot, B

    2017-12-31

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals, widely used in intensive livestock production, may contaminate surface waters. Identifying their sources and pathways in watersheds is difficult because i) most veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in human medicine as well and ii) septic or sewer wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can release pharmaceuticals into surface water, even in agricultural headwater watersheds. This study aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of animal-specific, mixed-use, and human-specific pharmaceuticals, from agricultural headwaters with intensive livestock production and a WWTP to a watershed used for Water Framework Directive monitoring. Grab sampling was performed during one hydrological year upstream and downstream from a WWTP and at three dates in seven nested watersheds with areas of 1.9-84.1km(2). Twenty pharmaceuticals were analyzed. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected at all sampling dates upstream and downstream from the WWTP and at concentrations higher than those of human-specific pharmaceuticals. The predominance of animal-specific and mixed-use pharmaceuticals vs. human-specific pharmaceuticals observed at these sampling points was confirmed at the other sampling points. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected mainly during runoff events and periods of manure spreading. A large percentage of mixed-use pharmaceuticals could come from animal sources, but it was difficult to determine. Mixed-use and human-specific pharmaceuticals predominated in the largest watersheds when runoff decreased. In areas of intensive livestock production, mitigation actions should focus on agricultural headwater watersheds to decrease the number of pathways and the transfer volume of veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can be the main contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North- Western Pacific in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Artemev, Georgii [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' (RPA ' Typhoon' ), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Ramzaev, Valery [Ramzaev Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Osokin, Vladimir [V.G.Khlopin Radium institute, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevastianov, Aleksandr [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydro-meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian coastal areas of the Far East in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP in Japan, two radioecological expedition surveys were conducted onboard of research vessels of the Far Eastern Regional Hydro-meteorological Research Institute (FERHRI) of Roshydromet in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36 deg. 00'- 39 deg. 33' n., 146 deg. 33'- 150 deg. 00' e.): first survey in April-May 2011, onboard R/V 'Pavel Gordienko', second survey in August-September 2012, onboard R/V 'Akademik Shokalsky'. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The leading Russian institutions dealing with ensuring of population radiation safety and protection of environment from radioactive contamination were enlisted to investigations. The following main observations were performed during the surveys: constant measurement of gamma-radiation dose rate above the sea surface; twenty-four hour sampling of atmospheric aerosols, sea water sampling from the surface and deep water horizons with preliminary concentrating of radionuclides for onboard gamma-spectrometry and for subsequent transportation to the shore laboratories for further analysis. During the expeditions, a real-time data were received onboard of research vessels which characterize impact of input of radioactive products of the 'Fukushima-1' NPP accident on radioactive contamination of environment existed on that period (these are onboard estimates of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs concentrations in the sea water samples and {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs content in atmospheric aerosol samples, data

  18. Agricultural land contamination by heavy metals around the former mining site of Bechateur (northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, G.; Soussi, R.; Soussi, F.; Boularbah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity of the former Pb-Zn mine of Jebel Ghozlen (Béchateur. extreme northern Tunisia) generated during the last century large quantities of tailings (extraction, flotation, gravimetry) deposited as three heap between the mine site and the shoreline located 700 m away. Areas surrounding the mine site are agricultural and are crossed by two rivers, one of which crosses the main heap. The minerals that make up these wastes are calcite, dolomite, quartz, gypsum, pyrite, barite, smithsonite, cerussite and galena. The amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the wastes vary between 1.3 and 9.3%, 1.1% and 5.7 and 185 and 410 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils in the study area are carbonated and are characterized by a silt-sand texture. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite. The chemical analysis of thirty samples collected over an area of 3 km2 shows that the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur vary from 0.7 % to 2.5 % and 0.08 % to 0.96 %, respectively, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 300 to 22 000 mg kg-1, 85 to 3000 mg kg-1 and 2 to 47 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of metals were found in flood plains at 500 m downstream of the mine site. Extraction tests using deionized water and a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution were performed to assess the mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd in contaminated and reference soil samples collected within the study area. The results of extraction with deionized water showed that the leached amounts of Zn and Cd range between 0.2 and 4 mg kg-1 and 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; while that of Pb is quite near the detection limit. During the extraction with CaCl2 the leached amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 0.3 to 86 mg kg-1, 2 to 6 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 0.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Thus, the mobility of Cd, Zn and Pb in CaCl2 solution (0.8 %, 0.4 % and 0.3 %, respectively) is higher compared with the extraction with deionized water (0.2%, 0.1% and 0.02 %, respectively). Toxicity tests were conducted on these soils

