WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactive waste nuclides

  1. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  2. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  3. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-01-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  4. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration f...

  5. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  6. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  7. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  8. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  9. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Sik Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  10. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  11. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  12. Programme of research into the management and storage of radioactive waste, nuclide migration studies, and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The progress of the work is reported under the headings: nuclide migration studies (nuclide-rock interactions; physico-chemical effects; field experiments; groundwater dating); mathematical modelling (calculation of steady groundwater flow using NAMMU; comparison of thermally and naturally driven flows near a radioactive waste repository; diffusion of radionuclides into a rock matrix; radionuclide migration). (U.K.)

  13. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Method for the reprocessing of liquid wastes containing boric acid, radioactive antimony and other radioactive nuclides and similar, especially of the evaporator concentrates of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, A.

    1978-01-01

    The liquid wastes are evaporated, H 2 SO 4 and methanol are added, and the formed boric acid methylester is distilled off. The residue with Sb-124, Cs, Co and Mn is then stored two years until the activity of Sb-124 has decayed. Afterwards the radioactive nuclides are precipitated. (DG) [de

  15. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  16. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  17. Development of monitor for multiple beta-ray nuclides in liquid radioactive waste (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Nam, Uk Won; Seon, K. I.; Kong, K. N.; Son, J. D.; Chin, H.; Park, J. H.; Yuk, I. S.; Han, W. Y. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    In the 4{sup th} fiscal year, the performance of the system developed in previous year have been stablilized. An automatic mixer system to mix the liquid radioactive waste with the liquid scintillator was designed and manufactured to make continuous monitoring possible. Mechanical systems for the automatic transfer, injection of radioactive samples, and for sealing sample bottle and its attachment on detector system have been designed and developed for completely integrated system, The experimental has been performed for the radioactive analysis by using the system. The measured data are transferred to central computer, which controls the monitoring system, through the RS-232 communication protocol. A software for host personal computer was developed for the control and analysis of the integrated system.

  18. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  19. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kaoru; Hoshi, Michio.

    1993-09-01

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  20. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  1. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  2. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  3. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  4. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  5. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  6. Method of processing radioactive nuclide-containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Masahide; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Todo, Fukuzo; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive nuclides in to a much compact state and facilitate the storage. Method: Liquid wastes such as drain liquids generated from a nuclear power plant at a low density of 1 x 10 -6 - 10 -4 μCi/ml are previously brought into contact with a chelate type ion exchange resin such as of phenolic resin or ion exchange resin to adsorb the radioactive nuclides on the resin and the nuclides are eluted with sulfuric acid or the like to obtain liquid concentrates. The liquid concentrates are electrolyzed in an ordinary electrolytic facility using platinum or the like as the anode, Al or the like as the cathode, under the presence of 1 - 20 g/l of non-radioactive heavy metals such as Co and Ni in the liquid and while adjusting pH to 2 - 8. The electrolysis liquid residue is returned again to the electrolysis tank as it is or in the form of precipitates coagulated with a polymeric floculant. The supernatant liquid upon floculating treatment is processed with the chelate type ion exchange resin into hazardless liquid. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  8. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  9. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  10. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  12. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  13. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  15. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  16. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  17. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. 3 figures, 2 tables

  18. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. (3 figures, 1 table)

  19. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  1. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  4. Influence of waste solid on nuclide dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The method most often considered for permanent disposal of radioactive waste is to incorporate the waste into a solid, which is then placed in a geologic formation. The solid is made of waste and nonradioactive additives, with the formulation selected to produce a durable solid that will minimize the potential for dispersal of the radionuclides. Leach rates of radionuclides incorporated in the solid waste indicate the quantity of radioactivity available for dispersal at any time; but leach rates of stable constituents can be just as important to radionuclide dispersal by groundwater. The constituents of the solid will perturb the chemical character of the groundwater and, thereby, profoundly affect the interaction of radionuclides with the geologic medium. An explicit example of how the solid waste can affect radionuclide dispersal is illustrated by the results of experiments that measure cesium adsorption in the presence of rubidium. The experiments were performed with granulated oolitic limestone that absorbed cesium from groundwater solutions to which various concentrations of stable rubidium chloride had been added. The results are expressed as partition coefficients. Large coefficients indicate strong adsorption by the rock and, hence, slow migration. The partition coefficient for cesium decreases as the rubidium concentration in solution is increased. Because the coeficient for cesium depends on the amount of rubidium in solution, it will depend on the leach rate of rubidium from the solid. Rubidium has no radionuclides of concern for long-term isolation of nuclear waste, so its leach rate from a waste solid is rarely ever reported

  5. Modelling indoor exposure to natural radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon enters buildings from several sources primarily from building materials and from the soil or rocks that underlie or surround building fundaments. A multicompartment model was developed which describes the fate of radon and attached or free radon decay products in a model room by a set of linear time-dependent differential equations. Time-dependent coefficients allow to model temporal parameter changes, e.g. the opening of windows, or a sudden pressure drop leading to enhanced exhalation. While steady-state models were used to study the effect of parameter changes on steady state nuclide concentrations, the time-dependent models provided additional information on the time scale of these changes. (author)

  6. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  7. Nuclide radioactive decay data uncertainties library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanova, D S; Zherdev, G M

    2017-01-01

    The results of the developing the library of uncertainties of radioactive decay data in the ABBN data library format are described. Different evaluations of uncertainties were compared and their effects on the results of calculations of residual energy release were determined using the test problems and experiment. Tables were generated in the ABBN format with the data obtained on the basis of libraries in ENDF-6 format. 3821 isotopes from the ENDF/B-7 data library, 3852 isotopes from the JEFF-3.11 data library and 1264 isotopes from the JENDL-4.0 data library were processed. It was revealed that the differences in the evaluations accepted in different decay data libraries are not so big, although they sometimes exceed the uncertainties assigned to the data in the ENDF/B-7 and JEFF-3.11 libraries, which as a rule, they agree with each other. On the basis of developed method it is supposed to create a library of data uncertainties for radioactive decay within the constant data system in FSUE RFNC-VNIIEF with its further connection with CRYSTAL module. (paper)

  8. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  9. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  10. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1981-01-01

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  12. Nuclide creation and annealing reactor waste in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.N.; Kadenko, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We consider chemical elements in the Universe (their properties and transmutations) as a fuel powering an evolution of stars, galaxies, etc. The nuclear fusion reactions represent an energy source of stars and, in particular, the Sun fitting the life on the Earth. This brings a question on an origin and conditions for creation of life. We discuss some specific features of nuclear reaction chains at the hydrostatic burning of nuclides in stars and treaties for development of thermonuclear fusion reactors at the Earth based environment. The nova and supernova give promising astrophysical site candidates for synthesis of heavy atomic nuclei and renewing other nuclear components. Such an explosive nucleosynthesis yields the actinides containing basic fuel for nuclear fission reactors, among others. We briefly outline the e-, s-, and r-processes while accounting for ultra-strong stellar magnetization, and discuss some ideas for annealing the radioactive toxic nuclear waste

  13. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  14. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  15. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  16. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  17. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-04-01

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  19. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  20. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Baba, Tsutomu; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masami; Chino, Koichi; Ikeda, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    As an adsorbent used for removing radioactive nuclides such as cesium and strontium from radioactive liquid wastes generated from a reprocessing plant, a silicon compound having siloxane bonds constituted by silicon and oxygen and having silanol groups constituted by silicon, oxygen and hydrogen, or an inorganic material mainly comprising aluminosilicate constituted with silicon, oxygen and aluminum is used. In the adsorbent of the present invention, since silica main skeletons are partially decomposed in an aqueous alkaline solution to newly form silanol groups having a cation adsorbing property, pretreatment such as pH adjustment is not necessary. (T.M.)

  1. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  2. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  3. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    A current method for the determination of critical nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representatives for the occurrence of activation products (Co-60) and fission products (Cs-137) in the waste streams. BELGATOM (BA) has developed a code (low level waste Activity Assessment-LLWAA code). The use of the code can clarify the analytical technique lower detection level that has to be achieved for each critical nuclide, in order to accurately measure it's activity in the different types of waste. (1 tab., 1 fig.)

  4. Influence of Groundwater Flow Rate on Nuclide Releases from Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 2000s several template programs for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository as well as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository systems have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. Very recently, another template program for a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels has been developed and are to be disposed of by separate disposal strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and 500m depth, believed to be in the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste package and canister. To quantify a nuclide release and transport through the possible various pathways especially in the near-fields of the A-KRS repository system, some illustrative evaluations have been made through the study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  5. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  6. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  7. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  8. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  9. Treatment of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri

    1976-01-01

    Recently short life nuclides have come to be utilized increasingly as diagnostic radioisotopes, and Tc-99m (half-life; 6.05 hours) and Ga-67 (half-life 7.79 hours) are replacing the most nuclides fomerly used in vivo test. Such development of radioactive products inevitably causes the rapid increase of their wastes. At present, the radioactive wastes produced by hospitals and university laboratories in Japan are collected by the Japan Radioisotope Association, and treated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These wastes are divided into combustibles and incombustibles to store in the store house in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present law in Japan contains the contradiction which treats the matter with one several millionth of radioactivity after decay same as the original radioactive matter. Thus solid must be stored permanently, while gas and liquid can be discharged after dilution. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  12. Development of a pyro-partitioning process for long-lived radioactive nuclides. Process test for pretreatment of simulated high-level waste containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masateru; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    A pyro-partitioning process developed at CRIEPI requires a pre-treatment process to convert high-level liquid waste to chloride. A combination process of denitration and chlorination has been developed for this purpose. Continuous process tests using simulated high-level waste were performed to certify the applicability of the process. Test results indicated a successful material balance sufficient for satisfying pyro-partitioning process criteria. In the present study, process tests using simulated high-level waste containing uranium were also carried out to prove that the pre-treatment process is feasible for uranium. The results indicated that uranium can be converted to chloride appropriate for the pyro-partitioning process. The material balance obtained from the tests is to be used to revise the process flow diagram. (author)

  13. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  14. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  15. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  16. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  18. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  19. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  20. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  1. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  2. Geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Safe, permanent disposal of radioactive wastes requires isolation of a number of elements including Se, Tc, I, Sr, Cs, Pd, u, Np, Pu and Cm from the environment for a long period of time. The aquatic chemistry of these elements ranges from simple anionic (I - ,IO 3 - ) and cationic (Cs + ,Sr ++ ) forms to multivalent hydrolyzed complexes which can be anionic or cationic (Pu(OH) 2 + ,Pu(OH) 3 + , PuO 2 (CO 3 )(OH) - ,PuO 2 Cl - ,etc.) depending on the chemical environment. The parameters which can affect repository safety are rate of access and composition of grounwater, stability of the waste container, stability of the waste form, rock-water-waste interactons, and dilution and dispersion as the waste moves away from the repository site. Our overall research program on radioactive waste disposal includes corrosion studies of containment systems hydrothermal stability of various waste forms, and geochemical behaviour of various nuclides including solubilities, redox equilibria, hydrolysis, colloid fomation and transport ion exchange equilibria and adsorption on mineral surfaces and irreversible precipitation reactions. This paper discusses the geochemistry of I, Se, Tc, Cs, Sr and the actinide elements and potential mechanisms by which the mobility could be retarded if necessary

  3. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  4. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  5. Disposal of radioactive waste material to sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste liquid of a low or intermediate activity level is mixed with a suitable particulate material and discharged under the sea from a pipeline. The particulate material is chosen so that it sorbs radio-nuclides from this waste, has a good retention for these nuclides when immersed in sea water, and has a particle size or density such that transfer of the particles back to the shore by naturally occurring phenomena is reduced. Radio nuclide concentration in the sea water at the end of the pipeline may also be reduced. The particulate material used may be preformed or co-precipitated in the waste. Suitable materials are oxides or hydroxides of iron or manganese or material obtained from the sea-bed. (author)

  6. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  7. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  8. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  9. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  11. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  12. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  13. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  16. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  18. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  19. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  20. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  1. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  2. Radioactive wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture deals with definition, quantity and type of radioactive waste products occurring in a fuel reprocessing plant. Solid, liquid and gaseous fission and activation products are formed during the dissolution of the fuel and during the extraction process, and they must be separated from the fissionalble uranium and plutonium not spent. The chemical behaviour of these products (Zr, Ru, Np, gaseous substances, radiolysis products), which is sometimes very problematic, necessitates careful process control. However, the lifetime of nuclides is just as important for the conditions of the reprocessing procedure. The types of waste obtained after reprocessing are classified according to their state of aggregation and level of activity and - on the basis of the operational data of a prototype plant - they are quantitatively extrapolated for the operation of a large-scale facility of 1,400 tons of fuel annually. (RB) [de

  3. Radioactivity nuclide identification based on BP and LM algorithm neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Sun Jian; Wang Lianghou

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the method which can identify radioactive nuclide based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network. Then, this paper compares the above-mentioned method with FR algorithm. Through the result of the Matlab simulation, the method of radioactivity nuclide identification based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network is superior to the FR algorithm. With the better effect and the higher accuracy, it will be the best choice. (authors)

  4. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  5. Radioactive wastes in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Sadahiro; Nagaike, Tadakatsu; Emura, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akira; Morisawa, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    Recent topics concerning radioactive water management and disposal are widely reviewed. As the introduction, various sources of radioactivity including uranium mining, fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and their amount of wastes accumulated per 1000 MWe year operation of a LWR are presented together with the typical methods of disposal. The second section discusses the problems associated with uranium fuel fabrication and with nuclear power plants. Typical radioactive nuclides and their sources in PWRs and BWRs are discussed. The third section deals with the problems associated with reprocessing facilities and with mixed oxide fuel fabrication. Solidification of high-level wastes and the methods of the disposal of transuranic nuclides are the main topics in this section. The fourth section discusses the methods and the problems of final disposal. Various methods being proposed or studied for the final disposal of low- and high-level wastes and transuranic wastes are reviewed. The fifth section concerns with the risk analysis of waste disposal. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods are treated. As the example, the assessment of the risk due to floods is explained. The associated event tree and fault three are presented together with the estimated probability of the occurrence of each constituent failure. In the final section, the environmental problems of radioactive wastes are widely reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  8. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  9. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  10. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  11. Summary report on the 1985 United Kingdom radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, A.M.; Wear, F.J.; Haselden, H.; Shepherd, J.; Tymons, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    Stocks of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom which have arisen, or are projected to arise, from commercial nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities, research, medical and industrial uses of radioactive nuclides are given in the form of summary tables. Projected future arisings from operation and decommissioning of facilities and notional nuclear power generation programmes to 2030 are also given. (author)

  12. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  13. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  15. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  17. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  18. The protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guimin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room. Methods: The clinical state of the protection of radioactive 131 I nuclide and nursing management in DSA room was retrospectively summarized. Results: The standard management for the protection of radioactive nuclide in DSA room was established. The main management schemas included the management of personnel, the management of professional skills and, specialty, the management of radioactive drugs and abandoned odds and ends, preoperative health education, etc. Conclusion: The standard management can ensure that the patients get a good radionuclide therapy in DSA room, and, at the same time, the working environment can be effectively protected and the professional nursing staff can be well trained. (authors)

  19. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  20. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management

  2. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  5. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  8. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  9. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  10. Filters for radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio

    1980-01-01

    In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  12. Importance of individual fission nuclide to incontainment radioactive reading during PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Shi Zhongqi

    2004-01-01

    Containment radiation level is one of the most important base for core damage assessment and protective actions recommendation during accidents. Incontainment radioactive reading calculations is the precondition of using this kind of method. Importance of individual nuclides were compared during normal coolant release, gap release and core melt. Conclusions are deduced that when the spray is off, the radioactive reading in containment is mainly from iodine and noble gas, and the spray is on, the radioactive reading is mainly from noble gas. (authors)

  13. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes by using zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, T; Mimura, H

    1975-09-18

    The object is to processing radioactive liquid waste by zeolites to be fixed to a solidified body having a very small lixiviation property. The nuclide in radioactive liquid waste is exchanged and adsorbed into natural or synthetic zeolites, which are then burnt to a temperature lower than 1000/sup 0/C -- melting point. Thus, the zeolite structure is broken to form fine amorphous silicate aluminate or silicate aluminate of the nuclide exchanged and adsorbed. Both are very hard to be soluble in water. Further, the lixiviation from the solidified body is limited to the surface thereof, and it will no longer be detected in a few days.

