Schuman, R.P.; Welch, J.M.; Staples, B.A.
The purpose of this study is to prepare and leach test ceramic and glass waste form specimens produced from actual transuranic waste sludges and high-level waste calcines, respectively. Description of wastes, specimen fabrication, leaching procedure, analysis of leachates and results are discussed. The conclusion is that radioactive waste stored at INEL can be readily incorporated in fused ceramic and glass forms. Initial leach testing results indicate that these forms show great promise for safe long-term containment of radioactive wastes
The article describes the diferent stages in preparing the regulation on safe transport of radioactive materials. The first stage was the support given by the International Atomic Energy Agency in to provide expertise in drafting the national regulation on this matter. The draft is based on the publication from IAEA Regulation on the safe transport of radioactive materials. Also a description of activities made by the Radiation Protection Department of the Energy Directorate of Guatemala is made by the Chief of the Department Dr. Fernando Robles
Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. K.
The membrane manufacturing technology with hydrophilic function that can minimize fouling when it applies to the radioactive liquid waste treatment process was developed. Thermodynamic and rheological analysis for polysulfone casting solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone was performed. On the basis of the results of preparation of the hydrophilic polymer membrane solution, the hollow fiber membrane for radioactive liquid waste treatment was manufactured and its performance analysis was carried out. As a results, it turns out the hydrophilic hollow fiber membrane has more 90 % of flux increment effect and also more 2.5 times fouling reducing effect than one prepared with only polysulfone. In addition, as investigating the separation property of radioactive liquid waste for the electrofilteration membrane process, a proper range for application of radioactive liquid wastes was established through the thorough electrofiltration analysis of various wastes containing metal salt, surfactants and oil
Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others
The membrane manufacturing technology with hydrophilic function that can minimize fouling when it applies to the radioactive liquid waste treatment process was developed. Thermodynamic and rheological analysis for polysulfone casting solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone was performed. On the basis of the results of preparation of the hydrophilic polymer membrane solution, the hollow fiber membrane for radioactive liquid waste treatment was manufactured and its performance analysis was carried out. As a results, it turns out the hydrophilic hollow fiber membrane has more 90 % of flux increment effect and also more 2.5 times fouling reducing effect than one prepared with only polysulfone. In addition, as investigating the separation property of radioactive liquid waste for the electrofilteration membrane process, a proper range for application of radioactive liquid wastes was established through the thorough electrofiltration analysis of various wastes containing metal salt, surfactants and oil.
Heru Sriwahyuni; Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo B.; Teddy Sumantri; Dewi Susilowati; Hendra Adhi Pratama; Syarmufni, A.
Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)
This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr
Efremov, G.F.; Pasysaev, V.A.
There is shown the method on enhancing of radioecological literacy of population including mining regions under the framework of ISTC project development. Authors make a base of necessity of liquidation of radioactive waste on Kazakhstan territory. The recommend some basic types of terminal disposal for that. (author)
Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)
Kralj, M.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.; Veselic, M.
The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005, as a separate part of the National Environmental Action Programme that was adopted in June 2005. In the previous National Environmental Action Programme from the year 1999, the radioactive waste and spent fuel management was mentioned only briefly in the paragraph on radiation and nuclear safety with two main objectives: to provide an effective management of radioactive waste, and to keep the environmental ionising radiation under control. The new National Programme from 2005 includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams in Slovenia, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM. It deals also with the relevant actors in the radioactive waste management, communication and information activities, and the financial aspects of the radioactive waste and spent fuel management. The National Programme was already adopted by the Slovenian Government in October 2005 and will go to Parliament proceedings. The Technical bases for the National Programme was prepared by ARAO and presented to the government in the beginning of 2005. The frames for this document were taken from relevant strategic documents: the Programme of decommissioning the nuclear power plant Krsko and the radioactive waste and spent fuel management, prepared in 2004 by Slovenian and Croatian experts (ARAO and APO), the Proposal of LILW Management Strategy (1999), the Strategy of Spent Fuel Management (1996), and the Resolution on the National Energy Programme (2004). ARAO made a detailed study on the amount and types of radioactive waste produced in Slovenia and future arising with emphasis on the minimization on radioactive waste production. It considered all producers of LILW and
A brief outline is presented of the background and reasearch programme for the disposal of vitrified radioactive wastes in granite formations in the United Kingdom. This programme is coordinated with those of other member countries of EC, financed by EC, in which Germany, Italy Belgium and Holland study formations such as clay and salt, while the UK and France study hard crystalline rocks, such as granite. The UK studies are concentrated on Newton Stewart in Scotland where the granite at grent depths is thought to be free from cracks, in the North of England and in Cornwall. Heat transfer studies are to be done in Cornwall where the rock is so cracked as to be otherwise unuseable. A public meeting with representatives from local authorities and Parliament has been held in Newton Stewart to inform on the project. (JIW)
Blaylock, B. G.
Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)
Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.
This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs
Olteanu, M.; Bucur, C.
Acid digestion, using the microwave power, was applied for ''dissolution'' of different materials corresponding to the radioactive waste matrices resulted from a nuclear power plant operation, including exchange resin (cationic and mixed), concrete, paper, textile and activated charcoals. A small aliquot of solid sample (0.1-0.5g) was mixed with a known volume of digestion reagents (HNO3 67% - H2O2 30% or HNO3 67% - HCl 37%, with HF addition if the SiO2 was present in matrices) in a 100 ml PTFE vessel and it was mineralized using a Berghof digestion system, Speedwave 4. Starting from the manufacturer procedures, the technical parameters (temperature and mineralization time), the types and quantities of digestion reagents were optimized. After the mineralization process, the samples were transferred in centrifuge tubes, separated at 3500 rot/min and visually analysed. The obtained solutions were clear, without suspended or deposed materials and separated phases, ready for future separation processes of the ''difficult to measure'' radioisotopes. (authors)
Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016
This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan
Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.
A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix
This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)
Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)
Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).
Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.
The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management
A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr
Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed
This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste
Bannerman, Carl J.; Owens, Ronald M.; Dowd, Leonard L.; Herndobler, Christopher S.; Purvine, Nancy R.; Stenersen, Stanley G.
In summary, as of December 1988, the four sites collectively stored about 95 million gallons of high-level waste in underground tanks and bins. Approximately 57 million gallons are stored at Hanford, 34 million gallons at Savannah River, 3 million gallons at INEL, and 6 million gallons at West Valley. The waste is in several forms, including liquid, sludge, and dry granular materials, that make it unsuitable for permanent storage in its current state at these locations. Leaks from the tanks, designed for temporary storage, can pose an environmental hazard to surrounding land and water for thousands of years. DOE expects that when its waste processes at Savannah River, West Valley, and Hanford become operational, the high-level radioactive waste stored at these sites will be blended with other materials to immobilize it by forming a glass-like substance. The glass form will minimize the risk of environmental damage and make the waste more acceptable for permanent disposal in a geologic repository. At INEL, DOE is still considering various other immobilization and permanent disposal approaches. In July 1989, DOE estimated that it would cost about $13 billion (in fiscal year 1988 dollars) to retrieve, process, immobilize, and store the high-level waste until it can be moved to a permanent disposal site: about $5.3 billion is expected to be spent at Savannah River, $0.9 billion at West Valley, $2.8 billion at Hanford, and $4.0 billion at INEL. DOE has started construction at Savannah River and West Valley for facilities that will be used to transform the waste into glass (a process known as vitrification). These sites have each encountered schedule delays, and one has encountered a significant cost increase over earlier estimates. More specifically, the Savannah River facility is scheduled to begin high-level waste vitrification in 1992; the West Valley project, based on a January 1989 estimate, is scheduled to begin high-level waste vitrification in 1996, about 8
An apparatus for incinerating radioactive wastes includes a furnace which has air inlet conduits and a flue gas outlet conduit and air heaters as well as blowers connected to the air inlets for forcing hot air into the furnace. The apparatus further has a feeding device connected to the charging end of the furnace for introducing liquid or solid wastes thereinto and a device which communicates with the discharge end of the furnace for removing solid reaction products from the furnace. In the flue gas conduit there is connected a plurality of flue gas filters each containing filter candles, a flue gas chamber and a mechanism for removing ashes from the flue gas chamber. The apparatus also includes a mixer section connected with the outlet of each flue gas filter and having a mechanism for mixing cool air with the flue gas filtered by the flue gas filters. Gas blowers connected to the output of the mixer section draw the gas from the apparatus. 18 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures
This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring
Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)
Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.
The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed
Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue
With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)
The confinement by vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is studied in the CEA for fifteen years. These studies have lead to the preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes. These processes can be applied to non-radioactive toxic materials treatment too. In this work are more particularly described the glassy matrix long-dated behaviour and the different vitrification processes used (by direct induction in cold crucible, by transferred arc plasma). (O.L.). 1 tab
This report contains reports prepared for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management, from experts in the United States. The contents of the report focus mainly on public opinion, and government policies as perceived by the public.
This report contains reports prepared for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management, from experts in the United States. The contents of the report focus mainly on public opinion, and government policies as perceived by the public
The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)
The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)
In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce
This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed
Brodersen, K.; Vinther, A.
Radioactive contaminated soil may arise due to accidents of various types or may be detected during decommisioning of nuclear installations. Ordinary surface soil cannot normally be conditioned using conventional cementation processes since the content of humic materials retards or prevents the solidification. An additive available from the Danish firm Geodur A/S makes it possible to circumvent this difficulty and to produce a monolithic, nondusting waste type using rather small amounts of cement. The report describes work on characterization of such a cemented waste product prepared on basis of clayey top soil from the Risoe area. The claimed advantages of the process was verified, and data for the compression strength (low), hydraulic conductivity (satisfactory) and other pore structure-related properties are given for the obtained products. Unfortunately the behaviour of cesium and strontium, representing two of the most relevant radionuclides, was not too promising. The retention of cesium is satisfactory, but less good than for the untreated soil. Greatly improved cesium retention after drying of the materials was noticed. Good retention of strontium is only obtained after reaction of the material with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The behaviour of the two isotopes in other types of cemented waste is somewhat similar, but the decrease in retention compared with untreated soil makes the process less interesting as a possibility for remedial actions after accidents, etc. Some further studies of the cemented soil waste are beeing made within the frame of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Studies. Elements forming low solublity components in the high pH environment in the cemented soil will probably be retained quite efficiently. This was demonstrated in case of Zn. (author) 11 tabs., 22 ills., 8 refs
A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)
Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.
Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)
Izumida, Tatsuo; Tamada, Shin; Matsuda, Masami; Kamata, Shoji; Kikuchi, Makoto.
A powerful X-ray generation device using an electron-ray accelerator is used for inspecting presence or absence of inner voids in solidification products of radioactive wastes during or after solidification. By installing the X-ray CT system and the radioactive waste solidifying facility together, CT imaging for solidification products is conducted in a not-yet cured state of solidifying materials during or just after the injection. If a defect that deteriorates the durability of the solidification products should be detected, the solidification products are repaired, for example, by applying vibrations to the not-yet cured solidification products. Thus, since voids or cracks in the radioactive wastes solidification products, which were difficult to be measured so far, can be measured in a short period of time accurately thereby enabling to judge adaptability to the disposal standards, inspection cost for the radioactive waste solidification product can be saved remarkably. Further, the inside of the radioactive waste solidification products can be evaluated correctly and visually, so that safety in the ground disposal storage of the radioactive solidification products can be improved remarkably. (N.H.)
The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.
The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources
This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)
Gadsby, R.D.; Allan, C.J.
AECL has maintained an active program in radioactive waste management since 1945, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Waste management activities have included operation of waste management storage and processing facilities at AECL's CRL and Whiteshell Laboratories (WL); operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Office on behalf of Natural Resources Canada to resolve historic radioactive waste problems (largely associated with radioactive ore recovery, transport and processing operations) that are the responsibility of the Federal Government; development of the concept and related technology for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste; development of the Intrusion-Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal concept for low-level nuclear waste; development of dry storage technology for the interim storage of used fuel; and development and assessment of waste processing technology for application in CANDU nuclear power plants and at CRL and WL. Today these activities are continuing. In addition, AECL is: preparing to decommission the nuclear facilities at WL; carrying out a number of smaller decommissioning projects at CRL; putting in place projects to upgrade the low-level liquid waste processing capabilities of the CRL Waste Treatment Centre, recover and process highly active liquid wastes currently in storage, and recover, condition and improve the storage of selected fuel wastes currently stored in below-ground standpipes in the CRL waste management areas; and assessing options for additional remediation projects to improve the management of other wastes currently in storage and to address environmental contamination from past practices. (author)
One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making
The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.
Barcenas, M.; Mejia, M.
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework concerning the radioactive waste management in Mexico. It is intended to show regulatory historical antecedents, the legal responsibilities assigned to institutions involved in the radioactive waste management, the sources of radioactive waste, and the development and preparation of national standards for fulfilling the legal framework for low level radioactive waste. It is at present the most important matter to be resolved. (author)
The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)
This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)
This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)
Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Ootsuka, Masaharu; Uetake, Naoto; Ozawa, Yoshihiro.
Purpose: To prepare radioactive solidified wastes excellent in strength, heat resistance, weather-proof, water resistance, dampproof and low-leaching property. Method: A hardening material reactive with alkali silicates to form less soluble salts is used as a hardener for alkali silicates which are solidification filler for the radioactive wastes, and mixed with cement as a water absorbent and water to solidify the radioactive wastes. The hardening agent includes, for example, CaCO 3 , Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 , CaSiF 6 and CaSiO 3 . Further, in order to reduce the water content in the wastes and reduce the gap ratio in the solidification products, the hardener adding rate, cement adding rate and water content are selected adequately. As the result, solidification products can be prepared with no deposition of easily soluble salts to the surface thereof, with extremely low leaching of radioactive nucleides. (Kamimura, M.)
Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)
Fox, Charles H.
This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…
The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers
The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)
Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.
An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.
Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.
An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs
Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies
Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)
Hultgren, Aa.; Airola, C.; Forsberg, S.; Faelt, L.
Work on the preparation of titanates and zeolites was started and their possible uses in the management of radioactive wastes proposed in the first years of the 1970's by the Department of Nuclear Chemistry at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Chemical Center of the University of Lund, respectively. The major part of these efforts was sponsored by the National Council for Radioactive Waste (Prav), while the concluding phase including an over-all system design study adapted to the Swedish nuclear power programme for an economic evaluation was sponsored by the KBS Division of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Co. The preparation work resulted in processes ready for industrial scale production of sorbents of qualities adequate for applications in radioactive waste treatment. The essential effort was devoted to the treatment of spent resins from nuclear power plants by transfer to their radioactive contents to titanates and zeolites, which can then be sintered to stabel ceramic bodies (the PILO process). The economic evaluation indicated a significant economic incentive for the introduction of the PILO process if an incineration step is included for all types of spent resins. The essential efforts and results from this programme are summarized in this report. (Authors)
Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)
Sanhueza Mir, Azucena
Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)
This Ordinance contains details concerning the special procedure provided for under Section 10(2) of the Federal Order of 6th October 1978 concerning the Atomic Energy Act whereby the Federal Council must grant permission before preparations for the construction of radioactive waste repositories may be undertaken. The Ordinance defines the preparatory measures, which include maps and plans of the area, a geological report, etc. (NEA) [fr
The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de
Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.
Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste
The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)
Baehr, W.; Drobnik, S.H.; Hild, W.; Kroebel, R.; Meyer, A.; Naumann, G.
Waste solutions occuring in nuclear technology containing radioactive or toxic materials can be solidified by mixing with a polymerisable mixture with subsequent polymerization. An improvement of this method, especially for liquids in which the radioactive components are present as organic compounds is achieved by adding a mixture of at least one monomeric vinyl compound, at least one polyvinyl compound and appropriate catalysts and by polymerizing at temperatures between 15 and 150 0 C. Should the waste liquid contain mineral acid, this is first neutralized by the addition of CaO or MgO. In processing oils or soaps, the addition of swelling agent for polystyrol resins is advantageous. 16 examples illustrate the invention. (UWI) [de
Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)
Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E.
A radioactive ''mixed'' waste typically contains alpha-, beta-, or gamma-emitting radionuclides and varying quantities of semivolatile or volatile organic species, some or all of which may be named specifically by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Because there are no acceptable means available currently for disposing of these mixed wastes, they are presently stored above-ground in sealed drums. For this reason, analytical procedures which can determine RCRA organics in radioactive waste are necessary for deciding the proper approach for disposal. An important goal of this work is the development of methods for preparing mixed waste samples in a manner which allows the RCRA organics to be measured in conventional organic analysis laboratories without special precautions. Analytical procedures developed for handling mixed waste samples must satisfy not only the usual constraints present in any trace-level organic chemical determination, but also those needed to insure the protection of the operator from radioactive contamination. Consequently, procedures should be designed to use the least amount of radioactive sample commensurate with achieving acceptable sensitivity with the RCRA analytical methods. Furthermore, the unusual laboratory glassware which would normally be used should be replaced with disposable materials wherever possible, in order to reduce the ''clean-up'' time required, and thereby reduce the operator's exposure to radioactivity. Actual sample handling should be reduced to the absolute minimum. Finally, the final isolate must exhibit a sufficiently low level of alpha, beta, or gamma activity to permit detailed characterization in a conventional organic analysis laboratory. 4 refs., 5 tabs
Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface
The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru
According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)
Lampe, Robert F.
A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.
This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects
Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.
Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards
All facilities at which radioactive wastes are processed, stored and disposed of have the potential for causing hazards to humans and to the environment. Precautions must be taken in the siting, design and operation of the facilities to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved. The processes by which this is evaluated is called safety assessment. An important part of safety assessment is the documentation of the process. A well prepared safety analysis report (SAR) is essential if approval of the facility is to be obtained from the regulatory authorities. This TECDOC describes the format and content of a safety analysis report for a near surface radioactive waste disposal facility and will serve essentially as a checklist in this respect
filtration of gaseous radioactive substances. It is also necessary to capture and condition the radioactive substances in the exhaust gas from the nuclear plant and equipment and the controlled zones. The second subsystem provides effective control and management of gaseous waste in normal and accidental conditions — one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle facility design and operation. Many of the issues relating to air cleaning and gaseous radioactive waste management systems have been covered in several IAEA publications. This publication is an attempt to provide systematic and comprehensive information on the entire subject. This publication takes into account the increasing requirements for the protection of the public and the environment, and during the publication’s preparation, the available technical information was collected and reviewed
For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de
A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)
Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.