  19. Site Cleanup of Radioactive Isotope Container Rinsing Pool and Surrounding Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope container rinsing pool and surrounding environmental site was a place of fabrication of container, and package, transportation and storage of radioactive isotopes. A heavy contamination existed in this area for burying of some radioactive wastes.

  20. Disposal options for polluted plants grown on heavy metal contaminated brownfield lands - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Reducing or preventing damage caused by environmental pollution is a significant goal nowadays. Phytoextraction, as remediation technique is widely used, but during the process, the heavy metal content of the biomass grown on these sites special treatment and disposal techniques are required, for example liquid extraction, direct disposal, composting, and combustion. These processes are discussed in this review in economical and environmental aspects. The following main properties are analyzed: form and harmful element content of remains, utilization of the main and byproducts, affect to the environment during the treatment and disposal. The thermal treatment (combustion, gasification) of contaminated biomass provides a promising alternative disposal option, because the energy production affects the rate of return, and the harmful elements are riched in a small amount of solid remains depending on the ash content of the plant (1-2%). The biomass combustion technology is a wildely used energy production process in residential and industrial scale, but the ordinary biomass firing systems are not suited to burn this type of fuel without environmental risk.

  1. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A.I. [SPA ``Typhoon``, Roshydromet (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Risk based or biased contaminated land management: conceptual clarifications for more comprehensive and balanced views and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmuth, T.W. [Finnish Environ Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    I present a critical socio-psychological, communication-oriented, political and philosophical framework and analysis of some problematic aspects and statements in the professional discussion on the socalled Risk Based Land Management (RBLM) concept and of its contexts, foundations, limitations and implications. I put particular emphasis on a) questions and challenges in the broadened scope implicit in RBLM, from immediate hotspot contaminant control to long-term management of extensive areas and resources pressured by several risk agents not restricted to chemicals; b) multidimensionality of risks and uncertainties; and c) balancing the justified roles of RBLM with a critique of the vague and rigid uses of this and related concepts as an euphemism and a disguise to distort risks and associated uncertainties and also to influence management goals and principles. I address specifically the use of RBLM as an idealized (and idolized) panacea and as an alleged or implied herald of greater realism and scientific basis in comparison with other approaches. Throughout the work, I investigate the modes of perceiving risks and uncertainties, and reasoning and communicating about them and their management, as intertwined elements based on both facts and values in a knowledge-related but also otherwise conditioned social process. In the general conceptual analysis, I outline important contexts, parts and relationships between R, M and L (and contamination) in this particular case, focusing on possibilities for introduction (and avoidance) of narrow and biased views, and illuminating especially the connections between risks and benefits in assessment and management. I then proceed to a general exposition of confusing and controversial notions of 'Risk Based' in this and closely related areas of (environmental, health and chemicals) management. (orig.)

  3. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  4. Radioactivity Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  5. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  6. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  7. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000 t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~ pH 2) followed by basic (~ pH 12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40 ± 16 t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. - Highlights: • Sorption model predicts the leachability of ionizable organics from sludge. • Ionic organics make up 82% of total contaminant mass in U.S. sludge. • 36–85% of ionic organic pollutants are removable by pH treatment. • Proposed sludge treatment promises cost-effective risk reduction.