  14. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  15. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  16. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  18. Systematic analysis method for radioactive wastes generated from nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameo, Yutaka; Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Haraga, Tomoko; Shimada, Asako; Katayama, Atsushi; Nakashima, Mikio; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods have been developed for the simple and rapid determination of radioactive nuclides, which are selected as important nuclides for the safety assessment of the disposal of wastes generated from research facilities. We advanced the development of a high-efficiency nondestructive measurement technique for γ-ray-emitting nuclides, simple and rapid methods for the pretreatment of hard-to-dissolve samples and subsequent radiochemical separation, and rapid determination methods for long-lived nuclides. In order to establish a system to analyze the important nuclides in various kinds of sample, actual radioactive wastes such as concentrated liquid waste, activated concrete, and metal pipes were analyzed by the present method. The results showed that the present method was well suited for a rapid and simple determination of low-level radioactive wastes generated from research facilities. (author)

  19. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  20. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  1. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  2. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  4. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  5. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  6. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  7. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  8. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  9. Treatment of liquid waste containing alpha nuclides by adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jishu, Zeng; Xiguang, Su; Dejing, Xia; Sianhua, Fan [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper, experimental investigations on the removal of actinides from a decontaminating waste stream by using adsorption technique following the cementation of a resultant absorbent sludge are described. One kind of apatites was selected as an actinide absorbent from a number of indigenous materials by batch equilibrium tests. The influence of contact time, temperature, particle size and pH variables on the adsorption of actinides is given. The removal of total alpha activity is higher tan 97% by absorbent precipitation process when the absorbent addition percentage of the liquid waste is more than 3.25 wt%, making alpha-activity level of the primary waste stream below 3.7 x 10{sup 3} Bq/L, which can meet the acceptance requirements of the Low Level Radwaste Treatment Plant. The studies on the cementation of the absorbent sludge included the selection of cements used for solidification, formulation and characterization of the selected cemented waste forms. The results obtained have shown that both 525 type Portland cement and 325 type Portland pozzolana cement were compatible with the absorbent sludge. The selected cemented waste forms meet the requirements of the Chinese National Standard (GB 14569.1-93): Characteristic Requirements for Solidified Waste of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste - Cement Solidified Waste. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 14 tabs.

  10. Treatment of liquid waste containing alpha nuclides by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Xia Dejing; Fan Sianhua

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, experimental investigations on the removal of actinides from a decontaminating waste stream by using adsorption technique following the cementation of a resultant absorbent sludge are described. One kind of apatites was selected as an actinide absorbent from a number of indigenous materials by batch equilibrium tests. The influence of contact time, temperature, particle size and pH variables on the adsorption of actinides is given. The removal of total alpha activity is higher tan 97% by absorbent precipitation process when the absorbent addition percentage of the liquid waste is more than 3.25 wt%, making alpha-activity level of the primary waste stream below 3.7 x 10 3 Bq/L, which can meet the acceptance requirements of the Low Level Radwaste Treatment Plant. The studies on the cementation of the absorbent sludge included the selection of cements used for solidification, formulation and characterization of the selected cemented waste forms. The results obtained have shown that both 525 type Portland cement and 325 type Portland pozzolana cement were compatible with the absorbent sludge. The selected cemented waste forms meet the requirements of the Chinese National Standard (GB 14569.1-93): Characteristic Requirements for Solidified Waste of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste - Cement Solidified Waste. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 14 tabs

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.

    1975-08-01

    Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)

  12. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  13. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  14. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  15. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  16. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  17. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)

  20. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  1. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  2. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  3. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  5. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji

    1976-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is equipped with such atomic energy facilities as a power test reactor, four research reactors, a hot laboratory, and radioisotope-producing factory. All the radioactive wastes but gas generated from these facilities are treated by the waste treatment facilities established in JAERI. The wastes carried into JAERI through Japan Radioisotope Association are also treated there. Low level water solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, an ion-exchange apparatus, and a cohesive precipitating apparatus, while medium level solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, and low level combustible solid is treated with an incinerating apparatus. These treated wastes and sludges are mixed with Portland cement in drum cans to solidify, and stored in a concrete pit. The correct classification and its indication as well as the proper packing for the wastes are earnestly demanded by the treatment facilities. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. International trends of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    1989-01-01

    The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal

  7. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  8. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  10. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  11. Purification of radioactive waste oil by a supercritical fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Sung, Jinhyun; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Lim, Taeyoon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive waste oil from the nuclear industry is potentially hazardous due to its possibility to contaminate soil and underwater. Pollutants in waste oil are generally radioactive heavy metals or organo-metals. Radioactive waste oils are highly viscous fluids that are similar to used-motor oils. Several processes have been developed to regenerated used motor oil, such as acid clay treatment, chemical addition, vacuum distillation, thermal cracking and hydrofinishing. However, these technologies are difficult to apply to separating radioactive nuclides from radioactive waste oils. In recent years, our laboratory developed a membrane method for the regeneration of used motor oils. We applied supercritical Co2 (scCO2) as a viscosity reducing additive to waste oils at a lower process temperature in order to improve membrane permeability and thus the energy saving. However, the membrane cannot filter the contaminants in radioactive waste oil that are not particles, such as radioactive ions in impurity water in the oil. In this paper, we suggest a method extracting clean oil from the radioactive waste oil rather than filtering by a supercritical fluid. We selected R22, a refrigerant, as a solvent for extraction. R22 has a mild critical point - 96.1 .deg. and 49.9bar. Regeneration of waste oils by extracting clean oil using a supercritical fluid such as R22 is easy to handle and reduce secondary wastes. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of R22 in extracting clean oil from radioactive waste oils

  12. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  13. Leaching of radioactive nuclides from cement grouts. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, W.T.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Gonzalez, B.; Hemley, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    The determination of the leaching rate of radioactive 137 Cs from a cement grout should the grout be contacted by water is necessary for environmental protection. The effect of the leachant turnover rate on 137 Cs leaching rates was evaluated with batch and continuous (modified Soxhlet extractor) modes of experimentation. Three additives (Grundite, potter's clay, and Conasauga shale) were compared in terms of capability of radioactive isotope retention, while two leachants (tap and distilled water) were investigated. The Soxhlet extractor experiment resulted in the highest rate of leaching, and Conasauga shale was found the best additive for 137 Cs immobilization. Tap water used as leachant was more effective than distilled water. Data were analyzed using models involving isotopic diffusion in the grout and involving diffusion plus a time dependent boundary condition at the interface of grout specimen and leachant

  14. Refilling material for underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Tatsuya; Kato, Hiroyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, the underground circumstance where radioactive wastes are to be processed is in high pH and highly ionized state due to ingredients leached out of cement of a concrete pit and solidifying products. A refilling material for underground disposal are demanded to adsorb radioactive nuclides such as 137 Cs even in such a state. As the refilling material, a mixture of bentonite and sintered vermiculite, preferably, comprising 10 to 40wt% of vermiculite is used. The refilling material has a high water hold out barrier performance of bentonite and a high radioactive nuclide adsorbing performance of vermiculite. In a state of highly ionized state when the adsorbing performance of bentonite is reduced, the nuclide-absorbing performance is improved by vermiculite and since the content of the vermiculite is not more than 40wt%, the water hold out barrier performance of the bentonite is not deteriorated. (N.H.)

  15. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W.; Young, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented

  16. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Radioactive wastes - inventories and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de

  18. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  20. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  1. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  2. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  4. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  5. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  6. Batch Kd measurements of nuclides to estimate migration potential at the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.; Mason, M.J.; Molecke, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory measurements to determine the sorption distribution coefficients, Kd, of radionuclides present in, and potentially leached from, radioactive wastes, in contact with representative geologic media, have been conducted. The nuclides studied include Cs, Sr, Tc, Ru, Sb, Ce, Eu, Pu, Np, Cm, Am, U, and Pa. The crushed rock materials used were from the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a project to isolate radioactive wastes in a bedded salt facility, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Solutions used consist of salt brine and groundwater, specific to the WIPP site, plus distilled water, for laboratory intercomparisons. The batch Kd data reported, plus data from sorption and migration measurements being conducted or planned elsewhere, will be used to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration from the bedded salt WIPP facility. The data can be used for transport modeling and for safety assessment determinations

  7. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  8. Radioactive liquid waste filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  10. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Evolution in radioactive waste countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Yasutaka

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of radioactive waste management measures is important to proceed further with nuclear power development. While the storage facility projects by utilities are in progress, large quantity of low level wastes are expected to arise in the future due to the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, etc. An interim report made by the committee on radioactive waste countermeasures to the Atomic Energy Commission is described as follows: the land disposal measures of ultra-low level and low level radioactive wastes, that is, the concept of level partitioning, waste management, the possible practice of handling wastes, etc.; the treatment and disposal measures of high level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes, including task sharing among respective research institutions, the solidification/storage and the geological formation disposal of high level wastes, etc. (Mori, K.)

  12. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyaskin, V.I.; Kosilov, R.A.; Manturov, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  13. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  16. Stigma and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments

  17. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  18. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)

  19. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  20. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  1. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  2. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  3. Destructive and non-destructive tests for radioactive waste packages Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms. A series of final reports (1985-89) No 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odoj, R.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary waste acceptance requirements quality control of radioactive waste has to be performed prior to interim storage or final disposal. The quality control can either be achieved by random tests on conditioned radioactive waste packages or by process qualification of the conditioning processes. One of the most important criteria is the activity of the radioactive waste product or packages. To get some first information on the waste package γ-spectrometric measurement is performed as non-destructive test. Besides the γ-emitting nuclides the α and β-emitting nuclides can be estimated by calculation if the waste was generated in nuclear power plants and the nuclide relations are known. If the non-destructive determination of nuclides is not sufficient or the non-radioactive content of the waste packages has to be identified sampling from the waste packages has to be performed. This can best be done by core drilling. To avoid the need of water for cooling the drill head, air cooled core drilling is investigated. As mixed wastes is not allowed for final disposal the determination of possible organic toxic materials like PCB, dioxin and furane-compounds in cemented wastes is conducted by GC-MS-investigations. For getting more knowledge in the field of process qualification concerning super compaction, instrumentation of the super compaction process is investigated and tested

  4. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  5. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  6. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  7. Therapeutic result of radioactive nuclide 90Sr/90Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanchao; Li Yuying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: Sixty patients with BPH were treated with a course of transurethral radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy. Results: The severity of BPH was assessed with four parameters: maximal flow rate (MFR), volume of residual urine (VRU), international prostatic symptom score (IPSS) and volume (size) of prostate. In this series, the total effective rate was 93.33% with no treatment- related mortality. Favorable changes of the parameters after a course of radioactive nuclide therapy were significant. Conclusion: Radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy for patients with BPH was safe, easily performed and quite effective. This procedure is worth popularizing in appropriate patients. (authors)

  8. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with all matters relating to radioactive waste management. It describes in detail the guidelines implemented by France in this field and provides a general overview of actions carried out at international level. The articles are assembled in several chapters, treating the following subjects: I. Upstream storage management. II. Storage (surface and underground). III. Research to back up the management program. There then follows a description of various processes and equipment developed by research laboratories and industrialists to provide, at the different stages, a number of operations required by the management programs [fr

  9. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  10. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1979-09-01

    Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)

  11. Radioactive waste treatment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere

  12. Radioactive wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukujoji, Seiya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly recognize the deposition state of mists into conduits thereby effectively conduct cleaning. Constitution: A drier for performing drying treatment of liquid wastes, a steam decontaminating tower for decontaminating the steams generated from the drier and a condenser for condensating the decontaminating steams are connected with each other by means of conduits to constitute a radioactive wastes processing apparatus. A plurality of pressure detectors are disposed to the conduits, the pressure loss within the conduits is determined based on the detector output and the clogged state in the conduits due to the deposition of mists is detected by the magnitude of the pressure loss. If the clogging exceeds a certain level, cleaning water is supplied to clean-up the conduits thereby keep the operation to continue always under sound conditions. (Sekiya, K.)

  13. Radioactive Waste SECURITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, R.; Drapalik, M.; Gepp, C.; Gufler, K.; Sholly, S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the safety requirements for a radioactive waste repository, the fundamental problems involved and the legislative rules and arrangements for doing so. As the title already makes clear, the focus of this work is on aspects that can be assigned to the security sector - ie the security against the influence of third parties - and are to be distinguished from safety measures for the improvement of the technical safety aspects. In this context, mention is made of events such as human intrusion into guarded facilities, whereas e.g. a geological analysis on seismic safety is not discussed. For a variety of reasons, the consideration of security nuclear waste repositories in public discussions is increasingly taking a back seat, as ia. Terrorist threats can be considered as negligible risk or well calculable. Depending on the type of storage, different security aspects still have to be considered. (roessner)

  14. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  15. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  16. The management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  17. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  18. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  19. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Takeuchi, Kunifumi.

    1997-01-01

    Base rock is dug in a substantially cylindrical shape, bentonite blocks in an amount for a predetermined lift are disposed on the inner side of the dug wall surfaces. Concrete blocks constituting a structure of an underground silo are disposed at the inner side. Barrier blocks are disposed to the inner side thereof, and vessels incorporated with radioactive wastes are disposed to the inner side. The bentonite disposed to the inner side of the dug wall surfaces, the concrete structure of the underground silo and the barrier members are divided in the vertical direction into a plurality of blocks, and these blocks are stacked successively from the lowermost layer together with the containing vessels of the radioactive wastes, and after stacking them to a predetermined height, a filler is filled up to the circumference of the vessels. With such a constitution, the underground silo is not fallen down or vibrated even upon occurrence of an earthquake. In addition, bending stresses are scarcely caused thereby making reinforcement of iron reinforcing materials unnecessary. Accordingly, the sealing performance is improved, and processing cost is reduced. (T.M.)

  20. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  1. Radioactive waste management for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  3. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  4. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  5. Public debate - radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  6. Management situation and prospect of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Jun

    1985-04-01

    This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.

  7. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano B, A.