A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)
Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab
Maeda, Masahiko; Kira, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naotoshi; Nagaoka, Takeshi; Akane, Junta.
Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes having sufficient monoaxial compression strength and excellent in water durability upon ocean disposal of the wastes. Method: Solidification products having sufficient strength and filled with a great amount of radioactive wastes are obtained by filling and solidifying 100 parts by weight of chlorinated polyethylene resin and 100 - 500 parts by weight of particular or powderous spent ion exchange resin as radioactive wastes. The chlorinated polyethylene resin preferably used herein is prepared by chlorinating powderous or particulate polyethylene resin in an aqueous suspending medium or by chlorinating polyethylene resin dissolved in an organic solvent capable of dissolving the polyethylene resin, and it is crystalline or non-crystalline chlorinated polyethylene resin comprising 20 - 50% by weight of chlorine, non-crystalline resin with 25 - 40% by weight of chlorine being particularly preferred. (Horiuchi, T.)
The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)
This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)
The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter
This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other
Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.
The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability
Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain
This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance
Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen
The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements
Bibler, N.E.; Fellinger, T.L.; Marshall, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Cozzi, A.D.; Edwards, T.B.
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch of radioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter fee. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass
Hedlund, R; Lindskog, A
The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.
Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.
The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries
Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)
Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de
Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)
The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described
This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)
High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs
Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de
Soriano B, A.
This research was carried out to develop the most adequate technique to immobilize low and medium-activity radioactive waste. different brands of national cement were used, portland and pozzolanic cement. Prismatic and cylindrical test tubes were prepared with different water/cement (W/C) relationship. Additives such a as clay and bentonite were added in some other cases. Later, the properties of these test tubes were evaluated. Properties such as: mechanical resistance, immersion resistance, lixiviation and porosity resistance. Cement with the highest mechanical resistance values, 62,29 MPa was pozzolanic cement for a W/C relationship of 0,35. It must be mentioned that the other types of cements reached a mechanical resistance over 10 MPa, a value indicated by the international standards for transportation and storage of low and medium-activity radioactive waste at a superficial level. However, in the case of immersion resistance, Sol cement (portland type I) with a W/C relationship of 0,35 reached a compression resistance over 61,92 MPa; as in the previous cases, the other cements reached a mechanical resistance > 10 MPa. Regarding porosity, working with W/C relationships = 0,35 0,40 and 0,45, without additives and with additives, the percentage of porosity found for all cements is lower than 40% percentage indicated by international standards. With regard to the lixiviation test, pozzolanic cement best retained Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60, and increased its advantages when bentonite was added, obtaining a lixiviation rate of 2,02 x E-6 cm/day. Sol cement also improved its properties when bentonite was added and obtained a lixiviation rate of 2,84 x E-6 cm/day for Cesium-137. However, Cobalt-60 is almost completely retained with the 3 types of cement with or without additives, reaching the limits indicated by the international standards for the lixiviation rate of beta-gamma emitter < 5,00E-4 cm/day. Characterizing the final product involves the knowledge of its
Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.
The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr
This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.
In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr
Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented
Feates, F.; Keen, N.
At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)
Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.
Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)
Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.
The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)
Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.
Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed
In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected
The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container
Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.
The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put
When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)
Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.
Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)
Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.
A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)
The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr
Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)
A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)
Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.
A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening
An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits
The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)
The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de
Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji; Matsuura, Hiroyuki
Purpose: To enable complete curing even when radioactive wastes contain those materials hindering the curing reaction, for example, copper hydroxide. Method: After admixing an alkaline substance to radioactive concentrated liquid wastes containing copper hydroxide or other amphoteric substances, they are dried, powderized and then cured with thermosetting resins. The thermosetting resins usable herein include, for example, those prepared by mixing an unsaturated polyester with a monomer such as styrene. When a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and a polymerization promotor are added to the mixture, it takes places curing reaction at normal temperature. Suitable alkaline substances usable herein are those which are insoluble to the liquid wastes and do not change the chemical form under heating and drying. (Yoshihara, H.)
Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.
Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)
Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina
In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)
Martin Martin, L.
A general review about the most significant techniques in order to incinerate radioactive wastes by controlled air, acid digestion, fluidized bed, etc., is presented. These features are briefly exposed in the article through feed preparation, combustion effectiveness, etc. (author)
The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged
Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)
Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.
The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.
Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.
In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)
The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)
Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.
This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)
In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)
In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States
Hindman, T.B. Jr.
The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials
Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.
There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)
The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt
Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.
The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)
Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is equipped with such atomic energy facilities as a power test reactor, four research reactors, a hot laboratory, and radioisotope-producing factory. All the radioactive wastes but gas generated from these facilities are treated by the waste treatment facilities established in JAERI. The wastes carried into JAERI through Japan Radioisotope Association are also treated there. Low level water solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, an ion-exchange apparatus, and a cohesive precipitating apparatus, while medium level solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, and low level combustible solid is treated with an incinerating apparatus. These treated wastes and sludges are mixed with Portland cement in drum cans to solidify, and stored in a concrete pit. The correct classification and its indication as well as the proper packing for the wastes are earnestly demanded by the treatment facilities. (Kobatake, H.)
Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.
Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level-radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800 C, since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800 to 1050 C temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550 C and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H 2 O at 135 C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear waste forms. (author)
This bibliography is a review of the Canadian literature on radioactive waste management from 1953 to the present. It incorporates the references from the previous AECL--6186 revisions, and adds the current data and some of the references that had been omitted. Publications from outside organizations of concern to the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Program are included in addition to AECL Research reports and papers. This report is intended as an aid in the preparation of the Concept Assessment Document and is complementary to AECL Research's internal document-ready references on the MASS-11 word processing systems
In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)
Wakerley, M.W.; Woodfine, B.C.
A sea disposal of 3500 t of packaged waste using a specially converted ship was planned for 1983, but did not take place. The major part of this waste is currently stored at two UKAEA sites. The waste packages were made with the intention that they would be disposed of within about 18 months of packaging. It was not intended that they would be stored for long periods. All wastes are packaged in mild steel drums and the wastes are temporarily stored within buildings. The conditions under which the packages are stored and their present condition are described and possible storage and treatment options are investigated having regard to available disposal routes. (author)
The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal
The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.
Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.
Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution
Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.
Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)
The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that
The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce
Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course
Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)
Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.
A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de
Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.
A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)
A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning
Guber, W.; Hussain, M.; Kahl, L.; Ondracek, G.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.
On the basis of laboratory and technical experience with the preparation and the characterization of borosilicate glasses as solidification matrix for high level radioactive waste solution (HAW), a borosilicate glass composition with optimum properties has been developed. Keeping in view the technical and final storage requirements, a number of glass compositions with varying proportions of influential components as Al, Mg, Na were prepared and thoroughly investigated for certain parameters as specific gravity, thermal conductivity, impact resistance, thermal expansion, viscosity, characteristic temperature points, specific heat, evaporation losses from the melt, electrical conductivity, leach resistance, tendency toward recrystallization and second phase formation. All the compositions (some with different amounts of Gd 2 O 3 , an expected neutron poision) contained 15 wt. % simulated HAW oxides. Samples for investigation were fabricated very close to the actual process conditions of vitrification. Two glass products GP12 and GP26 (3.7% Gd 2 O 3 ) have been selected out of 25 glasses as the optimised products for further thorough investigations. Leach resistance, viscosity at 1420 K, tendency towards recrystallization and second phase formation were the most important deciding factors. (orig.) [de
Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation
Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.
The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges
The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt
Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.
After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr
Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.
Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA
radioactive sources in the third basement of LAEC is being established. The area is being reconstructed currently and will be equipped when ready under LEB3002 project. Along with this, a system for sealed disused sources management has been prepared, part of which is applied now and the rest will be applied upon the establishment of the store. This paper will cover the inventory collection process, the study for the establishment of this store, the present and prospective waste management system, and the waste acceptance criteria. (author)
Dogaru, C. GH.
The procedure 'Collecting and identifying the radioactive waste' applied by the Radioactive Waste Management Department, STDR, complies with the requirements of the competent authority concerning the radioactive source management. One of the most important tasks, requiring the application of this procedure, is collecting and identification of 'historical wastes' for which a complete book keeping does not exist from different reasons. The chapter 1 presents the procedure's goal and the chapter 2 defines the applicability field. Chapter 3 enlists the reference documents while the chapter 4 gives the definitions and abbreviations used in the procedure. Chapter 5 defines responsibilities of the operators implied in collecting, identification and characterization of the radioactive wastes, the producers of the radioactive wastes being implied. Chapter 6 gives the preliminary conditions for applying the procedure. Among these, the transport, collecting, processing, storing and characterization costs are implied, as well as the compliance with technical and different other condition. The procedure structure is presented in the chapter 7. In collecting radioactive wastes, two situations are possible: 1- the producer is able to prepare the wastes for transport and to deliver them to STDR; 2 - the wastes are received from the producer by a delegate STDR operator, properly and technically prepared. The producer must demonstrate by documents the origin and possession, analysis bulletins specifying, the radionuclides activity and measurement date, physical state and, in addition, for spent radiation sources, the series/number of the container and producer. In case the producer is not able to display all this information, the wastes are taken into custody by the STDR labs in view of their analysis. A record in writing is completed specifying the transfer of radioactive wastes from the producer to the STDR, a record which is sent to the national authority in charge with the
The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies
Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs
Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.
Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)
Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)
The establishment of radioactive waste management measures is important to proceed further with nuclear power development. While the storage facility projects by utilities are in progress, large quantity of low level wastes are expected to arise in the future due to the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, etc. An interim report made by the committee on radioactive waste countermeasures to the Atomic Energy Commission is described as follows: the land disposal measures of ultra-low level and low level radioactive wastes, that is, the concept of level partitioning, waste management, the possible practice of handling wastes, etc.; the treatment and disposal measures of high level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes, including task sharing among respective research institutions, the solidification/storage and the geological formation disposal of high level wastes, etc. (Mori, K.)
Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.
Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)
Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs
The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail
Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments
The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)
Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.
In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)
There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)
The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands
This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next
Lee, Ik Hwan
In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig
Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.
The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr
The dossier published in this issue deals with all matters relating to radioactive waste management. It describes in detail the guidelines implemented by France in this field and provides a general overview of actions carried out at international level. The articles are assembled in several chapters, treating the following subjects: I. Upstream storage management. II. Storage (surface and underground). III. Research to back up the management program. There then follows a description of various processes and equipment developed by research laboratories and industrialists to provide, at the different stages, a number of operations required by the management programs [fr
In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).
Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)
Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.
Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere
Takamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukujoji, Seiya.
Purpose: To exactly recognize the deposition state of mists into conduits thereby effectively conduct cleaning. Constitution: A drier for performing drying treatment of liquid wastes, a steam decontaminating tower for decontaminating the steams generated from the drier and a condenser for condensating the decontaminating steams are connected with each other by means of conduits to constitute a radioactive wastes processing apparatus. A plurality of pressure detectors are disposed to the conduits, the pressure loss within the conduits is determined based on the detector output and the clogged state in the conduits due to the deposition of mists is detected by the magnitude of the pressure loss. If the clogging exceeds a certain level, cleaning water is supplied to clean-up the conduits thereby keep the operation to continue always under sound conditions. (Sekiya, K.)
Brodowski, R.; Drapalik, M.; Gepp, C.; Gufler, K.; Sholly, S.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the safety requirements for a radioactive waste repository, the fundamental problems involved and the legislative rules and arrangements for doing so. As the title already makes clear, the focus of this work is on aspects that can be assigned to the security sector - ie the security against the influence of third parties - and are to be distinguished from safety measures for the improvement of the technical safety aspects. In this context, mention is made of events such as human intrusion into guarded facilities, whereas e.g. a geological analysis on seismic safety is not discussed. For a variety of reasons, the consideration of security nuclear waste repositories in public discussions is increasingly taking a back seat, as ia. Terrorist threats can be considered as negligible risk or well calculable. Depending on the type of storage, different security aspects still have to be considered. (roessner)
A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth
This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.
This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)
This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)
Ando, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Takeuchi, Kunifumi.
Base rock is dug in a substantially cylindrical shape, bentonite blocks in an amount for a predetermined lift are disposed on the inner side of the dug wall surfaces. Concrete blocks constituting a structure of an underground silo are disposed at the inner side. Barrier blocks are disposed to the inner side thereof, and vessels incorporated with radioactive wastes are disposed to the inner side. The bentonite disposed to the inner side of the dug wall surfaces, the concrete structure of the underground silo and the barrier members are divided in the vertical direction into a plurality of blocks, and these blocks are stacked successively from the lowermost layer together with the containing vessels of the radioactive wastes, and after stacking them to a predetermined height, a filler is filled up to the circumference of the vessels. With such a constitution, the underground silo is not fallen down or vibrated even upon occurrence of an earthquake. In addition, bending stresses are scarcely caused thereby making reinforcement of iron reinforcing materials unnecessary. Accordingly, the sealing performance is improved, and processing cost is reduced. (T.M.)
Hayden, Howard C.
Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…
Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)
Drobmik, S; Hild, W; Kaufmann, F; Koschorke, H
A system is proposed which allows the joint execution of the process steps of denitration, drying and calcination necessary for the treatment of radioactive waste and the subsequent injection of superheated water vapor into the reaction chamber so as to also clean the offgases produced and discharge them from the facility through a filter system without polluting the environment. Several design variants are described which mainly relate to the arrangement of the spray nozzle and its environment. The vitrified radioactive materials are then put into repositories.
Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)
Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.
Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.
The review of the Spanish nuclear program is described with the special emphases on the radioactive waste management. The data of availability of a Centralized Temporary Storage facility will depend on the hypothesis considered regarding the service lifetime of nuclear power plants. Thay would be looking at the year 2003 for the 30 years case, and possibly at the year 2013 for the 40 year scenario, the choice between one and the other implying important economic and technical impacts. The aim for final disposal of high level wastes is to finish the preparation work by the year 2016, in order for construction of the disposal facility itself to be initiated and for operation to begin during the decade beginning with the year 2020
This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr
Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)
This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities
Final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes which are produced by 1 st and 2 nd bloc of the Mochovce NPP, prepares the NPP in its natural range. The purpose of the equipment is liquidation of wastes, which are formed at production. Wastes are warehoused in the building of active auxiliary plants in the present time, where are reservoirs in which they are deposited. Because they are already feeling and in 2006 year they should be filled definitely, it is necessary to treat them in that manner, so as they may be liquidated. Therefore the Board of directors of the Slovenske elektrarne has disposed about construction of final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes in the Mochovce NPP. Because of transport the wastes have to be treated in the locality of power plant. Technically, the final treatment of the wastes will be interconnected with building of active operation by bridges. These bridges will transport the wastes for treatment into processing centre
Han, Pil Jun
This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.
This report covers all the principal aspects of production and interim storage of radioactive waste packages. The latest design solutions of waste storage facilities and the operational experiences of developed countries are described and evaluated in order to assist developing Member States in decision making and design and construction of their own storage facilities. This report is applicable to any category of radioactive waste package prepared for interim storage, including conditioned spent fuel, high level waste and sealed radiation sources. This report addresses the following issues: safety principles and requirements for storage of waste packages; treatment and conditioning methods for the main categories of radioactive waste; examples of existing interim storage facilities for LILW, spent fuel and high level waste; operational experience of Member States in waste storage operations including control of storage conditions, surveillance of waste packages and observation of the behaviour of waste packages during storage; retrieval of waste packages from storage facilities; technical and administrative measures that will ensure optimal performance of waste packages subject to various periods of interim storage
Purpose: To enable to solidify radioactive laundry wastes containing non-ionic liquid detergents less solidifiable by plastic solidification process in liquid laundry wastes for cloths or the likes discharged from a nuclear power plant. Method: Radioactive laundry wastes are solidified by using plastic solidifying agent comprising, as a main ingredient, unsaturated polyester resins and methylmethacrylate monomers. The plastic solidifying agents usable herein include, for example, unsaturated polyester resins prepared by condensating maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride with propylene glycol and incorporated with methylmethacrylate monomers. The mixing ratio of the methylmethacrylate monomers is preferably 30 % by weight based on the unsaturated polyester resins. (Aizawa, K.)
CEA annually produces about 3500 tons of radioactive wastes in its 43 basic nuclear installations. CEA ranks third behind EDF and Cogema. Low-level wastes (A wastes) are sent to ANDRA (national agency for the management of nuclear wastes)whereas medium-level wastes (B wastes) are stored by CEA itself. CEA has checked off its storing places and has set up an installation Cedra to process and store ancient and new nuclear wastes. 3 other installations are planned to operate within 6 years: Agate (Cadarache) will treat liquid effluents, Stella (Saclay) will process liquid wastes that are beta or gamma emitters, and Atena (Marcoule) will treat and store radioactive sodium coming from Phenix reactor and IPSN laboratories. The use of plasma torch for vitrifying wastes is detailed, the management of all the nuclear wastes produced by CEA laboratories and installations is presented. (A.C.)
's waste management programme has from the beginning given due attention to the preparation of guidance on the control of radioactive waste disposal into the seas. Since the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter has entered into force, the Agency exercises responsibility for recommendations relating to radioactive aspects of marine pollution under this convention. It prepared a definition of high-level waste prohibited from being dumped and recommendations for dumping of waste not coming under this definition into the deep sea. The Agency does not, however, encourage sea dumping and has not assumed any mandate to monitor sea dumping operations carried out under the Convention
Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.
A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base
Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.
Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects
The primary mission of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division is to propose, to develop and to evaluate solutions for a safe, acceptable and sustainable management of radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division programme consists in research, studies, development and demonstration aiming to realise the objective of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation on radioactively contaminated sites. Indeed, it participates in the realisation of an objective which is to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health and the environment, within a wider framework of an interactive and integrated approach to radioactive waste management and safety. We believe that nuclear energy will be necessary for the sustainable development of mankind in the 21st century, but we well understand that it would not be maintained if it is not proven that within benefits of nuclear energy a better protection of the environment is included. Although the current waste management practices are both technically and from the environmental point of view adequate, efforts in relation of future power production and waste management technologies should be put on waste minimisation. Therefore, the new and innovative reactors, fuel cycle and waste management processes and installations should be designed so that the waste generation can be kept in minimum. In addition to the design, the installations should be operated so as to create less waste; consideration should be given e.g. to keeping water chemistry clean and other quality factors. SCK-CEN in general and the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division in particular are present in international groups preparing the development of innovative nuclear reactors, as Generation 4 and INPRO. Because performance assessments are often black boxes for the public, demonstration is needed for the acceptation of
Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)
Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.
The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment
Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.
Caramelle, D.; Florestan, J.; Waldura, C.
This paper reports that one of the methods used to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes is incineration. Incineration also allows combustible organic wastes to be transformed into inert matter that is stable from the physico-chemical viewpoint and ready to be conditioned for long-term stockage. The quality of the ashes obtained (low carbon content) depends on the efficiency of combustion. A good level of efficiency requires a combustion yield higher than 99% at the furnace door. Removal efficiency is defined as the relation between the CO 2 /CO + CO 2 concentrations multiplied by 100. This implies a CO concentration of the order of a few vpm. However, the gases produced by an incineration facility can represent a danger for the environment especially if toxic or corrosive gases (HCL,NO x ,SO 2 , hydrocarbons...) are given off. The gaseous effluents must therefore be checked after purification before they are released into the atmosphere. The CO and CO 2 measurement gives us the removal efficiency value. This value can also be measured in situ at the door of the combustion chamber. Infrared spectrometry is used for the various measurements: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for the off-gases, and diode laser spectrometry for combustion
This article describes the perspectives of management of radioactive wastes as defined in the French law from December 30, 1991. This law defines three ways of research: abatement of the radiotoxicity of wastes (first way), reversible geological storage (second way) or long duration geological disposal (third way). This article develops these three solutions: 1 - strategic perspectives; 2 - separation, transmutation and specific conditioning: isotopes to be separated (evolution of the radio-toxicity inventory of spent fuels, migration of long-living radionuclides, abatement of radio-toxicity), research on advanced separation (humid and dry way), research on transmutation of separate elements (transmutation and transmutation systems, realistic scenarios of Pu consumption and actinides transmutation, transmutation performances), research on materials (spallation targets, fuels and transmutation targets), research on conditioning matrices for separated elements; 3 - long-term storage: principles and problems, containers, surface and subsurface facilities; 4 - disposal: reversibility and disposal, geological disposal (principle and problems, site and concept selection), adaptation to reversibility, research on materials (bentonite and cements for geologic barrier, metals for containers), underground research and qualification laboratories, quantity of containers to be stored. (J.S.)
Ghafar, M.; Aasi, N.
This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)
Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro
The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...
When I first became concerned with radioactive waste management, in the early 1950's, very little was really known about the subject. There was a general feeling that it was a serious 'problem'. Articles were appearing in the press and talks were being given on the radio suggesting that the wastes generated by the proposed nuclear power reactors might be a serious menace to humanity. The prophets pointed with alarm to the enormous quantities of fission products that would accumulate steadily over the years in tank farms associated with reactor fuel reprocessing plants, and calculations were made of the possible results from rupture of the tanks due to corrosion, earthquakes or enemy attack. Responsible people suggested seriously that the waste disposal problem might be fatal to the development of a nuclear power industry, and this attitude was reinforced by the popular outcry that arose from experience with fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The Canadian nuclear power industry was not critically involved in this controversy because our heavy-water reactors are fuelled with natural uranium, and reprocessing of the fuel is not necessary. The spent fuel contains plutonium, a potential fuel, but the cost of recovering it was such that it was not competitive with natural uranium, which is not in short supply in Canada. Our spent fuel is not dissolved in acid - it is stored. still in its zirconium cladding, under water at the reactor site, or placed in sealed concrete-and-steel pipes below ground. If the price of uranium rises sufficiently it will become profitable to recover the plutonium, and only then shall we have an appreciable amount of waste from this source. However. during the first five or six years of research and development at Chalk River we did investigate fuel processing methods, and like everybody else we grad stainless steel tanks containing high and medium level wastes. These were located quite close to the Ottawa River, and we worried about what
A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects
Hasegawa, Akira; Mihara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Koji; Sauda, Kenzo.
Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO 2 , they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)
Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)
Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud
Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)
An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported
Skanata, D.; Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.
In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the
Duncan, A.; Pescatore, C.
Allan Duncan, expert to NEA and former Chief Inspector for Pollution (United Kingdom), elaborated on the regulatory function in the domain of radioactive waste management. The preparation of a document and a brochure on the subject has been one of the main tasks of the Regulators' Forum since its creation in 2001. He stressed that management of NORM waste was generally subject to different standards than similar radioactive waste from a nuclear source, for no obvious reason than that of public perception. He also pointed out the large number of 'regulatory bodies' involved in the regulation of radioactive waste management facilities and particularly geological disposal facilities, and their links to the Government. He gave the example of the United Kingdom. He stressed the fact that, since there will not be continuous control, licensing of geological disposal is an act of trust in the regulatory system. A. Duncan gave the position of two Commissions in England on deep geological disposal. The UK Sustainable Development Commission says, 'it is impossible to guarantee safety over long-term disposal of (nuclear) waste' which implies that nuclear fission power should be shut down; CoRWM, the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management, recommends instead geological disposal for existing wastes as a broadly acceptable solution. As a concluding remark A. Duncan focused the attention on the general question of what current society needs to do in order to meet its obligations to future generations with respect to disposal of long-lived wastes. (authors)
Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.
Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)
Clancy, J.J.; Gray, D.F.; Oztunali, O.I.
This document is prepared in three volumes and provides part of the technical support to the draft environmental impact statement (NUREG-0782) on a proposed regulation, 10CFR Part 61, setting forth licensing requirements for land disposal of low level radioactive waste. Volume 1 is a summary and analysis of the history of low level waste disposal at both commercial and government disposal facilities
An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)
considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.
The public has demonstrated interest and even concern for radioactive waste. A fully demonstrated industrial solution already exists for 90% of the waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several solutions are currently under development for long-term management of long-lived waste. They could be implemented on an industrial scale within twenty years. The low volumes of this type of waste mean there is plenty of time to adopt a solution. (author). 5 photos
Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal
Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.
The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)
The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety
Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.
During dismantling operations of nuclear facilities radioctive and non radioactive wastes are produced. The distinction between both kinds of wastes is not easy. In each dismantling operation special care and rules are defined for the separation of wastes. Each case must be separately studied. The volume and the surface activites are analyzed. Part of the wastes had been disposed in a public environment. The regulations, the international recommendations, thetheoretical and experimental investigations in this field are presented. A regulation principle and examples of radioactivity limits, on the basis of international recommendations, are provided. Those limits are calculated from individual radiation dose that may reach human beings [fr
In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation
The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste
The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste.
The select committee was appointed to report on the present (1988) situation and future prospects in the field of radioactive waste management in the European Community. The report covers all aspects of the subject. After an introduction the parts of the report are concerned with the control of radiation hazards, the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste, the control of radioactive effluents, storage and disposal of solid radioactive wastes, research programmes, surface storage versus deep geological disposal of long-term wastes, the future of reprocessing and the public debate. Part 10 is a resume of the main conclusions and recommendations. It is recommended that the House of Lords debate the issue. The oral and written evidence presented to the committee is included in the report. (U.K.)
Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.
Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years
The different stages of radioactive waste production are examined: ore production, reactor operation, reprocessing plants. The treatment and storage methods used and the French realizations relative to these problems are described [fr
The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)
Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.
The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru
This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number
This report drafted by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) deals with the basic principles and the main stages of radioactive waste management. The review more precisely focuses on what relates to environment protection, safety assessment, financing, social issues, public concerns and international co-operation. An annex finally summarises the radioactive waste management programs that are implemented in 15 of the NEA countries. (TEC). figs
Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Hisashi; Kobori, Junzo.
Purpose: To perform the curing sufficiently even when copper hydroxide that interferes the curing reaction is contained in radioactive wastes. Method: Solidification of radioactive wastes containing copper hydroxide using thermoset resins is carried out under the presence of an alkaline material. The thermoset resin used herein is an polyester resin comprising unsaturated polyester and a polymerizable monomer. The alkaline substance usable herein can include powder or an aqueous solution of hydroxides or oxides of sodium, magnesium, calcium or the like. (Yoshino, Y.)
Alexa, J.; Dlouhy, Z.; Kepak, F.; Kourim, V.; Napravnik, J.; Razga, J.; Ralkova, J.; Uher, E.; Vojtech, O.
A survey is given (including 41 references) of work carried out at the Nuclear Research Institute. Discussed are sorption processes (a selective sorbent for 90 Sr based on BaSO 4 , etc.), sorption on inorganic ion exchangers (heteropolyacid salts, ferrocyanides for 137 Cs capture), on organic cation exchangers (separation of lanthanides), electrocoagulation. The process is described of vitrification of highly radioactive wastes, the arrest of emissions, the deposition of radioactive wastes and surface decontamination. (M.K.)
Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.
The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)
The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases
The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)
The question of what to do with radioactive wastes is discussed. The need to resolve this issue promptly is pointed out. Two significant events which have occurred during the Carter administration are discussed. An Interagency Review Group (IRG) on waste management was formed to formulate recommendations leading to the establishment of a National policy for managing radioactive wastes. The technical findings in the IRG report are listed. The author points out some issues not addressed by the report. President Carter issued a national policy statement on Radioactive Waste Management in February 1980. The most significant elements of this statement are summarized. The cancellation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is currently meeting opposition in Congress. This and other items in the National Policy Statement are discussed
Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly
The 15 papers in this book deal with the equity issues of locus, legacy and labor/laity as they occur in the nuclear industry's handling of radioactive wastes. The intent is to identify and clarify inequities in alternative approaches to radioactive waste management in a way that will inform current public policy deliberations and planning. The papers are arranged in five parts which put the problem in perspective, then define the locus, the legacy, and the labor problem, and conclude with a set of proposals for a more equitable management. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 chapters selected for INS, EDB, and EPA
Mustafa, Yasmen A; Zaiter, Maysoon J
Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A has been suggested as ion exchange material to treat cobalt-60 in radioactive liquid waste which came from neutron activation for corrosion products. Batch experiments were conducted to find out the equilibrium isotherm for source sample. The equilibrium isotherm for radioactive cobalt in the source sample showed unfavorable type, while the equilibrium isotherm for the total cobalt (the radioactive and nonradioactive cobalt) in the source sample showed a favorable type. The ability of Na-A zeolite to remove cobalt from wastewater was checked for high cobalt concentration (822 mg/L) in addition to low cobalt concentration in the source sample (0.093 mg/L). A good fitting for the experimental data with Langmuir equilibrium model was observed. Langmuir constant qm which is related to monolayer adsorption capacity for low and high cobalt concentration was determined to be 0.021 and 140 mg/g(zeolite). The effects of important design variables on the zeolite column performance were studied these include initial concentration, flow rate, and bed depth. The experimental results have shown that high sorption capacity can be obtained at high influent concentration, low flow rate, and high bed depth. Higher column performance was obtained at higher bed depth. Thomas model was employed to predict the breakthrough carves for the above variables. A good fitting was observed with correlation coefficients between 0.915 and 0.985. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baba, Tsutomu; Chino, Koichi; Sasahira, Akira; Ikeda, Takashi
Metal solidification material can completely seal radioactive wastes and it has high sealing effect even if a trace amount of evaporation should be caused. In addition, the solidification operation can be conducted safely by using a metal having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the radioactive wastes. Further, the radioactive wastes having a possibility of evaporation and scattering along with oxidation can be solidified in a stable form by putting the solidification system under an inert gas atmosphere. Then in the present invention, a metal is selected as a solidification material for radioactive wastes, and a metal, for example, lead or tin having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the wastes is used in order to prevent the release of the wastes during the solidification operation. Radioactive wastes which are unstable in air and scatter easily, for example, Ru or the like can be converted into a stable solidification product by conducting the solidification processing under an inert gas atmosphere. (T.M.).
Search for a final repository site. How is the status of the preparation of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany?; Endlagersuche. Wie steht es um die Vorbereitung der Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland?
Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.) [Evangelische Akademie Loccum, Rehburg-Loccum (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Naturwissenschaften, Oekologie und Umweltpolitik
During the workshop on the status of the preparation of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany the following issues were discussed: socio-economic challenges two years after the final report of the commission for final disposal of radioactive wastes; the question of public participation - the difficult search for a repository site, experiences and intents of public participation during the work of the commission, interim storage of hear generating radioactive wastes, extended interim-storage, long-term interim storage facilities - opinion of the concerned public, how to establish a controlling and correcting surveillance of the process?.
Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office under contract AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document is 1 in a series of 25 reports or actions identified in a Solid Waste Management Event Fact Sheet and critique report (Appendix E) to address the problem of stored, leaking 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste drums. It specifically addresses the adequacy of polyethylene liners used as internal packaging of radioactive mixed waste. This document is to be used by solid waste generators preparing solid waste for storage at Hanford Site facilities. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of radioactive solid waste
Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management
Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)
This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs
In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioactive wastes is to reduce the volume and weight of the wastes. Waste categories most commonly treated by incineration are burnable solid low level wastes like trash wastes consisting of plastic, paper, protective clothing, isolating material etc. Primarily, techniques for the incineration of this type of waste are described but incineration of other types of low level wastes like oil or solvents and medium level wastes like ion-exchange resins is also briefly discussed. The report contains tables with condensed data on incineration plants in different countries. Problems encountered, experiences and new developments are reviewed. The most important problems in incineration of radioactive wastes have been plugging and corrosion of offgas systems, due to incomplete combustion of combustion of materials like rubber and PVC giving rise to corrosive gases, combined with inadequate materials of construction in heat-exchangers, channels and filter housings. (author)
radiation on people irrespective of the public which was involved in the survey. Among the most important factors which influence public acceptability of the construction of the LILW repository in the domestic location is perceived risk to the nuclear power plant. This factor is more important than knowledge on radioactivity and radioactive waste for different groups, also for the local public with experience of living beside nuclear power plant. Although it can be seen that the factor of knowledge has higher importance in the local community which means that communication activities among local citizens do influence the acceptability. Based on the analyses of the results, the starting points for improvement of communication plans were prepared, which should be used by the implementer of the site selection, and later during the repository construction. These communication starting points have a broader validity, since they could be suitable also for risk communications for other technologies.(author).
Ono, Keiichi; Sakai, Etsuro.
The solidifying material according to this invention comprises cement material, superfine powder, highly water reducing agent, Al-containing rapid curing material and coagulation controller. As the cement material, various kinds of quickly hardening, super quickly hardening and white portland cement, etc. are usually used. As the superfine powder, those having average grain size smaller by one order than that of the cement material are desirable and silica dusts, etc. by-produced upon preparing silicon, etc. are used. As the highly water reducing agent, surface active agents of high decomposing performance and comprising naphthalene sulfonate, etc. as the main ingredient are used. As the Al-containing rapidly curing material, calcium aluminate, etc. is used in an amount of less than 10 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the powdery body. As the coagulation controller, boric acid etc. usually employed as a retarder is used. This can prevent dissolution or collaption of pellets and reduce the leaching of radioactive material. (T.M.)
Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.
The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment
Takahashi, Toshihiko; Maruko, Morihisa; Takamura, Yoshiyuki.
Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive claddings from the slurry of wasted ion exchange resins containing radioactive claddings. Method: Wasted ion exchange resins having radioactive claddings (fine particles of iron oxides or hydroxide adhered with radioactive cobalt) are introduced into a clad separation tank. Sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide is introduced to the separation tank to adjust the pH value to 3 - 6. Then, sodium lauryl sulfate is added for capturing claddings and airs are blown from an air supply nozzle to generate air bubbles. The claddings are detached from the ion exchange resins and adhered to the air bubbles. The air bubbles adhered with the claddings float up to the surface of the liquid wastes and then forced out of the separation tank. (Ikeda, J.)
Purpose: To improve the management for radioactive wastes containers thereby decrease the amount of stored matters by arranging the radioactive wastes containers in the order of their radioactivity levels. Method: The radiation doses of radioactive wastes containers arranged in the storing area before volume-reducing treatment are previously measured by a dosemeter. Then, a classifying machine is actuated to hoist the containers in the order to their radiation levels and the containers are sent out passing through conveyor, surface contamination gage, weight measuring device and switcher to a volume-reducing processing machine. The volume-reduced products are packed each by several units to the storing containers. Thus, the storing containers after stored for a certain period of time can be transferred in an assembled state. (Kawakami, Y.)
Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr
Hattori, Akinori; Tejima, Takaya.
Purpose: To completely process less combustible radioactive wastes with no excess loads on discharge gas processing systems and without causing corrosions to furnace walls. Method: Among combustible radioactive wastes, chlorine-containing less combustible wastes such as chlorine-containing rubbers and vinyl chlorides, and highly heat generating wastes not containing chloride such as polyethylene are selectively packed into packages. While on the other hand, packages of less combustible wastes are charged into a water-cooled jacket type incinerator intermittently while controlling the amount and the interval of charging so that the temperature in the furnace will be kept to lower than 850 deg C for burning treatment. Directly after the completion of the burning, the packed highly heat calorie producing wastes are charged and subjected to combustion treatment. (Yoshihara, H.)
Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.
The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size
Kroebel, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung; Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. zur Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle
This paper discusses the final disposal possibilities for radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the related questions of waste conditioning, storage methods and safety. The programs in progress in neighbouring CEC countries and in the USA are also mentioned briefly. The autors conclude that the existing final disposal possibilities are sufficiently well known and safe, but that they could be improved still further by future development work. The residual hazard potential of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing after about 1000 years of storage is lower that of known inorganic core deposits.