  8. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Preliminary feasibility screening study of space disposal of the actinide radioactive wastes with 1 percent and 0.1 percent fission product contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted of the feasibility of space disposal of the actinide class of radioactive waste material. This waste was assumed to contain 1 and 0.1 percent residual fission products, since it may not be feasible to completely separate the actinides. The actinides are a small fraction of the total waste but they remain radioactive much longer than the other wastes and must be isolated from human encounter for tens of thousands of years. Results indicate that space disposal is promising but more study is required, particularly in the area of safety. The minimum cost of space transportation would increase the consumer electric utility bill by the order of 1 percent for earth escape and 3 percent for solar escape. The waste package in this phase of the study was designed for normal operating conditions only; the design of next phase of the study will include provisions for accident safety. The number of shuttle launches per year required to dispose of all U.S. generated actinide waste with 0.1 percent residual fission products varies between 3 and 15 in 1985 and between 25 and 110 by 2000. The lower values assume earth escape (solar orbit) and the higher values are for escape from the solar system.

  9. Spatial distribution and transport of heavy metals in soil, ponded-surface water and grass in a pb-contaminated watershed as related to land-use practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichayapichet, P; Nitisoravut, S; Simachaya, W

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of heavy metal in soil and evaluate the dissolution of metal from soil to ponded-surface water, leaching through soil profiles and metal uptake in grass as related to different land-use practices. The data provided a scientific basis for best-management practices for land use in Khli Ti watershed. The watershed has a Pb-contamination problem from the previous operation of a Pb-ore concentrator and abandoned Zn-Pb mine. Sampling sites were selected from a land-use map, with land-use types falling into the following four categories: forest, agricultural land, residential area and road. Soil, ponded-surface water, grass samples and soil profiles were collected. The study related soil characteristics from different land-use practices and locations with observed metal concentrations in ponded-surface water and soil. High enrichment factors of Pb and As in soil were found. Partitioning coefficient, K(d) values were in the order: Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Zn. Soil disturbance from land-use activities including tillage and traffic increased leaching of trace metal from soils. Pb in soil was significantly taken up by grass even though the Transfer Factor, TF values were rather low. Agricultural activities in the watershed must be limited. Moreover, land encroachments in the upper and middle part of the watershed which have high potential of Pb must be strictly controlled in order to reduce the Pb contamination from non-point sources.

  10. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la Communaute Europenne et vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive. Premiere serie de resultats concernant la consommation alimentaire des individus groupes en neuf classes d'ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S.; Lacourly, G.; Garnier, A.; Cresta, M.; Lombardo, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. Le traitement de l'information apportee par les enquetes alimentaires familiales realisees dans onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne a permis de determiner les consommations alimentaires des individus groupes en neuf classes d'age, en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive dans les chaines alimentaires. La methode statistique employee est decrite et les resultats obtenus sont presentes sous forme de tableaux a double entree donnant pour chacune des regions etudiees et pour chacune des neuf classes d'age, les consommations moyennes hebdomadaires, ainsi que les apports en principes nutritifs, mineraux, vitamines et oligo-elements, et calories de chaque regime. (auteurs)

  11. Effects of organic contaminants in reactive oxygen species, protein carbonylation and DNA damage on digestive gland and haemolymph of land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itziou, A; Kaloyianni, M; Dimitriadis, V K

    2011-10-01

    The present study focused on early responses of land snails Eobania vermiculata to organic environmental contaminants, by investigating the use of a newly-established method for the measurement of protein carbonylation as a new biomarker of terrestrial pollution, as well as by measuring the ROS production and the DNA damage. Land snails were exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl or PAHs in vivo or in vitro in the laboratory. The susceptibility of exposed snails was increased in relation to oxidative stress induced by contaminants tested. A statistically significant increase in ROS production, protein carbonylation and DNA damage was revealed in the snails treated with pollutants, compared to the untreated ones. The results indicated the effectiveness of measuring ROS production and DNA damage and reinforce the application of the present ELISA method in organic terrestrial pollution biomonitoring studies.