    1996-01-01

    This research was carried out to develop the most adequate technique to immobilize low and medium-activity radioactive waste. different brands of national cement were used, portland and pozzolanic cement. Prismatic and cylindrical test tubes were prepared with different water/cement (W/C) relationship. Additives such a as clay and bentonite were added in some other cases. Later, the properties of these test tubes were evaluated. Properties such as: mechanical resistance, immersion resistance, lixiviation and porosity resistance. Cement with the highest mechanical resistance values, 62,29 MPa was pozzolanic cement for a W/C relationship of 0,35. It must be mentioned that the other types of cements reached a mechanical resistance over 10 MPa, a value indicated by the international standards for transportation and storage of low and medium-activity radioactive waste at a superficial level. However, in the case of immersion resistance, Sol cement (portland type I) with a W/C relationship of 0,35 reached a compression resistance over 61,92 MPa; as in the previous cases, the other cements reached a mechanical resistance > 10 MPa. Regarding porosity, working with W/C relationships = 0,35 0,40 and 0,45, without additives and with additives, the percentage of porosity found for all cements is lower than 40% percentage indicated by international standards. With regard to the lixiviation test, pozzolanic cement best retained Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60, and increased its advantages when bentonite was added, obtaining a lixiviation rate of 2,02 x E-6 cm/day. Sol cement also improved its properties when bentonite was added and obtained a lixiviation rate of 2,84 x E-6 cm/day for Cesium-137. However, Cobalt-60 is almost completely retained with the 3 types of cement with or without additives, reaching the limits indicated by the international standards for the lixiviation rate of beta-gamma emitter < 5,00E-4 cm/day. Characterizing the final product involves the knowledge of its

  9. Radioactive waste management at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadsby, R.D.; Allan, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    AECL has maintained an active program in radioactive waste management since 1945, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Waste management activities have included operation of waste management storage and processing facilities at AECL's CRL and Whiteshell Laboratories (WL); operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Office on behalf of Natural Resources Canada to resolve historic radioactive waste problems (largely associated with radioactive ore recovery, transport and processing operations) that are the responsibility of the Federal Government; development of the concept and related technology for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste; development of the Intrusion-Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal concept for low-level nuclear waste; development of dry storage technology for the interim storage of used fuel; and development and assessment of waste processing technology for application in CANDU nuclear power plants and at CRL and WL. Today these activities are continuing. In addition, AECL is: preparing to decommission the nuclear facilities at WL; carrying out a number of smaller decommissioning projects at CRL; putting in place projects to upgrade the low-level liquid waste processing capabilities of the CRL Waste Treatment Centre, recover and process highly active liquid wastes currently in storage, and recover, condition and improve the storage of selected fuel wastes currently stored in below-ground standpipes in the CRL waste management areas; and assessing options for additional remediation projects to improve the management of other wastes currently in storage and to address environmental contamination from past practices. (author)

  10. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi

    1990-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are one of important subjects, together with the development of dismantling techniques accompanying the decommissioning measures for nuclear power plants and the development of reprocessing techniques for nuclear fuel cycle. About 25 years have elapsed since the beginning of commercial nuclear power generation in 1966, and the time that the solution of the problems of waste treatment and disposal must be tackled on full scale has come. The features and the amount of generation of radioactive wastes, the way of thinking on the treatment and disposal, and the present status of the treatment and disposal are outlined. For securing the stable supply of energy and solving the environmental problem of the earth such as acid rain and warming, nuclear power generation accomplishes important roles. The objective of waste treatment is based on the way of thinking of 'as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)'. The radioactive wastes are classified into alpha waste and beta-gamma waste. The present status of RI wastes, the techniques of treating radioactive wastes, the nuclide separation, extinction treatment and the disposal in strata of high level radioactive wastes and the disposal of low level wastes are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Risk analysis of radioactive waste repository based on the time dependent hazard rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.H.; Cho, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the probabilistic risk analysis of the radioactive high level waste repository, the simplified method based on the time dependent hazard rate is proposed. The obtained results are compared with those from the time independent hazard rate. The estimation of the failure probability of the waste repository through this method gives more conservative results, especially when the half-life of nuclide is larger and retardation factors of nuclide is smaller. (Auth.)

  12. CEA and its radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    1999-01-01

    CEA annually produces about 3500 tons of radioactive wastes in its 43 basic nuclear installations. CEA ranks third behind EDF and Cogema. Low-level wastes (A wastes) are sent to ANDRA (national agency for the management of nuclear wastes)whereas medium-level wastes (B wastes) are stored by CEA itself. CEA has checked off its storing places and has set up an installation Cedra to process and store ancient and new nuclear wastes. 3 other installations are planned to operate within 6 years: Agate (Cadarache) will treat liquid effluents, Stella (Saclay) will process liquid wastes that are beta or gamma emitters, and Atena (Marcoule) will treat and store radioactive sodium coming from Phenix reactor and IPSN laboratories. The use of plasma torch for vitrifying wastes is detailed, the management of all the nuclear wastes produced by CEA laboratories and installations is presented. (A.C.)

  13. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  14. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  15. Validation of activity determination codes and nuclide vectors by using results from processing of retired components and operational waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Klas; Larsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning studies for nuclear power reactors are performed in order to assess the decommissioning costs and the waste volumes as well as to provide data for the licensing and construction of the LILW repositories. An important part of this work is to estimate the amount of radioactivity in the different types of decommissioning waste. Studsvik ALARA Engineering has performed such assessments for LWRs and other nuclear facilities in Sweden. These assessments are to a large content depending on calculations, senior experience and sampling on the facilities. The precision in the calculations have been found to be relatively high close to the reactor core. Of natural reasons the precision will decline with the distance. Even if the activity values are lower the content of hard to measure nuclides can cause problems in the long term safety demonstration of LLW repositories. At the same time Studsvik is processing significant volumes of metallic and combustible waste from power stations in operation and in decommissioning phase as well as from other nuclear facilities such as research and waste treatment facilities. Combining the unique knowledge in assessment of radioactivity inventory and the large data bank the waste processing represents the activity determination codes can be validated and the waste processing analysis supported with additional data. The intention with this presentation is to highlight how the European nuclear industry jointly could use the waste processing data for validation of activity determination codes. (authors)

  16. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  17. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  18. Short-lived radioactive nuclides in meteorites and early solar system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Gounelle, M.

    2007-01-01

    Now extinct, short-lived radioactive nuclides, such as 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53 days), 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), 26 Al (T 1/2 = 0.74 Ma), 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 0.3 Ma), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 0.1 Ma), 53 Mn (T 1/2 = 3.7 Ma) and 60 Fe (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), were present in the proto-solar nebula when the various components of meteorites formed. The presence of these radioactive isotopes requires a 'last-minute' origin, either nucleosynthesis in a massive star dying close in space and time to the nascent solar system or production by local irradiation of part of the proto-solar disk by high-energy solar cosmic rays. In this review, we list: (i) the different observations indicating the existence of multiple origins for short-lived radioactive nuclides, namely 7 Be, 10 Be and 36 Cl for irradiation scenario and 60 Fe for injection scenario; (ii) the constraints that exist on their distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the accretion disk; (iii) the constraints they brought on the timescales of nebular processes (from Ca-Al-rich inclusions to chondrules) and of the accretion and differentiation of planetesimals. (authors)

  19. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Florestan, J.; Waldura, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the methods used to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes is incineration. Incineration also allows combustible organic wastes to be transformed into inert matter that is stable from the physico-chemical viewpoint and ready to be conditioned for long-term stockage. The quality of the ashes obtained (low carbon content) depends on the efficiency of combustion. A good level of efficiency requires a combustion yield higher than 99% at the furnace door. Removal efficiency is defined as the relation between the CO 2 /CO + CO 2 concentrations multiplied by 100. This implies a CO concentration of the order of a few vpm. However, the gases produced by an incineration facility can represent a danger for the environment especially if toxic or corrosive gases (HCL,NO x ,SO 2 , hydrocarbons...) are given off. The gaseous effluents must therefore be checked after purification before they are released into the atmosphere. The CO and CO 2 measurement gives us the removal efficiency value. This value can also be measured in situ at the door of the combustion chamber. Infrared spectrometry is used for the various measurements: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for the off-gases, and diode laser spectrometry for combustion

  20. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  1. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of management of radioactive wastes as defined in the French law from December 30, 1991. This law defines three ways of research: abatement of the radiotoxicity of wastes (first way), reversible geological storage (second way) or long duration geological disposal (third way). This article develops these three solutions: 1 - strategic perspectives; 2 - separation, transmutation and specific conditioning: isotopes to be separated (evolution of the radio-toxicity inventory of spent fuels, migration of long-living radionuclides, abatement of radio-toxicity), research on advanced separation (humid and dry way), research on transmutation of separate elements (transmutation and transmutation systems, realistic scenarios of Pu consumption and actinides transmutation, transmutation performances), research on materials (spallation targets, fuels and transmutation targets), research on conditioning matrices for separated elements; 3 - long-term storage: principles and problems, containers, surface and subsurface facilities; 4 - disposal: reversibility and disposal, geological disposal (principle and problems, site and concept selection), adaptation to reversibility, research on materials (bentonite and cements for geologic barrier, metals for containers), underground research and qualification laboratories, quantity of containers to be stored. (J.S.)

  2. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  3. Method and techniques of radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafar, M.; Aasi, N.

    2002-04-01

    This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)

  4. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  5. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawson, C.A.

    1967-01-01

    When I first became concerned with radioactive waste management, in the early 1950's, very little was really known about the subject. There was a general feeling that it was a serious 'problem'. Articles were appearing in the press and talks were being given on the radio suggesting that the wastes generated by the proposed nuclear power reactors might be a serious menace to humanity. The prophets pointed with alarm to the enormous quantities of fission products that would accumulate steadily over the years in tank farms associated with reactor fuel reprocessing plants, and calculations were made of the possible results from rupture of the tanks due to corrosion, earthquakes or enemy attack. Responsible people suggested seriously that the waste disposal problem might be fatal to the development of a nuclear power industry, and this attitude was reinforced by the popular outcry that arose from experience with fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The Canadian nuclear power industry was not critically involved in this controversy because our heavy-water reactors are fuelled with natural uranium, and reprocessing of the fuel is not necessary. The spent fuel contains plutonium, a potential fuel, but the cost of recovering it was such that it was not competitive with natural uranium, which is not in short supply in Canada. Our spent fuel is not dissolved in acid - it is stored. still in its zirconium cladding, under water at the reactor site, or placed in sealed concrete-and-steel pipes below ground. If the price of uranium rises sufficiently it will become profitable to recover the plutonium, and only then shall we have an appreciable amount of waste from this source. However. during the first five or six years of research and development at Chalk River we did investigate fuel processing methods, and like everybody else we grad stainless steel tanks containing high and medium level wastes. These were located quite close to the Ottawa River, and we worried about what

  6. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  7. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in erupting magmas from Izu arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Jun; Kurihara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Masaomi

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive disequilibria among U-series nuclides are observed in the magmas from volcanoes in the world. Basaltic products from Izu arc volcanoes, including Izu-Oshima and Fuji volcanoes, show 230 Th 238 U and 226 Ra> 230 Th disequilibria, indicating that the addition of U-and Ra-rich fluid from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge at the magma genesis. The disequilibria of 226 Ra> 230 Th in the erupting magmas suggest that the timescale from magma genesis to the eruption may be less than 8000 years. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  9. Method of solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Mihara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Koji; Sauda, Kenzo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO 2 , they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)

  10. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs

  12. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  13. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2009-01-01

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  14. Device for the disposal of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, Toshi; Inoue, Tadashi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To adsorb and collect radioactive nuclide ions contained in the radioactive liquid waste to select and separate thereof. Structure: A unitary disposing tank comprises an insulative cylindrical tank, an unsoluble cathode plate positioned thereunder and formed with a number of liquid inlet holes, an adsorbent layer filled with unsoluble electrically conductive substances having a large surface area in contact with the cathode plate, and an unsoluble anode plate positioned at the upper part of the cylindrical disposing tank so as not to come into contact with the adsorbent layer and formed with a number of liquid inlets, whereby one or more disposing tanks are stacked in a layer fashion, and a DC voltage is applied between the anode and cathode plates to flow a liquid to be disposed into the disposing tanks so that the radioactive metal ion nuclide in the liquid may be adsorbed and collected by the cathode and the adsorbent layer for selection and separation. (Ohara, T.)

  15. Radioactive waste programme in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmins, A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported

  16. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  17. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  18. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  20. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  1. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The public has demonstrated interest and even concern for radioactive waste. A fully demonstrated industrial solution already exists for 90% of the waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several solutions are currently under development for long-term management of long-lived waste. They could be implemented on an industrial scale within twenty years. The low volumes of this type of waste mean there is plenty of time to adopt a solution. (author). 5 photos

  2. The radioactive waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  3. Radioactive waste mangement in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety

  4. Low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    During dismantling operations of nuclear facilities radioctive and non radioactive wastes are produced. The distinction between both kinds of wastes is not easy. In each dismantling operation special care and rules are defined for the separation of wastes. Each case must be separately studied. The volume and the surface activites are analyzed. Part of the wastes had been disposed in a public environment. The regulations, the international recommendations, thetheoretical and experimental investigations in this field are presented. A regulation principle and examples of radioactivity limits, on the basis of international recommendations, are provided. Those limits are calculated from individual radiation dose that may reach human beings [fr

  5. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  6. Radioactive waste management - with evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The select committee was appointed to report on the present (1988) situation and future prospects in the field of radioactive waste management in the European Community. The report covers all aspects of the subject. After an introduction the parts of the report are concerned with the control of radiation hazards, the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste, the control of radioactive effluents, storage and disposal of solid radioactive wastes, research programmes, surface storage versus deep geological disposal of long-term wastes, the future of reprocessing and the public debate. Part 10 is a resume of the main conclusions and recommendations. It is recommended that the House of Lords debate the issue. The oral and written evidence presented to the committee is included in the report. (U.K.)

  7. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  8. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    1975-01-01

    The different stages of radioactive waste production are examined: ore production, reactor operation, reprocessing plants. The treatment and storage methods used and the French realizations relative to these problems are described [fr

  9. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)

  10. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  11. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Ootsuka, Masaharu; Uetake, Naoto; Ozawa, Yoshihiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prepare radioactive solidified wastes excellent in strength, heat resistance, weather-proof, water resistance, dampproof and low-leaching property. Method: A hardening material reactive with alkali silicates to form less soluble salts is used as a hardener for alkali silicates which are solidification filler for the radioactive wastes, and mixed with cement as a water absorbent and water to solidify the radioactive wastes. The hardening agent includes, for example, CaCO 3 , Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 , CaSiF 6 and CaSiO 3 . Further, in order to reduce the water content in the wastes and reduce the gap ratio in the solidification products, the hardener adding rate, cement adding rate and water content are selected adequately. As the result, solidification products can be prepared with no deposition of easily soluble salts to the surface thereof, with extremely low leaching of radioactive nucleides. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  13. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  14. Radioactive waste management in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report drafted by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) deals with the basic principles and the main stages of radioactive waste management. The review more precisely focuses on what relates to environment protection, safety assessment, financing, social issues, public concerns and international co-operation. An annex finally summarises the radioactive waste management programs that are implemented in 15 of the NEA countries. (TEC). figs

  15. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Hisashi; Kobori, Junzo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To perform the curing sufficiently even when copper hydroxide that interferes the curing reaction is contained in radioactive wastes. Method: Solidification of radioactive wastes containing copper hydroxide using thermoset resins is carried out under the presence of an alkaline material. The thermoset resin used herein is an polyester resin comprising unsaturated polyester and a polymerizable monomer. The alkaline substance usable herein can include powder or an aqueous solution of hydroxides or oxides of sodium, magnesium, calcium or the like. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. NRI's research on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexa, J.; Dlouhy, Z.; Kepak, F.; Kourim, V.; Napravnik, J.; Razga, J.; Ralkova, J.; Uher, E.; Vojtech, O.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given (including 41 references) of work carried out at the Nuclear Research Institute. Discussed are sorption processes (a selective sorbent for 90 Sr based on BaSO 4 , etc.), sorption on inorganic ion exchangers (heteropolyacid salts, ferrocyanides for 137 Cs capture), on organic cation exchangers (separation of lanthanides), electrocoagulation. The process is described of vitrification of highly radioactive wastes, the arrest of emissions, the deposition of radioactive wastes and surface decontamination. (M.K.)

  17. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  18. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  19. Radioactive wastes and their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    1984-01-01

    The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)

  20. Overview of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The question of what to do with radioactive wastes is discussed. The need to resolve this issue promptly is pointed out. Two significant events which have occurred during the Carter administration are discussed. An Interagency Review Group (IRG) on waste management was formed to formulate recommendations leading to the establishment of a National policy for managing radioactive wastes. The technical findings in the IRG report are listed. The author points out some issues not addressed by the report. President Carter issued a national policy statement on Radioactive Waste Management in February 1980. The most significant elements of this statement are summarized. The cancellation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is currently meeting opposition in Congress. This and other items in the National Policy Statement are discussed

  1. Handling and disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly

  2. Solidification method of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Tsutomu; Chino, Koichi; Sasahira, Akira; Ikeda, Takashi

    1992-07-24

    Metal solidification material can completely seal radioactive wastes and it has high sealing effect even if a trace amount of evaporation should be caused. In addition, the solidification operation can be conducted safely by using a metal having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the radioactive wastes. Further, the radioactive wastes having a possibility of evaporation and scattering along with oxidation can be solidified in a stable form by putting the solidification system under an inert gas atmosphere. Then in the present invention, a metal is selected as a solidification material for radioactive wastes, and a metal, for example, lead or tin having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the wastes is used in order to prevent the release of the wastes during the solidification operation. Radioactive wastes which are unstable in air and scatter easily, for example, Ru or the like can be converted into a stable solidification product by conducting the solidification processing under an inert gas atmosphere. (T.M.).