This article deals with the present situation in France concerning radioactive waste management. For the short and medium term, that is to say processing and disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes, there are industrial processes giving all the guarantees for a safe containment, but improvements are possible. For the long term optimization of solution requires more studies of geologic formations. Realization emergency comes less from the waste production than the need to optimize the disposal techniques. An international cooperation exists. All this should convince the public opinion and should develop planning and realization [fr
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner
The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)
Mustafa, Yasmen A.; Zaiter, Maysoon J.
Highlights: ► Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A has been suggested as ion exchange material to treat cobalt-60 in radioactive liquid waste which came from neutron activation for corrosion products. ► The ability of Na-A zeolite to remove cobalt from wastewater was checked for high cobalt concentration (822 mg/L) in addition to low cobalt concentration in the source sample (0.093 mg/L). ► The effects of important design variables on the zeolite column performance were studied these include initial concentration, flow rate, and bed depth. ► The experimental results show that high sorption capacity can be obtained at high influent concentration, low flow rate, and high bed depth. ► Higher column performance was obtained at higher bed depth. - Abstract: Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A has been suggested as ion exchange material to treat cobalt-60 in radioactive liquid waste which came from neutron activation for corrosion products. Batch experiments were conducted to find out the equilibrium isotherm for source sample .The equilibrium isotherm for radioactive cobalt in the source sample showed unfavorable type, while the equilibrium isotherm for the total cobalt (the radioactive and nonradioactive cobalt) in the source sample showed a favorable type. The ability of Na-A zeolite to remove cobalt from wastewater was checked for high cobalt concentration (822 mg/L) in addition to low cobalt concentration in the source sample (0.093 mg/L). A good fitting for the experimental data with Langmuir equilibrium model was observed. Langmuir constant qm which is related to monolayer adsorption capacity for low and high cobalt concentration was determined to be 0.021 and 140 mg/g zeolite . The effects of important design variables on the zeolite column performance were studied these include initial concentration, flow rate, and bed depth. The experimental results have shown that high sorption capacity can be obtained at high influent concentration, low flow rate, and
Passant, F.H.; Maul, P.R.
The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) produces low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the process of operating its eight Magnox and five Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) nuclear power stations. Future wastes will also arise from a programme of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) and the decommissioning of existing reactors. The paper gives details of how the UK waste management strategy is put into practice by the CEGB, and how general waste management principles are developed into strategies for particular waste streams. (author)
The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as political marketing tool, make things even more complex. Public involvement in planning and development of radioactive waste management program must be perceived as essential for the success of the program. Education is a precursor to public comprehension and confidence which lead to adequate waste management decisions that will protect the public health, safety and environment without jeopardizing further progress and development. (author) [sl
A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs
Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.
The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)
Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)
Eckhardt, A.; Hufschmid, P.; Jordi, S.; Schanne, M.; Vigfusson, J.
This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved
The seminar had the following topics: Proposal for new legislation covering radioactive waste management in the EU, new requirements preparations for the later repository, efficient and cost effective treatment of radioactive waste water, intermediate level waste cementation, incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture, application of THOR-technology on resins, new development for transportation and storage of reactor vessel parts, and conditioning of nuclear fuel containing wastes. (uke)
This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)
Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.
The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)
Peter W. Brennecke
Full Text Available In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short-lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-lived high level wastes, i.e. vitrified waste and spent nuclear fuel. Based on such results, near-surface repositories have successfully been operated in many countries. In contrast to that, the disposal of high level radioactive waste is still a scientific and technical challenge in many countries using the nuclear power for the electricity generation. Siting, planning and construction of repositories for the high level wastes in geological formations are gradually advancing. The site selection, the evaluation of feasible sites as well as the development of safety cases and performance of site-specific safety assessments are essential in preparing the realization of such a repository. In addition to the scientific-technical areas, issues regarding economical, environmental, ethical and political aspects have been considered increasingly during the last years. Taking differences in the national approaches, practices and the constraints into account, it is to be recognised that future developments and decisions will have to be extended in order to include further important aspects and, finally, to enhance the acceptance and confidence in the safety-related planning work as well as in the proposed radioactive waste management and disposal solutions.
Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes
Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji
The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)
The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs
Stritar, A.; Gortnar, O.; Kovacic, J.; Kozelj, M.; Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.
Several new exhibits, added to the nuclear information centre, are described. We have prepared a quiz about radioactive waste, interactive most frequently asked questions about radioactivity and radioactive waste, a World map of nuclear objects, a set of demonstration exercises and CD ROM about radioactive waste.(author)
Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.
Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)
Souza, Eros Viggiano de; Reis, Luiz Carlos Alves
A radioactive waste database was implemented at CDTN in 1991. The objectives are to register and retrieve information about wastes ge in 1991. The objectives are to register and retrieve information about wastes generated and received at the Centre in order to improve the waste management. Since 1995, the database has being reviewed and a software has being developed aiming at processing information in graphical environment (Windows 95 and Windows NT), minimising the possibility of errors and making the users access more friendly. It was also envisaged to ease graphics and reports edition and to make this database available to other CNEN institutes and even to external organizations. (author)
The definition and implementation of safe and perennial solutions for the management of radioactive wastes is a necessity from the point of view of both the nuclear industrialists and the public authorities, but also of the overall French citizens. For the low- or medium-level or short living radioactive wastes, some solutions have been defined are are already implemented. On the other hand, no decision has been taken so far for the long living medium to high-level radioactive wastes. Researches are in progress in this domain according to 3 ways of research defined by the law from December 30, 1991: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep underground, and long duration surface or sub-surface storage. This paper presents in a digest way, the principle, the results obtained so far, and the perspectives of each of the three solutions under study. (J.S.)
Funabashi, Kiyomi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Kikuchi, Makoto; Yusa, Hideo.
Purpose: To obtain solidified radioactive wastes at high packing density by packing radioactive waste pellets in a container and then packing and curing a thermosetting resin therein. Method: Radioactive liquid wastes are dried into power and subjected to compression molding. The pellets thus obtained are supplied in a predetermined amount from the hopper to the inside of a drum can. Then, thermosetting plastic and a curing agent are filled in the drum can. Gas between the pellets is completely expelled by the intrusion of the thermosetting resin and the curing agent among the pellets. Thereafter, the drum can is heated by a heater and curing is effected. After the curing, the drum can is sealed. (Kawakami, Y.)
After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix
Full text: This paper wants to introduce the management of radioactive wastes in China. The Management System. The management system of radioactive waste consists of the institutional system and the regulatory system. During the recent 30 years, more than 50 national standards and trades standards have been issued, will be published, or are being prepared, covering essentially all the process of wastes management. State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) is in charge of not only the environmental protection view but also nuclear safety surveillance of radioactive waste management, especially in the aspect of HLW disposal. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) is a centralized management of the government responsible. China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC) is responsible for the management work of radioactive wastes within its system, implementing national policies on wastes management, and siting, construction and operation of LILW repositories and HLW deep geological repository. The Policies of Radioactive Waste Management. The LILW for temporary storage shall be solidified as early as possible. Regional repository for disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes shall be built. HLW is Centralized disposal in geological repository. The radioactive wastes and waste radioisotope sources must be collected to the signified place (facilities) for a relatively centralized management in each province, The Accompanying Mineral radioactive wastes can be stored in the tailing dumps or connected to the storage place for a temporal storage, then transported to the nearby tailing dumps of installation or tailing dumps of mineral-accompanying waste for an eventual storage. Activities in the Wastes Management Radioactive wastes treatment and conditioning Since 1970, the study on the HLLW vitrification has been initiated. In 1990, a cold test bench for the vitrification (BVPM), introduced from Germany, was completed in Sichuan Province. As for the LILW, the cementation
This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)
Abdel Ghani, A.H.
The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes
Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.
In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Ministry of Industry and Energy. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Industry and Energy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)
Beceiro, Alvaro R.; Vico, Elena
In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Spanish Government. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Economy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The Fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)
The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de
Song, D Y; Choi, S S; Han, B S [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.
Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S.
In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication
This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented
Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.
Nomura, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuo.
Purpose: To improve the volume-reduction effect, as well as enable simultaneous procession for the wastes such as burnable solid wastes, resin wastes or sludges, and further convert the processed materials into glass-solidified products which are much less burnable and stable chemically and thermally. Method: Auxiliaries mainly composed of SiO 2 such as clays, and wastes such as burnable solid wastes, waste resins and sludges are charged through a waste hopper into an incinerating melting furnace comprising an incinerating and a melting furnace, while radioactive concentrated liquid wastes are sprayed from a spray nozzle. The wastes are burnt by the heat from the melting furnace and combustion air, and the sprayed concentrated wastes are dried by the hot air after the combustion into solid components. The solid matters from the concentrated liquid wastes and the incinerating ashes of the wastes are melted together with the auxiliaries in the melting furnace and converted into glass-like matters. The glass-like matters thus formed are caused to flow into a vessel and gradually cooled to solidify. (Horiuchi, T.)
The Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI is the Supervisory Authority for Nuclear Safety and Security of Swiss Nuclear Facilities. The responsibilities include the evaluation and operational monitoring of the existing five Swiss nuclear power plants, the radioactive waste disposals and the nuclear research facilities. The supervisory area includes project planning, operational issues, and decommissioning of plants. ENSI supervises the formation, handling and storage of radioactive waste, the work on deep geological disposal and the transport of radioactive materials. The disposal of radioactive waste is regulated by the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act (2005) and the Nuclear Energy Ordinance (2005). The protection of humans and the environment must be guaranteed permanently. Waste disposal must be carried out in the own country by deep geological repositories. The licensing procedure for the disposal facilities is concentrated at the federal level, the cooperation of the location canton, neighboring cantons and the neighboring countries is ensured. The general license for the deep geological repository is subject to an optional referendum. The polluter pays principle applies to the disposal of radioactive waste. The waste producers are legally obliged to dispose of them and have founded the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). The federal government is responsible for waste from medicine, industry and research (MIF). The Federal Council approved the waste management certificate for low and intermediate level waste (SMA) in 1988. High-level-waste (HAA) and long-live-intermediate-level-waste (LMA), where approved in 2006. Nagra's disposal concept envisages two separate deep geological repositories for SMA and HAA / LMA in a suitable, tectonically stable, low-permeability rock formation. If a site meets both the SMA and HAA / LMA storage requirements, the selection process may result in a common location for all radioactive waste. Until the
Morales Galarce, Tania
Because of the danger that radioactive wastes can pose to society and to the environment a viable treatment alternative must be developed to prepare these wastes for final disposal. The waste studied in this work is a liquid organic waste contaminated with the radioisotope tritium. This must be treated and then changed into solid form in a 200 liter container. This study defined an optimum formulation that immobilizes the liquid waste. The organic waste is first submitted to an absorption treatment, with Celite absorbent, which had the best physical characteristics from the point of view of radioactive waste management. Then this was solidified by forming a cement mortar, using a highly resistant local cement, Polpaico 400. Various mixes were tested, with different water/cement, waste/absorbent and absorbed waste/cement ratios, until a mixture that met the quality control requirements was achieved. The optimum mixture obtained has a water/cement ratio of 0.35 (p/p) that is the amount of water needed to make the mixture workable, and minimum water for hydrating the cement; a waste/absorbent ration of 0.5 (v/v), where the organic liquid is totally absorbed, and is incorporated in the solid's crystalline network; and an absorbed waste/cement ratio of 0.8 (p/p), which represents the minimum amount of cement needed to obtain a solid product with the required mechanical resistance. The mixture's components join together with no problem, to produce a good workable mixture. It takes about 10 hours for the mixture to harden. After 14 days, the resulting solid product has a resistance to compression of 52 Kgf/cm2. The formulation contains 22.9% immobilized organic waste, 46.5% cement, 14.3% Celite and 16.3% water. Organic liquid waste can be treated and a solid product obtained, that meets the qualitative and quantitative parameters required for its disposal. (CW)
Carter, J.T.; Rueter, K.J.; Ray, J.W.; Hodoh, O.
The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling
Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)
Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.
A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)
Schuurman, B.; IJtsma, D.; Zwigt, A.
Interviews were made with radiation experts working at hospitals about the treatment and limiting of radioactive wastes. The authors conclude that with the aid of hospital personnel a decrease of the volume of radioactive waste is possible. 25 refs
Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.
The hospital radioactive wastes are of three types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Prior to final evacuation all these wastes are checked by a detector the threshold of which is lower than the standard. This system allows detecting activities very low under the daily recommended threshold of 37 kBq (1μ Ci), for the group II. In metabolic radiotherapy the unsealed sources of iodine 131 will form mainly the wastes arising from the rooms contaminated by the patient himself. In this service anything touching the patient's room most by systematically checked. All the rooms are provided with toilette with two compartments, one connected traditionally to the sewerage system for faeces and the other coupled to tanks for urine storing. The filled reservoirs waits around 10 month span prior to being emptied, after checking, into the sewerage system. The volume activity most be lower than 7 Bq per liter (standard). For the hot labs, injection room and in-vitro lab, the liquid waste retrieved from dedicated stainless sinks are stored in storage tanks and will waits for 2 years before evacuation. The undies coming from the metabolic radiotherapy service are possible contaminated by the patient sheets, pillow cases, etc. These undies freshly contaminated may be contaminating if the contamination is non fixated. All the undies coming from this service are checked like all the wastes by means of the fixed detector. For the solid wastes two evacuation channels are possible: the urban garbage repository for household wastes and the Brest waste repository for hospital wastes. For the liquid waste arising for urines, used washing water, etc, the evacuation will be done towards city sewerage system after storing or dilution. Concerning the liquid wastes presenting chemical risks, they will be evacuated in cans by NETRA. Concerning the gaseous wastes, trapped on active carbon filters, they will be handled like solid wastes and will be directed to the waste repository of Brest. The other
Ohl, P.C.; Pezeshki, C.
Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) material research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs
On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)
The gap between the relative perceptions in the area of nuclear waste is wide. The broad view of the industry is that the disposal of nuclear waste is not a serious technical problem, and that solutions are already available to provide safe disposal of all our waste. The broad view of those who oppose the industry is that radioactive waste is so unpleasant, and will remain lethal for so long, that no acceptable policy will ever be developed, and so production of such waste (except, oddly, the significant amounts arising from uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industrial safety research, etc) should stop immediately. This booklet will not attempt to describe in great detail the technicalities of the United Kingdom nuclear industry's current approach to radioactive waste: such issues are described in detail in other publications, especially those by Nirex. It is our intention to outline some of the main issues involved, and to associate these issues with the divergence in perceptions of various parties. (author)
Nagaya, Kiichi; Fujimoto, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Nomura, Ichiro
A previous paper covered the decomposition and vitrification of Na 2 SO 4 (the primary component of the liquid waste from BWR) with silica. Now, in order to establish an integrated treatment system for the radioactive waste from BWR, this paper examines the effects of combining incinerator ash and other incinerator wastes with radioactive waste on the durability of the final vitrified products. A bench scale test plat consisting of a waiped file evaporator/dryer, a Joule-heated glass melter and SO 2 absorber was therefore put into operation and run safety for a period of 3000 hours. The combination of the radioactive waste with incinerator ash and the secondary waste of the incinerator was found to make no difference on the durability of the final vitrified products effecting no increase or decrease. Durability similar to that displayed in the beaker tests was proven, with the final vitrified products exhibiting a leaching rate less than 3 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 /day at 95 deg C. (author)
Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.
In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr
Millet, C.B.; Tripp, J.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Lauerhauss, L.; Argyle, M.D.; Demmer, R.L.
Reduction of radioactive liquid waste, much of which is Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed, is a high priority at the Idaho National Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Major strides in the past five years have lead to significant decreases in generation and subsequent reduction in the overall cost of treatment of these wastes. In 1992, the INTEC, which is part of the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), began a program to reduce the generation of radioactive liquid waste (both hazardous and non-hazardous). As part of this program, a Waste Minimization Plan was developed that detailed the various contributing waste streams, and identified methods to eliminate or reduce these waste streams. Reduction goals, which will reduce expected waste generation by 43%, were set for five years as part of this plan. The approval of the plan led to a Waste Minimization Incentive being put in place between the Department of Energy Idaho Office (DOE-ID) and the INEEL operating contractor, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). This incentive is worth $5 million dollars from FY-98 through FY-02 if the waste reduction goals are met. In addition, a second plan was prepared to show a path forward to either totally eliminate all radioactive liquid waste generation at INTEC by 2005 or find alternative waste treatment paths. Historically, this waste has been sent to an evaporator system with the bottoms sent to the INTEC Tank Farm. However, this Tank Farm is not RCRA permitted for mixed wastes and a Notice of Non-compliance Consent Order gives dates of 2003 and 2012 for removal of this waste from these tanks. Therefore, alternative treatments are needed for the waste streams. This plan investigated waste elimination opportunities as well as treatment alternatives. The alternatives, and the criteria for ranking these alternatives, were identified through Value Engineering meetings with all of the waste generators. The most
Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)
This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)
Fisera, O.; Sebesta, F.
Composite material PAN-DMG, containing chelating agent dimethylglyoxime (DMG) immobilized in porous matrix of binding polymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN), was used for nickel separation and concentration. Method for preparation of 59 Ni source for low energy photon spectrometry was developed using homogeneous precipitation of nickel with DMG. The proposed method was tested with two types of real radioactive waste (boric acid concentrate from nuclear power plant (NPP) evaporator and spent ion exchanger from NPP). (author)
Falcon Cabrera, S.; Marco Arboli, M.
radioactive waste disposal facilities organised jointly by Nuclear Safety council (CSN) and ENRESA. Programmes, contents, and practical sessions using computer codes are developed as well as an educational material was edited in CD by the IAEA and prepared in several tongues for its ediction in other countries (RER/9/057). (author) 4 refs
Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.
Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr
The cementation methods for immobilisation of radioactive wastes are discussed in terms of methodology, chemistry and properties of the different types of cements as well as the worldwide experience in this field. Two facilities for cementation - DEWA and MOWA - are described in details
Methods of preventing the pollution of air by radioactive waste from atomic centres were discussed in an Agency Symposium held in New York at the end of August. It was agreed that the atomic industry has a good safety record, and suggestions were made that there should now be a concerted effort to prevent air pollution by all industries. (author)
The world's industrial nations are embarking on a major build-up of nuclear electric power generating capacity. Enormous quantities of radioactive waste will be produced in fuel reprocessing operations which must be safeguarded from entering the biosphere for thousands of years. It is an unprecedented problem which has no universally agreed upon solution. (U.S.)
Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.
A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)
Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. There is also a variety of alternatives for treatment and conditioning of the wastes prior disposal. The importance of treatment of radioactive waste for protection of human and environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has gained in this field. Generally, the methods used for treatment of radioactive wastes can be classified into three type's biological, physical and chemical treatment this physical treatment it gives good result than biological treatment. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. In chemical treatment there are different procedures, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electro dialysis but solvent extraction is best one because high purity can be optioned on the other hand the disadvantage that it is expensive. Beside the solvent extraction technique one can be used is ion exchange which gives reasonable result, but requires pretreatment that to avoid in closing of column by colloidal and large species. Electro dialysis technique gives quite result but less than solvent extraction and ion exchange technique the advantage is a cheep.(Author)
This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number
The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects
Murphy, J.D.; Pirro, J. Jr.; Lawrence, M.; Wisla, S.F.
Fixing radioactive waste is disclosed in which the waste is collected as a slurry in aqueous media in a metering tank located within the nuclear facilities. Collection of waste is continued from time to time until a sufficient quantity of material to make up a full shipment to a burial ground has been collected. The slurry is then cast in shipping containers for shipment to a burial ground or the like by metering through a mixer into which fixing materials are simultaneously metered at a rate to yield the desired proportions of materials. (U.S.)
An improvement on the method of solidification of radioactive liquid waste in bitumen with the aid of extruders is described. So far, it has been difficult to remove large amounts of water. The waste sludge, as proposed here, is pre-dried in the extruder and then mixed with the bitumen. The extruder is inclined upward in the transport direction, and its barrel extruders have through holes parallel to the direction of transport in the raised sides of the passages, so that water runs back. Also the waste steam nozzles are arranged before the bitumen inlet. (UWI) [de
Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.
The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)
Othman, I.; Takriti, S.
A national plan for radioactive waste management has been presented. It includes identifying, transport, recording, classifying, processing and disposal. It is an important reference for radioactive waste management for those dealing with radioactive waste, and presents a complete protection to environemnt and people. (author)
McCall, D.L.; Calihan, T.W. III.
Recently, there has been significant concern expressed in the nuclear community over the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste under US Department of Transportation regulation. This concern has grown more intense over the last 5 to 10 years. Generators and regulators have realized that much of the waste shipped as ''low-level radioactive waste'' was in fact ''radioactive mixed waste'' and that these wastes pose unique transportation and disposal problems. Radioactive mixed wastes must, therefore, be correctly identified and classed for shipment. If must also be packaged, marked, labeled, and otherwise prepared to ensure safe transportation and meet applicable storage and disposal requirements, when established. This paper discusses regulations applicable to the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste and identifies effective methods that waste shippers can adopt to meet the current transportation requirements. This paper will include a characterization and description of the waste, authorized packaging, and hazard communication requirements during transportation. Case studies will be sued to assist generators in understanding mixed waste shipment requirements and clarify the requirements necessary to establish a waste shipment program. Although management and disposal of radioactive mixed waste is clearly a critical issue, packaging and transportation of these waste materials is well defined in existing US Department of Transportation hazardous material regulations
Safe, permanent disposal of radioactive wastes requires isolation of a number of elements including Se, Tc, I, Sr, Cs, Pd, u, Np, Pu and Cm from the environment for a long period of time. The aquatic chemistry of these elements ranges from simple anionic (I - ,IO 3 - ) and cationic (Cs + ,Sr ++ ) forms to multivalent hydrolyzed complexes which can be anionic or cationic (Pu(OH) 2 + ,Pu(OH) 3 + , PuO 2 (CO 3 )(OH) - ,PuO 2 Cl - ,etc.) depending on the chemical environment. The parameters which can affect repository safety are rate of access and composition of grounwater, stability of the waste container, stability of the waste form, rock-water-waste interactons, and dilution and dispersion as the waste moves away from the repository site. Our overall research program on radioactive waste disposal includes corrosion studies of containment systems hydrothermal stability of various waste forms, and geochemical behaviour of various nuclides including solubilities, redox equilibria, hydrolysis, colloid fomation and transport ion exchange equilibria and adsorption on mineral surfaces and irreversible precipitation reactions. This paper discusses the geochemistry of I, Se, Tc, Cs, Sr and the actinide elements and potential mechanisms by which the mobility could be retarded if necessary
Beceiro, A. R.
Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)
Readey, D.W.; Cooley, C.R. (comps.)
This report contains 14 individual presentations and 6 group reports on the subject of glass and polycrystalline ceramic radioactive waste forms. It was the general consensus that the information available on glass as a waste form provided a good basis for planning on the use of glass as an initial waste form, that crystalline ceramic forms could also be good waste forms if much more development work were completed, and that prediction of the chemical and physical stability of the waste form far into the future would be much improved if the basic synergistic effects of low temperature, radiation and long times were better understood. Continuing development of the polycrystalline ceramic forms was recommended. It was concluded that the leach rate of radioactive species from the waste form is an important criterion for evaluating its suitability, particularly for the time period before solidified waste is permanently placed in the geologic isolation of a Federal repository. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the individual papers; the remaining two were previously abstracted.
Ten papers are presented, dealing with the management and environmental impact of radioactive wastes, environmental considerations related to uranium mining and milling, the management of uranium refining wastes, reactor waste management, proposals for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes, disposal of nuclear fuel wastes, federal government policy on radioactive waste management, licensing requirements, environmental assessment, and internatioal cooperation in wast management. (LL)
Pallard, Bernard; Vervialle, Jean Pierre; Voizard, Patrice
The National Radioactive Waste Inventory is an annual report of French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). The issue on 1998 has the following content: 1. General presentation; 2. Location of radioactive wastes in France; 3. Regional file catalogue; 4. Address directory; 5. Annexes. The inventory establishes the producer and owner categories, the French overseas waste sources, location of pollutant sides, spread wastes (hospitals, universities and industrial sector), railways terminals
Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is the author's conclusion from eight years of social science research which the author has directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns--practitioners like Ginger King who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions s dismal. The author believes that impression is misleading, and in this paper shares research findings that give a broader perspective
Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I'd like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective
This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)
Dogaru, Ghe.; Dragolici, F.; Ionascu, L.; Rotarescu, Ghe.
The paper describes the management of historical radioactive waste from the storage facility of Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant. The historical waste stored into storage facility of IFIN-HH consists of spent sealed radioactive sources, empty contaminated containers, wooden radioactive waste, low specific activity radioactive waste, contaminated waste as well as radioactive waste from operation of WWR-S research reactor. After decommissioning of temporary storage facility about 5000 packages with radioactive waste were produced and transferred to the disposal facility. A large amount of packages have been transferred and disposed of to repository but at the end of 2000 there were still about 800 packages containing cement conditioned radioactive waste in an advanced state of degradation declared by authorities as 'historical waste'. During the management of historical waste campaign there were identified: radium spent radioactive sources, containers containing other spent sealed radioactive sources, packages containing low specific activity waste consist of thorium scrap allow, 30 larger packages (316 L), packages with activity lower than activity limit for disposal, packages with activity higher than activity limit for disposal. At the end of 2008, the whole amount of historical waste which met the waste acceptance criteria has been conditioned and transferred to disposal facility. (authors)
Perkins, B K
This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.
Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.
Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)
Soares, J.C.A.R.; Anjos, M.J.; Mattos, J.A.; Souza, H.V.; Castro, C.R.F.; Sarquis, A.C.R.; Padilha Filho, L.G.; Borges, J.C.
Since 1987, when the radiological Control Service of UFRJ was created, a radioprotection program has been developed, including all the installations and employees involved with ionizing radiations activities. Recently, a more systematic approach for radioactive wastes produced, monthly/annual manipulated activities, procedure and capacity of storage, and forms of release to the environment. Actual situation is not distant from that required by the norms about, but there area some critical situations that deserved emergency corrections. A plan for waste management is being prepared to be executed in the short and middle terms. (author)
The text comprises three sections, i.e. theological and moral aspects, scientific and technical aspects, and administrative and political aspects. The book informs on the scientific and legal situation concerning nuclear waste management and intends to give some kind of decision aid from a theological point of view. (PW) [de
This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)
Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.
Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)
Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.
Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)
Prisco, A.J.; Johnson, A.N.
An apparatus is described for detecting radioactive components in dry active waste, the apparatus comprising: means for reducing the waste to pieces of substantially uniform size, first and second conveyors and a housing for the conveyors; means for conveying the pieces from the means for reducing the waste to the first and second conveyors; each of the first and second conveyors includes a receiving portion and a discharge portion; the discharge portion is spaced above and upstream from the receiving portion to disperse the pieces as they are transferred from the first conveyor to the second conveyor so that pieces which are in clusters are separated from each other to increase the likelihood of detecting radiation emanating means for detecting radioactive radiation emanating from the pieces, at least one of radiation detector means is located on each of the conveyors. Each is disposed in close overlying relation to its respective conveyor so that low levels of radiation emanating from the pieces can be detected; each of the conveyors includes means for flattening the pieces of waste before the pieces pass under the radiation detector means; and the means for flattening disposed between the receiving portion of each conveyor and the radiation detector means; the housing is generally closed; and means for providing a generally closed connection between the housing and the means for reducing the waste so that air that is in the housing and in the means for reducing the waste can be controlled
One of the key questions asked about nuclear power production is whether the industry can manage its waste safely and economically. Management must take account of long term safety, since some radioisotopes take a very long time to decay. This long term decay, which can take millions of years, focused attention for the first time on the need for some wastes to be managed for a very long time beyond the lifetime of those who generated the waste. This paper reviews what the different types of waste are, what the technical consensus is on the requirements for their safe management, and how the present state of knowledge developed. It describes how radioactive waste management is practised and planned within the fuel cycle and indicates the moderate scale of the costs in relation to the total cost of producing electricity. Country annexes give more information about what is being done in a selection of countries, in order to indicate how radioactive waste management is carried out in practice. (Author)
Inakuma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.
Laundry liquid wastes and shower drains containing radioactive materials generated in a nuclear power plant are removed with radioactive materials by a fiber filtration device and an activated carbon filtration device to satisfy standers of water quality described in the environmental effect investigation report. Spent activated carbon is dehydrated together with the back-wash liquid from the fiber filtration device and the activated carbon filtration device using a Nutsche-type filtration dryer. With such procedures, the scale of the facility is minimized, space for devices, maintenance for equipments and radiation dose rate are reduced. (T.M.)
Nishi, Takashi; Baba, Tsutomu; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masami; Chino, Koichi; Ikeda, Takashi.
As an adsorbent used for removing radioactive nuclides such as cesium and strontium from radioactive liquid wastes generated from a reprocessing plant, a silicon compound having siloxane bonds constituted by silicon and oxygen and having silanol groups constituted by silicon, oxygen and hydrogen, or an inorganic material mainly comprising aluminosilicate constituted with silicon, oxygen and aluminum is used. In the adsorbent of the present invention, since silica main skeletons are partially decomposed in an aqueous alkaline solution to newly form silanol groups having a cation adsorbing property, pretreatment such as pH adjustment is not necessary. (T.M.)
The relations between peaceful uses and bellicose uses of the nuclear energy are complexes in relation to international establishment of norms to control the destiny of the radioactive materials, above all in the context of the existing international legislation of respect to the autonomy of the countries, and in the determination of the institution or institutions upon the ones that would fall on. The nuclear safeguards of materials and the possibilities of performing their function. Important efforts have been done to unify, to help and to impose international measures on the behalf of an environmentally harmless processing of the radioactive wastes [es
Nelson, C.W.; Morrey, E.V.
Further validation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed simulants will be performed by analyzing offgases during crucible melting of actual waste glasses and simulants. The existing method of vitrifying radioactive laboratory-scale samples will be modified to allow offgas analysis during preparation of glass for product testing. The analysis equipment will include two gas chromatographs (GC) with thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and one NO/NO x analyzer. This equipment is part of the radioactive formating offgas system. The system will provide real-time analysis of H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , NO, N 2 O, NO 2 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and SO 2 . As with the prior melting method, the product glass will be compatible with durability testing, i.e., Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Material Characterization Center (MCC-1), and crystallinity analysis. Procedures have been included to ensure glass homogeneity and quenching. The radioactive glass will be adaptable to Fe +2 /ΣFe measurement procedures because the atmosphere above the melt can be controlled. The 325 A-hot cell facility is being established as the permanent location for radioactive offgas analysis during formating, and can be easily adapted to crucible melt tests. The total costs necessary to set up and perform offgas measurements on the first radioactive core sample is estimated at $115K. Costs for repeating the test on each additional core sample are estimated to be $60K. The schedule allows for performing the test on the next available core sample
Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.
Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification
This publication is a revision of an earlier Safety Guide of the same title issued in 1994. It recommends revised waste management strategies that reflect changes in practices and approaches since then. It sets out a classification system for the management of waste prior to disposal and for disposal, driven by long term safety considerations. It includes a number of schemes for classifying radioactive waste that can be used to assist with planning overall national approaches to radioactive waste management and to assist with operational management at facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The radioactive waste classification scheme; Appendix: The classification of radioactive waste; Annex I: Evolution of IAEA standards on radioactive waste classification; Annex II: Methods of classification; Annex III: Origin and types of radioactive waste
This publication is a revision of an earlier Safety Guide of the same title issued in 1994. It recommends revised waste management strategies that reflect changes in practices and approaches since then. It sets out a classification system for the management of waste prior to disposal and for disposal, driven by long term safety considerations. It includes a number of schemes for classifying radioactive waste that can be used to assist with planning overall national approaches to radioactive waste management and to assist with operational management at facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The radioactive waste classification scheme; Appendix: The classification of radioactive waste; Annex I: Evolution of IAEA standards on radioactive waste classification; Annex II: Methods of classification; Annex III: Origin and types of radioactive waste.
Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.
Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included
Tahir, Tariq B.; Qamar Ali
This paper describes the existing radioactive waste management scheme of KANUPP. The radioactive wastes generated at KANUPP are in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. The spent fuel of the plant is stored underwater in the Spent Fuel Bay. For long term storage of low and intermediate level solid waste, 3m deep concrete lined trenches have been provided. The non-combustible material is directly stored in these trenches while the combustible material is first burnt in an incinerator and the ash is collected, sealed and also stored in the trenches. The low-level liquid and gaseous effluents are diluted and are discharged into the sea and the atmosphere. The paper also describes a modification carried out in the spent resin collection system in which a locally designed removable tank replaced the old permanent tanks. Presently the low level combustible solid waste is incinerated and stored, but it is planned to replace the present method by using compactor and storing the compacted waste in steel drums underground. (author)
This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs
Radioactive waste just happens to be the major issue in the public eye now--it could be replaced by another issue later. A survey is quoted to prove that wastes are not really one of the burning national issues of the day. The people opposing the nuclear program cannot be said to represent the public. The taste of the press for the melodramatic is pointed out. The issue needs to be presented with the proper perspective, in the context of the benefits and risks of nuclear power
This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references
A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed
The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.
Vicente, Roberto; Dellamano, Jose C.; Hiromoto, Goro
Full text: In this paper, we present alternative processes that could be adopted for the management of radioactive waste that arises from the replacement of lightning rods with attached Americium-241 sources. Lightning protectors, with Americium-241 sources attached to the air terminals, were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the regulatory authority overthrew the license for fabrication, commerce, and installation of radioactive lightning rods. It is estimated that, during the license period, about 75,000 such devices were set up in public, commercial and industrial buildings, including houses and schools. However, the policy of CNEN in regard to the replacement of the installed radioactive rods, has been to leave the decision to municipal governments under local building regulations, requiring only that the replaced rods be sent immediately to one of its research institutes to be treated as radioactive waste. As a consequence, the program of replacement proceeds in a low pace and until now only about twenty thousand rods have reached the waste treatment facilities The process of management that was adopted is based primarily on the assumption that the Am-241 sources will be disposed of as radioactive sealed sources, probably in a deep borehole repository. The process can be described broadly by the following steps: a) Receive and put the lightning rods in initial storage; b) Disassemble the rods and pull out the sources; c) Decontaminate and release the metal parts to metal recycling; d) Store the sources in intermediate storage; e) Package the sources in final disposal packages; and f) Send the sources for final disposal. Up to now, the disassembled devices gave rise to about 90,000 sources which are kept in storage while the design of the final disposal package is in progress. (author)
Warren, J.H.; Hootman, H.E.
A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburn chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary a magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber. (author)
This power point presentation (82 slides) gives information on what is a radioactive waste, radioactivity and historical review of radioactivity, radioactive period, natural radioactivity (with examples of data), the three main radiation types (α, β, γ), the origin of radioactive wastes (nuclear power, research, defense, other), the proportion of radioactive wastes in the total of industrial wastes in France, the classification of nuclear wastes according to their activity and period, the quantities and their storage means, the 1991 december 30 law (France) related to the radioactive waste management, the situation in other countries (Germany, Belgium, Canada, USA, Finland, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland), volume figures and previsions for the various waste types in 2004, 2010 and 2020, the storage perspectives, the French national debate on radioactive waste management and the objective of perpetuated solutions, the enhancement of the public information, the 15 June 2006 law on a sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes with three main axis (deep separation and transmutation, deep storage, waste conditioning and long term surface storage), and the development of a nuclear safety and waste culture that could be extended to other types of industry
This bibliography contains information on radioactive waste inventories and projections included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through September 1982. The arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (25 abstracts)
Deschamps, S.; Mathey, J.C.