  12. 日本福岛核事故对兰州地区所致放射性污染的监测与分析%Monitoring and Analysis of Radioactive Contamination in Lanzhou Due to Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬家龙; 孙卫; 王赟; 王延俊; 罗伟立; 张飙

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to survey the level of radioactive contamination due to the Japan Fukushima nuclear accident in Lanzhou.The radionuclide 131I,137 Cs,134 Cs and 136Cs leaked in Fukushima nuclear accident in atmosphere aerosols,drinking water,vegetable and milk in Lanzhou were detected.The radionuclide leaked in the accident didn' t be detected in drinking water,vegetable and milk.The value of the gross α radioactivity and gross β radioactivity of drinking water in Lanzhou was below the limits of national standard.The radioactive contamination due to the Japan Fukushima nuclear accident did not impact on public health in Lanzhou.%论文调查了日本福岛核事故导致的兰州地区放射性污染情况,监测了兰州地区大气气溶胶、自来水、黄河水、蔬菜、牛奶中的核事故泄漏放射性核素,并监测自来水、黄河水的总α放射性、总β放射性.测量了兰州地区大气气溶胶中来自福岛核电站泄漏放射性核素131I、137Cs、134Cs、136Cs,结果在采集的自来水、黄河水、蔬菜、牛奶样品中未检测出核事故泄漏放射性核素,自来水、黄河水样品的总α放射性、总β放射性监测结果均低于国家生活饮用水卫生标准中的限值.由此可知日本福岛核事故导致的兰州地区放射性污染不会对公众健康造成影响.

  13. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  14. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  15. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity.

  16. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu, E-mail: mitomay@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Simion, Cristian [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Organic Chemistry, Bucharest 060042 (Romania); Lee, Byeong Kyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: A possible pathway for immobilization with the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] treatment (a) {sup 133}Cs is adsorbed onto the soil particles, (b) Cs encapsulation through the formation of immobile salts, and (c) solid (small/finer or larger/aggregate) soil fraction separation. - Highlights: • Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] composite for Cs immobilization in soil was developed. • Enhanced cesium separation and immobilization was done in dry condition. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ({sup 133}Cs) and radioactive cesium species ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant {sup 133}Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] treated soil were characterized using SEM–EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil

  17. Using spatial-stream-network models and long-term data to understand and predict dynamics of faecal contamination in a mixed land-use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Aaron James; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Strachan, Norval James Colin; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Avery, Lisa Marie; Watson, Helen; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-09-04

    An 11year dataset of concentrations of E. coli at 10 spatially-distributed sites in a mixed land-use catchment in NE Scotland (52km(2)) revealed that concentrations were not clearly associated with flow or season. The lack of a clear flow-concentration relationship may have been due to greater water fluxes from less-contaminated headwaters during high flows diluting downstream concentrations, the importance of persistent point sources of E. coli both anthropogenic and agricultural, and possibly the temporal resolution of the dataset. Point sources and year-round grazing of livestock probably obscured clear seasonality in concentrations. Multiple linear regression models identified potential for contamination by anthropogenic point sources as a significant predictor of long-term spatial patterns of low, average and high concentrations of E. coli. Neither arable nor pasture land was significant, even when accounting for hydrological connectivity with a topographic-index method. However, this may have reflected coarse-scale land-cover data inadequately representing "point sources" of agricultural contamination (e.g. direct defecation of livestock into the stream) and temporal changes in availability of E. coli from diffuse sources. Spatial-stream-network models (SSNMs) were applied in a novel context, and had value in making more robust catchment-scale predictions of concentrations of E. coli with estimates of uncertainty, and in enabling identification of potential "hot spots" of faecal contamination. Successfully managing faecal contamination of surface waters is vital for safeguarding public health. Our finding that concentrations of E. coli could not clearly be associated with flow or season may suggest that management strategies should not necessarily target only high flow events or summer when faecal contamination risk is often assumed to be greatest. Furthermore, we identified SSNMs as valuable tools for identifying possible "hot spots" of contamination which

  18. Development of a conceptual framework of holistic risk assessment - Landfill as a particular type of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, T E; Javadi, A A; Nunns, M A; Beal, C D