  3. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  4. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  6. The incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-03-01

    In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioactive wastes is to reduce the volume and weight of the wastes. Waste categories most commonly treated by incineration are burnable solid low level wastes like trash wastes consisting of plastic, paper, protective clothing, isolating material etc. Primarily, techniques for the incineration of this type of waste are described but incineration of other types of low level wastes like oil or solvents and medium level wastes like ion-exchange resins is also briefly discussed. The report contains tables with condensed data on incineration plants in different countries. Problems encountered, experiences and new developments are reviewed. The most important problems in incineration of radioactive wastes have been plugging and corrosion of offgas systems, due to incomplete combustion of combustion of materials like rubber and PVC giving rise to corrosive gases, combined with inadequate materials of construction in heat-exchangers, channels and filter housings. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  8. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  9. Radioactive Wastes Generated From JAERI Partitioning-Transmutation Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI's processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as 14 C and 59 Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (authors)

  10. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshihiko; Maruko, Morihisa; Takamura, Yoshiyuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive claddings from the slurry of wasted ion exchange resins containing radioactive claddings. Method: Wasted ion exchange resins having radioactive claddings (fine particles of iron oxides or hydroxide adhered with radioactive cobalt) are introduced into a clad separation tank. Sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide is introduced to the separation tank to adjust the pH value to 3 - 6. Then, sodium lauryl sulfate is added for capturing claddings and airs are blown from an air supply nozzle to generate air bubbles. The claddings are detached from the ion exchange resins and adhered to the air bubbles. The air bubbles adhered with the claddings float up to the surface of the liquid wastes and then forced out of the separation tank. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Katsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the management for radioactive wastes containers thereby decrease the amount of stored matters by arranging the radioactive wastes containers in the order of their radioactivity levels. Method: The radiation doses of radioactive wastes containers arranged in the storing area before volume-reducing treatment are previously measured by a dosemeter. Then, a classifying machine is actuated to hoist the containers in the order to their radiation levels and the containers are sent out passing through conveyor, surface contamination gage, weight measuring device and switcher to a volume-reducing processing machine. The volume-reduced products are packed each by several units to the storing containers. Thus, the storing containers after stored for a certain period of time can be transferred in an assembled state. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  13. Method for burning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Akinori; Tejima, Takaya.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To completely process less combustible radioactive wastes with no excess loads on discharge gas processing systems and without causing corrosions to furnace walls. Method: Among combustible radioactive wastes, chlorine-containing less combustible wastes such as chlorine-containing rubbers and vinyl chlorides, and highly heat generating wastes not containing chloride such as polyethylene are selectively packed into packages. While on the other hand, packages of less combustible wastes are charged into a water-cooled jacket type incinerator intermittently while controlling the amount and the interval of charging so that the temperature in the furnace will be kept to lower than 850 deg C for burning treatment. Directly after the completion of the burning, the packed highly heat calorie producing wastes are charged and subjected to combustion treatment. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  15. Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroebel, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung; Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. zur Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1978-08-01

    This paper discusses the final disposal possibilities for radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the related questions of waste conditioning, storage methods and safety. The programs in progress in neighbouring CEC countries and in the USA are also mentioned briefly. The autors conclude that the existing final disposal possibilities are sufficiently well known and safe, but that they could be improved still further by future development work. The residual hazard potential of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing after about 1000 years of storage is lower that of known inorganic core deposits.

  16. Industrial management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This article deals with the present situation in France concerning radioactive waste management. For the short and medium term, that is to say processing and disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes, there are industrial processes giving all the guarantees for a safe containment, but improvements are possible. For the long term optimization of solution requires more studies of geologic formations. Realization emergency comes less from the waste production than the need to optimize the disposal techniques. An international cooperation exists. All this should convince the public opinion and should develop planning and realization [fr

  17. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuder, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  19. CEGB's radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.; Maul, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) produces low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the process of operating its eight Magnox and five Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) nuclear power stations. Future wastes will also arise from a programme of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) and the decommissioning of existing reactors. The paper gives details of how the UK waste management strategy is put into practice by the CEGB, and how general waste management principles are developed into strategies for particular waste streams. (author)

  20. Status of the Japan's regulatory policy on radioactive waste management. Cleanup and recycling issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daiji

    1995-01-01

    Wastes from nuclear facilities are very diversified concerning that have different levels of radioactivity and include different kinds of radioactive materials. Besides some of those waste is not assumed as radioactive waste. The basic policy of the radioactive waste management is taking that diversity into full account for appropriate separate management of different types of radioactive waste and treatment and disposal of each type in a rational manner, including recycling. From the point, the disposal methods are considered or under consideration to that waste, (1) from nuclear reactor facility, (2) from nuclear fuel cycle facility--HLW, waste contaminated TRU nuclides, or contaminated uranium, (3) from RI utilization or research institute, and (4) from decommissioning of nuclear facility. Now in Japan, regulation framework for some kind of LLW from reactor facility, including waste from decommissioning of reactor is established. (J.P.N.)

  1. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masahiko; Kira, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naotoshi; Nagaoka, Takeshi; Akane, Junta.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes having sufficient monoaxial compression strength and excellent in water durability upon ocean disposal of the wastes. Method: Solidification products having sufficient strength and filled with a great amount of radioactive wastes are obtained by filling and solidifying 100 parts by weight of chlorinated polyethylene resin and 100 - 500 parts by weight of particular or powderous spent ion exchange resin as radioactive wastes. The chlorinated polyethylene resin preferably used herein is prepared by chlorinating powderous or particulate polyethylene resin in an aqueous suspending medium or by chlorinating polyethylene resin dissolved in an organic solvent capable of dissolving the polyethylene resin, and it is crystalline or non-crystalline chlorinated polyethylene resin comprising 20 - 50% by weight of chlorine, non-crystalline resin with 25 - 40% by weight of chlorine being particularly preferred. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Radioactive waste management in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, K.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as political marketing tool, make things even more complex. Public involvement in planning and development of radioactive waste management program must be perceived as essential for the success of the program. Education is a precursor to public comprehension and confidence which lead to adequate waste management decisions that will protect the public health, safety and environment without jeopardizing further progress and development. (author) [sl

  3. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  5. Plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru

    1981-01-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)

  6. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, A.; Hufschmid, P.; Jordi, S.; Schanne, M.; Vigfusson, J.

    2009-11-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  7. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and γ ray spectrum. FPGS90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting γ ray and β ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted γ ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library 'JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -', which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author)

  8. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  9. Study on cementation of simulated radioactive borated liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qina; Li Junfeng; Wang Jianlong

    2010-01-01

    To compare sulfoaluminate cement with ordinary Portland cement on their cementation of radioactive borated liquid waste and to provide more data for formula optimization, simulated radioactive borated liquid waste were solidified by the two cements. 28 d compressive strength and strength losses after water/freezing/irradiation resistance tests were investigated. Leaching test and X-ray diffraction analysis were also conducted. The results show that it is feasible to solidify borated liquid wastes with sulfoaluminate cement and ordinary Portland cement with formulas used in the study. The 28 d compressive strengths, strength losses after tests and simulated nuclides leaching rates of the solidified waste forms meet the demand of GB 14569.1-93. The sulfoaluminate cement formula show better retention of Cs + than ordinary Portland cement formula. Boron, in form of B (OH) 4 - , incorporate in ettringite as solid solutions. (authors)

  10. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  11. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  12. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  13. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Organic complexing agents in low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Persson, G.

    1985-11-01

    Low and medium level radioactive wastes will contain various organic agents, such as ion exchange resins (mainly in the operational wastes), plastics and cellulose (mainly in the reprocessing wastes and in the decommissioning wastes) and bitumen (mainly in the reprocessing wastes). The degradation of these organics will lead to the formation of complexing agents that possibly could affect the release of radionuclides from an underground repository and the subsequent transport of these nuclides. The solution chemistry of the actinides may be totally dominated by the presence of such organic degradation products within the repository. However, hydrolysis and formation of carbonates (and possibly humates) will most likely dominate solubility and speciation outside the immediate vicinity of the repository. The minor quantities of strong complexing agents (in the reprocessing waste), notably aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, DTPA) and possibly organic phosphates (DBP) could significantly affect speciation and sorption behaviour of primarily the trivalent actinides even outside the repository. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  16. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Software for radioactive wastes database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Eros Viggiano de; Reis, Luiz Carlos Alves

    1996-01-01

    A radioactive waste database was implemented at CDTN in 1991. The objectives are to register and retrieve information about wastes ge in 1991. The objectives are to register and retrieve information about wastes generated and received at the Centre in order to improve the waste management. Since 1995, the database has being reviewed and a software has being developed aiming at processing information in graphical environment (Windows 95 and Windows NT), minimising the possibility of errors and making the users access more friendly. It was also envisaged to ease graphics and reports edition and to make this database available to other CNEN institutes and even to external organizations. (author)

  18. Public debate on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The definition and implementation of safe and perennial solutions for the management of radioactive wastes is a necessity from the point of view of both the nuclear industrialists and the public authorities, but also of the overall French citizens. For the low- or medium-level or short living radioactive wastes, some solutions have been defined are are already implemented. On the other hand, no decision has been taken so far for the long living medium to high-level radioactive wastes. Researches are in progress in this domain according to 3 ways of research defined by the law from December 30, 1991: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep underground, and long duration surface or sub-surface storage. This paper presents in a digest way, the principle, the results obtained so far, and the perspectives of each of the three solutions under study. (J.S.)

  19. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Kikuchi, Makoto; Yusa, Hideo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidified radioactive wastes at high packing density by packing radioactive waste pellets in a container and then packing and curing a thermosetting resin therein. Method: Radioactive liquid wastes are dried into power and subjected to compression molding. The pellets thus obtained are supplied in a predetermined amount from the hopper to the inside of a drum can. Then, thermosetting plastic and a curing agent are filled in the drum can. Gas between the pellets is completely expelled by the intrusion of the thermosetting resin and the curing agent among the pellets. Thereafter, the drum can is heated by a heater and curing is effected. After the curing, the drum can is sealed. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  1. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  2. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  4. Management of Radioactive Wastes in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Ghani, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes

  5. Some problems in utilization system of FP nuclides and actinides in the high level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Katsuaki; Emura, Satoru

    1974-01-01

    There are three nuclides of sup(134/137)Cs for irradiation sources, 90 Sr for radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and 238 Pu for cardiac pacemakers, as the nuclides for which considerable demand is expected in near future among those contained in reprocessed high level liquid wastes. Technical problems are first described from the viewpoint of utilization system. Then the control system of reprocessed high level wastes is expained. Finally, economic possibility and problems in their utilization are discussed. Being in competition with 60 Co, the price of sup(134/137)Cs will be lower than that of 60 Co after a decade. The annual demand in 1985 may be 6.1 x 10 6 Ci. The conclusive factor of 90 Sr market price is hard to get because it finds no strong competitive nuclides. It may be about 20 yen/Ci after ten years. Demand is expected to be approximately 1.2 x 10 7 Ci/year. However it is pretty hard to pay the cost of group separation and solidification, storage and conversion to products with such gain. It is estimated that the balance of income and outgo would be almost profitable, if the utilization of FP nuclides would progress and the demand three times as large as this assumption would be developed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  7. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  8. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D Y; Choi, S S; Han, B S [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.

  9. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication

  10. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  11. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  12. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reduction effect, as well as enable simultaneous procession for the wastes such as burnable solid wastes, resin wastes or sludges, and further convert the processed materials into glass-solidified products which are much less burnable and stable chemically and thermally. Method: Auxiliaries mainly composed of SiO 2 such as clays, and wastes such as burnable solid wastes, waste resins and sludges are charged through a waste hopper into an incinerating melting furnace comprising an incinerating and a melting furnace, while radioactive concentrated liquid wastes are sprayed from a spray nozzle. The wastes are burnt by the heat from the melting furnace and combustion air, and the sprayed concentrated wastes are dried by the hot air after the combustion into solid components. The solid matters from the concentrated liquid wastes and the incinerating ashes of the wastes are melted together with the auxiliaries in the melting furnace and converted into glass-like matters. The glass-like matters thus formed are caused to flow into a vessel and gradually cooled to solidify. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Radioactive waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI is the Supervisory Authority for Nuclear Safety and Security of Swiss Nuclear Facilities. The responsibilities include the evaluation and operational monitoring of the existing five Swiss nuclear power plants, the radioactive waste disposals and the nuclear research facilities. The supervisory area includes project planning, operational issues, and decommissioning of plants. ENSI supervises the formation, handling and storage of radioactive waste, the work on deep geological disposal and the transport of radioactive materials. The disposal of radioactive waste is regulated by the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act (2005) and the Nuclear Energy Ordinance (2005). The protection of humans and the environment must be guaranteed permanently. Waste disposal must be carried out in the own country by deep geological repositories. The licensing procedure for the disposal facilities is concentrated at the federal level, the cooperation of the location canton, neighboring cantons and the neighboring countries is ensured. The general license for the deep geological repository is subject to an optional referendum. The polluter pays principle applies to the disposal of radioactive waste. The waste producers are legally obliged to dispose of them and have founded the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). The federal government is responsible for waste from medicine, industry and research (MIF). The Federal Council approved the waste management certificate for low and intermediate level waste (SMA) in 1988. High-level-waste (HAA) and long-live-intermediate-level-waste (LMA), where approved in 2006. Nagra's disposal concept envisages two separate deep geological repositories for SMA and HAA / LMA in a suitable, tectonically stable, low-permeability rock formation. If a site meets both the SMA and HAA / LMA storage requirements, the selection process may result in a common location for all radioactive waste. Until the

  14. Measurement of gross beta radioactivity in high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lin Cansheng; Zhang Xianzi; Chen Guoan; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    Using beta plastic scintillation counter of low level background, gross beta radioactivity of twelve samples for high-level liquid waste is determined directly. Beta efficiency curves of plastic scintillation counter for four mass thickness are calibrated in advance. Determining gross beta radioactivity, gross efficiency of the scintillation counter for various energy beta ray is calculated via weighted mean method with the ratio of radioactivity for each nuclide. The ratio of radioactivity for nuclides which have gamma disintegration is determined in terms of the radioactivity measured by gamma spectrometer. The ratio of the radioactivity for 90 Sr which has purity beta disintegration is calculated in terms of half life time approximation. The ratio of the radioactivity for 147 Pm which also has purity disintegration is calculated by means of apparent cooling-time approximation. The uncertainty of results for the present work is about +-15%

  15. Radioactive waste removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  17. The limitation of radioactive wastes from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, B.; IJtsma, D.; Zwigt, A.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews were made with radiation experts working at hospitals about the treatment and limiting of radioactive wastes. The authors conclude that with the aid of hospital personnel a decrease of the volume of radioactive waste is possible. 25 refs

  18. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.