Hospitals are producers of small amounts of radioactive waste. Current legislation details exactly how hospitals should manage it. Sealed sources are returned to suppliers. Disposal of unsealed sources, liquid or solid, depends upon their half-life: short-lived radioisotopes (half-life less than two months) are stocked on site while they decay; isotopes with longer half-lives (greater than two months) are handled by a specialist organization (ANDRA). (authors). 8 refs
Throughout the country the mention of anything nuclear or the word radiation ignites fear in the minds of many Americans. Political hype, news stories and the lack of basic understanding about nuclear power and radiation causes many people to reject what they do not understand. Often little, if any, thought may have been given to nearby nuclear weapons facilities where family members and neighbors were gainfully employed at these sites. As older nuclear facilities are closed being a result of the end of the Cold War, with indications that radioactive materials might be transported to other parts of the country, the public in expressing concern. It is important that the public have an understanding of how these materials are handled to insure public safety. It becomes important that both the companies handling these materials and the U.S. Department of Energy create an environment that will involve community participation in developing strategies that will promote and support an understanding of how radioactive wastes will be packaged, transported, and disposed. This is being performed in Oak Ridge, TN. through the efforts of the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board (ORSSAB). The ORSSAB is a DOE sponsored board of private citizens from all walks of life and professionalism's. The objective of this paper is to offer suggestions as to how public confidence, through education about nuclear, radioactive and associated and wastes are effectively handle the problems related to waste disposal, removal or on-site storage. It is essential that the public fully understand and become involved in the need for the reduction of the waste stream volumes and the technical problems being faced in reaching this goal. The effort of gaining public understanding and support of this important task cannot be limited to just those within close proximity to the facility presently housing these materials, but must extend to those outlying areas and along any potential route that might be
Williams, R.G.; Olshansky, S.J.
In the Supreme Court case ''People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE) vs Metropolitan Edison,'' one of the conclusions was that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission did not have to consider psychological distress, community cohesiveness and sense of well-being in the supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covering the restart of Three Mile Island (TMI). This decision was based on the assumption that the intention of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to focus on the physical environment, and the casual chain between psychological distress and adverse health effects is tenuous. In this paper the authors summarize the literature on the relationship between environmentally-induced stress and its effects on health. They present the results of a new survey research project in which levels of stress were evaluated in West Chicago, Illinois, a community in which radioactive wastes have been present for many years. Explanatory social variables are brought into the evaluation in which stress is evaluated as a function of proximity to the radioactive waste site. In addition, stress is discussed in the context of attitudes on nuclear power, environmental group participation, and knowledge about the health effects associated with radioactive waste. The paper ends with a discussion of the portion of the Supreme Court decision in which psychological distress, community stability, cohesiveness and sense of well being are excluded as variables to address in EISs
The radioactive waste cleanup community has not effectively utilized its most powerful communications tool to inform the general public; the print and broadcast media. Environmental interest groups have known of the value of accessing the media for their message for years and have used it effectively. The radioactive waste cleanup community's efforts to date have not been focused on education of the media so that they in turn can inform the public of our cleanup mission. Their focus must be to learn of the importance of the media, develop training programs that train technical people in how to know and respond to the media's needs for information, and then incorporate that training into a comprehensive program of public information in which access to the media is a key communications tool. This paper discusses how media education and access is a cost-effective means of accomplishing community relations goals of public information and public participation in radioactive waste cleanup and has been effectively utilized at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project
As explained in the present article, operators of nuclear power plants are responsible for the safe final disposal of the radioactive wastes they produce on the strength of the polluter pays principle. To shift the burden of responsibility for safe disposal to society as a whole would violate this principle and is therefore not possible. The polluter pays principle follows from more general principles of the fair distribution of benefits and burdens. Instances of its implementation are to be found in the national Atomic Energy Law as well as in the European Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Directive. The polluters in this case are in particular responsible for financing the installation and operation of final disposal sites. The reserves accumulated so far for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and disposal of radioactive wastes, including the installation and operation of final disposal sites, should be transferred to a public-law fund. This fund should be supplemented by the polluters to cover further foreseeable costs not covered by the reserves accumulated so far, including a realistic cost increase factor, appropriate risk reserves as well as the costs of the site selection procedure and a share in the costs for the safe closure of the final disposal sites of Morsleben and Asse II. This would merely be implementing in the sphere of atomic law that has long been standard practice in other areas of environmental law involving environmental hazards.
The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites
Cuaz, Daniel; Thiery, Daniel.
Description is given of a method for conditioning radioactive-wastes, according to the main patent. This method is characterized in that the radioactive wastes are constituted by radio-elements incorporated with filtration and/or floculation promoters. This can be applied to radioactive effluent processing [fr
Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to Assist public consultation on application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth Devon
The Environment Agency (the Agency) is the independent public body responsible for regulating the use of radioactive substances and accumulation and disposal of radioactive wastes in order to ensure protection of people and the environment. Anyone who is proposing activities involving the use of radioactive substances or disposal of radioactive waste must apply for permission from the Agency. In 1993, the Government decided to locate all nuclear submarine refit work at Devonport. This will lead to increased amounts of radioactive waste arisings at Devonport and a decreased amount of waste arisings at Rosyth, where refit work was also previously carried out. In May 2000 Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited (DML) applied to the Agency for a variation to its authorisations under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 to dispose of gaseous, liquid, and solid radioactive wastes from its site at Devonport in Plymouth. Once the application was received, the Agency made the information publicly available and held a well attended public meeting in Plymouth to highlight the issues. Since then the Agency has required DML to provide additional information in support of its application. Six rounds of questions were asked and responded to, and these responses have also been made publicly available. The application and responses from the company have been made publicly available. The Agency is now consulting widely on this information to assist its decision making. This Explanatory Document and the accompanying draft authorisation has been prepared by the Agency to assist the consultation process. They are intended to help members of the public and other consultees to understand the application and the Agency's considerations so far. The consultation is being carried out to enable the public and other consultees to draw the Agency's attention to any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its decisions on this application. The Agency has not made any decisions on the DML
This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.
Kikuchi, M; Kamiya, K; Sugimoto, Y
A method is claimed to decrease the number of storage containers filled with radioactive wastes. A wire-netting containers having a capacity of 67 liters is filled with 60 kg of pellet-like radioactive solid material. The wire-netting container is held in the middle of a drum can, and asphalt is poured between the drum can and the wire-netting container and stored until radioactivity is attenuated. After storage, the stored body is heated to melt the asphalt and the wire-netting container is removed. Thereafter, the pellet-like radioactive solid material is taken out of the wire-netting container and combined with the other pellet-like radioactive solid material similarly taken out of the storage container, and the resultant material is filled into a wire-netting container having a capacity of 167 liters every 150 kg, and inserted again into the same drum can, into which recovered asphalt is poured for final storage.
The safety of the radioactive waste disposal concepts does not rely on long term institutional arrangements. However, future generations may need information related to repositories and the wastes confined in them. The potentially needed information therefore has to be identified and collected. A suitable system for the preservation of that information needs to be created as a part of the disposal concept beginning with the planning phase. The IAEA has prepared this technical report to respond to the needs of Member States having repositories or involved in or considering the development of repositories. In many countries policies and systems for record keeping and maintenance of information related to disposal are the subjects of current interest. This report describes the requirements for presenting information about repositories for radioactive waste including long lived and transuranic waste and spent fuel if it is declared as a waste. The report discussed topics of identification, transfer and long term retention of high level information pertaining to the repository in a records management system (RMS) for retrieval if it becomes necessary in the future
University Radioactive Waste Management educational programs are being actively advanced by the educational support activities of the Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) of the DOE. The DOE fellowship program formats of funding students and requiring a practical research experience (practicum) at a DOE site has helped to combine the academic process with a practical work experience. Support for faculty in these programs is augmenting the benefits of the fellowship programs. The many job opportunities and funding sources for students which currently exists in the radioactive waste management area are fueling an increase in academic programs seeking recognition of their radioactive waste management curriculums
Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.
Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)
Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.
This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.
Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.
This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers
Sauda, Kenzo; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Yagi, Takuro; Yamazaki, Hideki.
Purpose: To carry out optimum photooxidizing procession following after the fluctuation in the density of organic materials in radioactive liquid wastes to thereby realize automatic remote procession. Constitution: A reaction tank is equipped with an ultraviolet lamp and an ozone dispersing means for the oxidizing treatment of organic materials in liquid wastes under the irradiation of UV rays. There are also provided organic material density measuring devices to the inlet and outlet of the reaction tank, and a control device for controlling the UV lamp power adjusting depending on the measured density. The output of the UV lamp is most conveniently adjusted by changing the applied voltage. The liquid wastes in which the radioactivity dose is reduced to a predetermined level are returned to the reaction tank by the operation of a switching valve for reprocession. The amount of the liquid wastes at the inlet is controlled depending on the measured ozone density by the adjusting valve. In this way, the amount of organic materials to be subjected to photolysis can be kept within a certain limit. (Kamimura, M.)
Matagi, Yoshihiko; Takahara, Akira; Ootsuka, Katsuyuki.
Purpose: To avoid the reduction in the atmospheric insulation by preventing the generation of CO 2 , H 2 O, etc. upon irradiation of microwave heat. Method: Radioactive wastes are charged into a hopper, supplied on a conveyor, fed each by a predetermined amount to a microwave furnace and heated by microwaves applied from a microwave guide. Simultaneously, inert gases are supplied from a supply line. The Radioactive wastes to be treated are shielded by the inert gases to prevent the combustion of decomposed gases produced from the wastes upon irradiation of microwave heat to thereby prevent the generation of CO 2 , H 2 , etc., as well as the generated decomposed gases are diluted with the inert gases to decrease the dissociation of the decomposed gases to prevent the reduction in the atmospheric insulation. Since the spent inert gases can be recovered for reuse, the amount of gaseous wastes released to the atmosphere can be decreased and the working life of the high performance air filters can be extended. (Sekiya, K.)
This law regulate the relations of legal persons, enterprises without the rights of legal persons, and natural persons in the management of radioactive waste in Lithuania and establish the legal grounds for the management of radioactive waste. Thirty one article of the law deals with the following subjects: principles of radioactive waste management, competence of the Government, State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment and Radiation Protection Center in the sphere of regulation of the radioactive waste management, activities subject to licensing, issue of licences and authorisations, duties and responsibilities of the waste producer, founding of the radioactive waste management agency, its basic status and principles of the activities, functions of the agency, management of the agency, transfer of the radioactive waste to the agency, assessment of the existing waste management facilities and their past practices, siting, design and construction, safety assessment, commissioning and operation of the radioactive waste management facilities, radiation protection, quality assurance, emergency preparedness, decommissioning of radioactive waste storage and other facilities, post-closure surveillance of the repository, disused sealed sources, transportation, export and transit of radioactive waste
Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G.T.
One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for 'complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,' or 'CVID.' It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times
Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges
ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity and sustainable development report 2010 - a year with Andra. Management report and financial statements 2010 - Managing today to prepare for tomorrow
Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the management and financial statements report, of the Andra for the year 2010
Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.
The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste
There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste
The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.
Mora Rodriguez, Patricia
An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es
The existing organizational structure and regulations for management of high-level and TRU wastes are likely to become ineffective if left unchanged. Recommendations for institutional reforms include the establishment of a National Radioactive Waste Authority in the U.S. and of an International Radioactive Waste Commission under IAEA
Kim, Kil Jeong; Ahn, Seom Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Lim, Kil Sung; Sohn, Young Joon; Kim, Tae Kook; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Wi, Geum San; Park, Seung Chul; Park, Young Woong; Yoon, Bong Keun.
The radioactive wasted generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1996 are about 118m 3 of liquid waste and 204 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. In 1996, 100.5m 3 of liquid waste was treated. (author). 84 tabs., 103 figs
Hiraki, Akimitsu; Tanaka, Keiji; Heta, Katsutoshi.
The pressure in a vessel containing radioactive wastes is previously reduced and cement mortar prepared by kneading cement, sand and kneading agent with water is poured under shaking substantially to the upper end of the vessel. After the lowering of the mortar level due to the deforming has been terminated, the pressure is increased gradually. Then, the cement mortar is further poured substantially to the upper end of the vessel again. With such a two step pouring method, spaces other than the radioactive wastes in the vessel can be filled substantially completely with the cement mortar. Accordingly, it is possible to avoid the problem in view of the strength due to the formation of gaps at the inside of the vessel, or leaching of radioactive materials due to the intrusion of water into the gaps. Further, if washing water is reutilized as water for kneading or washing after the precipitation of the solid contents, the amount of the secondary wastes generated can be reduced. (T.M.)
This report was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on quality assurance and quality control requirements for radioactive waste packages. The report provides guidance and rationale for the application of inspections and tests as part of the entire quality assurance programme to verify and demonstrate that waste conditioning is being performed in a manner that protects human health and the environment from hazards associated with radioactive waste. The report is relevant to the Technical Reports Series No. 376, ''Quality Assurance for Radioactive Waste Packages'' dealing in general with the quality assurance programme of organization consigning radioactive waste to the repository, and elaborates its section devoted to inspection and testing for acceptance. 14 refs, 7 figs
During the first decades of development of nuclear energy, organizations involved in the management of nuclear wastes had their attention focused essentially on radioactive components. The impression may have prevailed that, considering the severe restrictions on radioactive materials, the protection measured applied for radioactive components of wastes would be more than adequate to cope with potential hazards from non radioactive components associated with radioactive wastes. More recently it was acknowledged that such interpretation is not necessarily justified in all cases since certain radioactive wastes also contain non-negligible amounts of heavy metals or hazardous organic components which, either, do not decay, or are subject to completely different decay (decomposition) mechanisms. The main purposes of the present study are to analyze whether mixed radioactive wastes are likely to occur in Europe and in what form, whether one needs a basis for integration for evaluating various forms of toxicity and by which practical interventions possible problems can be avoided or at least reduced. (au)
In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste
The report is in chapters entitled: introduction (background, responsibilities, options, structure of the programme); strategy development; disposal of accumulations; disposal of radioactive waste arisings; quality assurance for waste conditioning quality assurance related to radioactive waste disposal (effectiveness of different rock types as natural barriers to the movement of radioactivity, and non-site specific factors in the design of repositories; radiological assessment; environmental studies; research and development to meet requirements specific to UKAEA wastes; long term research (processes for the solidification of highly active liquid wastes); plutonium contamination waste minimisation. (U.K.)
Murakami, Susumu; Kuroda, Noriko; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.
The present device comprises a radioactive liquid wastes concentration means for circulating radioactive liquid wastes between each of the tank, a pump and a film evaporator thereby obtaining liquid concentrates and a distilled water recovery means for condensing steams separated by the film evaporator by means of a condenser. It further comprises a cyclizing means for circulating the resultant distilled water to the upstream after the concentration of the liquid concentrates exceeds a predetermined value or the quality of the distilled water reaches a predetermined level. Further, a film evaporator having hydrophilic and homogeneous films is used as a film evaporator. Then, the quality of the distilled water discharged from the present device to the downstream can always satisfy the predetermined conditions. Further, by conducting operation at high concentration while interrupting the supply of the processing liquids, high concentration up to the aimed concentration can be attained. Further, since the hydrophilic homogeneous films are used, carry over of the radioactive material accompanying the evaporation is eliminated to reduce the working ratio of the vacuum pump. (T.M.)
The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)
The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport
Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio
In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
This presentation takes stock on the situation of the radioactive wastes management in France. It gives information on the deep underground disposal, the public information, the management of the radioactive wastes in France, the researches in the framework of the law of the 30 december 1991, the underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne, the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) and its sites. (A.L.B.)
Sugimoto, Y; Kikuchi, M; Funabashi, K; Yusa, H; Horiuchi, S
Purpose: To decrease the volume of radioactive liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium hydroxide and boric acid. Method: The concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide to boric acid by weight in radioactive liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium hydroxide and boric acid is adjusted in the range of 0.28 - 0.4 by means of a pH detector and a sodium concentration detector. Thereafter, the radioactive liquid wastes are dried into powder and then discharged.
Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de
Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi
The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs
The demand for scientists, engineers, and technicians with expertise in radioactive waste management is growing rapidly. Many universities, government agencies, and private contractors are developing courses in radioactive waste management. Two such courses have been developed at The Ohio State University. In support of that course development, two surveys were conducted. One survey went to all nuclear engineering programs in the US to determine what radioactive waste management courses are currently being taught. The other went to 600 waste management professionals, asking them to list the topics they think should be included in a radioactive waste management course. Four key elements of a course in radioactive waste management were identified. They are (a) technical information, (b) legal and regulatory framework, (c) communicating with the public, and (d) sources of information on waste management. Contents of each of the four elements are discussed, and results of the surveys are presented
In India, nuclear power generation programme and application of radioisotopes for health care and various other application is increasing steadily. With resultant increase in generation of radioactive waste, emphasis is on the minimization of generation of radioactive waste by deploying suitable processes and materials, segregation of waste streams at sources, recycle and re-use of useful components of waste and use of volume reduction techniques. The minimization of the radioactive waste is also essential to facilitate judicious use of the scarce land available for disposal, to reduce impact on the environment due to disposal and, finally to optimize the cost of radioactive waste management. This paper presents a bird's eye view of radioactive waste management programme in the country today
The present invention concerns a radioactive gaseous waste processing device used in BWR power plants. A heater is disposed to the lower portion of a dryer for dehydrating radioactive off gases. Further, a thermometer is disposed to a coolant return pipeway on the exit side of the cooling portion of the dryer and signals sent from the thermometer are inputted to an automatic temperature controller. If the load on the dryer is reduced, the value of the thermometer is lowered than a set value, then an output signal corresponding to the change is supplied from the automatic temperature controller to the heater to forcively apply loads to the dryer. Therefore, defrosting can be conducted completely without operating a refrigerator, and the refrigerator can be maintained under a constant load by applying a dummy load when the load in the dryer is reduced. (I.N.)