    2016-11-01

    Landfills can be regarded as a particular type of contaminated land that has a potential to directly and indirectly pollute all of the four main spheres of the environment which are the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and eventually adversely impact the biosphere. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of a landfill has to be more integrated and holistic by virtue of its nature of being a multidimensional pollutant source. Despite this, although various risk assessment approaches have been adopted for landfill waste disposal sites, there are still wide-ranging knowledge gaps and limitations which need to be addressed. One important knowledge gap and limitation of current risk assessment approaches is the inability to fully identify, categorise and aggregate all individual risks from all combinations of hazards, pathways and targets/receptors (e.g. water, air, soil and biota) in connection to a certain landfill leachate and yet at any stage of the landfill cycle. So such an approach is required that could not only integrate all possible characteristics of varying scenarios but also contain the ability to establish an overall risk picture, irrespective of the lifecycle stage of the landfill (e.g. planning stage/pre-operation, in-operation or post-operation/closed). One such approach to address the wide-breadth of landfill impact risks is by developing a more holistic risk assessment methodology, whose conceptual framework is presented in this paper for landfill leachate in a whole-system format. This conceptual framework does not only draw together various constituting factors and sub-factors of risk assessment in a logical sequence and categorical order, but also indicates the "what, why, when and how" outputs of and inputs to these factors and sub-factors can be useful. The framework is designed to identify and quantify a range of risks associated with all stages of the landfill lifecycle, and yet in a more streamlined, logical, categorical and integrated

  19. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  20. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 7, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Trench water samples from the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, were collected, and the bacterial populations were enumerated. The range of bacterial populations in six trench water samples were 400 to 24,000 aerobic and 90 to 15,000 anaerobic bacteria/ml. Most of the bacteria isolated from the anaerobic culture plates were facultative anaerobes, although a few strict anaerobes were also present. Mixed bacterial populations isolated from the trench waters were able to grow anaerobically utilizing the carbon and nitrogen sources present in the trench waters. Trench waters supplemented with mineral salts supported only a modest increase in growth of these bacteria. The results of this study indicate that bacteria are active in the trenches, and the radioactivity and organic compounds present in the trenches are not toxic to these bacteria.

  1. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Radioactive contamination in lichens collected from Trabzon and Rize in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, and a comparison with that of 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, K; Ertuğral, B; Damla, N; Apaydin, G

    2008-05-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, 14 lichen specimens collected from Trabzon and Rize in 1995 were used to detect the amount of the fallout radionuclides. In this paper, radioactivity levels in the same species from the same localities were re-detected to compare with those of 1995. According to the results of the two studies, the radioactivity levels that this paper found for 137Cs and 40K are significantly lower than those of 1995 (about 5.5-127 folds for 137Cs, 5-17 folds for 40K). The level of 212Pb was acceptably small. The highest activities of the lichen species are seen in the locality of Helvaci (Trabzon, 100 m) and Camlihemşin (Rize, 1850 m) while the activities are medium in Bozdoğan (Trabzon, 150 m), Kemaliye (Trabzon, 750 m) and Camlihemşin (Rize, 900 m). The activity values generally increase significantly depending on the altitudes. Since the measurements were performed 20 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, radionuclides of 134Cs having short half-life (2.062 y) have not been detected. All data was obtained with a coaxial high purity Ge detector of 15% relative efficiency and resolution 1.9 keV at the 1332 keV gamma of 60Co (Canberra, GC 1519 model).

  3. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, Mark [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m{sup 3} of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  4. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Radiation protection of radioactively contaminated large areas by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the contaminated plant residues (PHYTOREST); Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodsky, Daniel; Ollivier, Delphine; Merten, Dirk; Bergmann, Hans; Buechel, Georg [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Willscher, Sabine; Wittig, Juliane; Jablonski, Lukasz; Werner, Peter [Technische Univ. Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    2010-12-15

    Much progress has been achieved over the past 20 years in remediating sites contaminated by heavy metal. However, very large contaminated areas have presented major problems to this day because of remediation costs. Phytoremediation is a new, emerging, sustainable technique of remediating areas with low heavy-metal contamination. One advantage of phytoremediation is the comparatively low cost of the process, which may make it usable also on large areas with low levels of contamination. Besides extracting and immobilizing metals, respectively, phytoremediation among other things also contributes to improving soil quality in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology. Consequently, phytoremediation offers a great potential for the future. Research into phytoremediation of an area contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides is carried out on a site in a former uranium mining district in Eastern Thuringia jointly by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and the Technical University of Dresden in a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The project serves to promote the introduction of soft, biocompatible methods of long-term remediation and to develop conceptual solutions to the subsequent utilization of contaminated plant residues. Optimizing area management is in the focus of phytoremediation studies. (orig.)

  6. Supporting models for the evaluation of environmental effects after a radioactive contamination. Modelos de apoyo a la evaluacion tras una contaminacion radiaoctiva del medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Garcia, J.E.; Gallego Diaz, E. (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales)

    1993-01-01

    Within the project on optimization of site recovery measures after nuclear accidents which is being sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC), two different models have been developed: URBAPAT and AGROPAT. Both models are a more realistic approach to deposited radionuclides performance and resultant doses either via external exposure at urban areas and via food products from rural areas, than other current codes on analysis of effects. Those models could support the adoption of protection measures in the aftermath of a radioactive accident, (by using, for instance, cost/profit analysis techniques or multiatribute tools), in order to improve the existing situation and to obtain the best solution for individuals and society. Developed models are flexible enough to be adapted to different sites and include the possibility to make sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of all parameters, as well as to consider a wide variety of protection measures.

  7. Research with radiation and radioisotopes to better understand plant physiology and agricultural consequences of radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2017-01-01

    Research carried out by me and my group over the last almost four decades are summarized here. The main emphasis of my work was and continues to be on plant physiology using radiation and radioisotopes. Plants live on water and inorganic elements. In the case of water, we developed neutron imaging methods and produced (15)O-labeled water (half-life 2 min) and applied them to understand water circulation pattern in the plant. In the case of elements, we developed neutron activation analysis methods to analyze a large number of plant tissues to follow element specific distribution. Then, we developed real-time imaging system using conventional radioisotopes for the macroscopic and microscopic observation of element movement. After the accident in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we, the academic staff of Graduate School, have been studying agricultural effects of radioactive fallout; the main results are summarized in two books published by Springer.

  8. Experimental determination of re-suspension data of particle-bound radioactive materials of relevant contaminated surfaces in case of radiological emergencies for the radioactive exposure assessment of the emergency staff and affected persons due to re-suspension; Experimentelle Bestimmung von Resuspensionsdaten partikelgebundener radioaktiver Stoffe von relevanten kontaminierten Oberflaechen bei radiologischen Notfaellen zur Beurteilung einer Exposition von Einsatzpersonal und betroffenen Personen durch Resuspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolfgang; Loedding, Hubert; Lange, Florentin

    2012-01-15

    Accidental and intentional release of radioactive materials, for example in the wake of a nuclear accident, causes contamination of surfaces in the outdoor environment, in buildings and the clothing of humans. Resuspension of radioactive material from contaminated surfaces is the dominant source of radioactive inhalation exposure of first responders and emergency personnel at the accident site as well as in emergency care centres during the time period following the event. The assessment of the aerosol borne activity concentration is based on reasonable assumptions or measurements of the surface contamination and a quantitative understanding of the resuspension process. In this project the resuspension rate of respirable particles (< 10 {mu}m) and its dependence on time and influencing parameters was measured. Special emphasis was directed to the early phase after the release event. Using a versatile, small scale flow channel set-up, wind resuspension and resuspension caused by transient or continuous mechanical forces impacting on the surfaces was investigated. The flux of particles resuspended from small test surfaces was detected by an optical particle size spectrometer. Influencing parameters such properties of contaminated surfaces, wind speed, type of particle etc. could be easily varied. Well defined contaminations of the test surfaces were prepared in a s