    1997-01-01

    The hospital radioactive wastes are of three types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Prior to final evacuation all these wastes are checked by a detector the threshold of which is lower than the standard. This system allows detecting activities very low under the daily recommended threshold of 37 kBq (1μ Ci), for the group II. In metabolic radiotherapy the unsealed sources of iodine 131 will form mainly the wastes arising from the rooms contaminated by the patient himself. In this service anything touching the patient's room most by systematically checked. All the rooms are provided with toilette with two compartments, one connected traditionally to the sewerage system for faeces and the other coupled to tanks for urine storing. The filled reservoirs waits around 10 month span prior to being emptied, after checking, into the sewerage system. The volume activity most be lower than 7 Bq per liter (standard). For the hot labs, injection room and in-vitro lab, the liquid waste retrieved from dedicated stainless sinks are stored in storage tanks and will waits for 2 years before evacuation. The undies coming from the metabolic radiotherapy service are possible contaminated by the patient sheets, pillow cases, etc. These undies freshly contaminated may be contaminating if the contamination is non fixated. All the undies coming from this service are checked like all the wastes by means of the fixed detector. For the solid wastes two evacuation channels are possible: the urban garbage repository for household wastes and the Brest waste repository for hospital wastes. For the liquid waste arising for urines, used washing water, etc, the evacuation will be done towards city sewerage system after storing or dilution. Concerning the liquid wastes presenting chemical risks, they will be evacuated in cans by NETRA. Concerning the gaseous wastes, trapped on active carbon filters, they will be handled like solid wastes and will be directed to the waste repository of Brest. The other

  19. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  20. Nuclear power and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    1991-03-01

    The gap between the relative perceptions in the area of nuclear waste is wide. The broad view of the industry is that the disposal of nuclear waste is not a serious technical problem, and that solutions are already available to provide safe disposal of all our waste. The broad view of those who oppose the industry is that radioactive waste is so unpleasant, and will remain lethal for so long, that no acceptable policy will ever be developed, and so production of such waste (except, oddly, the significant amounts arising from uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industrial safety research, etc) should stop immediately. This booklet will not attempt to describe in great detail the technicalities of the United Kingdom nuclear industry's current approach to radioactive waste: such issues are described in detail in other publications, especially those by Nirex. It is our intention to outline some of the main issues involved, and to associate these issues with the divergence in perceptions of various parties. (author)

  1. The solidification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Kiichi; Fujimoto, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Nomura, Ichiro

    1985-01-01

    A previous paper covered the decomposition and vitrification of Na 2 SO 4 (the primary component of the liquid waste from BWR) with silica. Now, in order to establish an integrated treatment system for the radioactive waste from BWR, this paper examines the effects of combining incinerator ash and other incinerator wastes with radioactive waste on the durability of the final vitrified products. A bench scale test plat consisting of a waiped file evaporator/dryer, a Joule-heated glass melter and SO 2 absorber was therefore put into operation and run safety for a period of 3000 hours. The combination of the radioactive waste with incinerator ash and the secondary waste of the incinerator was found to make no difference on the durability of the final vitrified products effecting no increase or decrease. Durability similar to that displayed in the beaker tests was proven, with the final vitrified products exhibiting a leaching rate less than 3 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 /day at 95 deg C. (author)

  2. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  3. R and D projects for disposal concepts for special radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Updated requirements for the elaboration of reference methods or back-up methods for the conditioning and ultimate storage of special radioactive wastes are worked out. Subsequently, the present state-of-art and ongoing studies are analyzed. Special radioactive wastes collected in collecting points, or produced in medicine and industry are included in the paper. With special unclear wastes, the emphasis is on wastes from LWR-type reactors and those from the unclear fuel cycle. The PTB data base is to by complemented by the characterization of waste compounds with volatile nuclides. 16 specialist contributions have been included in the data base. (HP) [de

  4. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  5. Calculation of radioactivity of β-nuclides by CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Fujun; Zhang Shengdong; Ding Youqian; Sun Hongqing; Tang Peijia

    2010-01-01

    CIEMAT/NIST method for calculating radioactivity of β-nuclides was introduced in this paper. The influences of KB value and quenching parameter on the radioactivity computation of 241 Pu, 106 Ru/ 106 Rh, 63 Ni, 151 Sm and 14 C were studied by CIEMAT/NIST method with 3 H tracing. It is shown that the effect of KB value can be ignored if it varies in a proper range; Except for 106 Ru/ 106 Rh, the discrepancy between prediction and actual activity is lower than 2% in low quenching extent. However, it increases with quenching extent, and the largest discrepancy soars to nearly 13%. In addition, the reason for bad agreement of 106 Ru/ 106 Rh between prediction and actual activity was discussed. Efficiency calibration curves of 79 Se, 93 Zr and 107 Pd were also computed by CIEMAT/NIST method, compared with approximate replacement method or fitting and interpolation method. It is shown that CIEMAT/NIST method is no more accurate and suitable than the other two techniques. (authors)

  6. Radioactive waste management regulatory framework in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcenas, M.; Mejia, M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework concerning the radioactive waste management in Mexico. It is intended to show regulatory historical antecedents, the legal responsibilities assigned to institutions involved in the radioactive waste management, the sources of radioactive waste, and the development and preparation of national standards for fulfilling the legal framework for low level radioactive waste. It is at present the most important matter to be resolved. (author)

  7. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  8. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  9. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr

  10. Cementation of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenkov, V.

    2004-01-01

    The cementation methods for immobilisation of radioactive wastes are discussed in terms of methodology, chemistry and properties of the different types of cements as well as the worldwide experience in this field. Two facilities for cementation - DEWA and MOWA - are described in details

  11. Radioactive wastes in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Methods of preventing the pollution of air by radioactive waste from atomic centres were discussed in an Agency Symposium held in New York at the end of August. It was agreed that the atomic industry has a good safety record, and suggestions were made that there should now be a concerted effort to prevent air pollution by all industries. (author)

  12. Radioactive waste disposal: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    The world's industrial nations are embarking on a major build-up of nuclear electric power generating capacity. Enormous quantities of radioactive waste will be produced in fuel reprocessing operations which must be safeguarded from entering the biosphere for thousands of years. It is an unprecedented problem which has no universally agreed upon solution. (U.S.)

  13. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  14. Chemical decontamination of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.I.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. There is also a variety of alternatives for treatment and conditioning of the wastes prior disposal. The importance of treatment of radioactive waste for protection of human and environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has gained in this field. Generally, the methods used for treatment of radioactive wastes can be classified into three type's biological, physical and chemical treatment this physical treatment it gives good result than biological treatment. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. In chemical treatment there are different procedures, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electro dialysis but solvent extraction is best one because high purity can be optioned on the other hand the disadvantage that it is expensive. Beside the solvent extraction technique one can be used is ion exchange which gives reasonable result, but requires pretreatment that to avoid in closing of column by colloidal and large species. Electro dialysis technique gives quite result but less than solvent extraction and ion exchange technique the advantage is a cheep.(Author)

  15. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  16. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  17. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  18. Apparatus for fixing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.D.; Pirro, J. Jr.; Lawrence, M.; Wisla, S.F.

    1975-01-01

    Fixing radioactive waste is disclosed in which the waste is collected as a slurry in aqueous media in a metering tank located within the nuclear facilities. Collection of waste is continued from time to time until a sufficient quantity of material to make up a full shipment to a burial ground has been collected. The slurry is then cast in shipping containers for shipment to a burial ground or the like by metering through a mixer into which fixing materials are simultaneously metered at a rate to yield the desired proportions of materials. (U.S.)

  19. Fixation process for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theysohn, F.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement on the method of solidification of radioactive liquid waste in bitumen with the aid of extruders is described. So far, it has been difficult to remove large amounts of water. The waste sludge, as proposed here, is pre-dried in the extruder and then mixed with the bitumen. The extruder is inclined upward in the transport direction, and its barrel extruders have through holes parallel to the direction of transport in the raised sides of the passages, so that water runs back. Also the waste steam nozzles are arranged before the bitumen inlet. (UWI) [de

  20. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  1. National Syrian Program for Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Takriti, S.

    2009-06-01

    A national plan for radioactive waste management has been presented. It includes identifying, transport, recording, classifying, processing and disposal. It is an important reference for radioactive waste management for those dealing with radioactive waste, and presents a complete protection to environemnt and people. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste management: Spanish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)

  4. The management of radioactive wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers are presented, dealing with the management and environmental impact of radioactive wastes, environmental considerations related to uranium mining and milling, the management of uranium refining wastes, reactor waste management, proposals for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes, disposal of nuclear fuel wastes, federal government policy on radioactive waste management, licensing requirements, environmental assessment, and internatioal cooperation in wast management. (LL)

  5. National Inventory of Radioactive Wastes, Edition 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallard, Bernard; Vervialle, Jean Pierre; Voizard, Patrice

    1998-01-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Inventory is an annual report of French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). The issue on 1998 has the following content: 1. General presentation; 2. Location of radioactive wastes in France; 3. Regional file catalogue; 4. Address directory; 5. Annexes. The inventory establishes the producer and owner categories, the French overseas waste sources, location of pollutant sides, spread wastes (hospitals, universities and industrial sector), railways terminals

  6. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  7. Public attitudes about radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is the author's conclusion from eight years of social science research which the author has directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns--practitioners like Ginger King who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions s dismal. The author believes that impression is misleading, and in this paper shares research findings that give a broader perspective

  8. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I'd like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective

  9. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable complete curing even when radioactive wastes contain those materials hindering the curing reaction, for example, copper hydroxide. Method: After admixing an alkaline substance to radioactive concentrated liquid wastes containing copper hydroxide or other amphoteric substances, they are dried, powderized and then cured with thermosetting resins. The thermosetting resins usable herein include, for example, those prepared by mixing an unsaturated polyester with a monomer such as styrene. When a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and a polymerization promotor are added to the mixture, it takes places curing reaction at normal temperature. Suitable alkaline substances usable herein are those which are insoluble to the liquid wastes and do not change the chemical form under heating and drying. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  11. Treatment and conditioning of historical radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Ghe.; Dragolici, F.; Ionascu, L.; Rotarescu, Ghe.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the management of historical radioactive waste from the storage facility of Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant. The historical waste stored into storage facility of IFIN-HH consists of spent sealed radioactive sources, empty contaminated containers, wooden radioactive waste, low specific activity radioactive waste, contaminated waste as well as radioactive waste from operation of WWR-S research reactor. After decommissioning of temporary storage facility about 5000 packages with radioactive waste were produced and transferred to the disposal facility. A large amount of packages have been transferred and disposed of to repository but at the end of 2000 there were still about 800 packages containing cement conditioned radioactive waste in an advanced state of degradation declared by authorities as 'historical waste'. During the management of historical waste campaign there were identified: radium spent radioactive sources, containers containing other spent sealed radioactive sources, packages containing low specific activity waste consist of thorium scrap allow, 30 larger packages (316 L), packages with activity lower than activity limit for disposal, packages with activity higher than activity limit for disposal. At the end of 2008, the whole amount of historical waste which met the waste acceptance criteria has been conditioned and transferred to disposal facility. (authors)

  12. Development of new treatment process for low level radioactive waste at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Kenichi; Sugaya, Atsushi; Saito, Yasuo; Tanaka, Kenji; Akutsu, Shigeru; Hirata, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    The Low-level radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LWTF) was constructed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and cold testing has been carried out since 2006. The waste which will be treated in the LWTF is combustible/incombustible solid waste and liquid waste. In the LWTF, the combustible/incombustible solid waste will be incinerated. The liquid waste will be treated by a radio-nuclides removal process and subsequently solidified in cement. This report describes the essential technologies of the LWTF and results of R and D work for the nitrate-ion decomposition technology for the liquid waste. (author)

  13. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  14. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  15. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The text comprises three sections, i.e. theological and moral aspects, scientific and technical aspects, and administrative and political aspects. The book informs on the scientific and legal situation concerning nuclear waste management and intends to give some kind of decision aid from a theological point of view. (PW) [de

  16. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Conveyor for sorting radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisco, A.J.; Johnson, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described for detecting radioactive components in dry active waste, the apparatus comprising: means for reducing the waste to pieces of substantially uniform size, first and second conveyors and a housing for the conveyors; means for conveying the pieces from the means for reducing the waste to the first and second conveyors; each of the first and second conveyors includes a receiving portion and a discharge portion; the discharge portion is spaced above and upstream from the receiving portion to disperse the pieces as they are transferred from the first conveyor to the second conveyor so that pieces which are in clusters are separated from each other to increase the likelihood of detecting radiation emanating means for detecting radioactive radiation emanating from the pieces, at least one of radiation detector means is located on each of the conveyors. Each is disposed in close overlying relation to its respective conveyor so that low levels of radiation emanating from the pieces can be detected; each of the conveyors includes means for flattening the pieces of waste before the pieces pass under the radiation detector means; and the means for flattening disposed between the receiving portion of each conveyor and the radiation detector means; the housing is generally closed; and means for providing a generally closed connection between the housing and the means for reducing the waste so that air that is in the housing and in the means for reducing the waste can be controlled

  19. The management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    One of the key questions asked about nuclear power production is whether the industry can manage its waste safely and economically. Management must take account of long term safety, since some radioisotopes take a very long time to decay. This long term decay, which can take millions of years, focused attention for the first time on the need for some wastes to be managed for a very long time beyond the lifetime of those who generated the waste. This paper reviews what the different types of waste are, what the technical consensus is on the requirements for their safe management, and how the present state of knowledge developed. It describes how radioactive waste management is practised and planned within the fuel cycle and indicates the moderate scale of the costs in relation to the total cost of producing electricity. Country annexes give more information about what is being done in a selection of countries, in order to indicate how radioactive waste management is carried out in practice. (Author)

  20. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  1. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inakuma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    Laundry liquid wastes and shower drains containing radioactive materials generated in a nuclear power plant are removed with radioactive materials by a fiber filtration device and an activated carbon filtration device to satisfy standers of water quality described in the environmental effect investigation report. Spent activated carbon is dehydrated together with the back-wash liquid from the fiber filtration device and the activated carbon filtration device using a Nutsche-type filtration dryer. With such procedures, the scale of the facility is minimized, space for devices, maintenance for equipments and radiation dose rate are reduced. (T.M.)

  2. Innocuous management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, C.

    1997-01-01

    The relations between peaceful uses and bellicose uses of the nuclear energy are complexes in relation to international establishment of norms to control the destiny of the radioactive materials, above all in the context of the existing international legislation of respect to the autonomy of the countries, and in the determination of the institution or institutions upon the ones that would fall on. The nuclear safeguards of materials and the possibilities of performing their function. Important efforts have been done to unify, to help and to impose international measures on the behalf of an environmentally harmless processing of the radioactive wastes [es

  3. Radioactive waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assi, Muzna

    2011-01-01

    The disused sealed radioactive sources including orphan sources in Lebanon, along with the growing industry of sealed radioactive sources in medical, industrial and research fields have posed a serious problem for authorities as well as users due to the lack of a national store for disused radioactive sources. Assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was requested to condition and store disused radium needles and tubes present at two facilities. The mission took place on July 25, 2001 and was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (LAEC). Other disused radioactive sources were kept in the facilities till a safer and securer solution is provided; however orphan sources, found mainly during export control, were brought and stored temporarily in LAEC. The necessity of a safe and secure store became a must. Prior to October 2005, there was no clear legal basis for establishing such store for disused radioactive sources, until the ministerial decree no 15512 dated October 19, 2005 (related to the implementation of decree-law no 105/83) was issued which clearly stated that 'The LAEC shall, in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Health, establish a practical mechanism for safe disposal of radioactive waste'. Following this, the work on inventory of disused sealed sources along with collecting orphan sources and placing them temporarily in LAEC was legally supported. Moreover, several missions were planned to repatriate category I and II sources, one of which was completed specifically in August 2009; other missions are being worked on. In 2008, a national technical cooperation project with the IAEA was launched. Under the Technical Cooperation (TC) project with reference number LEB3002, the project was entitled 'Assistance in the establishment of a safe temporary national storage at the LAEC for orphan sources and radioactive waste' which cycle is 2009-2011. Under this project, a national store for

  4. Use of bremsstrahlung information for the nondestructive characterization of radioactive waste packages; Nutzung von Bremsstrahlungsinformation zur zerstoerungsfreien Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallgebinde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmoser, Benjamin Paul

    2016-11-10

    In order to minimize pseudo activity whilst storage of radioactive waste packages it is required to determine the nuclide inventory as precisely as possible. The in Gamma spectra contained parts of bremsstrahlung can be used to identify and quantify certain beta nuclides. For this an analytical method has been developed. This was mainly tested with beta-emitter Sr-90 and Tm-170, as well as commonly present gamma-emitters in laboratory scale and actual 200 liter waste packages. As a result, non-destructive determination of radioactive wastes can be conducted more precisely.