The global energy demand is increasing. Sound forecasts indicate that by the year 2020 almost eight thousand million people will be living on our planet, and generating their demand for energy will require conversion of about 20 thousand million tonnes of coal equivalents a year. Against this background scenario, a new concept for energy generation elaborated by nuclear scientists at CERN attracts particular interest. The concept describing a new nuclear energy source and technology intends to meet the following principal requirements: create a new energy source that can be exploited in compliance with extremely stringent safety requirements; reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste; substantially reduce the size of required radwaste repositories; use easily available natural fuels that will not need isotopic separation; prevent the risk of proliferation of radioactive materials; process and reduce unwanted actinides as are generated by the operation of current breeder reactors; achieve high efficiency both in terms of technology and economics. (orig./CB) [de
Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N
The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).
Le Bars, Y.; Pescatore, C.
The Stakeholder involvement in policy making of radioactive waste management, has received considerable attention within the OECD. The Nea forum on Stakeholder confidence (FSC) was set up in 2000. A Nea recent publication entitled ''Learning and adapting to societal requirements for radioactive waste management'' brings together the key FSC findings and experience covering four years of work. Six main areas are targeted in this publication and are briefly described in this document: favourable candidates for issuing radioactive waste management policy, the design of the decision-making process, the social and ethical dimension, trust in the actors, Stakeholder involvement and the local dimension of radioactive waste management. (A.L.B.)
The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.
The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated. Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run. Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities. Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of 'regional disposal'. Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest, southwest, south and east China respectively. A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made
This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users
Plecas, I.; Peric, A.
Low and intermediate level waste represents 95% of the total wastes that is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these containers are to protect radioactive waste safely for about 300 years, the selection and precise control of physical and mechanical characteristics of materials is very important. After volume reduction and valuable components recovery, waste materials have to be conditioned for transport, storage and disposal. Conditioning is the waste management step in which radioactive wastes are immobilized and packed. The immobilization processes involve conversation of the wastes to solid forms that reduce the potential for migration or dispersion of radionuclides from the wastes by natural processes during storage, transport and disposal. The immobilization processes involve the use of various matrices of nonradioactive materials, such as concrete, to fix the wastes as monoliths, usually directly in the waste containers used for subsequent handling. In this paper an optimization of concrete container composition, used for storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is presented. Optimization was performed on the composition of the concrete that is used in the container production. In experiments, the authors tried to obtain the best mechanical characteristics of the concrete, varying the weight percentage of the granulate due to its diameter, water-to-cement ratios and type of the cements that were used in preparing the concrete container formulation. Concrete containers, that were optimized in the manner described in this paper, will be in used for the radioactive waste materials final disposal, using the concept of the engineer trench system facilities
Reference to 2140 publications related to radioactive waste, announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) Volumes 28 (July Dec. 1973), 29 (Jan.--June 1974), and 30 (July--Dec. 1974), are presented. The references are arranged by the original NSA abstract number, which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference and the NSA volume and abstract numbers appear at the end of the citations. Three indexes are provided: Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. This document supplements the preceding six in the TID3311 series. (U.S.)
In gaseous radioactive waste disposal, aerosol particles are filtered and gaseous wastes are discharged in the environment. The filters and filter materials used are stored on solid radioactive waste storage sites in the individual power plants. Liquid radioactive wastes are concentrated and the concentrates are stored. Distillates and low-level radioactive waste water are discharged into the hydrosphere. Solid radioactive wastes are stored without treatment in power plant bunkers. Bituminization and cementation of liquid radioactive wastes are discussed. (H.S.)
This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes
Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)
The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.
Sato, Y.; Kobayashi, I.; Kikuchi, M.
With the progress of nuclear fuel cycle in Japan, various types of radioactive waste will generate at each nuclear facility in the cycle. Therefor generated volume and stored quantity of waste will be supposed to increase. From the viewpoints of safety and public acceptance, by using mainframe computer it is necessary that the treatment of historical waste data, the estimation of generated waste volume and stored quantity and the investigation of research and development status of waste processing and disposal are carried out. This paper proposes design and development of the radioactive waste data base which is able to properly and correctly manage and grasp numerical and/or documentary information for generated radioactive waste. So the data base will be expected to use for planning the future management of radioactive waste. (author)
Radioactive waste is generated in various nuclear applications, for example, in the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research or in the nuclear fuel cycle. It must be managed in a safe way independent of its very different characteristics. Establishing the basic safety philosophy is an important contribution to promoting and developing international consensus in radioactive waste management. The principles of radioactive waste management were developed with supporting text to provide such a safety philosophy. They cover the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future within and beyond national borders, the legal framework, the generation and management of radioactive wastes, and the safety of facilities. Details of the legal framework are provided by defining the roles and responsibilities of the Member State, the regulatory body and the waste generators and operators of radioactive waste management facilities. These principles and the responsibilities in radioactive waste management are contained in two recently published top level documents of the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which is the IAEA's contribution to foster international consensus in radioactive waste management. As the two documents have to cover all aspects of radioactive waste management they have to be formulated in a generic way. Details will be provided in other, more specific documents of the RADWASS programme as outlined in the RADWASS publication plant. The RADWASS documents are published in the Agency's Safety Series, which provides recommendations to Member Sates. Using material from the top level RADWASS documents a convention on the safety of radioactive waste management is under development to provide internationally binding requirements for radioactive waste management. (author). 12 refs
Fink, K.; Sirola, P.
The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as a political tool, brought the final radioactive repository siting effort to a stop. Although small amounts of radioactive waste are produced in research institutes, hospitals and industry, major source of radioactive waste in Slovenia is the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. When Krsko NPP was originally built, plans were made to construct a permanent radioactive waste disposal facility. This facility was supposed to be available to receive waste from the plant long before the on site storage facility was full. However, the permanent disposal facility is not yet available, and it became necessary to retain the wastes produced at the plant in the on-site storage facility for an extended period of time. Temporary radioactive storage capacity at the plant site has limited capacity and having no other options available NPP Krsko is undertaking major efforts to reduce waste volume generated to allow normal operation. This article describes the Radioactive Waste Compaction Campaign performed from November, 1994 through November, 1995 at Krsko NPP, to enhance the efficiency and safety of storage of radioactive waste. The campaign involved the retrieval, segmented gamma-spectrum measurement, dose rate measurement, compaction, re-packaging, and systematic storage of radioactive wastes which had been stored in the NPP radioactive waste storage building since plant commissioning. (author)
The lecture deals with definition, quantity and type of radioactive waste products occurring in a fuel reprocessing plant. Solid, liquid and gaseous fission and activation products are formed during the dissolution of the fuel and during the extraction process, and they must be separated from the fissionalble uranium and plutonium not spent. The chemical behaviour of these products (Zr, Ru, Np, gaseous substances, radiolysis products), which is sometimes very problematic, necessitates careful process control. However, the lifetime of nuclides is just as important for the conditions of the reprocessing procedure. The types of waste obtained after reprocessing are classified according to their state of aggregation and level of activity and - on the basis of the operational data of a prototype plant - they are quantitatively extrapolated for the operation of a large-scale facility of 1,400 tons of fuel annually. (RB) [de
The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment
Many laboratories in universities, colleges, research institutions and hospitals produce radioactive wastes. The recently-coined term for them is small users of radioactive materials, to distinguish them from concerns such as the nuclear industry. Until recently the accepted official view was that small users had few problems in disposing of their radioactive wastes. This misconception was dispelled in 1991 by the 12th Annual Report of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee. This book includes a description of the principles of the management and disposal of radioactive wastes from these laboratories. Its main intention, however, is to provide practical information and data for laboratory workers as well as for those responsible for management and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. I hope that it succeeds in this intention. (UK)
Calin, M. R.; Garlea, C.; Petre, A. R.; Serbina, L.
The development of nuclear activities in Magurele, Ilfov, during the last decades has led to the accumulation of an important quantity of radioactive waste. In addition to this, there is also a large number of former radioactive sources, now shut and removed from use, currently stored at IFIN-HH. This project deals with the discharge of historic waste storages belonging to the following nuclear units: - the WWR-S nuclear reactor - (the main reactor hall, the pump hall, the hot cells and annexes); - C.P.R. - used filters storage; - S.T.D.R. - storage for both historic radioactive waste and used filters; - shut sources in the storehouses in the 'Texas Bunker' building and annexes. For a modern management, including a proper system of quality insurance, an archiving system became needed. The electronic archive is based on several informational streams: the activity of storing historic radioactive waste; - the activity of locating historic radioactive waste; - the radiological descriptions of the storehouses and their influence areas; - the determination of the waste's composition. So as to reach these objectives, information regarding the following is necessary: the storehouse's inventory, the historic radioactive waste's characteristics and proprieties, the neighbors of this facility, the way in which the environment and the personnel involved in the operations are being influenced, the preparing of discharge operations, semblances. The data base conceived to tackle the problems of data related to nuclear waste management has been programmed in Microsoft Access (Microsoft Office). (authors)
Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.
Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management
The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.
Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)
Purpose: To efficiently oxidize ruthenium in radioactive wastes and evaporize ruthenium tetraoxide after oxidization thereof, thereby improve the separation and recovery rate. Constitution: The device comprises an oxidization vessel for supplying an oxidizing agent into radioactive wastes to oxidize ruthenium in the wastes into ruthenium tetraoxide, and a distillation vessel for introducing radioactive wastes after oxidization, distillating under heating ruthenium tetraoxide leached into the wastes and evaporizing ruthenium tetraoxide. By dividing the device into the oxidizing vessel and the distillation vessel, the oxidizing treatment and the distilling treatment can individually be operated optimally to improve the separation and recovery rate of ruthenium. (Takahashi, M.)
Motojima, Kenji; Kawamura, Fumio.
Purpose: To increase the efficiency of removing radioactive cesium from radioactive liquid waste by employing zeolite affixed to metallic compound ferrocyanide as an adsorbent. Method: Regenerated liquid waste of a reactor condensation desalting unit, floor drain and so forth are collected through respective supply tubes to a liquid waste tank, and the liquid waste is fed by a pump to a column filled with zeolite containing a metallic compound ferrocyanide, such as with copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel or the like. The liquid waste from which radioactive cesium is removed is dried and pelletized by volume reducing and solidifying means. (Yoshino, Y.)
Needs and opportunities for an international approach to management and disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed. Deficiencies in current national radioactive waste management programs are described, and the impacts of management of fissile materials from nuclear weapons on waste management are addressed. Value-added services that can be provided by an international organization for waste management are identified, and candidate organizations that could provide these services are also identified
For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)
Albrecht, E.; Kolditz, H.; Thielemann, K.; Duerr, K.; Klarr, K.; Kuehn, K.; Staupendahl, G.; Uerpmann, E.P.; Bechthold, W.; Diefenbacher, W.
The present report - presented by the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, Muenchen in cooperation with the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe - gives a survey of the 1973 work in the field of final storage of radioactive wastes. The mining and constructional work carried out aboveground and underground in the saline of Asse near Remlingen with a view to repair, maintenance and expansion for future tasks is discussed. Storage of slightly active wastes on the 750 m floor and the tentative storage of medium-activity wastes on the 490 m floor were continued in the time under review. In September, the multiple transport container S 7 V, developped in the GfK for transports of 7 200 l iron-hooped drums containing medium activity wastes, were employed in Asse for the first time. With two transports a week between Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the Asse mine, 14 drums were stored per week with a total of 233 drums at the end of the year. The report also gives information on the present state of research in the fields of mountain engineering geology and hydrology, and its results. In addition, new storage methods are mentioned which are still in the planning stage. (orig./AK) [de
Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.
The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)
Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.
The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.
The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways
Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.
In 1996 the remediation of the provisional storage situated near village Zavratec in western part of Slovenia started. In this storage radioactive waste contaminated with radium has been stored for many decades The RAO Agency organized remedial works, in which these activities inventorying and repacking of radioactive waste were carried out. Simultaneously with these activities a detailed programme for covering public relations was prepared and implemented. On the basis of the experimental results and general storage conditions relocation of radioactive waste to the Slovenian central storage was recommended and it is planned to be concluded by the end of 1998. In this paper main remedial activities in the provisional storage of radioactive waste near Zavratec are presented. An important and most challenging part of these activities represent PR activities. (author)
Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal [Radioactive Waste Management Unit (RWMU), Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Altinsehir Yolu 5 km. Halkali, 34303K Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: Erdal.Osmanlioglu@taek.gov.tr
Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.
Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal
Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite
Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal
Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.
Landsberger, S.; Graham, G.
Naturally occurring radioactive material commonly known as NORM composes the majority of the dose received by a person each year at approximately 80% of the total amount. However, there is a noticeably higher concentration of radioisotopes present in technologically enhanced NORM, often called TENORM, which results directly from human industrial activities. NORM is formed in the process of mineral mining including phosphate production, where the end goal is to concentrate high quantities of metals or elements (e.g. phosphorous). However, NORM has also become a widely recognized problem in the oil and gas industry. It is approximately one hundred and fifty years since oil was discovered in the continental United States and the mention of radioactivity in mineral oils and natural gases occurred in 1904, just eight years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Bequerel in 1896. In just over three decades the problems from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) wastes arising from the oil and gas industry have been much more scrutinized. In the 1980’s 226Ra began to be noticed when scrap metal dealers would detect unacceptably high levels of radiation from oil-field piping1. In 1991 Raloff2 published an article on the new hot wastes in NORM and in 1992 Wilson et. al3 described the health physics aspects of radioactive petroleum piping scale. NORM will develop in high concentrations in by-product oil and gas waste streams4-7. The NORM will chemically separate from other piped material in the process of the extraction of oil, resulting in high concentrations of 226Ra, 228 Ra and 210Pb and other radioisotopes in a densely caked layer on the inner surfaces of the piping1 . The activity of the 226Ra from NORM ranges from 185 to several tens of thousands Bq/kg of sample. By comparison, the NORM concentrations of radium in rock and soil is, at a natural level, 18.5 - 185 Bq/kg1. Disposal of NORM becomes more problematic as higher concentrations of
Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.
A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future
This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system
The chairman of ANDRA (French agency for the management of radioactive waste) presents the activities of the agency in the framework of the 2006 Planning Act that took in principle the decision to dispose of the high-level and the long-lived radioactive waste in a geological repository (Cigeo project). One of the important aspects of the Cigeo project is the requirement by law, to study the reversibility and therefore to demonstrate the capability to retrieve already disposed waste packages. In March 2010 the Government accepted the 30 km 2 area proposed by ANDRA for the location of the future repository. At present, ANDRA teams are fully busy on 2 fronts: first in preparing the license application for Cigeo to be submitted in 2015, and secondly in preparing the industrial phase of the Cigeo project. Low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste are disposed of in surface facilities. (A.C.)
Smodis, B.; Tavcar, G.; Stepisnik, M.; Pucelj, B.
Conditioning of mostly liquid uranium containing technological radioactive waste emerging from the past research activities at the Jozef Stefan Institute is described. The waste was first thoroughly characterised, then the radionuclides present solidified by appropriate chemical treatment, and the final product separated and prepared for storage in compliance with the legislation. The activities were carried out within the recently renewed Hot Cells Facility of the Jozef Stefan Institute and the overall process resulted in substantial volume reduction of the waste initially present. (author)
This document comprises collected lecture on radioactive waste management which were given by specialists of the Radioactive Waste Management Section of the IAEA, scientific-industrial enterprise 'Radon' (Moscow, RF) and A.A. Bochvar's GNTs RF VNIINM (Moscow, RF) on various courses, seminars and conferences. These lectures include the following topics: basic principles and national systems of radioactive waste management; radioactive waste sources and their classification; collection, sorting and initial characterization of radioactive wastes; choice of technologies of radioactive waste processing and minimization of wastes; processing and immobilization of organic radioactive wastes; thermal technologies of radioactive waste processing; immobilization of radioactive wastes in cements, asphalts, glass and polymers; management of worked out closed radioactive sources; storage of radioactive wastes; deactivation methods; quality control and assurance in radioactive waste management
This presentation describes the main technologies for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes at Czech nuclear power plants. The main technologies are bituminisation for liquid radioactive wastes and supercompaction for solid radioactive wastes. (author)
This report has been published as a NSA (Nuclear Systems Association, Japan) commentary series, No. 13, and documents the present status on management of radioactive wastes produced from nuclear facilities in Japan and other countries as well. Risks for radiation accidents coming from radioactive waste disposal and storage together with risks for reactor accidents from nuclear power plants are now causing public anxiety. This commentary concerns among all high-level radioactive waste management from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, with including radioactive wastes from research institutes or hospitals. Also included is wastes produced from reactor decommissioning. For low-level radioactive wastes, the wastes is reduced in volume, solidified, and removed to the sites of storage depending on their radioactivities. For high-level radioactive wastes, some ten thousand years must be necessary before the radioactivity decays to the natural level and protection against seismic or volcanic activities, and terrorist attacks is unavoidable for final disposals. This inevitably results in underground disposal at least 300 m below the ground. Various proposals for the disposal and management for this and their evaluation techniques are described in the present document. (S. Ohno)
The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)
This article reports on the announcement by the Department of Energy (DOE) that the opening of a high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository site will be delayed for seven years. The article discusses DOE's reassessment plan, the restructuring of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, site access and evaluation, the Monitored Retrievable Storage Commission proposal, and the industry's response
The author summarized the current status of Spain's general radioactive waste management plan. This plan forms the basis for a national radioactive waste management policy and decommissioning strategy. It is updated periodically, the current 5. plan was approved in 1999. The most important element of the current strategy is the development of a centralized interim HLW storage facility by 2010. (A.L.B.)
Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)
Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M.
The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [fr
The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective. (author)
The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized
Clay formations have been studied for many years in the European Community as potential disposal media for radioactive waste. This document brings together results of on-going research about the geomechanical behaviour of natural clay bodies, at normal and elevated temperatures. The work is carried out within the third Community R and D programme on Management and storage of radioactive waste
Silva, Andre R.M.; Santos, Helena C.