  5. Radioactive safety analysis and assessment of waste rock pile site in uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changrong; Liu Zehua; Wang Zhiyong; Zhou Xinghuo

    2007-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculation and in-situ test results, distribution and emissions of radioactive nuclides of uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites are analyzed in this paper. It is pointed out that 222 Rn is the main nuclide of uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile site. Also 222 Rn is the main source term of public dose. 222 Rn concentrations in the atmospheric environment around and individual dose to Rn gradually decrease with increasing distances to uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile site. Based on in-situ tests on five uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites, a decisive method and safety protection distance are presented, which can be used to guide the validation and design of radioactive safety protection in uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites. (authors)

  6. Glass containing radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level-radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800 C, since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800 to 1050 C temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550 C and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H 2 O at 135 C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear waste forms. (author)

  7. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  8. The terrestrial environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Research into environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident, especially radiocesium 137 Cs (half-life, 30.1 years), is highly focused especially on diffusion processes of radiocesium into ecosystems, which is high-priority knowledge. Because of relatively sparse knowledge about the reallocation of radiocesium contained in organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of diffused rediocesium into ecosystem cannot be accurately estimated. In this article, the terrestrial environmental dynamics of radiocesium mainly in the processes of plant uptake and the possibility of release from plants will be discussed. Plants uptake minerals from soil and these minerals are likewise ingested by animals that feed on plants, including humans. Therefore one of the main gateways of radiocesium into ecosystem is via plants. From the viewpoint of human dietary consumption, rice contamination with radiocesium has been energetically investigated and useful data are accumulating. Processes of radiocesium uptake mechanisms by plants are being researched using legumes, e.g. soybean. Speculation on the possibility of radiocesium release into forest atmosphere via plant activity will be introduced. (author)

  9. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification

  10. Development of ACBIO: A Biosphere Template Using AMBER for a Potential Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2005-01-01

    Nuclides in radioactive wastes are assumed to be transported in the geosphere by groundwater and probably discharged into the biosphere. Quantitative evaluation of doses to human beings due to nuclide transport in the geosphere and through the various pathways in the biosphere is the final step of safety assessment of the radioactive waste repository. To calculate the flux to dose conversion factors (DCFs) for nuclides appearing at GBIs with their decay chains, a template ACBIO which is an AMBER case file based on mathematical model for the mass transfer coefficients between the compartments has been developed considering material balance among the compartments in biosphere and then implementing to AMBER, a general and flexible software tool that allows to build dynamic compartment models. An illustrative calculation with ACBIO is shown.

  11. Classification of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication is a revision of an earlier Safety Guide of the same title issued in 1994. It recommends revised waste management strategies that reflect changes in practices and approaches since then. It sets out a classification system for the management of waste prior to disposal and for disposal, driven by long term safety considerations. It includes a number of schemes for classifying radioactive waste that can be used to assist with planning overall national approaches to radioactive waste management and to assist with operational management at facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The radioactive waste classification scheme; Appendix: The classification of radioactive waste; Annex I: Evolution of IAEA standards on radioactive waste classification; Annex II: Methods of classification; Annex III: Origin and types of radioactive waste

  12. Classification of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This publication is a revision of an earlier Safety Guide of the same title issued in 1994. It recommends revised waste management strategies that reflect changes in practices and approaches since then. It sets out a classification system for the management of waste prior to disposal and for disposal, driven by long term safety considerations. It includes a number of schemes for classifying radioactive waste that can be used to assist with planning overall national approaches to radioactive waste management and to assist with operational management at facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The radioactive waste classification scheme; Appendix: The classification of radioactive waste; Annex I: Evolution of IAEA standards on radioactive waste classification; Annex II: Methods of classification; Annex III: Origin and types of radioactive waste.

  13. Radioactive waste management at KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Tariq B.; Qamar Ali

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the existing radioactive waste management scheme of KANUPP. The radioactive wastes generated at KANUPP are in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. The spent fuel of the plant is stored underwater in the Spent Fuel Bay. For long term storage of low and intermediate level solid waste, 3m deep concrete lined trenches have been provided. The non-combustible material is directly stored in these trenches while the combustible material is first burnt in an incinerator and the ash is collected, sealed and also stored in the trenches. The low-level liquid and gaseous effluents are diluted and are discharged into the sea and the atmosphere. The paper also describes a modification carried out in the spent resin collection system in which a locally designed removable tank replaced the old permanent tanks. Presently the low level combustible solid waste is incinerated and stored, but it is planned to replace the present method by using compactor and storing the compacted waste in steel drums underground. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This bibliography is a review of the Canadian literature on radioactive waste management from 1953 to the present. It incorporates the references from the previous AECL--6186 revisions, and adds the current data and some of the references that had been omitted. Publications from outside organizations of concern to the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Program are included in addition to AECL Research reports and papers. This report is intended as an aid in the preparation of the Concept Assessment Document and is complementary to AECL Research's internal document-ready references on the MASS-11 word processing systems

  15. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, P.E.

    1968-01-01

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Radioactive waste and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive waste just happens to be the major issue in the public eye now--it could be replaced by another issue later. A survey is quoted to prove that wastes are not really one of the burning national issues of the day. The people opposing the nuclear program cannot be said to represent the public. The taste of the press for the melodramatic is pointed out. The issue needs to be presented with the proper perspective, in the context of the benefits and risks of nuclear power

  17. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  18. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  19. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  20. Treatment of some radioactive wastes by using new chelating membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, S.A.; El-Adham, K.; Abdel Geleel, M.; Soliman, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of chelating membranes containing nitrile and carboxylic acid as functional groups was investigated. The modification of such membranes by chemical treatments to produce significant changes in their properties was studied. This modification results in a higher rate of exchange and higher capacity. The applicability of such modified membranes in the removal of Co-60 and Cs-137 from their wastes were tested. The dependence of these radioactive nuclides uptake on the time and degree of grafting for H CI-, NH 2 OH-and KOH-treated membranes was investigated. It was found that the adsorption rate and capacity were higher for KOH-treated membrane than those for the NH 2 OH and H CI treated ones. The prepared grafted membranes have a good affinity towards the adsorption or chelation with Co-60 and Cs-137. This result may make such prepared materials acceptable for practicable use in some radioactive waste treatments and recovery

  1. On the disposal of solid radioactive wastes at hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, B.; Lewe, P.

    1987-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive materials in hospitals represents a considerable problem from the point of view of economics and organisation as well as from the point of view of radiological safety. On the one-hand, groups of people (nursing personal and clean-up crews) are involved in the handling of contaminated materials who can be instructed in special handling procedures only to a limited degree with the result that simple and clear procedures must be developed; on the other hand, such simply structured routes of disposal result in enormous volumes of radioactive waste, which represent a considerable cost factor. At the Offenbach City Hospital a concept has been created which takes these problems into account. It consists of nuclide-specific collection in groups, reduction of volume by breaking up of materials, interim storage, and government approved disposal as special hospital waste materials. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  3. Radioactive lightning rods waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Dellamano, Jose C.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this paper, we present alternative processes that could be adopted for the management of radioactive waste that arises from the replacement of lightning rods with attached Americium-241 sources. Lightning protectors, with Americium-241 sources attached to the air terminals, were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the regulatory authority overthrew the license for fabrication, commerce, and installation of radioactive lightning rods. It is estimated that, during the license period, about 75,000 such devices were set up in public, commercial and industrial buildings, including houses and schools. However, the policy of CNEN in regard to the replacement of the installed radioactive rods, has been to leave the decision to municipal governments under local building regulations, requiring only that the replaced rods be sent immediately to one of its research institutes to be treated as radioactive waste. As a consequence, the program of replacement proceeds in a low pace and until now only about twenty thousand rods have reached the waste treatment facilities The process of management that was adopted is based primarily on the assumption that the Am-241 sources will be disposed of as radioactive sealed sources, probably in a deep borehole repository. The process can be described broadly by the following steps: a) Receive and put the lightning rods in initial storage; b) Disassemble the rods and pull out the sources; c) Decontaminate and release the metal parts to metal recycling; d) Store the sources in intermediate storage; e) Package the sources in final disposal packages; and f) Send the sources for final disposal. Up to now, the disassembled devices gave rise to about 90,000 sources which are kept in storage while the design of the final disposal package is in progress. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste solidifying material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Keiichi; Sakai, Etsuro.

    1989-01-01

    The solidifying material according to this invention comprises cement material, superfine powder, highly water reducing agent, Al-containing rapid curing material and coagulation controller. As the cement material, various kinds of quickly hardening, super quickly hardening and white portland cement, etc. are usually used. As the superfine powder, those having average grain size smaller by one order than that of the cement material are desirable and silica dusts, etc. by-produced upon preparing silicon, etc. are used. As the highly water reducing agent, surface active agents of high decomposing performance and comprising naphthalene sulfonate, etc. as the main ingredient are used. As the Al-containing rapidly curing material, calcium aluminate, etc. is used in an amount of less than 10 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the powdery body. As the coagulation controller, boric acid etc. usually employed as a retarder is used. This can prevent dissolution or collaption of pellets and reduce the leaching of radioactive material. (T.M.)

  5. Incinerator for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.H.; Hootman, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburn chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary a magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber. (author)

  6. What to do with radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation (82 slides) gives information on what is a radioactive waste, radioactivity and historical review of radioactivity, radioactive period, natural radioactivity (with examples of data), the three main radiation types (α, β, γ), the origin of radioactive wastes (nuclear power, research, defense, other), the proportion of radioactive wastes in the total of industrial wastes in France, the classification of nuclear wastes according to their activity and period, the quantities and their storage means, the 1991 december 30 law (France) related to the radioactive waste management, the situation in other countries (Germany, Belgium, Canada, USA, Finland, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland), volume figures and previsions for the various waste types in 2004, 2010 and 2020, the storage perspectives, the French national debate on radioactive waste management and the objective of perpetuated solutions, the enhancement of the public information, the 15 June 2006 law on a sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes with three main axis (deep separation and transmutation, deep storage, waste conditioning and long term surface storage), and the development of a nuclear safety and waste culture that could be extended to other types of industry

  7. Radioactive waste inventories and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on radioactive waste inventories and projections included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through September 1982. The arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (25 abstracts)

  8. Management of radioactive medical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, S.; Mathey, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals are producers of small amounts of radioactive waste. Current legislation details exactly how hospitals should manage it. Sealed sources are returned to suppliers. Disposal of unsealed sources, liquid or solid, depends upon their half-life: short-lived radioisotopes (half-life less than two months) are stocked on site while they decay; isotopes with longer half-lives (greater than two months) are handled by a specialist organization (ANDRA). (authors). 8 refs

  9. Public Education and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarten, S.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the country the mention of anything nuclear or the word radiation ignites fear in the minds of many Americans. Political hype, news stories and the lack of basic understanding about nuclear power and radiation causes many people to reject what they do not understand. Often little, if any, thought may have been given to nearby nuclear weapons facilities where family members and neighbors were gainfully employed at these sites. As older nuclear facilities are closed being a result of the end of the Cold War, with indications that radioactive materials might be transported to other parts of the country, the public in expressing concern. It is important that the public have an understanding of how these materials are handled to insure public safety. It becomes important that both the companies handling these materials and the U.S. Department of Energy create an environment that will involve community participation in developing strategies that will promote and support an understanding of how radioactive wastes will be packaged, transported, and disposed. This is being performed in Oak Ridge, TN. through the efforts of the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board (ORSSAB). The ORSSAB is a DOE sponsored board of private citizens from all walks of life and professionalism's. The objective of this paper is to offer suggestions as to how public confidence, through education about nuclear, radioactive and associated and wastes are effectively handle the problems related to waste disposal, removal or on-site storage. It is essential that the public fully understand and become involved in the need for the reduction of the waste stream volumes and the technical problems being faced in reaching this goal. The effort of gaining public understanding and support of this important task cannot be limited to just those within close proximity to the facility presently housing these materials, but must extend to those outlying areas and along any potential route that might be

  10. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)

    2014-01-15

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  11. Stress and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Supreme Court case ''People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE) vs Metropolitan Edison,'' one of the conclusions was that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission did not have to consider psychological distress, community cohesiveness and sense of well-being in the supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covering the restart of Three Mile Island (TMI). This decision was based on the assumption that the intention of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to focus on the physical environment, and the casual chain between psychological distress and adverse health effects is tenuous. In this paper the authors summarize the literature on the relationship between environmentally-induced stress and its effects on health. They present the results of a new survey research project in which levels of stress were evaluated in West Chicago, Illinois, a community in which radioactive wastes have been present for many years. Explanatory social variables are brought into the evaluation in which stress is evaluated as a function of proximity to the radioactive waste site. In addition, stress is discussed in the context of attitudes on nuclear power, environmental group participation, and knowledge about the health effects associated with radioactive waste. The paper ends with a discussion of the portion of the Supreme Court decision in which psychological distress, community stability, cohesiveness and sense of well being are excluded as variables to address in EISs

  12. Media analysis of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The radioactive waste cleanup community has not effectively utilized its most powerful communications tool to inform the general public; the print and broadcast media. Environmental interest groups have known of the value of accessing the media for their message for years and have used it effectively. The radioactive waste cleanup community's efforts to date have not been focused on education of the media so that they in turn can inform the public of our cleanup mission. Their focus must be to learn of the importance of the media, develop training programs that train technical people in how to know and respond to the media's needs for information, and then incorporate that training into a comprehensive program of public information in which access to the media is a key communications tool. This paper discusses how media education and access is a cost-effective means of accomplishing community relations goals of public information and public participation in radioactive waste cleanup and has been effectively utilized at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

  13. Final storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziehm, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    As explained in the present article, operators of nuclear power plants are responsible for the safe final disposal of the radioactive wastes they produce on the strength of the polluter pays principle. To shift the burden of responsibility for safe disposal to society as a whole would violate this principle and is therefore not possible. The polluter pays principle follows from more general principles of the fair distribution of benefits and burdens. Instances of its implementation are to be found in the national Atomic Energy Law as well as in the European Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Directive. The polluters in this case are in particular responsible for financing the installation and operation of final disposal sites. The reserves accumulated so far for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and disposal of radioactive wastes, including the installation and operation of final disposal sites, should be transferred to a public-law fund. This fund should be supplemented by the polluters to cover further foreseeable costs not covered by the reserves accumulated so far, including a realistic cost increase factor, appropriate risk reserves as well as the costs of the site selection procedure and a share in the costs for the safe closure of the final disposal sites of Morsleben and Asse II. This would merely be implementing in the sphere of atomic law that has long been standard practice in other areas of environmental law involving environmental hazards.

  14. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  15. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  16. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  17. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  18. A method for conditioning radioactive-wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaz, Daniel; Thiery, Daniel.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method for conditioning radioactive-wastes, according to the main patent. This method is characterized in that the radioactive wastes are constituted by radio-elements incorporated with filtration and/or floculation promoters. This can be applied to radioactive effluent processing [fr

  19. Radioactive waste from non-power applications in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Ann-Christin; Lindbom, Gunilla; Persson, Monica

    2001-01-01

    . Another assumption was the amount of fireguards in use. Reality is now changing and the former assumptions may not be valid in a near future: Insurance companies are encouraging households in larger cities to procure fireguards; New environmental regulations will be issued for the handling of waste containing electrical components such as fireguards. In the future fireguards have to be collected and disassembled, with resulting concentration of activity and doses to personal; A new kind of fireguards not using radioactive sources has been introduced on the market. This brings forward the question of justification in the means of ICRP. Technical enhanced natural occurring radioactive material: As a consequence of the discovering of radioactivity in metal food containers the steel industry has decided not to accept any material containing radioactive nuclides. They are therefore monitoring all scrap metal at arrival to the melting facility. This has lead to the rise of a new category of radioactive waste. The melting facilities will not only detect orphan sealed sources, but also material containing natural occurring radionuclides enriched as a result of different processes. The owner of the material is normally unaware of the enrichment. Scrap metal not accepted by the steel industry is now stored at the melting facilities or returned. Identified issues. The volumes of slightly contaminated scrap metal will increase. Is this material waste or resource? Plans for the future: Sweden has a qualified and well-functioning system for handling of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle. This gives us die best prerequisites for establishing a system for handling of all radioactive waste. What is left is to further investigate the origins of radioactive waste, classify the different waste streams, investigate the demands on waste treatment and final disposal and above all, encourage the necessary political decisions. (author)

  20. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  1. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Kamiya, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1976-01-09

    A method is claimed to decrease the number of storage containers filled with radioactive wastes. A wire-netting containers having a capacity of 67 liters is filled with 60 kg of pellet-like radioactive solid material. The wire-netting container is held in the middle of a drum can, and asphalt is poured between the drum can and the wire-netting container and stored until radioactivity is attenuated. After storage, the stored body is heated to melt the asphalt and the wire-netting container is removed. Thereafter, the pellet-like radioactive solid material is taken out of the wire-netting container and combined with the other pellet-like radioactive solid material similarly taken out of the storage container, and the resultant material is filled into a wire-netting container having a capacity of 167 liters every 150 kg, and inserted again into the same drum can, into which recovered asphalt is poured for final storage.

  2. Radioactive waste management - an educational challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    University Radioactive Waste Management educational programs are being actively advanced by the educational support activities of the Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) of the DOE. The DOE fellowship program formats of funding students and requiring a practical research experience (practicum) at a DOE site has helped to combine the academic process with a practical work experience. Support for faculty in these programs is augmenting the benefits of the fellowship programs. The many job opportunities and funding sources for students which currently exists in the radioactive waste management area are fueling an increase in academic programs seeking recognition of their radioactive waste management curriculums

  3. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Regulations on radioactive waste in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiso, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    In hospitals that have a radiotherapy service, the contaminated sewage follows a specific way, first it comes from specific toilets that must be use by patients undergoing a radiotherapy treatment, and secondly it is stored in tanks and its radioactivity is measured regularly and when the radioactivity level is in conformity with regulations, sewage is disposed as any non-contaminated sewage. Regulations impose a radioactive level below 100 Becquerel per liter for I 131 and 10 Becquerel per liter for other nuclides for the sewage to be disposed. A new system named ST-10 allows the in-line and real-time measurement and the identification of nuclides in sewage and can say if the measured values are consistent with the patient treatment. (A.C.)

  5. Radioactive liquid wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauda, Kenzo; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Yagi, Takuro; Yamazaki, Hideki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To carry out optimum photooxidizing procession following after the fluctuation in the density of organic materials in radioactive liquid wastes to thereby realize automatic remote procession. Constitution: A reaction tank is equipped with an ultraviolet lamp and an ozone dispersing means for the oxidizing treatment of organic materials in liquid wastes under the irradiation of UV rays. There are also provided organic material density measuring devices to the inlet and outlet of the reaction tank, and a control device for controlling the UV lamp power adjusting depending on the measured density. The output of the UV lamp is most conveniently adjusted by changing the applied voltage. The liquid wastes in which the radioactivity dose is reduced to a predetermined level are returned to the reaction tank by the operation of a switching valve for reprocession. The amount of the liquid wastes at the inlet is controlled depending on the measured ozone density by the adjusting valve. In this way, the amount of organic materials to be subjected to photolysis can be kept within a certain limit. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matagi, Yoshihiko; Takahara, Akira; Ootsuka, Katsuyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid the reduction in the atmospheric insulation by preventing the generation of CO 2 , H 2 O, etc. upon irradiation of microwave heat. Method: Radioactive wastes are charged into a hopper, supplied on a conveyor, fed each by a predetermined amount to a microwave furnace and heated by microwaves applied from a microwave guide. Simultaneously, inert gases are supplied from a supply line. The Radioactive wastes to be treated are shielded by the inert gases to prevent the combustion of decomposed gases produced from the wastes upon irradiation of microwave heat to thereby prevent the generation of CO 2 , H 2 , etc., as well as the generated decomposed gases are diluted with the inert gases to decrease the dissociation of the decomposed gases to prevent the reduction in the atmospheric insulation. Since the spent inert gases can be recovered for reuse, the amount of gaseous wastes released to the atmosphere can be decreased and the working life of the high performance air filters can be extended. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Law on the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This law regulate the relations of legal persons, enterprises without the rights of legal persons, and natural persons in the management of radioactive waste in Lithuania and establish the legal grounds for the management of radioactive waste. Thirty one article of the law deals with the following subjects: principles of radioactive waste management, competence of the Government, State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment and Radiation Protection Center in the sphere of regulation of the radioactive waste management, activities subject to licensing, issue of licences and authorisations, duties and responsibilities of the waste producer, founding of the radioactive waste management agency, its basic status and principles of the activities, functions of the agency, management of the agency, transfer of the radioactive waste to the agency, assessment of the existing waste management facilities and their past practices, siting, design and construction, safety assessment, commissioning and operation of the radioactive waste management facilities, radiation protection, quality assurance, emergency preparedness, decommissioning of radioactive waste storage and other facilities, post-closure surveillance of the repository, disused sealed sources, transportation, export and transit of radioactive waste

  8. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges

  9. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.

    1993-01-01

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  10. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  11. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  12. Instructive for radioactive solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es

  13. Institutional arrangements for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-01-01

    The existing organizational structure and regulations for management of high-level and TRU wastes are likely to become ineffective if left unchanged. Recommendations for institutional reforms include the establishment of a National Radioactive Waste Authority in the U.S. and of an International Radioactive Waste Commission under IAEA

  14. Radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the mine waste heap at Crossen and radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulzer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation dose to the population living in the vicinity of the mine waste heap is assessed. The measurements carried out were to verify the dose relevance of ambient radioactivity on site, in particular the ingestion and inhalation pathways and the external exposure pathways. The nuclide Pb-210 was used as an indicator because of its large dose factor for assessment of ingestion and its airborne dispersion as an Rn-222 daughter product. The waste heap material releases large quantities of this nuclide. Ingestion of radioactivity from the waste heap may be caused by wind-borne erosion and activity deposition on plants in the area. Therefore, the specific activities of Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured in soil and plant specimens sampled at various distances from the waste heap. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Operation of the radioactive waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; Ahn, Seom Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Lim, Kil Sung; Sohn, Young Joon; Kim, Tae Kook; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Wi, Geum San; Park, Seung Chul; Park, Young Woong; Yoon, Bong Keun.

    1996-12-01

    The radioactive wasted generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1996 are about 118m 3 of liquid waste and 204 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. In 1996, 100.5m 3 of liquid waste was treated. (author). 84 tabs., 103 figs

  16. Mixed radioactive and chemotoxic wastes (RMW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the first decades of development of nuclear energy, organizations involved in the management of nuclear wastes had their attention focused essentially on radioactive components. The impression may have prevailed that, considering the severe restrictions on radioactive materials, the protection measured applied for radioactive components of wastes would be more than adequate to cope with potential hazards from non radioactive components associated with radioactive wastes. More recently it was acknowledged that such interpretation is not necessarily justified in all cases since certain radioactive wastes also contain non-negligible amounts of heavy metals or hazardous organic components which, either, do not decay, or are subject to completely different decay (decomposition) mechanisms. The main purposes of the present study are to analyze whether mixed radioactive wastes are likely to occur in Europe and in what form, whether one needs a basis for integration for evaluating various forms of toxicity and by which practical interventions possible problems can be avoided or at least reduced. (au)

  17. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R; Lindskog, A

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  18. Sponsored research on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in chapters entitled: introduction (background, responsibilities, options, structure of the programme); strategy development; disposal of accumulations; disposal of radioactive waste arisings; quality assurance for waste conditioning quality assurance related to radioactive waste disposal (effectiveness of different rock types as natural barriers to the movement of radioactivity, and non-site specific factors in the design of repositories; radiological assessment; environmental studies; research and development to meet requirements specific to UKAEA wastes; long term research (processes for the solidification of highly active liquid wastes); plutonium contamination waste minimisation. (U.K.)

  19. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-01

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries

  20. Measurement of Natural Radioactive Nuclide Concentrations and the Dose Estimation of Workers Originated from Radon in Manganese Ore Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.A.; Hassan, N.M.; Blasy, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese ore is widely used in many industries. Such as ore contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If this ore contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore it is important to determine the radioactive nuclides in this ore. Also the regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Nevertheless, at this time there is no globally accepted workplace protocol that sets out safe radon concentration values. In this study the radon concentration measured by using an Alpha Guard radon monitor, the equilibrium factor which was greater than the value given in literature, effective radiation dose, which are necessary for the exact estimation of the radiation dose originating from radon. The regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Approach: The natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) contents of manganese ore samples collected from Umm Bogma, southwest Sinai and from the mountain access Hamid South Eastern Desert, Egypt have been determined by low background spectroscopy using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector. Results: The mean activities due to the three radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) were found to be 1500±65, 490±65 and 364±45 Bqkg -1 , respectively. The absorbed dose rate due to the natural radioactivity in samples under investigation ranged from 1522±45 → 1796±43 nGyh -1 . The radium equivalent activity varied from 3807±114→ 4446±133 Bqkg -1 .The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples are also estimated. Conclusion: The results of this assessment obtained by the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, have indicated that the levels of natural radioactivity were lower than the international recommended limits.

  1. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Susumu; Kuroda, Noriko; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1991-01-01

    The present device comprises a radioactive liquid wastes concentration means for circulating radioactive liquid wastes between each of the tank, a pump and a film evaporator thereby obtaining liquid concentrates and a distilled water recovery means for condensing steams separated by the film evaporator by means of a condenser. It further comprises a cyclizing means for circulating the resultant distilled water to the upstream after the concentration of the liquid concentrates exceeds a predetermined value or the quality of the distilled water reaches a predetermined level. Further, a film evaporator having hydrophilic and homogeneous films is used as a film evaporator. Then, the quality of the distilled water discharged from the present device to the downstream can always satisfy the predetermined conditions. Further, by conducting operation at high concentration while interrupting the supply of the processing liquids, high concentration up to the aimed concentration can be attained. Further, since the hydrophilic homogeneous films are used, carry over of the radioactive material accompanying the evaporation is eliminated to reduce the working ratio of the vacuum pump. (T.M.)

  2. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  3. FFTF radioactive solid waste handling and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport

  4. Inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment: Sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    Variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste have been disposed at more than 50 sites in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The last known disposal operation was in 1982, at a site about 550 km off the European continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1957, the IAEA has provided specific guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. In 1972, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste. The Contracting Parties requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive wastes entering the marine environment from all sources as an information base with which the impact of radioactive materials from disposal operations can be more adequately assessed. The continuous compilation of these data could ensure that the IAEA recommendations on the disposal rate in a single basin are not overstepped. The inventory shows that between 1946 to 1982 an estimated 46 PBq 1 (1.24 MCi) of radioactive waste coming from research, medicine, the nuclear industry and military activities were packaged, usually in metal drums lined with a concrete or bitumen matrix, and disposed of at sea. This inventory includes some unpackaged wastes and liquid wastes which were disposed of from 1950 to 1960. Beta-gamma emitters represent more than 98% of the total radioactivity of the waste and tritium alone represents one third of the total radioactivity disposed at the North East Atlantic sites. The other beta-gamma emitters radionuclides include 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 125 I and 14 C. The wastes also contain low quantities of alpha-emitting nuclides with plutonium and americium isotopes representing

  5. Active waste disposal monitoring at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes an active waste disposal monitoring system proposed to be installed beneath the low-level radioactive disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The monitoring instruments will be installed while the waste is being disposed. Instruments will be located adjacent to and immediately beneath the disposal area within the unsaturated zone to provide early warning of contaminant movement before contaminants reach the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This study determined the optimum sampling techniques using existing monitoring equipment. Monitoring devices were chosen that provide long-term data for moisture content, movement of gamma-emitting nuclides, and gas concentrations in the waste. The devices will allow leachate collection, pore-water collection, collection of gasses, and access for drilling through and beneath the waste at a later time. The optimum monitoring design includes gas sampling devices above, within, and below the waste. Samples will be collected for methane, tritium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and volatile organic compounds. Access tubes will be utilized to define the redistribution of radionuclides within, above, and below the waste over time and to define moisture content changes within the waste using spectral and neutron logging, respectively. Tracers will be placed within the cover material and within waste containers to estimate transport times by conservative chemical tracers. Monitoring the vadose zone below, within, and adjacent to waste while it is being buried is a viable monitoring option. 12 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  6. Radioactive wastes management: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation takes stock on the situation of the radioactive wastes management in France. It gives information on the deep underground disposal, the public information, the management of the radioactive wastes in France, the researches in the framework of the law of the 30 december 1991, the underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne, the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) and its sites. (A.L.B.)

  7. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Kikuchi, M; Funabashi, K; Yusa, H; Horiuchi, S

    1978-12-21

    Purpose: To decrease the volume of radioactive liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium hydroxide and boric acid. Method: The concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide to boric acid by weight in radioactive liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium hydroxide and boric acid is adjusted in the range of 0.28 - 0.4 by means of a pH detector and a sodium concentration detector. Thereafter, the radioactive liquid wastes are dried into powder and then discharged.

  8. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  10. Development of disposal technologies for radioactive waste generated from radioisotope users and research institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro

    2001-01-01

    In order to safely dispose of a radioactive waste, which is generated from radioisotope users and research institutes, investigation of characteristics of the waste and conceptual design of disposal facility were carried out. As a result of investigating JAERI that the waste has mainly been stored, it became clear that radioactivities of 19 nuclides are important from the viewpoint of the safety of the disposal. And the result of the conceptual design of disposal facilities on the assumption of 3 kinds of sites, the differences on the safety could not be recognized in either case, though the installation depth to construct the facilities influenced the economical efficiency. (author)

  11. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  12. Elements of a radioactive waste management course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The demand for scientists, engineers, and technicians with expertise in radioactive waste management is growing rapidly. Many universities, government agencies, and private contractors are developing courses in radioactive waste management. Two such courses have been developed at The Ohio State University. In support of that course development, two surveys were conducted. One survey went to all nuclear engineering programs in the US to determine what radioactive waste management courses are currently being taught. The other went to 600 waste management professionals, asking them to list the topics they think should be included in a radioactive waste management course. Four key elements of a course in radioactive waste management were identified. They are (a) technical information, (b) legal and regulatory framework, (c) communicating with the public, and (d) sources of information on waste management. Contents of each of the four elements are discussed, and results of the surveys are presented

  13. Radioactive waste management - the Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Kanwar

    2008-01-01

    In India, nuclear power generation programme and application of radioisotopes for health care and various other application is increasing steadily. With resultant increase in generation of radioactive waste, emphasis is on the minimization of generation of radioactive waste by deploying suitable processes and materials, segregation of waste streams at sources, recycle and re-use of useful components of waste and use of volume reduction techniques. The minimization of the radioactive waste is also essential to facilitate judicious use of the scarce land available for disposal, to reduce impact on the environment due to disposal and, finally to optimize the cost of radioactive waste management. This paper presents a bird's eye view of radioactive waste management programme in the country today

  14. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  15. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive gaseous waste processing device used in BWR power plants. A heater is disposed to the lower portion of a dryer for dehydrating radioactive off gases. Further, a thermometer is disposed to a coolant return pipeway on the exit side of the cooling portion of the dryer and signals sent from the thermometer are inputted to an automatic temperature controller. If the load on the dryer is reduced, the value of the thermometer is lowered than a set value, then an output signal corresponding to the change is supplied from the automatic temperature controller to the heater to forcively apply loads to the dryer. Therefore, defrosting can be conducted completely without operating a refrigerator, and the refrigerator can be maintained under a constant load by applying a dummy load when the load in the dryer is reduced. (I.N.)

  16. Nuclear energy from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The global energy demand is increasing. Sound forecasts indicate that by the year 2020 almost eight thousand million people will be living on our planet, and generating their demand for energy will require conversion of about 20 thousand million tonnes of coal equivalents a year. Against this background scenario, a new concept for energy generation elaborated by nuclear scientists at CERN attracts particular interest. The concept describing a new nuclear energy source and technology intends to meet the following principal requirements: create a new energy source that can be exploited in compliance with extremely stringent safety requirements; reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste; substantially reduce the size of required radwaste repositories; use easily available natural fuels that will not need isotopic separation; prevent the risk of proliferation of radioactive materials; process and reduce unwanted actinides as are generated by the operation of current breeder reactors; achieve high efficiency both in terms of technology and economics. (orig./CB) [de

  17. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  18. Shifting paradigms in managing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bars, Y.; Pescatore, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Stakeholder involvement in policy making of radioactive waste management, has received considerable attention within the OECD. The Nea forum on Stakeholder confidence (FSC) was set up in 2000. A Nea recent publication entitled ''Learning and adapting to societal requirements for radioactive waste management'' brings together the key FSC findings and experience covering four years of work. Six main areas are targeted in this publication and are briefly described in this document: favourable candidates for issuing radioactive waste management policy, the design of the decision-making process, the social and ethical dimension, trust in the actors, Stakeholder involvement and the local dimension of radioactive waste management. (A.L.B.)

  19. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  20. Management of radioactive wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated. Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run. Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities. Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of 'regional disposal'. Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest, southwest, south and east China respectively. A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made

  1. Management of radioactive wastes produced by users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users

  2. Development of transmutation technologies of radioactive waste by actinoid hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, Kenji; Matsui, Hideki; Yamawaki, Michio

    2001-01-01

    Two waste treatment methods, geological disposal and transmutation, have been studied. The transmutation method changes long-lived radioactive nuclides to short-lived one or stabilizes them by nuclear transformation. The transmutation by actinoid hydride is exactly alike that transformation method from actinoid disposal waste to Pu fuel. For this object, OMEGA project is processing now. The transmutation is difficult by two causes such as large amount of long-lived radioactive nuclides and not enough development of control technologies of nuclear reaction except atomic reactor. The transmutation using actinoid hydride has merits that the amount of actinoid charged in the target increases and the effect of thermal neutrons on fuel decreases depending on homogeneous transmutation velocity in the target. Development of stable actinoid hydride under the conditions of reactor temperature and irradiation environment is important. The experimental results of U-ZrH 1.6 are shown in this paper. The irradiation experiment using Th hydride has been proceeding. (S.Y.)

  3. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Reference to 2140 publications related to radioactive waste, announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) Volumes 28 (July Dec. 1973), 29 (Jan.--June 1974), and 30 (July--Dec. 1974), are presented. The references are arranged by the original NSA abstract number, which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference and the NSA volume and abstract numbers appear at the end of the citations. Three indexes are provided: Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. This document supplements the preceding six in the TID3311 series. (U.S.)

  4. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental γ radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many sample are

  5. Disposal of radioactive wastes from Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    In gaseous radioactive waste disposal, aerosol particles are filtered and gaseous wastes are discharged in the environment. The filters and filter materials used are stored on solid radioactive waste storage sites in the individual power plants. Liquid radioactive wastes are concentrated and the concentrates are stored. Distillates and low-level radioactive waste water are discharged into the hydrosphere. Solid radioactive wastes are stored without treatment in power plant bunkers. Bituminization and cementation of liquid radioactive wastes are discussed. (H.S.)

  6. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  7. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  8. Requirements for a radioactive waste data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Kobayashi, I.; Kikuchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    With the progress of nuclear fuel cycle in Japan, various types of radioactive waste will generate at each nuclear facility in the cycle. Therefor generated volume and stored quantity of waste will be supposed to increase. From the viewpoints of safety and public acceptance, by using mainframe computer it is necessary that the treatment of historical waste data, the estimation of generated waste volume and stored quantity and the investigation of research and development status of waste processing and disposal are carried out. This paper proposes design and development of the radioactive waste data base which is able to properly and correctly manage and grasp numerical and/or documentary information for generated radioactive waste. So the data base will be expected to use for planning the future management of radioactive waste. (author)

  9. Principles and objective of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in various nuclear applications, for example, in the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research or in the nuclear fuel cycle. It must be managed in a safe way independent of its very different characteristics. Establishing the basic safety philosophy is an important contribution to promoting and developing international consensus in radioactive waste management. The principles of radioactive waste management were developed with supporting text to provide such a safety philosophy. They cover the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future within and beyond national borders, the legal framework, the generation and management of radioactive wastes, and the safety of facilities. Details of the legal framework are provided by defining the roles and responsibilities of the Member State, the regulatory body and the waste generators and operators of radioactive waste management facilities. These principles and the responsibilities in radioactive waste management are contained in two recently published top level documents of the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which is the IAEA's contribution to foster international consensus in radioactive waste management. As the two documents have to cover all aspects of radioactive waste management they have to be formulated in a generic way. Details will be provided in other, more specific documents of the RADWASS programme as outlined in the RADWASS publication plant. The RADWASS documents are published in the Agency's Safety Series, which provides recommendations to Member Sates. Using material from the top level RADWASS documents a convention on the safety of radioactive waste management is under development to provide internationally binding requirements for radioactive waste management. (author). 12 refs

  10. Supercompaction of radioactive waste at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, K.; Sirola, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as a political tool, brought the final radioactive repository siting effort to a stop. Although small amounts of radioactive waste are produced in research institutes, hospitals and industry, major source of radioactive waste in Slovenia is the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. When Krsko NPP was originally built, plans were made to construct a permanent radioactive waste disposal facility. This facility was supposed to be available to receive waste from the plant long before the on site storage facility was full. However, the permanent disposal facility is not yet available, and it became necessary to retain the wastes produced at the plant in the on-site storage facility for an extended period of time. Temporary radioactive storage capacity at the plant site has limited capacity and having no other options available NPP Krsko is undertaking major efforts to reduce waste volume generated to allow normal operation. This article describes the Radioactive Waste Compaction Campaign performed from November, 1994 through November, 1995 at Krsko NPP, to enhance the efficiency and safety of storage of radioactive waste. The campaign involved the retrieval, segmented gamma-spectrum measurement, dose rate measurement, compaction, re-packaging, and systematic storage of radioactive wastes which had been stored in the NPP radioactive waste storage building since plant commissioning. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The review of the Spanish nuclear program is described with the special emphases on the radioactive waste management. The data of availability of a Centralized Temporary Storage facility will depend on the hypothesis considered regarding the service lifetime of nuclear power plants. Thay would be looking at the year 2003 for the 30 years case, and possibly at the year 2013 for the 40 year scenario, the choice between one and the other implying important economic and technical impacts. The aim for final disposal of high level wastes is to finish the preparation work by the year 2016, in order for construction of the disposal facility itself to be initiated and for operation to begin during the decade beginning with the year 2020

  12. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  13. The management of radioactive waste in laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLintock, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many laboratories in universities, colleges, research institutions and hospitals produce radioactive wastes. The recently-coined term for them is small users of radioactive materials, to distinguish them from concerns such as the nuclear industry. Until recently the accepted official view was that small users had few problems in disposing of their radioactive wastes. This misconception was dispelled in 1991 by the 12th Annual Report of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee. This book includes a description of the principles of the management and disposal of radioactive wastes from these laboratories. Its main intention, however, is to provide practical information and data for laboratory workers as well as for those responsible for management and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. I hope that it succeeds in this intention. (UK)

  14. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.

    1977-04-01

    Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management

  15. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  16. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Ruthenium separation device from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayabe, Osao.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently oxidize ruthenium in radioactive wastes and evaporize ruthenium tetraoxide after oxidization thereof, thereby improve the separation and recovery rate. Constitution: The device comprises an oxidization vessel for supplying an oxidizing agent into radioactive wastes to oxidize ruthenium in the wastes into ruthenium tetraoxide, and a distillation vessel for introducing radioactive wastes after oxidization, distillating under heating ruthenium tetraoxide leached into the wastes and evaporizing ruthenium tetraoxide. By dividing the device into the oxidizing vessel and the distillation vessel, the oxidizing treatment and the distilling treatment can individually be operated optimally to improve the separation and recovery rate of ruthenium. (Takahashi, M.)

  18. Method of processing radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, Kenji; Kawamura, Fumio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the efficiency of removing radioactive cesium from radioactive liquid waste by employing zeolite affixed to metallic compound ferrocyanide as an adsorbent. Method: Regenerated liquid waste of a reactor condensation desalting unit, floor drain and so forth are collected through respective supply tubes to a liquid waste tank, and the liquid waste is fed by a pump to a column filled with zeolite containing a metallic compound ferrocyanide, such as with copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel or the like. The liquid waste from which radioactive cesium is removed is dried and pelletized by volume reducing and solidifying means. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. An international approach to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Needs and opportunities for an international approach to management and disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed. Deficiencies in current national radioactive waste management programs are described, and the impacts of management of fissile materials from nuclear weapons on waste management are addressed. Value-added services that can be provided by an international organization for waste management are identified, and candidate organizations that could provide these services are also identified

  20. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  1. Final storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kolditz, H.; Thielemann, K.; Duerr, K.; Klarr, K.; Kuehn, K.; Staupendahl, G.; Uerpmann, E.P.; Bechthold, W.; Diefenbacher, W.

    1974-12-01

    The present report - presented by the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, Muenchen in cooperation with the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe - gives a survey of the 1973 work in the field of final storage of radioactive wastes. The mining and constructional work carried out aboveground and underground in the saline of Asse near Remlingen with a view to repair, maintenance and expansion for future tasks is discussed. Storage of slightly active wastes on the 750 m floor and the tentative storage of medium-activity wastes on the 490 m floor were continued in the time under review. In September, the multiple transport container S 7 V, developped in the GfK for transports of 7 200 l iron-hooped drums containing medium activity wastes, were employed in Asse for the first time. With two transports a week between Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the Asse mine, 14 drums were stored per week with a total of 233 drums at the end of the year. The report also gives information on the present state of research in the fields of mountain engineering geology and hydrology, and its results. In addition, new storage methods are mentioned which are still in the planning stage. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  3. Device Assembly Facility (DAF) Glovebox Radioactive Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominick, J L

    2001-01-01

    The Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) provides programmatic support to the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility in the form of target assembly. The target assembly activities are performed in a glovebox at DAF and include Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Currently, only activities with transuranic SNM are anticipated. Preliminary discussions with facility personnel indicate that primarily two distributions of SNM will be used: Weapons Grade Plutonium (WG-Pu), and Pu-238 enhanced WG-Pu. Nominal radionuclide distributions for the two material types are included in attachment 1. Wastes generated inside glove boxes is expected to be Transuranic (TRU) Waste which will eventually be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Wastes generated in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA), outside of the glove box is presumed to be low level waste (LLW) which is destined for disposal at the NTS. The process knowledge quantification methods identified herein may be applied to waste generated anywhere within or around the DAF and possibly JASPER as long as the fundamental waste stream boundaries are adhered to as outlined below. The method is suitable for quantification of waste which can be directly surveyed with the Blue Alpha meter or swiped. An additional quantification methodology which requires the use of a high resolution gamma spectroscopy unit is also included and relies on the predetermined radionuclide distribution and utilizes scaling to measured nuclides for quantification

  4. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  5. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  6. Radioactive Waste in Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Graham, G.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material commonly known as NORM composes the majority of the dose received by a person each year at approximately 80% of the total amount. However, there is a noticeably higher concentration of radioisotopes present in technologically enhanced NORM, often called TENORM, which results directly from human industrial activities. NORM is formed in the process of mineral mining including phosphate production, where the end goal is to concentrate high quantities of metals or elements (e.g. phosphorous). However, NORM has also become a widely recognized problem in the oil and gas industry. It is approximately one hundred and fifty years since oil was discovered in the continental United States and the mention of radioactivity in mineral oils and natural gases occurred in 1904, just eight years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Bequerel in 1896. In just over three decades the problems from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) wastes arising from the oil and gas industry have been much more scrutinized. In the 1980’s 226Ra began to be noticed when scrap metal dealers would detect unacceptably high levels of radiation from oil-field piping1. In 1991 Raloff2 published an article on the new hot wastes in NORM and in 1992 Wilson et. al3 described the health physics aspects of radioactive petroleum piping scale. NORM will develop in high concentrations in by-product oil and gas waste streams4-7. The NORM will chemically separate from other piped material in the process of the extraction of oil, resulting in high concentrations of 226Ra, 228 Ra and 210Pb and other radioisotopes in a densely caked layer on the inner surfaces of the piping1 . The activity of the 226Ra from NORM ranges from 185 to several tens of thousands Bq/kg of sample. By comparison, the NORM concentrations of radium in rock and soil is, at a natural level, 18.5 - 185 Bq/kg1. Disposal of NORM becomes more problematic as higher concentrations of

  7. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  8. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  9. Technological and organizational aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document comprises collected lecture on radioactive waste management which were given by specialists of the Radioactive Waste Management Section of the IAEA, scientific-industrial enterprise 'Radon' (Moscow, RF) and A.A. Bochvar's GNTs RF VNIINM (Moscow, RF) on various courses, seminars and conferences. These lectures include the following topics: basic principles and national systems of radioactive waste management; radioactive waste sources and their classification; collection, sorting and initial characterization of radioactive wastes; choice of technologies of radioactive waste processing and minimization of wastes; processing and immobilization of organic radioactive wastes; thermal technologies of radioactive waste processing; immobilization of radioactive wastes in cements, asphalts, glass and polymers; management of worked out closed radioactive sources; storage of radioactive wastes; deactivation methods; quality control and assurance in radioactive waste management

  10. Radioactive waste treatment technology at Czech nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulovany, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes the main technologies for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes at Czech nuclear power plants. The main technologies are bituminisation for liquid radioactive wastes and supercompaction for solid radioactive wastes. (author)

  11. Risk analysis of radioactive waste management systems in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingender, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Within the scope of a system study, ''Radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany,'' performed from 1974 through 1976, the questions of risk assessment were investigated. A risk analysis of a high-level waste (HLW) management system was performed. The results of the HLW tank storage are that the risk expectation value is 700 nJ/kg x RBE (7 x 10 -5 rem) per year for atmospheric release. The discussion of the main contributing accidents shows the possibility of reducing the risk by a technical means. A qualitative comparison on the release basis with the results of the WASH-1400 report shows significant differences that can be explained by the different methodologies applied. The risk analysis activities have led to a comprehensive risk assessment project, which was recently started. The projected includes research and development tasks concerning nuclide migration and transport to the ecosphere, nuclide mobilization by various mechanisms, methodology problems, data collection, computer code development, as well as risk analyses of waste management facilities. It is intended to round off the project with risk analyses of spent fuel element transport, storage, and reprocessing

  12. A new hazard index for the determination of risk potentials of disposed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of a discussion of advantages and limitations of hazard calculations of nuclear waste, a new hazard index is presented. The model deals with environmental processes that determine radiation exposure to man after failure of a geologic repository and release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Included in the model are isotopic composition of the waste, probability for transport of nuclides to man, cycling in the biosphere, radiotoxicity to man and changes of the risk potential which are due to radioactive build-up and decay processes after the waste nuclides enter the biosphere. Nuclide-specific data necessary for the use of the new index are compiled. Calculations for wastes from different nuclear power reactor types and fuel cycle options indicate that 237 Np and 241 Am are the waste constituents with the most demanding requirements in regard to the long-term isolation potential of a repository. Isolation times required for the wastes analyzed are of the order of 10 7 years. Hazard analyses of nuclear wastes with negligible heat generation from various sources show that secondary wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication have long-term risk potentials which are about two orders of magnitude higher than those from other wastes. They should be disposed of together with high-level wastes. (author)

  13. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  14. Radioactive waste management from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This report has been published as a NSA (Nuclear Systems Association, Japan) commentary series, No. 13, and documents the present status on management of radioactive wastes produced from nuclear facilities in Japan and other countries as well. Risks for radiation accidents coming from radioactive waste disposal and storage together with risks for reactor accidents from nuclear power plants are now causing public anxiety. This commentary concerns among all high-level radioactive waste management from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, with including radioactive wastes from research institutes or hospitals. Also included is wastes produced from reactor decommissioning. For low-level radioactive wastes, the wastes is reduced in volume, solidified, and removed to the sites of storage depending on their radioactivities. For high-level radioactive wastes, some ten thousand years must be necessary before the radioactivity decays to the natural level and protection against seismic or volcanic activities, and terrorist attacks is unavoidable for final disposals. This inevitably results in underground disposal at least 300 m below the ground. Various proposals for the disposal and management for this and their evaluation techniques are described in the present document. (S. Ohno)

  15. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  16. DOE reassesses civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the announcement by the Department of Energy (DOE) that the opening of a high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository site will be delayed for seven years. The article discusses DOE's reassessment plan, the restructuring of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, site access and evaluation, the Monitored Retrievable Storage Commission proposal, and the industry's response

  17. The Spanish general radioactive waste plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarized the current status of Spain's general radioactive waste management plan. This plan forms the basis for a national radioactive waste management policy and decommissioning strategy. It is updated periodically, the current 5. plan was approved in 1999. The most important element of the current strategy is the development of a centralized interim HLW storage facility by 2010. (A.L.B.)

  18. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  20. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M.

    1961-01-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [fr