The main objective of waste radioactive management is to ensure the protection of man and the preservation of the environment. The regulation that established the basis for the good radioactive waste management was elaborated by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), in 1985. It is the CNEN-NE-6:05: 'Management radioactive waste in radioactive facilities', which although it an important standard related to radioactive waste management and help largely in the design of a management system in radioactive facilities of radioisotope users, covers the topics in a general way and does not consider individuals aspects of the different plants, as is the case of nuclear medicine units. The main objective of this study is to show the segregation and safe packaging, avoiding unnecessary exposure of professionals involved and public individuals in general
Balaz, J.; Chren, O.
The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7
The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry
Radioactive solid wastes generated from nuclear power plants are pressed and reduced in the volume by a compressor into compression products. Next, the compression products are put into a vessel in a tank and a solidifying material at low viscosity such as vinyl monomer is supplied and impregnated into the inner gaps of the compression products while the pressure in the tank is reduced by a vacuum pump. Subsequently, the compression products are heated and pressurized in the tank to polymerize and solidify the solidifying material. Then, a plurality of solidified compression products are placed in the inside of a drum can and fixed at the periphery thereof together with fixing material such as mortars and plastics. Accordingly, even when underground water should intrude after underground disposal, there is no more risk of causing swelling pressure due to water absorption. Accordingly, there is no more possiblity to cause cracks in the wastes due to the swelling pressure, and wastes of excellent stability and integrity can be obtained. (I.N.)
Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki
Purpose: To decompose radioactive organic solvent wastes or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom into organic materials under moderate conditions, as well as greatly decrease the amount of secondary wastes generated. Method: Radioactive organic solvent wastes comprising an organic phosphoric acid ester ingredient and a hydrocarbon ingredient as a diluent therefor, or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom are oxidatively decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid metal salts finally into organic materials to perform decomposing treatment for the radioactive organic solvent wastes. The decomposing reaction is carried out under relatively moderate conditions and cause less burden to facilities or the likes. Further, since the decomposed liquid after the treatment can be reused for the decomposing reaction as a catalyst solution secondary wastes can significantly be decreased. (Yoshihara, H.)
This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste
This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation
Research and development works are important on universal cementation technological processes to achieve maximal conditioning efficiency for various type wastes such as saline liquid radioactive waste (LRW), where the variants of cement composition formulations, modes of cement compounds preparation and types of equipment are minimised. This work presents the results of development of multi-component cement compositions for the complex of technological processes of different types of radioactive waste (RAW) cementation: concentrated saline LRW, concentrated boron-containing saline LRW, LRW with high surface active substances content, with residues, liquid organic radioactive waste, spent ion-exchange resins and filter-perlite powder, ash residues from solid radioactive waste (SRW) combustion, mixed closely packed and large-fragmented SRW. The research has found technological parameters of equipment and cement compositions providing reliable RAW cementation. Continuous and periodic cycle plants were developed for LRW cementation by mixing. Pouring and penetration methods were developed for SRW cementation. Based on compliance with equipment parameters, methods and cement grouts were selected for most effective technological processes of cementation. Formulations of cement compositions were developed to provide reliable preparation of cement compounds with maximal waste loading at required cement compound quality. The complex of technological processes of cementation using multi-component cement compositions allows highly efficient treatment of the wide range of RAW including problematic waste streams and wastes generated in small amounts. Rational reduction of cementation variants significantly increases economical efficiency of immobilisation. (author)
In view of the considerable work required to develop repositories for radioactive waste, an extensive international co-operation has evolved within the area. The work has also engaged the IAEA to a great extent. The Agency has published a number of reports, covering different aspects of waste disposal. Following a recommendation by its Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (TRCUD) the Agency will publish a ''state-of-the-art'' report on radioactive waste disposal. The report is still in the preparation stage. In this article the principal subjects of the future report are discussed
Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. This work is directed to review recent published researches that are concerned with testing and application of different treatment options as a part of the integrated radioactive waste management practice. The main aim from this work is to highlight the scientific community interest in important problems that affect different treatment processes. This review is divided into the following sections: advances in conventional treatment of aqueous radioactive wastes, advances in conventional treatment of organic liquid wastes, and emerged technological options.
By the late 1980s, the issue of radioactive wastes and their management was becoming increasingly politically important. The IAEA responded by establishing a high profile family of safety standards, the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS). By this means, the IAEA intended to draw attention to the fact that well-established procedures for the safe management of radioactive wastes already were in place. The programme was intended to establish an ordered structure for safety documents on waste management and to ensure comprehensive coverage of all relevant subject areas. RADWASS documents are categorized under four subject areas - discharges, predisposal, disposal, and environmental restoration. The programme is overseen through a formalized review and approval mechanism that was established in 1996 for all safety standards activities. The Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC) is a standing body of senior regulatory officials with technical expertise in radioactive waste safety. To date, three Safety Requirements and seven Safety Guides have been issued
A system under development and partially realized of NPP radioactive waste management in Sweden up to spent-fuel disposal in underground storage is described. The system implies that the spent fuel after unloading from a reactor is stored at the NPP in water shielded tanks. Then fuel assemblies (FA) are transforted by a special ship, being operated since 1982, to the CLAB central storage. In CLAB water pools lacated in underground granite openings fuel assemblies will be stored for 40 years. CLAB is suggested to be put in operation in 1985. At the next stage FA are transported from CLAB to the canning set-up (located on the ground above the under ground disposal). Hot isostatic pressing is used for hermetization as a method allowing to make monolithic copper containers with a storage time of about 1 mln years. Sealed copper containers will be put into a burial ground sited in crystal rocks
Canisters containing high level radioactive wastes are sealed in overpacks in a receiving building constructed on the ground. A plurality of storage pits are formed in a layered manner vertically in multi-stages in deep underground just beneath the receiving building, for example underground of about 1000m from the ground surface. Each of the storage pits is in communication with a shaft which vertically communicates the receiving building and the storage pits, and is extended plainly in a horizontal direction from the shaft. The storage pit comprises an overpack receiving chamber, a main gallery and a plurality of galleries. A plurality of holes for burying the overpacks are formed on the bottom of the galleries in the longitudinal direction of the galleries. A plurality of overpack-positioning devices which run in the main gallery and the galleries by remote operation are disposed in the main gallery and the galleries. (I.N.)
References to 1841 publications related to radioactive waste, announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) Volumes 31 (Jan.--June 1975), 32 (July--Dec. 1975), and 33 (Jan.--June 1976), are cumulated in this bibliography. The references are arranged by the original NSA abstract number, which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference and the NSA volume and abstract number appears at the end of each bibliographic citation. A listing of the subject descriptors used to describe each reference for machine storage and retrieval is shown. Four indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. These indexes refer to the sequence numbers for the references
These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)
The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities
Although the Euratom Treaty does not assign direct authorities to the European Union in the Field of radioactive waste, the Commission has developed a series of activities related to this type of waste. The article deals with these Community initiatives, and the problems of radioactive waste management in the different Member States, and future plans in the field in the light of forthcoming European Union enlargement in 2004. (Author)
Dlouhy, Z.; Marek, J.
The authors give a survey of the sources, types and amounts of radioactive waste in LWR nuclear power stations (1,300 MWe). The amount of solid waste produced by a Novovorenezh-type PWR reactor (2 x 400 resp. 1 x 1,000 MWe) is given in a table. Treatment, solidification and final storage of radioactive waste are shortly discussed with special reference to the problems of final storage in the CSR. (HR) [de
The safety principle which applies to transport operations of radioactive wastes obeys to a very strict regulation. For the conditioning of wastes in package, the organisation of shipments and the qualification of carriers, the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, has implemented a rigorous policy based on the respect of a quality procedure and on the mastery of delivery fluxes. This brochure presents in a simple, illustrated and detailed manner the different steps of these transports. (J.S.)
Syed Hakimi Sakuma; Nik Marzukee; Ibrahim Martibi
A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal
The present invention concerns a radioactive gas waste processing device which extracts exhaust gases from a turbine condensator in a BWR type reactor and releases them after decaying radioactivity thereof during temporary storage. The turbine condensator is connected with an extracting ejector, a preheater, a recombiner for converting hydrogen gas into steams, an off gas condensator for removing water content, a flow rate control valve, a dehumidifier, a hold up device for removing radiation contaminated materials, a vacuum pump for sucking radiation decayed-off gases, a circulation water tank for final purification and an exhaustion cylinder by way of connection pipelines in this order. An exhaust gas circulation pipeline is disposed to circulate exhaust gases from an exhaust gas exit pipeline of the recycling water tank to an exhaust gas exit pipeline of the exhaust gas condensator, and a pressure control valve is disposed to the exhaust gas circulation pipeline. This enable to perform a system test for the dehumidification device under a test condition approximate to the load of the dehumidification device under actual operation state, and stabilize both of system flow rate and pressure. (T.M.)
Morais, Carlos Antonio de
The radioactive liquid wastes generated in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) were initially treated by precipitation/filtration and then the resulting wet solid wastes were incorporated in cement. These wastes were composed of different chemicals and different radioactivities and were generated by different sectors. The objective of the waste treatment method was to obtain minimum wet solid waste volume and decontamination and minimum operational cost. The composition of the solid wastes were taken into consideration for compatible cementation process. Approximately 5,400 litres of liquid radioactive wastes were treated by this process during 1992-1995. The volume reduction was 1/24 th and contained 20% solids. (author)
Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.
Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.
At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R ampersand D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R ampersand D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action
Warnecke, E.; Bonne, A.
The Agency's peer review service for radioactive waste management - known as the Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP) - started in 1989, building upon earlier types of advisory programmes. WATRP's international experts today provide advice and guidance on proposed or ongoing radioactive waste management programmes; planning, operation, or decommissioning of waste facilities; or on legislative, organizational, and regulatory matters. Specific topics often cover waste conditioning, storage, and disposal concepts or facilities; or technical and other aspects of ongoing or planned research and development programmes. The missions can thus contributed to improving waste management systems and plans, and in raising levels of public confidence in them, as part of IAEA efforts to assist countries in the safe management of radioactive wastes. This article presents a brief overview of recent WATRP missions in Norway, Slovak Republic, Czech Republic and Finland
The management of radioactive waste continues to be a matter of public concern and discussion. There is broad agreement among members of the technical community that the various types of waste radioactive species can be managed without jeopardizing public health and safety. Despite this consensus, one of the major reasons cited by opponents of commercial nuclear power for their opposition is the lack of a fully deployed waste management program. Such a program has been suggested but implementation is not yet complete. It is essential that a program be undertaken so as to dispel the impression that past inaction on waste disposal represents an inability to deal safely with wastes
Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.-P.
A process and apparatus for solidifying radioactive waste liquid containing dissolved and/or suspended solids is disclosed. The process includes chemically treating for pH adjustment and precipitation of solids, concentrating solids with a thin-film evaporator to provide liquid concentrate containing about 50% solids, and drying the concentrate with a heated mixing apparatus. The heated mixing apparatus includes a heated wall and working means for shearing dried concentrate from internal surfaces and subdividing dry concentrate into dry, powdery particles. The working means includes a rotor and helical means for positively advancing the concentrate and resulting dry particles from inlet to outlet of the mixing apparatus. The dry particles may also be encapsulated in a matrix material. Entrained particles in the vapor stream from the evaporator and mixer are removed in an integral particle separator and the vapor is subsequently condensed and may be recycled upstream of the thin-film evaporator. A section of the mixer may be used for mixing dry particles with the matrix material in a continuous drying and mixing sequence. A section of the mixer also may be used for mixing the treating chemical with the waste liquid
This report provides guidance for strategic planning and implementation of resuspension and retrieval of stored fluid or fluidizable radioactive wastes. The potential risks associated with preparation and realization of these processes are included in the report, and lessons learned from previous applications are highlighted. Technological procedures and equipment used in various countries for resuspension and remobilization of stored fluidizable radioactive wastes are described in the attached annexes as potential options. Waste retrieval is a maturing technology of major importance now that Member States are moving forward in the responsible management of wastes by removal to safe interim storage or disposal. Retrieval of fluidizable wastes is a four-phase operation: (1) access to the waste, (2) mobilize the waste, (3) remove the waste; and (4) transfer the waste.This report divides successful retrieval of radioactive waste into two areas. The first area applies the concept of the waste retrieval as being the final component of a systematic process of old waste management. It also encompasses characterization as it applies to waste retrieval and downstream processes, including acceptance of wastes for treatment, conditioning, storage or disposal. It should be in conformity with national policy, as well as complying with international safety standards and environmental agreements. The second area of the report focuses on implementation of waste retrieval in a wide range of scenarios and using a wide range of retrieval approaches, equipment and technologies. Technical processes are further explained as part of the experience gained in advanced countries on the subject. A set of detailed retrieval technology descriptions by country is included as Annexes to this report. Thirteen experts from seven Member States that previously implemented, or have planned for the near future, significant resuspension and remobilization operations were involved in the preparation of
Jayaraman, A.P.; Balu, K.
The Radioactive solid waste management programme at BARC, India during 1965-1975 is described in detail. The operational experience, which includes the handling treatment and disposal of these solid wastes is reported alongwith the special problems faced in the case of large volume low hazard potential wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. (K.B.)
In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de
Yasumura, Keijiro; Tomita, Toshihide.
Purpose: To prevent leakage of radioactivity by providing corrosion-resistant layer on the inner surface of a waste container for radioactive waste. Constitution: The inner periphery and bottom of a drum can is lined with an non-flammable cloth of such material as asbestos. This drum is filled with a radioactive waste in the form of powder or pellets. Then, a mixture of a liquid plastic monomer and a polymerization starting agent is poured at a normal temperature, and the surface is covered with a non-flammable cloth. The plastic monomer and radioactive waste are permitted to impregnate the non-flammable cloth and are solidified there. Thus, even if the drum can is corroded at the sea bottom after disposal it in the ocean, it is possible to prevent the waste from permeating into the outer sea water because of the presence of the plastic layer on the inside. Styrene is used as the monomer. (Aizawa, K.)
Yasumura, Keijiro; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Toshihide; Nakayama, Yasuyuki.
Purpose: To solidify radioactive wastes with ease and safety at a high reaction speed but with no boiling by impregnating the radioactive wastes with chlorostyrene. Method: Beads-like dried ion exchange resin, powdery ion exchange resin, filter sludges, concentrated dried waste liquor or the like are mixed or impregnated with a chlorostyrene monomer dissolving therein a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. Mixed or impregnated products are polymerized to solid after a predetermined of time through curing reaction to produce solidified radioactive wastes. Since inflammable materials are used, this process has a high safety. About 70% wastes can be incorporated. The solidified products have a strength as high as 300 - 400 kg/cm 3 and are suitable to ocean disposal. The products have a greater radioactive resistance than other plastic solidification products. (Seki, T.)
This report was prepared within the framework of the Technical Assistance Regional Project on Advice on Waste Management at WWER Type Reactors, which was initiated by the IAEA in 1991. The Regional Project is an integral part of the IAEA's activities directed towards improvement of the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors (Soviet designed PWRs). Forty-five WWER type units are currently in operation and twenty-five are under construction in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary and the former USSR. The idea of regional collaboration between eastern European countries under the auspices of the IAEA was discussed for the first time during the last meeting of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) on spent fuel and radioactive waste management, held in Rez, Czechoslovakia, in October 1990. Since then, the CMEA and some of its former Member States have ceased to exist. However, there are many reasons for eastern European countries to continue their regional collaboration at a higher level. The USSR, the designer and supplier of WWER type reactors in eastern European countries, participated in the first phase of the project. The majority of WWER type reactors are situated in States of the former USSR (Russia and Ukraine). The main results of the first phase of the Regional Project are: (i) Re-establishment of communication channels among eastern European countries operating WWER type reactors by incorporating the IAEA's technical assistance; (ii) Identification of common waste management problems (administrative and technical) requiring resolution; (iii) Familiarization with radioactive waste management systems at nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors - Paks (Hungary), Loviisa (Finland), Jaslovske Bohunice (Czechoslovakia) and Novovoronezh (Russian Federation). Tabs
Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.
The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr
Classification of radioactive wastes customary in France and the program of radiation protection in handling them are discussed. Various methods of radioactive waste processing and burial are considered. The French classification of radioactive wastes differs from one used in the other countries. Wastes are classified under three categories: A, B and C. A - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with short-lived radionuclides (half-life - less than 30 years, negligible or heat release, small amount of long-lived radionuclides, especially such as plutonium, americium and neptunium); B - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (considerable amounts of long-lived radionuclides including α-emitters, low and moderate-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, low and moderate heat release); C - high-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (high-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, high heat release, considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides). Volumetric estimations of wastes of various categories and predictions of their growth are given. It is noted that the concept of closed fuel cycle with radiochemical processing of spent fuel is customary in France
The management of radioactive waste has become an important problem in Switzerland, and work has now begun on technical investigations and the preparation of a regulatory framework for deep-underground disposal. The law currently in force is the Federal Law on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energyy and Radiation Protection, under which two licences are required, one for construction and one for operation. An amendment to this Law is envisaged whereby the licensing system will be modified, in particular by requiring an additional licence which will be granted by the Federal Government, with the consent of Parliament, if the safe disposal of waste can be guaranteed. The producers of radioactive waste are primarily responsible for the management thereof, but the National Co-operative Society for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) has the task of planning, constructing and operating repositories. The licensing authority in Switzerland is the Federal department of Communications and Energy. (NEA) [fr
The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste
Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.
Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted
The results of an examination into the problems of radioactive waste are presented, in particular the sources, transport and dumping and the policy considerations in favour of specific methods. The theoretical background of radioactive waste is described, including the physical and chemical, ecological, medical and legal aspects. The practical aspects of radioactive waste in the Netherlands are considered, including the sources, the packaging and transport and dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. The politics and policies involved in this process are outlined. (C.F.)
On request from the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish government has in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The committee will deliver its proposals to the government 1 December 2003. SSI has assisted the committee to the necessary extent to fulfill the investigation. This report is a summery of SSI's background material concerning non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden