Sample records for radioactive tracers avaliacao

  1. The medical applications of radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.


    This report provides a broad yet in depth overview of the use of radioactive materials as tracers in medicine and biology for the period of 1935--1947. Particular attention is paid to is of radio-sodium, radio-iodine, radio-iron, radio-phosphorus, radio-strontium, and fission products. The main thrust of this paper is human rather than animal work and focuses in work that has been published.

  2. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.


    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors.

  3. A monitoring system of radioactive tracers in hydroponic solution for research on plant physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzui, N.; Kawachi, N.; Ishioka, N.; Fujimaki, S. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    The mechanism of nutrient uptake in plants has received considerable attention in the field of plant science. Here we describe the development of a new monitoring system of radioactive tracers in hydroponic solution, which enables the noninvasive measurement of radioactive tracer uptake by an intact plant. In addition, we incorporated a weighing instrument into this system in order to simultaneously monitor water uptake by the same plant. For an evaluation of this monitoring system, we conducted a tracer experiment with a rice plant and a positron-emitting radioactive tracer, and successfully obtained continuous data for the amounts of radioactive tracer and water taken up by the intact plant over 36 h. (authors)

  4. Radioactive and kinematic tracers of feedback from massive stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss R.


    Full Text Available The mixing of ejecta from young stars into the interstellar medium is an important process in the interplay between star formation and galaxy evolution. A unique window into these processes is provided by the radioactive isotopes 26Al, traced by its γ-ray decay lines at 1.8 MeV. With a mean lifetime of ∼ 1 Myr it is a long-term tracer of nucleosynthesis for massive stars. Our population synthesis code models the ejection of 26Al, together with the 60Fe, the kinetic energy and UV radiation for a population of massive stars. We have applied the code to study the nearby Orion region and the more massive Carina region and found good agreement with observational constraints.

  5. Feasibility study of non-radioactive tracers for monitoring injected water in oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Muta, T. [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mituishi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Mihama-ku (Japan); Schweitzer, J.S. [Connecticut Univ., CT (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This paper discusses the results of analyses conducted on non-radioactive tracers that can be used in combination with the sea water injected into a well for monitoring the water permeating through the oil reservoir by a nuclear logging tool utilizing a pulsed neutron generator. The model of the pulsed neutron tool is constructed to permit Monte Carlo Simulations to be performed of the tool response to the presence of non-radioactive tracers to achieve a desirable level of the neutron absorbing cross sections in the sea water injected into and permeating through the oil reservoirs. Sensitivity analyses of the tool response of the nuclear logging tool were performed for two types of non-radioactive tracers, ammonium tetraborate and gadolinium chloride. (orig.)

  6. Hydrodynamics of a commercial scale CFB boiler-study with radioactive tracer particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Hansen, Peter F.B.; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    This paper presents the experimental results with radioactive tracer particles in an 80 MWth circulating fluidized-bed boiler. Batches of gamma-ray emitting tracer particles were injected into the standpipe. The response curves of the impulse injection were measured by a set of successive scintil...... the model to the experimental data. In the same way, the average particle velocities in the furnace are estimated. The impact of loading on the particle recirculating rate and on the hydrodynamics of the boiler is discussed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. The method of radioactive tracer for measuring the amount of inorganic nanoparticles in biological samples (United States)

    Buzulukov, Yu; Antsiferova, A.; Demin, V. A.; Demin, V. F.; Kashkarov, P.


    The method to measure the mass of inorganic nanoparticles in biological (or any other samples) using nanoparticles labeled with radioactive tracers is developed and applied to practice. The tracers are produced in original nanoparticles by radioactive activation of some of their atomic nuclei. The method of radioactive tracers demonstrates a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy equal or better than popular methods of optical and mass spectrometry, or electron microscopy and has some specific advantages. The method can be used for study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in living organism, as well as in ecological and fundamental research. It was used in practice to study absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Se, ZnO, TiO2 as well as to study transportation of silver nanoparticles through the barriers of blood-brain, placenta and milk gland of rats. Brief descriptions of data obtained in experiments with application of this method included in the article. The method was certified in Russian Federation standard system GOST-R and recommended by the Russian Federation regulation authority ROSPOTREBNADZOR for measuring of toxicokinetic and organotropy parameters of nanoparticles.

  8. Contributions to the Study of Blood Brain Flux Using Radioactive Tracers. (United States)

    Mureşan, Ioan; Cosma, Ioan


    In this paper, we present an original radiocirculographic method for investigates of cerebral blood flow, which has proven to be very useful, simple, and efficient for studies of brain hemodynamics. Physical considerations on injected radioactive tracer in cardiovascular system, allowed us to state a relationship for the blood flux, F, valued as the amount of fluid-blood that traverses a vascular segment in unit time. All these theoretical facts, along with a host of remarkable clinical results, are presented in a doctoral thesis entitled "The cerebral Hemodynamics in Essential Hypertension and Arteriosclerosis" of the eminent doctor Ioan Mures,an, who died in 1984, at only 50 years old. Using tracers marked with radioactive chrome 51Cr and iodine 131I, it was studied, for patients with various vascular diseases the blood circulation in other territories as an echo of cerebral blood flow. Outstanding results, relating to physiology, diagnosis, and therapy of some diseases, have been obtained. Through intensive collaborations, this method has been operationalized at the University Clinics of Cluj. Here, thousands of patients have been investigated, obtaining quantifiable information which highlighted the patient's condition by emergent and incident blood flows in the global circulatory process and related to other vascular segments.

  9. A model of the heavy-tailed, anomalous dispersion of radioactive tracer sand by a river (United States)

    Bradley, D. N.; Tucker, G. E.; Benson, D. A.


    In 1960, the USGS and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission measured the dispersion of radioactive tracer sand along the bed of the N. Loup River in Nebraska to test a stochastic model of sediment transport based on the work of H.A. Einstein. The model predicted the observed concentration profiles reasonably well, but with several weaknesses. First, it required an ad hoc parameter to match the location of the model curves to data. Second, the amount of tracer mass detected declined over the course of the experiment, which the model did not predict. To compensate for this, the data were normalized in a manner that was not theoretically supported by the model. Third, the observed tracer concentration well downstream from the peak concentration was much higher than predicted by the model. We revisit the data from the N. Loup River experiment and apply a four-parameter mobile/immobile model with a heavy-tailed distribution of particle velocity that addresses all three weaknesses of the previous model. This result suggests that the variability in bed load particle velocity can be so great that the distribution of particle travel distance is heavy-tailed with a divergent variance. If this is the case, then the mode of sediment dispersion is anomalous rather than Fickian.

  10. Patient positioning based on a radioactive tracer implanted in patients with localized prostate cancer: a performance and safety evaluation. (United States)

    de Kruijf, Willy J M; Verstraete, Jan; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W; Hol, Sandra; Venselaar, Jack L M; Davits, Rob J; Wijsman, Bart P; Van den Bergh, Laura; Budiharto, Tom; Oyen, Raymond; Haustermans, Karin; Poortmans, Philip M P


    To evaluate the performance and safety of a radiation therapy positioning system (RealEye) based on tracking a radioactive marker (Tracer) implanted in patients with localized prostate cancer. We performed a single-arm multi-institutional trial in 20 patients. The iridium-192 ((192)Ir)-containing Tracer was implanted in the patient together with 4 standard gold seed fiducials. Patient prostate-related symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for treatment planning, during treatment, and after treatment to evaluate the migration stability of the Tracer. At 5 treatment sessions, cone beam CT was performed to test the positioning accuracy of the RealEye. The Tracer was successfully implanted in all patients. No device or procedure-related adverse events occurred. Changes in IPSS scores were limited. The difference between the mean change in Tracer-fiducial distance and the mean change in fiducial-fiducial distance was -0.39 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] upper boundary, -0.22 mm). The adjusted mean difference between Tracer position according to RealEye and the Tracer position on the CBCT for all patients was 1.34 mm (95% CI upper boundary, 1.41 mm). Implantation of the Tracer is feasible and safe. Migration stability of the Tracer is good. Prostate patients can be positioned and monitored accurately by using RealEye. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of the hydrodynamics of continuous flux systems using radioactive tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Vela, C R


    The hydrodynamic behaviour of a flux in a system can be determined through the knowledge and correct interpretation of age distributions of flux elements in a system, which can be obtained with the stimulus-response experimental method. This research attempts to emphasize the relevance of system analysis, as well as the use of radioactive tracers to determine residence time distributions when population balance models are used for such analysis. Hydrodynamics of a flux, water, is analyzed using different systems: i) piston flux system; ii) agitated tank system; iii) two agitated tank system in parallel; iv) two and four agitated tank system in series; and v) a complex system. Different age distributions are determined, as well as the presence of short circuits of different magnitude when system agitation speed is changed. Age distribution curves were built using I-131 radioisotope as tracer, injecting it into the flux inlet of the systems. A Minekin gamma radiation detector was used at the outlet of such syst...

  12. Simulation of radioactive tracer transport using IsoRSM and uncertainty analysis (United States)

    SAYA, A.; Chang, E.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.


    Due to the massive earthquakes and tsunami on March 11 2011 in Eastern Japan, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was severely damaged and some reactors were exploded. To know how the radioactive materials were spread and how much they were deposited into the land, it is important to enhance the accuracy of radioactive transport simulation model. However, there are uncertainties in the models including dry and wet deposition process in the models, meteorological field and release amount of radioactive materials. In this study we analyzed these uncertainties aiming for higher accuracy in the simulation. We modified the stable isotope mode of Regional Spectral Model (IsoRSM, Yoshimura et al., 2009) to enable to simulate the transport of the radioactive tracers, namely iodine 131 and cesium 137, by including the dry and wet deposition processes. With this model, we conducted a set of sensitivity experiments using different parameters in the deposition processes, different diffusivity in advection processes, and different domain sizes. The control experiment with 10km resolution covering most of Japan and surrounding oceans (132.7oE-151.5oE &28.3oN-46.7oN) and the emission estimated by Chino et al. (2011) showed reasonable temporal results for Toukatsu area (eastern part of Tokyo metropolis and western part of Chiba prefecture where low-level contamination was occurred), i.e., on 22 March, the tracers from Fukushima were reached and precipitated in a significant amount as wet deposition. Thus we conducted 4 experimental simulations to analyze the simulation uncertainty due to 1) different meteorological pattern, different parameters for 2) wet and 3) dry deposition and 4) diffusion. Though the temporal patterns of deposition of radioactive particles were somewhat similar each other in all experiments, we revealed that the impacts to the area mean deposition were large. Results of the simulations with different diffusivity and different domain size showed that the

  13. Study of solid and liquid behavior in large copper flotation cells (130 m2 using radioactive tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yianatos J.


    Full Text Available The behavior of the solid and liquid phases, in large flotation cells, was characterized by means of the radioactive tracer technique. The use of radioactive tracers enabled the identification of the Residence Time Distribution, of floatable and non-floatable solid, from continuous (on-line measuring at the output streams of the flotation cells. For this study, the proper radioactive tracers were selected and applied in order to characterize the different phases; i.e. for liquid phase Br-82 as Ammonium Bromide, for floatable solid recovered in the concentrate Cu-64, and for non-floatable solid in three particle size classes (coarse: >150 μm, intermediate: 45 μm, and fine: <45 μm, Na-24. The experimental results confirmed the strong effect of particle size on the Residence Time Distribution, and mean residence time of solids in larger flotation cells, and consequently in flotation hydrodynamics. From a hydrodynamic point of view, the experimental data confirmed that a single mechanical flotation cells, of large size, can deviate significantly from perfect mixing. The experimental work was developed in a 130 m3 industrial flotation cell of the rougher circuit at El Teniente Division, Codelco-Chile.

  14. A review of radioactive isotopes and other residence time tracers in understanding groundwater recharge: Possibilities, challenges, and limitations (United States)

    Cartwright, Ian; Cendón, Dioni; Currell, Matthew; Meredith, Karina


    Documenting the location and magnitude of groundwater recharge is critical for understanding groundwater flow systems. Radioactive tracers, notably 14C, 3H, 36Cl, and the noble gases, together with other tracers whose concentrations vary over time, such as the chlorofluorocarbons or sulfur hexafluoride, are commonly used to estimate recharge rates. This review discusses some of the advantages and problems of using these tracers to estimate recharge rates. The suite of tracers allows recharge to be estimated over timescales ranging from a few years to several hundred thousand years, which allows both the long-term and modern behaviour of groundwater systems to be documented. All tracers record mean residence times and mean recharge rates rather than a specific age and date of recharge. The timescale over which recharge rates are averaged increases with the mean residence time. This is an advantage in providing representative recharge rates but presents a problem in comparing recharge rates derived from these tracers with those from other techniques, such as water table fluctuations or lysimeters. In addition to issues relating to the sampling and interpretation of specific tracers, macroscopic dispersion and mixing in groundwater flow systems limit how precisely groundwater residence times and recharge rates may be estimated. Additionally, many recharge studies have utilised existing infrastructure that may not be ideal for this purpose (e.g., wells with long screens that sample groundwater several kilometres from the recharge area). Ideal recharge studies would collect sufficient information to optimise the use of specific tracers and minimise the problems of mixing and dispersion.

  15. Tracking different freshwater plumes at the Bay of Biscay scale by using a dissolved radioactive tracer: tritium (HTO) (United States)

    Oms, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Dumas, Franck; Lazure, Pascal; Morillon, Mehdi; Solier, Luc; Voiseux, Claire; Le Corre, Cédric; Maire, Donovan


    New measurements of a radioactive tracer (tritium) on the whole continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay during several oceanographic campaigns between 2008 and 2016 allow comparison with results of the plume dispersion from the regional circulation model, MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008). Seaward dispersion of freshwater in the Bay of Biscay is highly variable in time and depends on many processes like tide, wind, freshwater runoff or water mass stratification. Until now salinity was a useful tracer to describe dispersion of freshwater, but the complexity to account for these different sources require an additional conservative tracer. Tritium (3H) is a radionuclide tracer released as HTO in the Bay of Biscay by nuclear power plant through two French rivers, Loire and Gironde. Tritium inflow from Loire and Gironde are well known thanks to plants operator data and an effort of daily measurements. Indeed an automated and daily integrated sampling system is deployed in the Loire River and the Gironde Estuary. These plumes are clearly detectable over the continental shelf despite very low tritium concentrations (0.05 - 0.5 Bq/L, 0.5 - 5 TU). In order to determine such low tritium concentrations in the Bay of Biscay, we use a mass spectrometer to measure the 3He (gas) produced by radioactive disintegration of tritium after 3He ingrowth (1 - 6 months). The aim of this work is to describes and quantify the dispersion processes occurring in the continental shelf according to seasons. Thanks to assessments of the model dispersion compared to in-situ measurements, quantification of the residential time of freshwater in the continental shelf as well as quantification of their transfer from continental shelf to abyssal plain is possible. The 3H/S ratio will allow an estimation of respective inputs from Loire and Gironde in the bay.

  16. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

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    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio


    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  17. Direct measurement of nanoscale lithium diffusion in solid battery materials using radioactive tracer of {sup 8}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S.C. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, Y.X.; Hirayama, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Imai, N. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS), Tokyo University, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Jung, H.S.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T.K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advance Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ueno, H. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Y.H. [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, S.; Mukai, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)


    We have developed an in situ and nanoscale Li diffusion measurement method in Li battery materials using an α-emitting radioactive {sup 8}Li tracer. In this method, while implanting a low-energy (8 keV) {sup 8}Li beam, the α particles emitted at a small angle (10°) relative to the sample surface were detected as a function of time. Measurement for Li diffusion coefficients in a spinel phase LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (LMO) thin film has been started, which is used as an electrode in a Li ion secondary battery. An obvious Li diffusion effect in LMO was observed at the sample temperature of 623 K, and the further measurement is underway.

  18. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr, D A


    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one (drought).

  19. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei


    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  20. Optimization of a vertical plane platers decanter by using radioactive tracers; Otimizacao de um decantador/floculador de placas planas verticais empregando-se tracadores radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Luis E.B.; Francheschin, Marcelo J. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nobrega, Armi W. da [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saude] E-mail:


    A methodology for studies and evaluation, on line , of sewage treatment plants with radioactive tracers is presented. Using 110 mAg and 140La as tracers for the solid phase, it was possible to analyze the response, residence time distribution functions (RTD), of the unit in various experimental situations and identify problems in its normal operation that interfere in the final quality of the effluent treatment. The technique represents a guideline for redesign a imperfect unit, eliminate an incorrect operational operation and turning the unit more efficient. (author)

  1. Feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck melanoma using a hybrid radioactive and fluorescent tracer. (United States)

    Brouwer, Oscar R; Klop, W Martin C; Buckle, Tessa; Vermeeren, Lenka; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Balm, Alfons J M; Nieweg, Omgo E; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B


    This study was designed to examine the feasibility of combining lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node identification in patients with head and neck melanoma by using a hybrid protein colloid that is both radioactive and fluorescent. Eleven patients scheduled for sentinel node biopsy in the head and neck region were studied. Approximately 5 h before surgery, the hybrid nanocolloid labeled with indocyanine green (ICG) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was injected intradermally in four deposits around the scar of the primary melanoma excision. Subsequent lymphoscintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) were performed to identify the sentinel nodes preoperatively. In the operating room, patent blue dye was injected in 7 of the 11 patients. Intraoperatively, sentinel nodes were acoustically localized with a gamma ray detection probe and visualized by using patent blue dye and/or fluorescence-based tracing with a dedicated near-infrared light camera. A portable gamma camera was used before and after sentinel node excision to confirm excision of all sentinel nodes. A total of 27 sentinel nodes were preoperatively identified on the lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT images. All sentinel nodes could be localized intraoperatively. In the seven patients in whom blue dye was used, 43% of the sentinel nodes stained blue, whereas all were fluorescent. The portable gamma camera identified additional sentinel nodes in two patients. Ex vivo, all radioactive lymph nodes were fluorescent and vice versa, indicating the stability of the hybrid tracer. ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid allows for preoperative sentinel node visualization and concomitant intraoperative radio- and fluorescence guidance to the same sentinel nodes in head and neck melanoma patients.

  2. A Simplified Method for the Collection and Analysis of a Cosmogenic Radioactive Age Tracer: Sodium-22 (United States)

    Deinhart, A. L.; Thaw, M.; Bibby, R. K.; Egnatuk, C. M.; Torretto, P.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.; Wooddy, T.


    The residence time distributions of surface waters give important information on watershed functioning and subsurface storage. Sodium-22 (half-life 2.6 years) can provide residence time information in addition to traditional age tracers (stable isotopes, tritium). A new and straightforward analytical method was created to determine Sodium-22 activities from various water sources. In the field, approximately 400 L of water are passed through a column containing 1.8 kg of cation exchange resin at 4-5 L/min. Columns are returned to the laboratory where they are processed by passing 4L of 3M HCl through the resin columns to elute all cations. The 4L acid is loaded into a Marinelli beaker for gamma ray spectroscopy analysis. The samples are counted for 22Na (1274 keV), determined by using a coaxial germanium detector with a 0.5 keV resolution and less than 3×10-3 counts per second. Samples are counted for seven days in order to acquire sufficient counts above background. The counting efficiency (11.6×10-3 cps/Bq) was obtained by counting a known activity of 22Na standard in the same geometry and matrix (3M HCl in a 4 L Marinelli beaker) as the samples. The net peak area of the samples in a 2.5 keV window is compared to the net peak area of the standard to calculate the 22Na activity. Two entire-season snow samples were collected from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory in the winter of 2015 and 2016. Approximately 300L of snow melt was collected and processed. The sodium-22 activity was determined to be 141±35 mBq/L and 153±29 mBq/L. Sodium-22 activities in streams, in conjunction with sulfur-35 (87 days) and tritium (12.3), reveal the presence or absence of water with intermediate residence times (0-10 years).

  3. Meta-analysis of superficial versus deep injection of radioactive tracer and blue dye for lymphatic mapping and detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Purushotham, A D; Horgan, K; Klaase, J M; Douek, M


    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in early breast cancer. Currently, no consensus exists on the optimal site of injection of the radioactive tracer or blue dye. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing superficial and deep injections of radioactive tracer or blue dye for lymphatic mapping and SLNB was performed. The axillary and extra-axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rates obtained by lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative SLNB were evaluated. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 per cent c.i. were estimated using fixed-effect analyses, or random-effects analyses if there was statistically significant heterogeneity (P deep injections of radioactive tracer for axillary SLN identification on lymphoscintigraphy (OR 1·59, 95 per cent c.i. 0·79 to 3·17), during surgery (OR 1·27, 0·60 to 2·68) and for SLN identification using blue dye (OR 1·40, 0·83 to 2·35). The rate of extra-axillary SLN identification was significantly greater when deep rather than superficial injection was used (OR 3·00, 1·92 to 4·67). The discordance rate between superficial and deep injections ranged from 4 to 73 per cent for axillary and from 0 to 61 per cent for internal mammary node mapping. Both superficial and deep injections of radioactive tracer and blue dye are effective for axillary SLN identification. Clinical consequences of discordance rates between the two injection techniques are unclear. Deep injections are associated with significantly greater extra-axillary SLN identification; however, this may not have a significant impact on clinical management. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Neuroreceptor quantitation in vivo by the steady-state principle using constant infusion or bolus injection of radioactive tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A


    by administering the tracer alone. The pair of tracer studies, the one without and the other with infusion of cold ligand, allows calculation of the cold ligand's equilibrium dissociation constant Kd. In the special case when tracer and cold ligands are chemically identical, then Bmax can also be calculated. Two...... different modes of tracer administration can be used. If the tracer is also infused at a constant rate for a long time, then the occupancy of receptor sites by the cold ligand can be calculated by measuring the equilibrium tracer concentrations in brain and plasma. If the tracer is administered......The approaches hitherto used for measuring the kinetic constants Kd and Bmax of neuroreceptors in vivo all violate the steady state of the system. This complicates the kinetic analysis as approximations must be made, introducing errors of unknown magnitude. The present study presents the theory...

  5. Boundary integral method application in the transportation modeling of radioactive tracers in porous ways; Aplicacao do metodo da integral de contorno na modelagem do transporte de tracadores radioativos em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Jose Geraldo


    This work describes a method for estimating the effluent concentrations of radioactive tracers in production wells, considering well to well injection tests and piston-like displacements of fluids in the reservoir. The model for tracer transportation takes into account effects of convection and hydrodynamic dispersion. (author)

  6. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method. (United States)

    Iwanishi, Katsuhiro; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Miyake, Yoshinori; Minato, Kotaro; Iida, Hidehiro


    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are quantitatively measured with PET with (15)O gases. Kudomi et al. developed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) protocol that enables the duration of a PET study to be shortened by sequentially administrating (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) gases. In this protocol, before the sequential PET scan with (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) gases ((15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan), a PET scan with C(15)O should be preceded to obtain CBV image. C(15)O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C(15)O might exist during a (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan. As the current DARG method assumes no residual C(15)O radioactivity before scanning, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the influence of the residual C(15)O radioactivity on the accuracy of measured CBF and OEF values with DARG method and also proposed a subtraction technique to minimize the error due to the residual C(15)O radioactivity. In the simulation, normal and ischemic conditions were considered. The (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) PET count curves with the residual C(15)O PET counts were generated by the arterial input function with the residual C(15)O radioactivity. The amounts of residual C(15)O radioactivity were varied by changing the interval between the C(15)O PET scan and (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan, and the absolute inhaled radioactivity of the C(15)O gas. Using the simulated input functions and the PET counts, the CBF and OEF were computed by the DARG method. Furthermore, we evaluated a subtraction method that subtracts the influence of the C(15)O gas in the input function and PET counts. Our simulations revealed that the CBF and OEF values were underestimated by the residual C(15)O radioactivity. The magnitude of this underestimation depended on the amount of C(15)O radioactivity and the physiological conditions. This underestimation

  7. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification technology for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.


    This plan summarizes the activities to be performed during FY 1990 and FY 1991 for the tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test. This test is the second step in evaluating ISV as a remedial action for the pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A previous test used nonradioactive tracers for cesium and strontium. This new test will again use a one-half-scale model of trench 7 and the pilot-scale ISV equipment of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A small and precisely known amount of waste from a liquid waste disposal pit will be used for the test. An actually contaminated waste site cannot be used for this test because of the necessity to use an exactly known inventory of radionuclides so that a precise measurement of the volatilization of various constituents to the off-gas can be determined.

  8. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification technology for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.


    This plan summarizes the activities to be performed during FY 1990 and FY 1991 for the tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test. This test is the second step in evaluating ISV as a remedial action for the pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A previous test used nonradioactive tracers for cesium and strontium. This new test will again use a one-half-scale model of trench 7 and the pilot-scale ISV equipment of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A small and precisely known amount of waste from a liquid waste disposal pit will be used for the test. An actually contaminated waste site cannot be used for this test because of the necessity to use an exactly known inventory of radionuclides so that a precise measurement of the volatilization of various constituents to the off-gas can be determined.

  9. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  10. Study of the source-detector system geometry using the MCNP-X code in the flowrate measurement with radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan Puertas, Eddie, E-mail: [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Braz, Delson, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Brandao, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The use radioactive tracers for flow rate measurement is applied to a great variety of situations, however the accuracy of the technique is highly dependent of the adequate choice of the experimental measurement conditions. To measure flow rate of fluids in ducts partially filled, is necessary to measure the fluid flow velocity and the fluid height. The flow velocity can be measured with the cross correlation function and the fluid level, with a fluid level meter system. One of the error factors when measuring flow rate, is on the correct setting of the source-detector of the fluid level meter system. The goal of the present work is to establish by mean of MCNP-X code simulations the experimental parameters to measure the fluid level. The experimental tests will be realized in a flow rate system of 10 mm of diameter of acrylic tube for water and oil as fluids. The radioactive tracer to be used is the {sup 82}Br and for the detection will be employed two 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors, shielded with collimators of 0.5 cm and 1 cm of circular aperture diameter. (author)

  11. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  12. Beach sediments drift study by means of radioactive tracers; L'etude du transport littoral par la methode des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique


    The present state of the sediments drift studies by means of radioactive tracers is exposed. Various processes of labelling, immersion and detection, used in France and other countries, are reviewed. A more extended analysis of some aspects of the problem by the same authors can be found in 'La Houille Blanche', number 3, may-june 1959 (Rapport C.E.A. number 1269). (author) [French] L'etude du transport littoral des sediments et galets par la methode des traceurs radioactifs est en plein developpement. Le present rapport precise l'etat actuel de la question. Les techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection utilisees en France et a l'etranger sont decrites; une analyse plus detaillee de certains aspects de la question est presentee par les memes auteurs dans 'La Houille Blanche', numero 3, mai-juin 1959 (Rapport C.E.A. numero 1269). (auteur)

  13. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da


    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41{sup -1} to 203{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex

  14. Evaluation of nanofiltration membranes for treatment of liquid radioactive waste; Avaliacao de membranas de nanofiltracao para o tratamento de rejeito radioativo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth Eugenio de Mello


    The physicochemical behavior of two nanofiltration membranes for treatment of a low-level radioactive liquid waste (carbonated water) was investigated through static, dynamic and concentration tests. This waste was produced during conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) in the cycle of nuclear fuel. This waste contains about 7.0 mg L{sup -1} of uranium and cannot be discarded to the environment without an adequate treatment. In static tests membrane samples were immersed in the waste for 24 to 5000 h. Their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux, sulfate and chloride ions rejection) were evaluated before and after immersion in the waste using a permeation flux front system under 0.5 MPa. The selective layer (polyamide) was characterized by zeta potential, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy for field emission, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence and thermogravimetric analysis before and after static tests. In dynamic tests the waste was permeated under 0.5 MPa, and the membranes showed rejection to uranium above 85% were obtained. The short-term static tests (24-72 h) showed that the selective layer and surface charge of the membranes were not chemical changed, according infrared spectra data. After 5000 h a coating layer was released from the membranes, poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA. After this loss the rejection for uranium decreased. Permeation and concentration of the waste were carried out in permeation flux tangential system under 1.5 MPa. The rejection of uranium was around 90% for permeation tests. In concentration tests the permeated was collected continuously until about 80% reduction of the feed volume. The rejection of uranium was of the 97%. The nanofiltration membranes tested were efficient to concentrate the uranium from the waste. (author)

  15. Evaluation of urban and industrial wastewater treatment plants using radioactive tracers; Otimizacao de unidades de tratamento de aguas residuais urbanas e industriais empregando-se tracadores radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Luis Eduardo Barreira


    A methodology for studies and evaluation of sewage treatment plants with radioactive tracers is presented.. Radioisotopes as {sup 82} Br ( for the liquid phase), {sup 110m} Ag and {sup 140} La, (for the solid phase) was used to evaluate sewage flow rates, mixing pattern in equalization tank and test effluent treatment units. The tracer was injected in the unit (instantaneously or in a constant rate with a pump) and NaI-scintillation detectors measured the output signal. The Fortran program TRACADORES was developed to analyze the response function of the units in form of residence times distribution curves (RTD), which represents the probability of an element of the material to interact with the unit, and calculate the mean residence time {gamma}, the central moment of this distribution function. This fundamental parameter characterizes the tank and serves as a quantitative evaluation for its performance. With the radiotracer techniques was possible to identify dead zone, channeling, internal circulation of the solid phase inside the tanks. The technique represents a guideline for redesign a imperfect unit and eliminate the problem. (author)

  16. Study of adsorption of organic compounds on gold with radioactive tracers - adsorption of chloroacetic and phenylacetic acids and effect on it of cadmium, copper and silver adsorbed atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorani, G.; Andreev, V.N.; Kazarinov, V.E.


    Compared with platinum, gold is less active as a catalyst and the adsorption of organic compounds on its surface my therefore be less subject to destructive changes. This opens up the possibility of conducting new reactions of organic synthesis on its surface. Results of a study of the adsorption of monochloroacetic and phenylacetic acids on a gilded fold electrode in acid medium employing radioactive HCl and the effects of copper, cadmium and silver adsorbed atoms are reported. The results show that at E > 0.7v the presence of copper ions has no effect on the adsorption of organic compounds on the gold electrode. At E approx. = 0.7v, adsorption increases. Cadmium, copper and silver present in solution have no effect on the adsorption of phenylacetic acid at those potentials where these ions are not adsorbed on a gold surface, although they do suppress phenylacetic acid adsorption at potentials where they are adsorbed. The results confirm that the radioactive tracer method is just as effective for studying gilded gold electrodes as it was for platinized platinum. 19 references, 4 figures.

  17. Measurement and simulation of the turbulent dispersion of a radioactive tracer in a two-phase flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, F.; Rohde, U.


    The turbulent dispersion of a radiotracer in an experimental setup with a natural convection liquid-gaseous flow was investigated. A liquid-gaseous bubbly flow was generated in a narrow tank by injection of pressurized air into water or by catalytic disintegration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Turbulent Prandtl numbers for gas and tracer dispersion were varied. In the case of higher gas superficial velocities (J{sub gas}{approx}5-15 mm/s), a reasonable agreement was achieved between calculated and measured tracer transport velocity and dispersion coefficient values. A nearly linear correlation between j{sub gas} and D was found in agreement with other authors. The calculation results contribute to a better understanding of the phenomena and interpretation of the measurement results as well as to the validation of the CFD code for turbulent two-phase flow applications. Further investigations are necessary to improve the agreement in the cases of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} disintegration and low gas superficial velocities. (orig.)

  18. Detection of leaks for radioactive tracer in marine duct for transport of liquefied petroleum gas; Deteccion de fugas por radiotrazado en ducto marino para transporte de gas LP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles P, E. F.; Benitez S, J. A.; Torre O, J. de la; Cruz S, E. de la; Molina, G.; Hernandez C, J. E.; Flores M, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e mail:


    In this work the aplication in the oil industry of the technique of radioactive tracer appears for the detection of internal leaks in a submarine duct that gives service as it lines of receipt of liquefied petroleum gas (Gas LP) located in the Mexican coast of the Pacific Ocean. This system of marine pipe is a consistent arrangement of a duct interior of 0.254 m (10 inches) of nominal diameter (N.D.) of steel to the carbon for cryogenic service ASTM A 333, Grade 6, schedule 30, isolated thermally with foam of polyurethane and shielding in a steel tube to the carbon ASTM A 53 Grade A, of 0.508 m (20 inches) N. D., schedule 20, which is recovered by a ballast encircling of concrete of 0.0508 m (2 inches) of thickness, reinforced with mesh metallic, and that 1315 m runs on the marine stratum to a maximum depth of 12.5 m. For the detection of leaks by radiotracer it was used as tracer the radioactive isotope La-140 produced in the TRIGA Mark III Experimental Reactor of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, starting from stable lanthanum nitrate (La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} 6H{sub 2}O), with an activity of 100 mCi, the one which after having been made logistics tasks, given very particular sea maneuvers and due to the conditions of the work place, in the interior tube was injected in two subsequent stages to cover both duct senses; from earth and from the marine end respectively, there being used fresh water like transport way and submergible sodium iodide detectors (NaI) for the rake of the La-140. At the end of the journeys of pursuit of the radiotracer, it was determine the presence of three leaks points located in the break area of the marine surf to 360 m, 450 m and 495 m of distance of a reference point located in the beach section named Trap of Devils. (Author)

  19. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))


    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  20. A study on the piston ring wear in automotive engine Seat 1500 CA by means of radioactive tracer technique; Estudio del desgaste de segmentos en motor Seat 1500 CA mediante trazadores radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val Cob, M. del; Chul, Y.; Fuentes Figuera de Vargas, J.


    The iron side wear in the chromium-plated top compression ring has been a matter of interest for the engine makers and it has been required by them to investigate the wear characteristics of the chromium-plated piston ring. Meanwhile, Bureau of Nuclear Energy in Spain (Junta de Energia Nuclear) and Seat Car Manufacturing Company (Sociedad Espanola de Automoviles de Turismo) agreed to study the wear characteristics of chromium-plated piston ring of type CA gasoline engine for Seat 1500 car by means of radioactive tracer technique. (Author) 9 refs.

  1. Essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania; Ensaio sobre a pertinencia do teste abreviativo de Luscher na avaliacao psicologica dos radioacidentados de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Neto, Sebastiao Benicio da


    The essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania - Brazilian city - occurred in 1987 is consequence of confront of data obtained in two distinct situations having for criterion: time, efficiency and pertinence. Besides of this, they are introduced palografic and the house-tree-person - HTP - tests. These tests aimed at the common psychological characteristics verification to radioactive accident victims' personality of Goiania and to the data existential moment for those people. Among the three tests, the one of Luscher was what obtained the best interviewees acceptance index.

  2. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; Messungen von Kr-85 und Xe-133 als ungestoerte Tracer zur Darstellung atmosphaerischer Transportvorgaenge nach Freisetzung von Radioaktivitaet aus kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany); Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)


    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  3. Count rate balance method of measuring sediment transport of sand beds by radioactive tracers; Methode du bilan des taux de comptage d'indicateurs radioactifs pour la determination du debit de charriage des lits sableux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauzay, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Radioactive tracers are applied to the direct measurement of the sediment transport rate of sand beds. The theoretical measurement formula is derived: the variation of the count rate balance is inverse of that of the transport thickness. Simultaneously the representativeness of the tracer is critically studied. The minimum quantity of tracer which has to be injected in order to obtain a correct statistical definition of count rate given by a low number of grains 'seen' by the detector is then studied. A field experiment was made and has let to study the technological conditions for applying this method: only the treatment of results is new, the experiment itself is carried out with conventional techniques applied with great care. (author) [French] Les indicateurs radioactifs sont appliques a la mesure directe du debit de charriage des lits sableux. On etablit la formule theorique de mesure: le bilan des taux de comptage varie en sens inverse de l'epaisseur de charriage. Parallelement on fait une etude critique de la representativite de l'indicateur, puis on determine la quantite minimale de traceur qu'il faut immerger pour que les taux de comptage fournis pour un faible nombre de grains 'vus' par le detecteur aient une definition statistique correcte. Une experience de terrain a permis d'etudier les conditions technologiques de cette methode: seul le depouillement des resultats est nouveau. L'experimentation in-situ se fait suivant les procedes classiques avec un tres grand soin. (auteur)

  4. Evaluation of a radioactive and fluorescent hybrid tracer for sentinel lymph node biopsy in head and neck malignancies: prospective randomized clinical trial to compare ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid hybrid tracer versus {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, Ingo; Leyh, Julia; Schadendorf, Dirk; Klode, Joachim [University Hospital Essen University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Essen (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, West German Cancer Center, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Essen (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten [University Hospital Essen University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)


    There is some controversy about the value of sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) in patients with head and neck malignancies. The gold standard for detection and targeted extirpation of the SLN is lymphoscintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to analyse the feasibility and clinical benefit of a hybrid tracer comprising the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent indocyanine green (ICG) and {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid) in direct comparison with standard {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid for guiding SLNE in patients with head and neck cutaneous malignancies. We analysed the data from 40 clinically lymph node-negative patients with melanoma, high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma or sweat gland carcinoma who underwent SLNE with ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (cohort A) or with the standard {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (cohort B). Overall SLNs were identified preoperatively in all 20 patients (100 %) in cohort A and in 18 of 20 patients (90 %) in cohort B. The SLN basin was detected preoperatively in 18 patients (90 %) in cohort A and also in 18 patients (90 %) in cohort B. SLNs were identified intraoperatively in all 20 patients (100 %) in cohort A and in 19 patients (95 %) in cohort B (p = 0.487). Metastatic SLNs were detected in 9 patients (22.5 %), 3 (15.0 %) in cohort A and 6 (30.0 %) in cohort B (p = 0.228). The hybrid tracer ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid is an innovative imaging tracer, reliably and readily providing additional information for the detection and excision of SLN in the head and neck region. Therefore, SLNE with combined radioactive and NIR fluorescence guidance is an attractive option for improving the SLN detection rate in patients with cutaneous head and neck malignancies. (orig.)

  5. Obtention of the cation exchange capacity of a natural kaolinite with radioactive tracers; Obtencion de la capacidad de intercambio cationico de una kaolinita natural con trazadores radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe I, A.; Badillo A, V.E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    One of the more used techniques for the elimination of the heavy metals present in water systems is to use adsorbent mineral phases like zeolites and clays, among others. The clays are able to exchange easily the fixed ions in the external surface of its crystals or well the ions present in the interlaminar spaces of the structures, for other existent ones in the encircling aqueous solutions for that the Cation exchange capacity (CIC) is defined as the sum of all the cations exchange that a mineral can possess independent to the physicochemical conditions. The CIC is equal to the measure of the total of negative charges of the mineral by mass of the solid (meq/g). In this investigation work, the value of the CIC equal to 2.5 meq/100 g is obtained, of a natural kaolinite from the State of Hidalgo studying the retention of the sodium in the kaolinite with the aid of the radioactive isotope {sup 24} Na and of the selective electrodes technique, making vary the pH value. So is experimentally demonstrated that the CIC is an intrinsic property of the mineral independent of the pH value of the solution and of the charges origin. (Author)

  6. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  7. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira


    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  8. Some examples of the use of radioactive tracers in pharmacodynamic; Quelques exemples de l'emploi des traceurs radioactifs en pharmacodynamie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The study of absorption, of distribution in the organism and of the elimination of a medicament has been greatly facilitated by the development of nuclear applications. In effect, the introduction into the molecule of one or several radioactive atoms makes it possible to follow the path and destination of minute quantities of the drug and to thus carry out analyses on the animal within limits of posology close to those of therapeutics. However the qualitative or quantitative methods used have certain limits and they must be compared amongst themselves and with others. Some examples will show : - the importance of the way of administering the drug on the changes in the distribution; - the quite relative selectivity of this latter; - and lastly, the different process involved in the elimination mechanisms. (author) [French] L'etude de l'absorption, de la repartition dans l'organisme et de l'elimination d'un medicament s'est trouvee grandement facilitee par le developpement des applications nucleaires. En effet, l'introduction dans une molecule d'un ou plusieurs atomes radioactifs permet de suivre le sort de quantites infimes de la drogue et de ce fait d'en effectuer l'analyse chez l'animal dans des limites de posologie se rapprochant de celles de la therapeutique. Cependant les methodes employees, qualitatives ou quantitatives, presentent des limites et doivent etre confrontees entre elles et avec d'autres methodes. Quelques exemples mettront en evidence: - l'importance du mode d'administration sur l'evolution de la repartition, - l'electivite toute relative de cette derniere, - et enfin, les modalites diverses des mecanismes d'elimination. (auteur)

  9. 10 CFR 39.45 - Subsurface tracer studies. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsurface tracer studies. 39.45 Section 39.45 Energy....45 Subsurface tracer studies. (a) The licensee shall require all personnel handling radioactive tracer material to use protective gloves and, if required by the license, other protective clothing and...

  10. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot


    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  11. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  12. Simulation and interpretation of inter-well tracer tests


    Dugstad Øyvind; Viig Sissel; Sagen Jan; Huseby Olaf


    In inter-well tracer tests (IWTT), chemical compounds or radioactive isotopes are used to label injection water and gas to establish well connections and fluid patterns in petroleum reservoirs. Tracer simulation is an invaluable tool to ease the interpretation of IWTT results and is also required for assisted history matching application of tracer data. In this paper we present a new simulation technique to analyse and interpret tracer results. Laboratory results are used to establish and tes...

  13. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management (United States)

    Axelsson, G.


    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  14. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson G.


    Full Text Available Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  15. Radioactive Decay (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  16. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle


    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  17. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.


    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  18. Radioactive geochronometry from the treatise on geochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, H D


    The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth. This collection of chapters from the "Treatise on Geochemistry" displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer ...

  19. Concentrating Radioactivity (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.


    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  20. Simulated Radioactivity (United States)

    Boettler, James L.


    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  1. Biological tracer method (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.


    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  2. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A


    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  3. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus


    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  4. Study on Renal Anemia: A Double Tracer Study on Metabolism and Red Cell Life Span in Chronic Renal Diseases using Radioactive Iron ({sup 59}Fe) and Chromium ({sup 51}Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The ferrokinetics and red cell life spans of the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by the double tracing method using radioactive iron ({sup 59}Fe) and chromium ({sup 51}Cr). According to the serum NPN levels, the patients were subdivided into 3 groups: Group 1. 6 patients, had the levels below 40 mg/dl. Group 2. 6 patients, had the levels between 41 mg/dl to 80 mg/dl. Group 3. 10 patients had the levels above 80 mg/dl. The results were as follows: 1) Red blood cell, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were moderately reduced in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while markedly reduced in patients with elevated serum NPN levels. 2) The plasma volume was increased, while the red cell volume was decreased in patients with elevated serum NPN levels, hence, total blood volume was unchanged. 3) The serum iron level was slightly reduced in patients of groups 1 and 2, while was within the normal ranges in patients of group 3. 4) i) In patients with normal serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate, red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate, daily red cell iron renewal rate, circulating red cell iron and red cell iron concentration were within the normal ranges, while the plasma iron turnover rate was slightly reduced. ii) In patients with elevated serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate was delayed, while the plasma iron turnover rate was within the normal ranges. The red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate and circulating red cell iron were decreased and the period in which the red cell iron utilization rate reached its peak was delayed in Group 3 patients. The daily red cell iron renewal rate and the red cell iron concentration were unchanged. iii) The mean red cell life span was within the normal ranges in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while was shortened in patients with elevated serum NPN levels.

  5. Radioactive Waste. (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.


    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest


    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  7. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  8. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny; Sobre a influencia de fatores ambientais nos niveis de radonio em cavernas dos parques estaduais do vale do Ribeira, SP e avaliacao do equilibrio radioativo e fator de equilibrio entre radonio e seus descendentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone


    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m{sup 3} to 9456 Bq/m{sup 3}. The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of {sup 22}'6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and '2{sup 14}Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 m

  9. Single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor characterization. (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Rust, Thomas C; Hoffman, John M


    Rapid multi-tracer PET aims to image two or more tracers in a single scan, simultaneously characterizing multiple aspects of physiology and function without the need for repeat imaging visits. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, constraints on the kinetic behavior of each tracer are applied to recover individual-tracer measures from the multi-tracer PET signal. The ability to rapidly and reliably image both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (18)F-fluorothymidine (FLT) would provide complementary measures of tumor metabolism and proliferative activity, with important applications in guiding oncologic treatment decisions and assessing response. However, this tracer combination presents one of the most challenging dual-tracer signal-separation problems--both tracers have the same radioactive half-life, and the injection delay is short relative to the half-life and tracer kinetics. This work investigates techniques for single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor imaging, characterizing the performance of recovering static and dynamic imaging measures for each tracer from dual-tracer datasets. Simulation studies were performed to characterize dual-tracer signal-separation performance for imaging protocols with both injection orders and injection delays of 10-60 min. Better performance was observed when FLT was administered first, and longer delays before administration of FDG provided more robust signal-separation and recovery of the single-tracer imaging measures. An injection delay of 30 min led to good recovery (R > 0.96) of static image values (e.g. SUV), K(net), and K(1) as compared to values from separate, single-tracer time-activity curves. Recovery of higher order rate parameters (k(2), k(3)) was less robust, indicating that information regarding these parameters was harder to recover in the presence of statistical noise and dual-tracer effects. Performance of the dual-tracer FLT(0 min)+FDG(32 min) technique was further evaluated using PET/CT imaging


    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  11. Tracer Simulation Study. (United States)


    the output of a photo-diode used to detect the radiant emmission from the tracer. A storage oscilloscope, retains, until erased, the information display...head contains a photoptic filter to provide the standard luminosity curve of the human eye for footcandle measurements. With this head the sensitivity

  12. Estimating flow using tracers and hydraulics in synthetic heterogeneous aquifers. (United States)

    Larocque, Marie; Cook, Peter G; Haaken, Klaus; Simmons, Craig T


    Regional ground water flow is most usually estimated using Darcy's law, with hydraulic conductivities estimated from pumping tests, but can also be estimated using ground water residence times derived from radioactive tracers. The two methods agree reasonably well in relatively homogeneous aquifers but it is not clear which is likely to produce more reliable estimates of ground water flow rates in heterogeneous systems. The aim of this paper is to compare bias and uncertainty of tracer and hydraulic approaches to assess ground water flow in heterogeneous aquifers. Synthetic two-dimensional aquifers with different levels of heterogeneity (correlation lengths, variances) are used to simulate ground water flow, pumping tests, and transport of radioactive tracers. Results show that bias and uncertainty of flow rates increase with the variance of the hydraulic conductivity for both methods. The bias resulting from the nonlinearity of the concentration-time relationship can be reduced by choosing a tracer with a decay rate similar to the mean ground water residence time. The bias on flow rates estimated from pumping tests is reduced when performing long duration tests. The uncertainty on ground water flow is minimized when the sampling volume is large compared to the correlation length. For tracers, the uncertainty is related to the ratio of correlation length to the distance between sampling wells. For pumping tests, it is related to the ratio of correlation length to the pumping test's radius of influence. In regional systems, it may be easier to minimize this ratio for tracers than for pumping tests. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ... (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  14. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan


    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  15. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7 (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.


    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  16. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer ... (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be

  17. Plan for radionuclide tracer studies of the residence time distribution in the Wilsonville dissolver and preheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.; Brashear, H.R.; Case, N.; Clark, T.G.; Emery, J.F.; Patton, B.D.; Rodgers, B.R.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Watson, J.S.


    Stimulus-response measurements using radiotracers to measure residence time distribution (RTD) and hydrodynamic parameters for the preheaters and dissolvers at the Ft. Lewis Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal conversion pilot plants are reviewed. A plan is also presented for a series of radioactive tracer studies proposed for the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, to measure the RTD for the preheater and dissolvers in the SRC-I mode. The tracer for the gas phase will be /sup 133/Xe, and /sup 198/Au (on carbonized resin or as an aqueous colloidal suspension) will be used as the slurry tracer. Four experimental phases are recommended for the RTD tracer studies: (1) preheater; (2) dissolver with 100% takeoff; (3) dissolver with 100% takeoff and solids withdrawal; and (4) dissolver with 50% takeoff. Eighteen gas-tracer and 22 liquid-tracer injections are projected to accomplish the four experimental phases. Two to four tracer injections are projected for preliminary tests to ensure the capability of safe injection of the radiotracers and the collection of statistically significant data. A complete projected cost and time schedule is provided, including procurement of necessary components, preparation of the radiotracers, assembly and testing of tracer injection apparatus and detection systems, onsite work and tracer injections, laboratory experimentation, data analysis, and report writing.

  18. Ash tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, P.


    This report describes the ash tracer technique which has been developed, used and evaluated for description of the extent of burnout for Cerrejon coal and wheat straw converted in a pressurized entrained-flow reactor. The uncertainty in the calculated extent of burnout depends on the uncertainty in the ash percentages determined for fuel and fuel sample. The uncertainty increases with decreasing amounts of material used for the ash percent determinations, as the natural variation within the fuel and fuel sample becomes obvious. Ash percentages for the original fuels have an absolute deviation within 0.2% with a remaining ash amount of minimum 100 mg and of 2% when using thermogravimetric analysis equipment where 0.4 - 4 mg was remaining. Repeated ash percent determinations by thermogravimetric analysis equipment of 40 samples showed an average absolute deviation of 3%. A temperature of 1000 deg. C is shown to be the best choice for the ash percent determinations in order to reduce the uncertainties. collection of representative straw samples is shown to make higher demands to the sampling procedure than collection of those for coal. A representative sample collection is shown to be easier from combustion experiments that form gasification and pyrolysis experiments. The ash tracer technique is verified by elemental ash analyses. (au) 14 tabs., 6 refs.

  19. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)


    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  20. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  1. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G


    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  2. Microfluidics: A Groundbreaking Technology for PET Tracer Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Wängler


    Full Text Available Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed.

  3. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS) (United States)

    Wang, Duo


    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  4. Proceedings of the atmospheric tracers and tracer application workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.; Gedayloo, T. (comps.)


    In addition to presentations by participating members a general discussion was held in order to summarize and outline the goals and objectives of the workshop. A number of new low level background tracers such as heavy methanes, perfluorocarbons, multiply labeled isotopes such as /sup 13/C/sup 18/O/sub 2/, helium 3, in addition to sample collection techniques and analytical methods for various tracers were discussed. This report is a summary of discussions and papers presented at this workshop.

  5. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  6. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B


    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  7. Redesigning TRACER trial after TRITON. (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L


    Designing of smart clinical trials is critical for regulatory approval and future drug utilization. Importantly, trial design should be reconsidered if the interim analyses suggest unexpected harm, or conflicting results were yielded from the other trials within the same therapeutic area. With regard to antiplatelet agents, the perfect example is redesigning of the ongoing PRoFESS trial by eliminating aspirin from clopidogrel arm after the earlier MATCH trial results became available. The goal was to aseess the unchanged TRACER trial design in light of the evidence yielded from the earlier completed TRITON trial. TRACER was designed as a triple versus dual antiplatelet trial in NSTEMI patients with no previous long-term outcome data supporting such aggressive strategy. TRITON data represented dual versus dual antiplatelet therapy, and became available before TRACER enrollment starts revealing prasugrel front-loaded early vascular benefit predominantly in STEMI patients with the growing over time bleeding and cancer risks. Moreover, large prasugrel NSTEMI TRITON cohort exhibited trend towards excess mortality in experimental arm warning against aggressive TRACER design. The long-term TRITON results in general, and especially in the NSTEMI patients challenge unchanged TRACER trial design. Applying dual, rather than triple antiplatelet therapy protocol modification should be considered in TRACER to minimize bleeding, cancer, and non-cardiovascular death risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Determination of the Isotopic Enrichment of13C- and2H-Labeled Tracers of Glucose Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Application to Dual- and Triple-Tracer Studies. (United States)

    Trötzmüller, Martin; Triebl, Alexander; Ajsic, Amra; Hartler, Jürgen; Köfeler, Harald; Regittnig, Werner


    Multiple-tracer approaches for investigating glucose metabolism in humans usually involve the administration of stable and radioactive glucose tracers and the subsequent determination of tracer enrichments in sampled blood. When using conventional, low-resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS), the number of spectral interferences rises rapidly with the number of stable tracers employed. Thus, in LRMS, both computational effort and statistical uncertainties associated with the correction for spectral interferences limit the number of stable tracers that can be simultaneously employed (usually two). Here we show that these limitations can be overcome by applying high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The HRMS method presented is based on the use of an Orbitrap mass spectrometer operated at a mass resolution of 100 000 to allow electrospray-generated ions of the deprotonated glucose molecules to be monitored at their exact masses. The tracer enrichment determination in blood plasma is demonstrated for several triple combinations of 13 C- and 2 H-labeled glucose tracers (e.g., [1- 2 H 1 ]-, [6,6- 2 H 2 ]-, [1,6- 13 C 2 ]glucose). For each combination it is shown that ions arising from 2 H-labeled tracers are completely differentiated from those arising from 13 C-labeled tracers, thereby allowing the enrichment of a tracer to be simply calculated from the observed ion intensities using a standard curve with curve parameters unaffected by the presence of other tracers. For each tracer, the HRMS method exhibits low limits of detection and good repeatability in the tested 0.1-15.0% enrichment range. Additionally, due to short sample preparation and analysis times, the method is well-suited for high-throughput determination of multiple glucose tracer enrichments in plasma samples.

  9. Predictions of PuO sub 2 and tracer compound release from ISV melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronenberg, A.W. (Engineering Science and Analysis, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    Two field tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assess in situ vitrification (ISV) suitability for long-term stabilization of buried radioactive waste. Both tests contained rare-earth oxide tracers (DY{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7}) to simulate the presence of plutonium in the form of PuO{sub 2}. In the first test, Intermediate Field Test (IFT)-l, approximately 4-% release of tracer material occurred during soil melting and associated off-gassing, while essentially nil release was observed for the second experiment (IFT-2) for which off-gassing was much reduced. This report presents an evaluation of the IFT test data in terms of governing release processes. Prediction of tracer release during ISV melting centered on an assessment of three potential transport mechanisms, (a) tracer diffusion through stagnant pool, (b) tracer transport by convective currents, and (c) tracer carry-off by escaping gas bubbles. Analysis indicates that tracer release by escaping gas is the dominant release mechanism, which is consistent with video records of gas bubble escape from the ISV melt surface. Quantitative mass transport predictions were also made for the IFT-I test conditions, indicating similarity between the 4-% release data and calculational results at viscosities of {approx} poise and tracer diffusivities of {approx}10{sub {minus}6} CM{sup 2}/s. Since PuO{sub 2} has similar chemical and transport (diffusivity) properties as the rare-earth tracers used in the rare earth tracers used in the IFT experiments, release of PuO{sub 2} is predicted for similar off-gassing conditions. Reduced off-gassing during ISV would thus be expected to improve the overall retention of heavy-oxides within vitrified soil.

  10. Analysis of micro-composition of biological tissue by means of induced radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Dunn, R.W.


    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers promises a wealth of information regarding the biochemical role of most elements and their components. Usually a radioactive sample of the element to be studied is administered to the plant or animal in a convenient form, and its distribution and rate of exchange are determined in later assays. This technique has, however, certain limitations, two of which will be discussed here: (1) radioactive isotopes are not generally useful for measurements of the concentration of elements in the body or its parts. They can be used only to give a measure of the rate of exchange of the elements and (2) the use of radioactive isotopes for tracer experiments requires that the radiation dose delivered to the tissue should be small in order not to disturb normal biological function.

  11. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  12. Radioactive Wastes. Revised. (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  13. Radioactive waste disposal package (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.


    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  14. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark


    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  15. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Determinacao de tempo de residencia medio - TRM - em um digestor anaerobio da Estacao de Tratamento de Esgotos de Barueri com utilizacao de tracador radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helou, Luiz Carlos; Vitoreti, Cristiane da Silva; Moraes, Fabio Alceu Akiyama de [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), Barueri, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Tratamento de Esgotos; Aoki, Pedro Eiti; Silva, Valdir Cosmos da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  16. Principal component proxy tracer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter


    We introduce a powerful method for dynamical reconstruction of long-lived tracers such as ozone. It works by correlating the principal components of a matrix representation of the tracer dynamics with a series of sparse measurements. The method is tested on the 500 K isentropic surface using a simulated tracer and with ozone measurements from the Polar Aerosol and Ozone Measurement (POAM) III satellite instrument. The Lyapunov spectrum is measured and used to quantify the lifetime of each principal component. Using a 60 day lead time and five (5) principal components, cross validation of the reconstructed ozone and comparison with ozone sondes return root-mean-square errors of 0.20 ppmv and 0.47 ppmv, respectively.

  17. Predictors of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer-radioactivity and Ki-67. (United States)

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Malter, Wolfram; Hamacher, Stefanie; Schmidt, Matthias; Krämer, Stefan; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena


    Since the introduction of the sentinel node technique for breast cancer in the 1990s patient's morbidity was reduced. Tracer uptake is known to be dependent from lymph node integrity and activity of macrophages. The aim of this study was to assess whether radioactivity of the tracer can predict sentinel lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a potential association with Ki-67 index was examined. Non-invasive prediction of lymph node metastases could lead to a further decrease of morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University Hospital of Cologne between 2012 and 2013. Injection of radioactive tracer was done a day before surgery in the department of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical data and radioactivity of the sentinel node measured the day before and intraoperatively were abstracted from patient's files. Of 246 patients, 64 patients had at least one, five patients had two and one patient had three positive sentinel lymph nodes. Occurrence of sentinel lymph node metastases was not associated with preoperative tracer activity (p = 0,319), intraoperative tracer activity of first sentinel node (p = 0,086) or with loss of tracer activity until operation (p = 0,909). There was no correlation between preoperative Ki-67 index and occurrence of lymph node metastases (p = 0,403). In our cohort, there was no correlation between radioactivity and sentinel node metastases. Tracer uptake might not only be influenced by lymph node metastases and does not predict metastatic lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Earth mechanisms (fluid and solid), life mechanisms and stable isotope tracers. Isotopes and biology, a great project; Les mecanismes de la terre (fluide et solide), du vivant et les traceurs d`isotopes stables. Isotopes et biologie, un grand dessein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)


    Historical and recent review of the development and use of radioactive isotopes for biological studies in France: study of the intermediate metabolism with {sup 14}C tracers in organic molecules; study and biosynthesis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and polynucleotides) through the use of marked nucleotides; tracer proteins for use in NMR and protein engineering, use of tritium for the study of hormonal regulation

  19. Radon as tracer to identify discharge sections at Juatuba basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna Magalhaes; Fonseca, Raquel Luisa Mageste; Rocha, Zildete; Moreira, Rubens Martins; Lemos, Nayron Cosme; Menezes, Angela de Barros Correia, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita Oliveira, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares


    The use of natural tracers in hydrological studies is a very useful tool, being applied in several studies. One of these tracers is the radon, {sup 222}Rn, noble gas derived from natural sources, been found in all underground waters, as a product of radioactive decay of the {sup 226}Ra. This gas can be found in the air, water, rocks or soil. In this paper, the {sup 222}Rn detection in surface water was used as tracer in order to identify aquifer discharge sections in surface water at the Fundao stream, which belongs to the Juatuba river basin, through the second semester of 2014 and the first semester of 2015, in three sampling campaigns. The {sup 222}Rn measurements at Fundao stream were carried out using the equipment RAD 7. The results showed that {sup 222}Rn is present in some sections of the water course suggesting that there is a connection between groundwater and surface water. It also justifies the variation in the water level in the stream, recorded by a fluviometric station. (author)

  20. Characterization of defects in semiconductors using radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, Manfred


    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, and emission channeling have used nuclear properties to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. The availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Spectroscopic techniques like photoluminescence (PL), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and Hall effect gain a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Due to their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical behavior of a specific defect or dopant can be unambiguously identified. This contribution will highlight a few examples to illustrat...

  1. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.


    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  2. Tracer-monitored flow titrations. (United States)

    Sasaki, Milton K; Rocha, Diogo L; Rocha, Fábio R P; Zagatto, Elias A G


    The feasibility of implementing tracer-monitored titrations in a flow system is demonstrated. A dye tracer is used to estimate the instant sample and titrant volumetric fractions without the need for volume, mass or peak width measurements. The approach was applied to spectrophotometric flow titrations involving variations of sample and titrant flow-rates (i.e. triangle programmed technique) or concentration gradients established along the sample zone (i.e. flow injection system). Both strategies required simultaneous monitoring of two absorbing species, namely the titration indicator and the dye tracer. Mixing conditions were improved by placing a chamber with mechanical stirring in the analytical path aiming at to minimize diffusional effects. Unlike most of flow-based titrations, the innovation is considered as a true titration, as it does not require a calibration curve thus complying with IUPAC definition. As an application, acidity evaluation in vinegars involving titration with sodium hydroxide was selected. Phenolphthalein and brilliant blue FCF were used as indicator and dye tracer, respectively. Effects of sample volume, titrand/titrant concentrations and flow rates were investigated aiming at improved accuracy and precision. Results were reliable and in agreement with those obtained by a reference titration procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet. (United States)

    Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

    This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…

  4. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia


    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: This link is also available from the radioactive sources service main page: From now on, please submit your request via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  5. Dynamic radioactive particle source (United States)

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence


    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  6. Temporary Personal Radioactivity (United States)

    Myers, Fred


    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  7. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))


    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  8. Polyethyleneimine as tracer for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurer, Jacob Willem


    In this thesis the development of a tracer particle for use in electron microscopy is described. Attempts were made to use this tracer particle in immuno-electron microscopy and to trace negatively charged tissue components. ... Zie: Summary

  9. Axillary sentinel node identification in breast cancer patients: degree of radioactivity present at biopsy is critical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina R; Oturai, Peter S; Friis, Esbern


    The radioactivity present in the patient (Act(rem) ) at sentinel node (SN) biopsy will depend on injected activity amount as well as on the time interval from tracer injection to biopsy, which both show great variations in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence...

  10. Isotope Tracers To Study the Environmental Fate and Bioaccumulation of Metal-Containing Engineered Nanoparticles: Techniques and Applications. (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Tan, Zhiqiang; Hu, Ligang; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin


    The rapidly growing applicability of metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (MENPs) has made their environmental fate, biouptake, and transformation important research topics. However, considering the relatively low concentration of MENPs and the high concentration of background metals in the environment and in organisms, tracking the fate of MENPs in environment-related scenarios remains a challenge. Intrinsic labeling of MENPs with radioactive or stable isotopes is a useful tool for the highly sensitive and selective detection of MENPs in the environment and organisms, thus enabling tracing of their transformation, uptake, distribution, and clearance. In this review, we focus on radioactive/stable isotope labeling of MENPs for their environmental and biological tracing. We summarize the advantages of intrinsic radioactive/stable isotopes for MENP labeling and discuss the considerations in labeling isotope selection and preparation of labeled MENPs, as well as exposure routes and detection of labeled MENPs. In addition, current practice in the use of radioactive/stable isotope labeling of MENPs to study their environmental fate and bioaccumulation is reviewed. Future perspectives and potential applications are also discussed, including imaging techniques for radioactive- and stable-isotope-labeled MENPs, hyphenated multistable isotope tracers with speciation analysis, and isotope fractionation as a MENP tracer. It is expected that this critical review could provide the necessary background information to further advance the applications of isotope tracers to study the environmental fate and bioaccumulation of MENPs.

  11. Tracer-tracer relations as a tool for research on polar ozone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rolf


    The report includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction: ozone in the atmosphere, anthropogenic influence on the ozone layer, polar stratospheric ozone loss; (2) Tracer-tracer relations in the stratosphere: tracer-tracer relations as a tool in atmospheric research; impact of cosmic-ray-induced heterogeneous chemistry on polar ozone; (3) quantifying polar ozone loss from ozone-tracer relations: principles of tracer-tracer correlation techniques; reference ozone-tracer relations in the early polar vortex; impact of mixing on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex; impact of mesospheric intrusions on ozone-tracer relations in the stratospheric polar vortex calculation of chemical ozone loss in the arctic in March 2003 based on ILAS-II measurements; (4) epilogue.

  12. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.


    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.


    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group


    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  14. Radioactive waste study released (United States)

    Dowhaluk, Bohdan

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has concluded that the technology for safely storing radioactive waste is ready for confirmation in a test facility. At the same time, the panel proposed safety standards that are more stringent than standards currently proposed by some government agencies. The report, Study of the Isolation System for the Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, was funded by the Department of Energy as part of its effort to comply with a Congressional mandate to open a national radioactive waste storage facility by the end of the century.The Waste Isolation Panel of the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management did not choose a specific site for the first U.S. repository because the state of current technology does not allow the U.S. to design, construct, and safely operate a full-fledged site. However, the panel's chairman, Thomas H. Pigford, of the University of California at Berkeley, believes that the goal established by Congress can be met.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik


    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  16. Disposal of radioactive waste (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  17. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes. (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe


    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...


    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.


    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  19. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible" (United States)

    Yin, L. I.


    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  20. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon. (United States)

    Ronneau, C.


    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  1. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site:

  2. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site.

  3. Influence of bovine LH tracer quality on levels of LH in GnRH-treated cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madej, A.; Hallin, P.; Madej, M.; Seguin, B.; Edqvist, L.E.


    Chromatography of 125I-bovine LH (LER-1716-2 and USDA-I-1) by means of anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed two main peaks of radioactivity regardless as to whether or not the tracer was initially purified on cellulose CF11. The content of radioactivity in the first peak tended to increase as the storage time of the bLH preparation, either before or after iodination, increased. The first peak of radioactivity after HPLC fractionation either with or without cellulose adsorption consisted of material with low binding ability to bLH antiserum (6.9% +/- 0.5 and 13.0% +/- 1.0, respectively) and high binding ability to ovine LH alpha antiserum (51.0% +/- 2.7 and 35.2% +/- 3.6, respectively). The average ratio of alpha-subunit immuno-reactivity to 125I-bLH immunoreactivity in this material was 7.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.2, respectively (P less than 0.001). Peaks in 125I-bLH radioactivity and 125I-bLH immunoreactivity had different elution times. Radioimmunoassays with tracers obtained from fractions derived from the first radioactive peak after HPLC chromatography (i.e. 125I-bLH-LER-1716-2) both with and without cellulose adsorption, yielded significantly lower mean plasma LH levels in GnRH-treated cows compared with the control tracer routinely purified only on cellulose CF11 (e.g. 5.7 vs. 8.2 micrograms/; 4.6 vs. 8.2 micrograms/l). Plasma LH levels in GnRH-treated cows were significantly (P less than 0.001) lower as measured by radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-USDA-blH-I-1 tracers than by radioimmunoassays utilizing 125I-blH-LER-1716-2 tracers (i.e. either Y = 0.17 + 0.75X or Y = 1.18 + 0.60X).

  4. Evaluation of rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM + 62Cu-ATSM PET in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors (United States)

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C.; Kadrmas, Dan J.


    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal separation performance for rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with 62Cu-PTSM and 62Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k1) and wash-out (k2) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87-0.99), but k3 was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted.

  5. Evaluation of rapid dual-tracer {sup 62}Cu-PTSM + {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Noel F; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C; Kadrmas, Dan J [Utah Center of Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, 729 Arapeen Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-1218 (United States)


    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal separation performance for rapid dual-tracer {sup 62}Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + {sup 62}Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with {sup 62}Cu-PTSM and {sup 62}Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k{sub 1}) and wash-out (k{sub 2}) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87-0.99), but k{sub 3} was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted.

  6. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation. (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.


    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  7. The Copenhagen tracer experiments: Reporting of measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Lyck, E.


    buoyancy from a tower at a height of 115 meters and then collected 2-3 meters above ground-level at positions in up to three crosswind arcs of tracer sampling units, positioned 2-6 km from the point of release. Three consecutive 20 min averaged tracer concentrations were measured, allowing for a total......This is the comprehensive data report from a series of tracer experiment carried out in the Copenhagen area in 1978/79 under neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. The report contains sulphurhexafluoride of tracer concentrations and meteorologicalmeasurements The tracer was released without...... sampling time of 1 hour. The site was mainly residential having a roughness length of 0.6 m. The meteorological measurements performed during the experimentsincluded standard measurements along the tower of tracer release as well as the three-dimensional wind velocity fluctuations at the height of release....

  8. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management


    Axelsson G.


    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinj...


    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  10. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design (Ehtd) Program (2003) (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test ...

  11. A novel PET tracer for evaluation of gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, S.; Monclus, M.; Cool, V. [Cliniques Universitaires de Bruxelles-Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others


    A promising approach of gene therapy for cancer consist in the transduction of neoplastic cells with the herpes virus thymidine-kinase gene (HSV-tk) which renders transduced cells sensitive to the lethal effect of anti-viral agent such as ganciclovir (GCV). Pet with adapted radiotracers represents an adequate tool to determine in vivo the level of HSV-tk expression and to establish the optimal protocol of gene and GCV administrations in human. We have developed a new potential PET tracer, 9-((1-[F-18]fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl)guanine [F-18]FHPG should theoretically accumulate in cells expressing HSV-tk. [F-18]FHPG was obtained by nucleophilic substitution on a ditosylate precursor followed by hydrolysis. To determine the biological behavior of this compound, we synthetized the corresponding non radioactive fluorinated analog (FHPG) and tested its inhibitory activity on HSV-tk transduced 9L gliosarcoma cells maintained in culture. FHPG at 100 {mu}M suppress cell growth by 50% while GCV and acyclovir induced 100% suppression at 10 and 100 {mu}M, respectively. We then tested the in vitro uptake of n.c.a. [F-18]FHPG in cultured cells transduced with HSV-tk or a control gene (neomycin). Ratio of [F-18]FHPG uptake in HSV-tk versus control cells was 240 after 6 hours of incubation. In vivo uptake of [F-18]FHPG was tested in experimental tumors obtained by stereotactical implantion of transduced 9L cells in the brain of male Fischer 344 rats. Ratio of [F-18]FHPG uptake in HSV-tk versus control tumors was 2.5, 3 hours after intravenous tracer injection. Uptake in HSV-tk tumor was 19-fold higher than in the cortex. We concluded that [F-18]FHPG is a promising PET tracer for the evaluation of gene therapy involving viral thymidine kinase genes.

  12. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  13. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server


    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...


    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group


    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.


    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.


    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  16. Radioactive Ion Sources


    Stora, T


    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequenc...

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)


    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P


    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  19. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull


    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  20. Transport Models for Radioactive Carbon Dioxide at RWMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence Charles; Hohorst, Frederick August


    Radioactive carbon dioxide (formed by oxidation of carbon-14) is a highly mobile, radioactive contaminant released from solid wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Radioactive CO2 is chemically active in the environment, volatile, water soluble, and subject to adsorption on solids. For this reason, its fate must be understood and controlled to meet radiological requirements (protection of the atmosphere, aquifer, vadose zones, plants and animals). In the present work, the migration of carbon-14 as dissolved bicarbonate was studied using miscible displacement experiments in water-saturated columns containing sediments from RWMC. Dissolved carbon-14 was retarded relative to the movement of water by a factor of about 3.6, which translates to a partition coefficient (Kd) of 0.8 ml/g. Two different adsorption sites were identified, with one site possibly having a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. A conservative tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride, was used to measure the tortuosity of sedimentary material for gaseous diffusion. The tortuosity of the RWMC sediment (Spreading Area B sediment) was determined to be 3.2, which is slightly greater than predicted by the commonly used Millington-Quirk equation. In terms of affecting the migration of carbon-14 to the aquifer, the relative importance of the parameters studied is: (1) natural moisture content of the sediments, (2) sediment tortuosity to gas-phase diffusion, and (3) adsorption onto solid phases.

  1. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi


    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  2. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi


    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  3. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers. (United States)

    Underwood, E J


    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques, involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use.

  4. Tracer studies on an aerated lagoon. (United States)

    Broughton, Alistair; Shilton, Andy


    The city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, has two aerated lagoons as its secondary treatment facility. Interest about treatment efficiency led to an investigation into the hydraulics in the second lagoon to determine if further optimisation was viable. A tracer study using rhodamine WT was undertaken to ascertain the stimulus response output. Samples were also taken at 24 points within the lagoon to determine the tracer concentration profile throughout the lagoon. The mean residence time was determined to be 39.9 h compared with a theoretical residence time of 55.4 h. Peak concentration of the tracer at the outlet occurred at 0.44 of the mean residence time. The results of the tracer study pointed to 28% of volume being dead space. A subsequent sludge survey indicated that 26% of the design volume of the lagoon was filled with sludge. While the curved geometry of the lagoon did not appear to impact the hydraulics the fact that the first aerator is confined in a relatively smaller area will have locally boosted the mixing energy input in this inlet zone. From interpretation of the tracer response and the tracer distribution profiles it appears that the aerators are mixing the influent into the bulk flow effectively in the front end of the lagoon and that there was no evidence of any substantive short-circuiting path of concentrated tracer around to the outlet. The tracer distribution profiles gave direct insight as to how the tracer was being transported within the pond and should be used more often when conducting tracer studies. Comparison with the literature indicated that the lagoon's hydraulic efficiency was on par with a baffled pond system and it would be expected that addition of several baffles to the lagoon would provide minimal further improvement.

  5. Radioactive Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, T


    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

  6. Radioactive waste material disposal (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.


    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  7. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A


    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  8. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio


    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  9. Wanted: Scalable Tracers for Diffusion Measurements (United States)


    Scalable tracers are potentially a useful tool to examine diffusion mechanisms and to predict diffusion coefficients, particularly for hindered diffusion in complex, heterogeneous, or crowded systems. Scalable tracers are defined as a series of tracers varying in size but with the same shape, structure, surface chemistry, deformability, and diffusion mechanism. Both chemical homology and constant dynamics are required. In particular, branching must not vary with size, and there must be no transition between ordinary diffusion and reptation. Measurements using scalable tracers yield the mean diffusion coefficient as a function of size alone; measurements using nonscalable tracers yield the variation due to differences in the other properties. Candidate scalable tracers are discussed for two-dimensional (2D) diffusion in membranes and three-dimensional diffusion in aqueous solutions. Correlations to predict the mean diffusion coefficient of globular biomolecules from molecular mass are reviewed briefly. Specific suggestions for the 3D case include the use of synthetic dendrimers or random hyperbranched polymers instead of dextran and the use of core–shell quantum dots. Another useful tool would be a series of scalable tracers varying in deformability alone, prepared by varying the density of crosslinking in a polymer to make say “reinforced Ficoll” or “reinforced hyperbranched polyglycerol.” PMID:25319586

  10. Extended application of radon as a natural tracer in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.


    Full Text Available In the 80's it was a common practice in the study of contamination by NAPL to incorporate a tracer to the medium to be studied. At that time the first applications focused on the use of 222Rn, a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as a natural tracer, appropriate for thermodynamics studies, geology and transport properties in thermal reservoirs. In 1993 the deficit of radon was used to spot and quantify the contamination by DNAPL under the surface. For the first time these studies showed that radon could be used as a partitioning tracer. A methodology that provides alternatives to quantify the oil volume stored in the porous space of oil reservoirs is under development at CDTN. The methodology here applied, widens up and adapts the knowledge acquired from the use of radon as a tracer to the studies aimed at assessing SOR. It is a postulation of this work that once the radon partition coefficient between oil and water is known, SOR will be determined considering the increased amount of radon in the water phase as compared to the amount initially existent as the reservoir is flooded with water. This paper will present a description of the apparatus used and some preliminary results of the experiments.

  11. Preparation of Plant 41Ca Tracer Samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Qing-zhang1;JANG Ping-ping3;LIN De-yu4;YANG Xian-lin1;DOU Liang1;PANG Yi-jun1;WANG Xiao-ming1;ZHANG Hui1,5;YANG Xu-ran1;WU Shao-yong1;GAO Dong-sheng2;LI Ling2;WANG Lei2;SUN Ke-peng2;ZHOU Jun2;DONG Ke-jun1;HE Ming1


    Full Text Available Calcium plays an important role in the metabolism of plants and animals. In this paper, the preparation method of plant 41Ca for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS measurement was developed for the first time in China. AMS, with its advantages of high sensitivity, small dose of radioactivity, high accuracy, large measuring range, and long tracer cycle, can be used to measure cosmogenic nuclide 41Ca , which has long half-life. The intensity of the beam in ion source is an important parameter for the sensitivity of AMS measurement. The high beam current can improve the sensitivity of AMS. The preparation methods of plant samples of 41Ca tracer were systematically studied to obtain high beam current using wet, dry and a combining method with wet and dry re-fluoride. A reliable preparation procedure of plant samples for 41Ca tracer and its optimization parameters were determined by testing beam currents of various samples and lay a foundation for the 41Ca-AMS technology at plant tracer applications.

  12. Development of an activatable nanospheres tracer for use in industry and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Raquel Luiza M.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEMAM/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Servico ao Meio Ambiente; Moura, Igor Felipe S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares


    Nanoparticles (NP's) can act as tracers for the study of several transport phenomena in industrial practice and environmental processes provided their physical and chemical properties meet specific requirements dictated by the application. Silica-coated gold nanoparticles in the size interval from 20 to 200 nm can be produced by gamma-ray irradiation. Submitted to neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor, they will convert gold nuclides into {sup 198}Au (E{sub γ} = 412 keV). These NP's can used as a tracer in oil fields, in petrochemical and refinery industrial processes in which conventional organic radioactive labeled compounds would not withstand, as well as in some hydrology and hydrogeology studies. (author)

  13. Compartmental modeling and tracer kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David H


    This monograph is concerned with mathematical aspects of compartmental an­ alysis. In particular, linear models are closely analyzed since they are fully justifiable as an investigative tool in tracer experiments. The objective of the monograph is to bring the reader up to date on some of the current mathematical prob­ lems of interest in compartmental analysis. This is accomplished by reviewing mathematical developments in the literature, especially over the last 10-15 years, and by presenting some new thoughts and directions for future mathematical research. These notes started as a series of lectures that I gave while visiting with the Division of Applied ~1athematics, Brown University, 1979, and have developed in­ to this collection of articles aimed at the reader with a beginning graduate level background in mathematics. The text can be used as a self-paced reading course. With this in mind, exercises have been appropriately placed throughout the notes. As an aid in reading the material, the e~d of a ...

  14. The accurate particle tracer code (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun


    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  15. Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Porcelli, D.


    The study of the noble gases has been associated with some of the most illustrious names in experimental science, and some of the most profound discoveries. Fundamental advances in nuclear chemistry and physics - including the discovery of isotopes - have resulted from their study, earning Nobel Prizes for a number of early practitioners (Rutherford in 1908; Soddy in 1921; Aston in 1922) as well as for their discoverers (Ramsay and Rayleigh in 1904). Within the Earth Sciences, the noble gases found application soon after discovery - helium was used as a chronometer to estimate formation ages of various minerals (Strutt, 1908). In more recent times, the emphasis of noble gas research has shifted to include their exploitation as inert tracers of geochemical processes. In large part, this shift stems from the realization that primordial volatiles have been stored within the Earth since the time of planetary accretion and are still leaking to the surface today. In this introduction, we give a brief overview of the discovery of the noble gases and their continuing utility in the Earth Sciences, prior to setting into perspective the present contribution, which focuses on noble gases in the Earth's mantle.

  16. Axillary sentinel node identification in breast cancer patients: degree of radioactivity present at biopsy is critical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina R; Oturai, Peter S; Friis, Esbern


    The radioactivity present in the patient (Act(rem) ) at sentinel node (SN) biopsy will depend on injected activity amount as well as on the time interval from tracer injection to biopsy, which both show great variations in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence...... of varying Act(rem) levels on the outcome of axillary SN biopsy in patients with breast cancer (BC)....

  17. Developing new PET tracers to image the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Shimoda, Yoko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Zhang, Yiding; Hatori, Akiko; Xie, Lin; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kumata, Katsushi; Ohkubo, Takayuki; Kurihara, Yusuke; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong


    `The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) is the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, and its endogenous ligand is ghrelin. GHS-R1a contributes to regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory and learning, food addiction, and neuroprotection. Several PET tracers for GHS-R1a have been developed, but none have been reported to be clinically applicable to GHS-R1a imaging. In this study, we developed three new PET tracers for GHS-R1a: 18F-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-fluoroethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), 11C-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-methoxyethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (2), and 11C-labeled (S)-(4-(1H-indole-6-carbonyl)-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methanone (3). [18F]1 was synthesized by the 18F-fluoroethylation; [11C]2 or [11C]3 was synthesized by the 11C-methylation. Biodistribution studies and PET studies were conducted in mice. We successfully radiosynthesized [18F]1, [11C]2, and [11C]3 with appropriate radioactivity for the animal study. In the ex vivo biodistribution study, 60min following injection, the radioactivity level of [18F]1 was relatively high in the small intestine, that of [11C]2 was high in the liver, and that of [11C]3 was high in the pancreas. The radioactivity levels of the three PET tracers were relatively low in the brain. Under pretreatment with YIL781 (a selective and high affinity antagonist for GHS-R1a), the pancreas radioactivity level at 30min following [11C]3 injection was significantly reduced to 55% of control, but the radioactivity in the brain was not changed. In the PET study under control conditions, high radioactivity levels in the liver and pancreas were observed following [11C]3 injection. With YIL781 pretreatment, the accumulated radioactivity in the pancreas 15-60min after [11C]3 injection was significantly decreased to 78% of control. [11C]3 exhibited relatively high uptake and in vivo specific binding to GHS

  18. Application of tracer techniques in studies of sediment transport in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, P.S.; Quang, N.H.; Xuan, N.M. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam); Chuong, P.N. [Vanlang Univeristy, Ho Chin Minh City, (Viet Nam); Hien, P.Z. [R.C.A, C.T.O, Jakarta, (Indonesia)


    As a consequence of intensive erosion processes typical of the humid tropical one, as well as of human activities destroying tropical forests, grasslands and protective mangrove swamps, etc, most navigable estuaries in Vietnam suffer seriously from sedimentation. In order to maintain the necessary depth for the 7.000 ton vessels entering and leaving ports, a large amount of money is spent annually on dredging operation. A lot of hydraulic and sedimentary surveys were carried out in the past by different groups of researchers. However, owing to the complexity of sediment processes in estuarine areas under the hydrometeorological conditions typical of the southwest Pacific, the use of just any modelling approach is not suitable. In many cases, the conclusions inferred from mathematical models have been the controversial matter. The tracer techniques, which have been employed in the country since 1991, have provided a very efficient tool to obtain a dynamic idea of sediment transport. Many investigations of bedload transport using Sc-46 labelled glass and Ir-192 glass as radioactive tracers were carried out from 1992 to 1996 at Haiphong harbour area. Bedload transport rates under effect of northeast monsoon and southeast monsoon at 5 zones located on both sides of the navigation channel were estimated. In bedload transport studies, apart from conventional methods for assessment of transport thickness, a new method using the ratio of photoelectric peak to Compton region of spectra acquired directly on the sea bed was put forward and applied. The influence of dredging materials at two dumping sites under different tidal phases on in fill rate in the access channel was assessed by radioactive tracers. The qualitative and quantitative information on sediment transport at some experimental sites given by tracers was used by modelling specialists who have undertaken hydraulic and sedimentary surveys in this region. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Tracer tests in karst hydrogeology and speleology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Smart


    Full Text Available This article presents an introduction to the fundamentals of tracing techniques and their application in cave and karst environments, illustrated by case studies from the Mammoth Cave, USA, and a small experimental site in Switzerland. The properties and limitations of the most important artificial tracers are discussed, and the available methods of tracer injection, sampling, online monitoring and laboratory analysis are presented. Fully quantitative tracer experiments result in continuous or discrete concentration-time data series, i.e. breakthrough curves, and concomitant discharge data, which make it possible to obtain detailed information about groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Within the frame of speleological investigations, tracer tests can help to resolve the active and often inaccessible part of cave and conduit networks and to obtain indications about the geometry and volume of the conduits. For hydrogeological studies, caves can in turn be used as natural experimental and monitoring sites inside the unsaturated or saturated zone of karst aquifer systems.

  20. Numerical Implementation and Computer Simulation of Tracer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , was most dependent on the source definition and the hydraulic conductivity K of the porous medium. The 12000mg/l chloride tracer source was almost completely dispersed within 34 hours. Keywords: Replication, Numerical simulation, ...

  1. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph


    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  2. Monitoring High Velocity Salt Tracer via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography - Possibility for Salt Tracer Tomography (United States)

    Doro, K. O.; Cirpka, O. A.; Patzelt, A.; Leven, C.


    Hydrogeological testing in a tomographic sequence as shown by the use of hydraulic tomography, allows an improvement of the spatial resolution of subsurface parameters. In this regard, recent studies show increasing interest in tracer tomography which involves sequential and spatially separated tracer injections and the measurement of their corresponding tracer breakthrough at different locations and depths. Such concentration measurements however require large experimental efforts and can be simplified by geophysical tracer monitoring techniques such as electrical resistivity. In this study, we present the use of 4-D, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for monitoring salt tracer experiments in high velocity flow fields. For our study, we utilized a set up that enables the conduction of salt tracer experiments with complete recovery within 84 hours over a transport distance of 16 m. This allows the repetition of the experiments with different injection depths for a tomographic salt tracer testing. For ERT monitoring, we designed modular borehole electrodes for repeated usage in a flexible manner. We also assess the use of a high speed resistivity data acquisition mode for field scale tracer monitoring ensuring high spatial and temporal resolution without sacrificing data accuracy. We applied our approach at the Lauswiesen test site, Tübingen, Germany. In our 10 m × 10 m tracer monitoring domain with 16 borehole electrodes, we acquired 4650 data points in less than 18 minutes for each monitoring cycle. Inversion results show that the tracer could be successfully imaged using this approach. The results show that repeated salt tracer tests can be efficiently monitored at a high resolution with ERT which gives the possibility for salt tracer tomography at field scale. Our results also provide a data base for extending current hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to field scale data.

  3. Tracer tests in a fractured dolomite: 1. Experimental design and observed tracer recoveries (United States)

    Meigs, Lucy C.; Beauheim, Richard L.


    A series of tracer tests has been conducted in a 7-m-thick fractured dolomite at two sites in southeastern New Mexico. The tests were designed to evaluate transport processes, especially matrix diffusion, in fractured, permeable media. Both single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and multiwell convergent flow (MWCF) tests were conducted. Seventeen different organic tracers (he fluorobenzoic and chlorobenzoic acids) and iodide were used as conservative tracers for the tests. The MWCF tests included repeated tracer injections while pumping the central well at different rates, injection of tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients, and injection of tracers into both the full and partial formation thickness. This paper describes the tracer test sites and aquifer characteristics, the experimental methods, and the tracer data produced. The tracer test results provide a high-quality data set for a critical evaluation of the conceptual model for transport. Both the SWIW and MWCF tracer test data showed gradual mass recovery and breakthrough (or recovery) curve tailing consistent with matrix diffusion. However, the SWIW recovery curves did not display the -1.5 log-log slope expected from a conventional double-porosity medium with a single rate of diffusion. The breakthrough curves from MWCF tests conducted at two different pumping rates showed similar peak heights, which is also not what was expected with a conventional double-porosity model. However, the peak heights were different for two tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients that were injected simultaneously in one test, consistent with the effects of matrix diffusion. The complexity of the tracer test results suggests that a simple double- porosity conceptual model for transport in the Culebra with a single rate of diffusion is overly simplistic.

  4. Arduino based radioactive tracking system (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah


    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  5. Radioactive waste processing apparatus (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.


    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  6. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina


    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  7. Subsonic aircraft soot. A tracer documenting barriers to inter-hemispheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueschel, R.F. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)


    Meridional observations of soot aerosols and radioactive {sup 14}C, and models of the geographic distribution of nuclear bomb-released {sup 14}C and aircraft-emitted NO{sub x}, all show strong gradients between the hemispheres. Reason for it are decade-long inter-hemispheric mixing times which are much in excess of yearlong stratospheric residence times of tracers. Vertical mixing of soot aerosol is not corroborated by {sup 14}C observations. The reason could be radiometric forces that act on strongly absorbing soot. (author) 10 refs.

  8. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geophysical processes in underground environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R. M. [LARA - Laboratório de Radioecologia e Alterações Ambientais, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoatá, 24210-346, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Valladares, D. L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Rosas, J. P. de; Ayub, J. Juri [GEA - Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, CCT-San Luis CONICET, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Silva, A. A. R. da; Yoshimura, E. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 66318, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, are reported and analyzed. These mines are today used for touristic visitation. Our goal was to assess the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer of geological processes in underground environments. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used during the winter and summer seasons. The findings show that the significant radon concentrations reported in this environment are subject to large seasonal modulations, due to the strong dependence of natural ventilation on the variations of outside temperature. The results also indicate that radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  9. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers. (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Choy, C Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Fulton, Elizabeth A


    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  10. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  11. Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, I.


    This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

  12. Diesterified derivatives of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine as cerebral tumor tracers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Rösler

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop beneficial tracers for cerebral tumors, we tested two novel 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR derivatives, diesterified at the deoxyribose residue. The substances were designed to enhance the uptake into brain tumor tissue and to prolong the availability in the organism. We synthesized carrier added 5-[125I]iodo-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyuridine (Ac2[125I]IUdR, 5-[125I]iodo-3',5'-di-O-pivaloyl-2'-deoxyuridine (Piv2[125I]IUdR and their respective precursor molecules for the first time. HPLC was used for purification and to determine the specific activities. The iodonucleoside tracer were tested for their stability against human thymidine phosphorylase. DNA integration of each tracer was determined in 2 glioma cell lines (Gl261, CRL2397 and in PC12 cells in vitro. In mice, we measured the relative biodistribution and the tracer uptake in grafted brain tumors. Ac2[125I]IUdR, Piv2[125I]IUdR and [125I]IUdR (control were prepared with labeling yields of 31-47% and radiochemical purities of >99% (HPLC. Both diesterified iodonucleoside tracers showed a nearly 100% resistance against degradation by thymidine phosphorylase. Ac2[125I]IUdR and Piv2[125I]IUdR were specifically integrated into the DNA of all tested tumor cell lines but to a less extend than the control [125I]IUdR. In mice, 24 h after i.p. injection, brain radioactivity uptakes were in the following order Piv2[125I]IUdR>Ac2[125I]IUdR>[125I]IUdR. For Ac2[125I]IUdR we detected lower amounts of radioactivities in the thyroid and stomach, suggesting a higher stability toward deiodination. In mice bearing unilateral graft-induced brain tumors, the uptake ratios of tumor-bearing to healthy hemisphere were 51, 68 and 6 for [125I]IUdR, Ac2[125I]IUdR and Piv2[125I]IUdR, respectively. Esterifications of both deoxyribosyl hydroxyl groups of the tumor tracer IUdR lead to advantageous properties regarding uptake into brain tumor tissue and metabolic stability.

  13. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies. (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J


    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  14. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  15. Radioactive deposits in California (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.


    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  16. Traçadores: o uso de agentes químicos para estudos hidrológicos, ambientais, petroquímicos e biológicos Tracers: the use of chemical agents for hydrological, environmental, petrochemical and biological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láuris Lucia da Silva


    Full Text Available This paper presents a revision of the history, definitions, and classification of tracers (natural and artificial, internal and external. The fundamental ideas concerning tracers are described, followed by their application illustrated by typical examples. The advantages and disadvantages of five classes among the most frequently used external tracers (fluorescent, microbial, chemical, radioactive and activable isotopes are also described in detail. This review also presents some interesting and modern applications of tracers in the areas of diagnostics in medical practice, environmental pollution, hydrology and petroleum chemistry.

  17. Tracer-based prediction of thermal reservoir lifetime: scope, limitations, and the role of thermosensitive tracers (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M.


    Thermal-lifetime prediction is a traditional endeavour of inter-well tracer tests conducted in geothermal reservoirs. Early tracer test signals (detectable within the first few years of operation) are expected to correlate with late-time production temperature evolutions ('thermal breakthrough', supposed to not occur before some decades of operation) of a geothermal reservoir. Whenever a geothermal reservoir can be described as a single-fracture system, its thermal lifetime will, ideally, be determined by two parameters (say, fracture aperture and porosity), whose inversion from conservative-tracer test signals is straightforward and non-ambiguous (provided that the tracer tests, and their interpretation, are performed in accordance to the rules of the art). However, as soon as only 'few more' fractures are considered, this clear-cut correlation is broken. A given geothermal reservoir can simultaneously feature a single-fracture behaviour, in terms of heat transport, and a multiple-fracture behaviour, in terms of solute tracer transport (or vice-versa), whose effective values of fracture apertures, spacings, and porosities are essentially uncorrelated between heat and solute tracers. Solute transport parameters derived from conservative-tracer tests will no longer characterize the heat transport processes (and thus temperature evolutions) taking place in the same reservoir. Parameters determining its thermal lifetime will remain 'invisible' to conservative tracers in inter-well tests. We demonstrate this issue at the example of a five-fracture system, representing a deep-geothermal reservoir, with well-doublet placement inducing fluid flow 'obliquely' to the fractures. Thermal breakthrough in this system is found to strongly depend on fracture apertures, whereas conservative-solute tracer signals from inter-well tests in the same system do not show a clear-cut correlation with fracture apertures. Only by using thermosensitive substances as tracers, a reliable

  18. The data analysis of the single well injection-withdraw tracer experiment using the MACRO II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Toshihiko [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, Yasuo [Inspection Development Company, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hatanaka, Koichiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works


    On understanding the radionuclide transport in natural barrier in radioactive waste isolation research, the macroscopic dispersion in heterogeneous permeability field in the underground rock is regarded as an important process. Therefore, we have conducted lots of tracer experiments by the MACRO II facility with an artificially constructed heterogeneous permeability field. In order to study the scale dependence of dispersion coefficients in case of laboratory experiments, we placed the flow cell horizontally, and conducted injection-withdraw tracer experiment with a single well. We have conducted 15 cases experiments. These cases were prepared by changing a position of single well and the injection-withdraw time. At each position we have conducted 9 cases and 6 cases experiments. In this report, we evaluated the macroscopic dispersion coefficients by the fitting of analytical solution to breakthrough curve measured by the 15 cases pumping tracer experiment. Consequently, we could evaluate the dispersion coefficients for 12 cases of 15 cases. Then, we discussed the relation between a injection-withdraw flow rate and a property of heterogeneous media and dispersion coefficient. The conclusions obtained from the results of the evaluation are summarized as follows, It was found that the macroscopic dispersion coefficients tend to be increased with increase of the average radius of tracer front spread around a single well. We have conducted any experiments with s single well settled at two positions. In case of that there is low permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are large. In case of that there is high permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are small. In three cases that we could not evaluate because of incorrect accuracy of fitting, we have found it possible that there is some points that dispersion coefficients were strikingly small in tracer front. (author)

  19. Tracer tomography: design concepts and field experiments using heat as a tracer. (United States)

    Doro, Kennedy O; Cirpka, Olaf A; Leven, Carsten


    Numerical and laboratory studies have provided evidence that combining hydraulic tomography with tomographic tracer tests could improve the estimation of hydraulic conductivity compared with using hydraulic data alone. Field demonstrations, however, have been lacking so far, which we attribute to experimental difficulties. In this study, we present a conceptual design and experimental applications of tracer tomography at the field scale using heat as a tracer. In our experimental design, we improve active heat tracer testing by minimizing possible effects of heat losses, buoyancy, viscosity, and changing boundary conditions. We also utilize a cost-effective approach of measuring temperature changes in situ at high resolution. We apply the presented method to the 8 m thick heterogeneous, sandy gravel, alluvial aquifer at the Lauswiesen Hydrogeological Research Site in Tübingen, Germany. Results of our tomographic heat-tracer experiments are in line with earlier work on characterizing the aquifer at the test site. We demonstrate from the experimental perspective that tracer tomography is applicable and suitable at the field scale using heat as a tracer. The experimental results also demonstrate the potential of heat-tracer tomography as a cost-effective means for characterizing aquifer heterogeneity. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Radioactive decay data tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.


    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  1. Synthesis of Derivatives of Biogenic Amines Labelled with Radioactive Tracers for Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo A. Vitale


    Full Text Available Endogenous derivatives of biogenic amines, such as phenethylamines, indolalkylamines and harmines, have been extensively studied as usual constituents of body fluids. Methylated derivatives of indolalkylamines have been also related to mental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia and hallucination.

  2. Study of the movement of materials in rotary kilns with aid of radioactive tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasland, G.


    Full Text Available Not availableEl cemento portland se compone, esencialmente, de silicatos cálcicos. Se obtiene por cocción en un horno rotativo de una mezcla apropiada de caliza y arcilla. Las temperaturas alcanzadas en el curso de esta operación son del orden de 1.500 °C. Por esta razón, la marcha de los materiales en el horno se hace difícilmente accesible a los métodos habituales de experimentación; no se puede apenas más que observar el resultado final, o, por medidas indirectas, tratar de dar unas explicaciones más o menos convincentes. Los trazadores radiactivos permiten paliar esta laguna; es lo que precisamente se ha hecho en las experiencias que señalaremos a continuación, realizadas hace tiempo ya por M. Rabot en colaboración con el C.E.A.


    Turner, P. R.


    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  4. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito


    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies.

  5. Burial effects on bedload tracer transport (United States)

    Wu, Zi; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Parker, Gary; Singh, Arvind; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian


    The gradual burial of tracer particles during bedload transport is a recently identified physical source of super-diffusion. It remains unclear, however how exactly this burial effect is related to the possible regimes of anomalous diffusion. In this paper we incorporate the mechanism of tracer burial into the active layer formulation for bedload transport, enabling an analytical treatment of the problem. The deduced equation governing the active layer is shown to be an advection-diffusion equation (ADE) with a sink term, and the increase of tracer concentration in the substrate layer underneath is driven by a corresponding source term which corresponds precisely to the sink term of the active layer. The solution for the variance of the tracer plume is analytically determined by calculating the relevant concentration moments based on the solved concentration distribution. It is shown that when substrate burial is accounted for, there will generally be a normal diffusion regime at very short time scales and a sub-diffusion regime at very large time scales. The appearance and characteristics of a super-diffusion regime during intermediate time scales will depend on relations among particle diffusion coefficient, burial frequency, and the virtual streamwise velocity for the tracer plume. This is in contrast to the single normal diffusion regime obtained for bedload transport when the burial process is not considered.

  6. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.


    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.


    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  8. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  9. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  10. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 2. Tracer tests in the block scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)


    The tracer test programme of the TRUE Block Scale Project involved 14 tracer tests campaigns, including performance of 32 tracer injections in 16 different combinations of source and sink sections (flow paths) varying in length between 10 to 130 metres, and involving one or more structures. Average, travel times varied between 1.5 and >2000 hours. Tracer dilution tests performed in conjunction with cross-hole hydraulic pumping tests were found to be a very important part of the pre-tests, where the results were used to identify and screen among possible injection points, and to verify the hydrostructural model valid at a given time. The main problem faced in the block scale tests was to select a test geometry, which gave a sufficiently high mass recovery, and at the same time enabled performance of cross-hole sorbing tracer tests within reasonable time frames. Three different injection methods were applied during the test programme; decaying pulse, finite pulse and forced pulse (unequal dipole). During the later phases of the tracer test programme it was identified that forced injection had to be employed in order to enable detection of tracer at the sink due to strong dilution, and also to avoid problems with artificially induced tailing in the injection signal. Sorbing (reactive) tracers were selected among the radioactive isotopes of the alkali and alkaline earth metals previously used in the TRUE- 1 experiments. It was decided that at least one slightly sorbing tracer and one strongly sorbing tracer should be used in each injection. Non-sorbing tracers were used for conservative reference, e.g., {sup 82}Br{sup -}, {sup 186}ReO{sub 4}, HTO (tritiated water) and {sup 131}I{sup -}. In two of the injections the radioactive non-sorbing tracers were rather short-lived and Uranine and Naphthionate were used as complementary conservative tracers. Surface distribution coefficients, K{sub a}, were evaluated from TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale data, making use of the

  11. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi


    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  12. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.


    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  13. The influence of polysorbate 80 on the radiochemical synthesis of a PET tracer in the FASTlab. (United States)

    Yip, Wai Lam; Sande, Sverre Arne; Grace, David; in't Veld, Dirk Jan; Sontum, Per Christian; Solvang, Tina; Dyrstad, Knut


    The aim of current study was to investigate the influence of a common non-ionic surfactant, polysorbate 80 (PS80), on radioactive labelling process of a novel PET tracer, [(18)F]Flutemetamol. Ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay, in addition to UV/VIS and (1)H NMR spectroscopies were applied to characterise the composition of the PS80 solution after storage. Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) and PLS analysis was used to establish correlation between quality of the PS80 solution and the RCP obtained after labelling. The levels of unsaturated fatty acid moieties of PS80 were negatively correlated to RCP of [(18)F]Flutemetamol after synthesis. This explains the slight increase in RCP when stored PS80 solutions were applied in the synthesis. The mechanism behind this observation is suggested to be related to radiation induced radical formation in the unsaturated fatty acids, which subsequently causes instability of the PET tracer. UV/VIS spectroscopy was demonstrated to have the ability as a possible control tool for quality assurance of the studied radioactive labelling process. The presence of unsaturated fatty acid moieties in PS80 was found to be one of the most important factors responsible for the reduction in RCP of [(18)F]Flutemetamol after synthesis.

  14. In vitro studies. Contribution of radioactive marking to molecular biology development; Etudes in vitro. La contribution du marquage radioactif a l`essor de la biologie moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentenac, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences du Vivant


    The spectacular and rapid development of molecular biology is essentially related to the utilization of marked molecules which leads to quantitative and qualitative information; the use of radioactive tracers allowed for the observation of the biosynthesis of biological polymers, and thus, for example, the formation of DNA, RNA or proteins. A historical review of the great discoveries in this field, is presented


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mufadhol


    Full Text Available Perkembangan jaringan komputer saat ini begitu pesat, monitoring jaringan komputer akan menjadi suatu hal yang sulit dan rumit. Koneksi jaringan komputer merupakan suatu hal yang mendasar dalam suatu jaringan, karena bila koneksi itu bermasalah maka semua jenis aplikasi yang dijalankan melalui jaringan komputer tidak dapat digunakan. Cisco packet tracer dapat digunakan untuk simulasi yang mencerminkan arsitektur dan juga model dari jaringan komputer pada sistem jaringan yang digunakan. Dengan menggunakan aplikasi cisco packet tracer, simulasi mengenai jaringan dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi informasi tentang keadaan koneksi komputer dalam suatu jaringan.

  16. Preclinical validation of (111)In-girentuximab-F(ab')2 as a tracer to image hypoxia related marker CAIX expression in head and neck cancer xenografts. (United States)

    Huizing, Fokko J; Hoeben, Bianca A W; Franssen, Gerben; Lok, Jasper; Heskamp, Sandra; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Boerman, Otto C; Bussink, Johan


    Hypoxia is a major cause of radio- and chemoresistance. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an endogenous hypoxia-related marker and an important prognostic marker. Assessment of CAIX expression may allow patient selection for hypoxia or CAIX-targeted treatment. The radioactive tracer (111)In-girentuximab-F(ab')2 targets CAIX and can be used for SPECT imaging. Aim of this study was to validate and optimize (111)In-girentuximab-F(ab')2 for imaging of CAIX expression in head and neck tumor xenografts. Affinity and internalization kinetics of (111)In-girentuximab-F(ab')2 were determined in vitro using CAIX-expressing SK-RC-52 cells. Tumor targeting characteristics were determined in athymic mice with six different head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCNij) xenografts. Tracer uptake was measured by ex vivo radioactivity counting. Intratumoral distribution of tracer uptake was measured using autoradiography and CAIX expression was determined immunohistochemically. 26% of the tracer was internalized into the SK-RC-52 cells within 24h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.69±0.08nM. In biodistribution studies SCCNij153 tumors showed the highest tracer uptake: 4.1±0.8ID/g at 24h p.i. Immunohistochemical and autoradiographic analyses of the xenografts showed a distinct spatial correlation between localization of the tracer and CAIX expression. (111)In-girentuximab-F(ab')2 has a high affinity for CAIX. In vivo tumor uptake correlated strongly with CAIX expression in different head and neck xenografts. These results suggest that (111)In-girentuximab-F(ab')2 is a promising tracer for imaging of hypoxia-related CAIX expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethylflumazenil: a novel tracer for PET imaging of human benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruender, G.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C.; Vernaleken, I.; Lueddens, H. [Dept. of Psychiatry, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Siessmeier, T.; Buchholz, H.-G.; Bartenstein, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Stoeter, P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Drzezga, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technical University of Munich (Germany); Roesch, F. [Inst. for Nuclear Chemistry, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)


    5-(2'-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)flumazenil ([{sup 18}F]FEF) is a fluorine-18 labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for central benzodiazepine receptors. Compared with the established [{sup 11}C]flumazenil, it has the advantage of the longer half-life of the fluorine-18 label. After optimisation of its synthesis and determination of its in vitro receptor affinities, we performed first PET studies in humans. PET studies in seven healthy human volunteers were performed on a Siemens ECAT EXACT whole-body scanner after injection of 100-280 MBq [{sup 18}F]FEF. In two subjects, a second PET scan was conducted after pretreatment with unlabelled flumazenil (1 mg or 2.5 mg i.v., 3 min before tracer injection). A third subject was studied both with [{sup 18}F]FEF and with [{sup 11}C]flumazenil. Brain radioactivity was measured for 60-90 min p.i. and analysed with a region of interest-oriented approach and on a voxelwise basis with spectral analysis. Plasma radioactivity was determined from arterial blood samples and metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In human brain, maximum radioactivity accumulation was observed 4{+-}2 min p.i., with a fast clearance kinetics resulting in 50% and 20% of maximal activities at about 10 and 30 min, respectively. [{sup 18}F]FEF uptake followed the known central benzodiazepine receptor distribution in the human brain (occipital cortex >temporal cortex >cerebellum >thalamus >pons). Pretreatment with unlabelled flumazenil resulted in reduced tracer uptake in all brain areas except for receptor-free reference regions like the pons. Parametric images of distribution volume and binding potential generated on a voxelwise basis revealed two- to three-fold lower in vivo receptor binding of [{sup 18}F]FEF compared with [{sup 11}C]flumazenil, while relative uptake of [{sup 18}F]FEF was higher in the cerebellum, most likely owing to its relatively higher affinity for benzodiazepine receptors containing the

  18. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.


    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.


    A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

  20. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With 18F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers


    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J


    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer 62Cu – PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu — ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging 18F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary trac...

  1. First preclinical evaluation of mono-[{sup 123}I]iodohypericin as a necrosis-avid tracer agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng; Marchal, Guy [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Huyghe, Dieter; Verbeke, Kristin; Verbruggen, Alfons M.; Bormans, Guy M. [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Witte, Peter A. de [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)


    We have labelled hypericin, a polyphenolic polycyclic quinone found in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), with{sup 123}I and evaluated mono-[{sup 123}I]iodohypericin (MIH) as a potential necrosis-avid diagnostic tracer agent. MIH was prepared by an electrophilic radioiodination method. The new tracer agent was evaluated in animal models of liver infarction in the rat and heart infarction in the rabbit using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining, serial sectional autoradiography and microscopy, and radioactivity counting techniques. Using in vivo SPECT imaging, hepatic and cardiac infarctions were persistently visualised as well-defined hot spots over 48 h. Preferential uptake of the tracer agent in necrotic tissue was confirmed by perfect match of images from post-mortem TTC staining, autoradiography (ARX) and histology. Radioactivity concentration in infarcted tissues was over 10 times (liver; 3.51% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.38% ID/g in normal tissue at 60 h p.i.) and over 6 times (myocardium; 0.36% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.054% ID/g in normal tissue; ratios up to 18 for selected parts on ARX images) higher than in normal tissues. The results suggest that hypericin derivatives may serve as powerful necrosis-avid diagnostic agents for assessment of tissue viability. (orig.)

  2. GPR Phase Response to Fracture Saline Tracers (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Becker, M.


    Flow in fractured rock is highly heterogeneous and difficult to predict. Groundwater, geothermal and hydrocarbon resource development requires knowledge of fracture fluid flow properties. Geophysical methods such as seismic, electrical and electromagnetic, have been used to image fracture systems. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to image fractures and monitor saline tracers in groundwater aquifers. Previous studies have considered primarily the amplitude response of GPR signals. In this work we examine the phase response of GPR in a series of controlled field experiments spanning over a decade. We compare field observations to analytical models and FDTD numerical simulations of the phase response of GPR signals to saline tracers in fractures. We show that changes in the electrical conductivity of fracture fluid cause predictable and detectable phase changes in reflected and transmitted GPR signals through fractures. Lower frequency signals (MHz range) show greater sensitivity to fluid electrical conductivity changes, while being relatively insensitive to fracture aperture. Phase changes over time (time lapse) are used to image channeled flow through discrete fractures and to monitor tracer breakthrough. Although GPR is used extensively in near-surface groundwater investigations, deployment in boreholes can allow adaptation of the technology to monitor saline tracers in hydrocarbon and geothermal systems.

  3. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian


    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  4. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie


    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  5. Fractal tracer distributions in turbulent field theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. Lundbek; Bohr, Tomas


    We study the motion of passive tracers in a two-dimensional turbulent velocity field generated by the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. By varying the direction of the velocity-vector with respect to the field-gradient we can continuously vary the two Lyapunov exponents for the particle motion and t...

  6. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water (United States)

    Wörman, A.


    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  7. Optimization of detector positioning in the radioactive particle tracking technique. (United States)

    Dubé, Olivier; Dubé, David; Chaouki, Jamal; Bertrand, François


    The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique is a non-intrusive experimental velocimetry and tomography technique extensively applied to the study of hydrodynamics in a great variety of systems. In this technique, arrays of scintillation detector are used to track the motion of a single radioactive tracer particle emitting isotropic γ-rays. This work describes and applies an optimization strategy developed to find an optimal set of positions for the scintillation detectors used in the RPT technique. This strategy employs the overall resolution of the detectors as the objective function and a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithm to solve the optimization problem. More precisely, NOMAD, a C++ implementation of the MADS algorithm is used. First, the optimization strategy is validated using simple cases with known optimal detector configurations. Next, it is applied to a three-dimensional axisymmetric system (i.e. a vertical cylinder, which could represent a fluidized bed, bubble column, riser or else). The results obtained using the optimization strategy are in agreement with what was previously recommended by Roy et al. (2002) for a similar system. Finally, the optimization strategy is used for a system consisting of a partially filled cylindrical tumbler. The application of insights gained by the optimization strategy is shown to lead to a significant reduction in the error made when reconstructing the position of a tracer particle. The results of this work show that the optimization strategy developed is sensitive to both the type of objective function used and the experimental conditions. The limitations and drawbacks of the optimization strategy are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna


    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  9. The Joint Commission Ever-Readiness: Understanding Tracer Methodology. (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina


    The Joint Commission (TJC) evaluates the consistent provision of appropriate and safe access to health care, treatment, and services. Currently, TJC uses the tracer methodology to assess standards compliance and follows a number of patients through an organization's entire health care delivery process. The tracer methodology uses 3 different types of tracers as follows: individual or patient tracers, program-specific, and system tracers, to identify performance issues in one or more steps of the care process or at interfaces between them. This review article describes the different types of tracers used by TJC and provides examples of each tracer in radiology; it outlines how to achieve TJC ever-readiness with the use of mock tracers and provides practical suggestions on how to ensure staff engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laplace transform in tracer kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Eliete B., E-mail: [Instituto do Cerebro (InsCer/FAMAT/PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS, (Brazil). Faculdade de Matematica


    The main objective this paper is to quantify the pharmacokinetic processes: absorption, distribution and elimination of radiopharmaceutical(tracer), using Laplace transform method. When the drug is administered intravenously absorption is complete and is available in the bloodstream to be distributed throughout the whole body in all tissues and fluids, and to be eliminated. Mathematical modeling seeks to describe the processes of distribution and elimination through compartments, where distinct pools of tracer (spatial location or chemical state) are assigned to different compartments. A compartment model is described by a system of differential equations, where each equation represents the sum of all the transfer rates to and from a specific compartment. In this work a two-tissue irreversible compartment model is used for description of tracer, [{sup 18}F]2-fluor-2deoxy-D-glucose. In order to determine the parameters of the model, it is necessary to have information about the tracer delivery in the form of an input function representing the time-course of tracer concentration in arterial blood or plasma. We estimate the arterial input function in two stages and apply the Levenberg-Marquardt Method to solve nonlinear regressions. The transport of FDG across de arterial blood is very fast in the first ten minutes and then decreases slowly. We use de Heaviside function to represent this situation and this is the main contribution of this study. We apply the Laplace transform and the analytical solution for two-tissue irreversible compartment model is obtained. The only approach is to determinate de arterial input function. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report simonizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples : Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2003 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  12. [The clinical value of sentinel lymph node detection in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients with clinically negative neck by methylene blue method and radiolabeled tracer method]. (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Dajiang; Ni, Jianming; Zhu, Guochen; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yongsheng


    To investigate the clinical value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients with clinically negative neck (cN0) by methylene blue method, radiolabeled tracer method and combination of these two methods. Thirty-three patients with cN0 laryngeal carcinoma and six patients with cN0 hypopharyngeal carcinoma underwent SLN detection using both of methylene blue and radiolabeled tracer method. All these patients were accepted received the injection of radioactive isotope 99 Tc(m)-sulfur colloid (SC) and methylene blue into the carcinoma before surgery, then all these patients underwent intraopertive lymphatic mapping with a handheld gamma-detecting probe and blue-dyed SLN. After the mapping of SLN, selected neck dissections and tumor resections were peformed. The results of SLN detection by radiolabeled tracer, dye and combination of both methods were compared. The detection rate of SLN by radiolabeled tracer, methylene blue and combined method were 89.7%, 79.5%, 92.3% respectively. The number of detected SLN was significantly different between radiolabeled tracer method and combined method, and also between methylene blue method and combined method. The detection rate of methylene blue and radiolabeled tracer method were significantly different from combined method (P methylene blue can improve the detection rate and accuracy of sentinel lymph node detection. Furthermore, sentinel lymph node detection can accurately represent the cervical lymph node status in cN0 laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

  13. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [{sup 76}Br]bromide in PET study with [{sup 76}Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats E-mail:; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt


    [{sup 76}Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([{sup 76}Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [{sup 76}Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [{sup 76}Br]bromide. [{sup 76}Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better {sup 76}Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [{sup 76}Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [{sup 76}Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [{sup 76}Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET.

  14. Comparison of the image-derived radioactivity and blood-sample radioactivity for estimating the clinical indicators of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) PET study. (United States)

    Isohashi, Kayako; Shimosegawa, Eku; Naka, Sadahiro; Kanai, Yasukazu; Horitsugi, Genki; Mochida, Ikuko; Matsunaga, Keiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Kato, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hatazawa, Jun


    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) is the only method to estimate an accumulation of 10B to target tumor and surrounding normal tissue after administering 10B carrier of L-paraboronophenylalanine and to search the indication of BNCT for individual patient. Absolute concentration of 10B in tumor has been estimated by multiplying 10B concentration in blood during BNCT by tumor to blood radioactivity (T/B) ratio derived from FBPA PET. However, the method to measure blood radioactivity either by blood sampling or image data has not been standardized. We compared image-derived blood radioactivity of FBPA with blood sampling data and studied appropriate timing and location for measuring image-derived blood counts. We obtained 7 repeated whole-body PET scans in five healthy subjects. Arterialized venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, heated in a heating blanket. Time-activity curves (TACs) of image-derived blood radioactivity were obtained using volumes of interest (VOIs) over ascending aorta, aortic arch, pulmonary artery, left and right ventricles, inferior vena cava, and abdominal aorta. Image-derived blood radioactivity was compared with those measured by blood sampling data in each location. Both the TACs of blood sampling radioactivity in each subject, and the TACs of image-derived blood radioactivity showed a peak within 5 min after the tracer injection, and promptly decreased soon thereafter. Linear relationship was found between blood sampling radioactivity and image-derived blood radioactivity in all the VOIs at any timing of data sampling (p < 0.001). Image-derived radioactivity measured in the left and right ventricles 30 min after injection showed high correlation with blood radioactivity. Image-derived blood radioactivity was lower than blood sampling radioactivity data by 20 %. Reduction of blood radioactivity of FBPA in left ventricle

  15. Salt tracer experiments in wetland ponds: will density stratification spoil the outcome? (United States)

    Schmid, Bernhard H.; Hengl, Michael A.


    Wetland ponds are among the treatment options for peatland flows prior to their discharge into a receiving ambient water course or water body. The removal efficiency and effectiveness of wetland ponds (free water surface or FWS wetlands) is considered to be strongly related to the residence time or travel time distribution in the pond, with a narrow distribution (close to plug flow) being preferable to a wider one. This travel time distribution is, in turn, reflected by a breakthrough curve of an ideal tracer injected instantaneously into the flow (entering the wetland). As the term 'ideal tracer' suggests, such a substance, in real world cases, does not exist and can, at best, be approximated by a real tracer. Among the tracer groups in most widespread use, salt has the advantage of low cost, straightforward detection and analysis as well as low related environmental risk. In contrast, use of radioactive artificial tracers may meet with resistance from authorities and public, and fluorescent dyes are not necessarily devoid of problems, either (as recently discovered, there are two structural isomers of Rhodamin WT, the mixture of which may compromise the validity of breakthrough data analyses). From previous work by the authors it is known that density stratification may result from the injection of a salt tracer into a low Reynolds number free surface flow, which is a frequent characteristic of wetland ponds. As the formation of density layers in the course of a tracer experiment is highly undesirable, it may be useful to judge prior to beginning of the field work, if stratification is to be expected (and the experimental design should, consequently, be adapted suitably). The current work reported here employs an energy argument to extend existing criteria for density stratification in turbulent free surface flows. Vertical mixing is assumed to be sustained by a fraction of the frictional energy loss (expressed by Manning's law, but this can easily be adapted to

  16. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S. [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.

  17. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.


    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  18. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations. (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M


    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  19. Evaluation of (68)Ga-labeled peptide tracer for detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction in rat. (United States)

    Kiugel, Max; Kytö, Ville; Saanijoki, Tiina; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Metsälä, Olli; Ståhle, Mia; Tuomela, Johanna; Li, Xiang-Guo; Saukko, Pekka; Knuuti, Juhani; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti


    Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling after an ischemic myocardial injury. We evaluated (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 for the detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. Rats were injected with 43 ± 7.7 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 at 7 days (n = 7) or 4 weeks (n = 8) after permanent coronary ligation or sham operation (n = 5 at both time points) followed by positron emission tomography (PET). The left ventricle was cut in frozen sections for autoradiography and immunohistochemistry 30 minutes after tracer injection. Immunohistochemical staining showed MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressing cells, CD31-positive endothelial cells, and CD68-positive macrophages in the infarcted myocardium. Autoradiography showed increased tracer uptake in the infarcted area both at 7 days and 4 weeks after MI (MI-to-remote area ratio 2.5 ± 0.46 and 3.1 ± 1.0, respectively). Tracer uptake in damaged tissue correlated with the amount of CD68-positive macrophages at 7 days after MI, and CD31-positive endothelial cells at 7 days and 4 weeks after MI. The tracer was rapidly metabolized, radioactivity in the blood exceeded that of the myocardium, and tracer accumulation in the heart was not detectable by in vivo PET. (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 accumulates in the damaged rat myocardium after an ischemic injury, but tracer instability and slow clearance in vivo make it unsuitable for further evaluation.

  20. {sup 18}F-labelled annexin V: a PET tracer for apoptosis imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro; Tatsumi, Mitsuyoshi; Ichise, Rikiya; Nishimura, Shintaro [The Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Wo32, 925-0613, Inoyama, Hakui, Ishikawa (Japan); Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Noda, Akihiro [The Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Wo32, 925-0613, Inoyama, Hakui, Ishikawa (Japan); Department of Biotracer Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, 13-1 Takara-machi, 920-0934, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Taki, Junichi [Department of Biotracer Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, 13-1 Takara-machi, 920-0934, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Tait, Jonathan F. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medicine (Medical Genetics) and Pathology, University of Washington, 98195-07110, Seattle, Washington (United States)


    Annexin V can be used to detect apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo, based on its ability to identify extracellular phosphatidylserine, which arises during apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the synthesis of fluorine-18 labelled annexin V as a positron emission tomography tracer for apoptosis imaging. The distribution of [{sup 18}F]annexin V and technetium-99m labelled annexin V, a well-characterised SPET tracer for apoptosis imaging, was compared. [{sup 18}F]annexin V was synthesised using N-succinimidyl 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate as an {sup 18}F labelling reagent. Synthesised and purified [{sup 18}F]annexin V was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In an ex vivo imaging experiment, [{sup 18}F]annexin V was intravenously injected into rats 24 h after the induction of myocardial ischaemia, and accumulation in the left ventricle was examined. [{sup 18}F]annexin V accumulated in the infarct area of the left ventricle, where apoptotic cells were observed. In separate experiments, [{sup 18}F]annexin V or [{sup 99m}Tc]annexin V was intravenously injected into ischaemic or normal animals, and the distribution of the tracers was compared. In ischaemic animals, accumulation of [{sup 18}F]annexin V and [{sup 99m}Tc]annexin V in the infarct area was about threefold higher than in the non-infarct area. Furthermore, the ratio of accumulation in the normal heart to the blood radioactivity was not significantly different between the tracers. In normal animals, however, the uptake of [{sup 18}F]annexin V in the liver, spleen and kidney was much lower than that of [{sup 99m}Tc]annexin V. The low uptake of [{sup 18}F]annexin V in these organs might represent an advantage over [{sup 99m}Tc]annexin V. (orig.)

  1. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive Solute and Colloid Transport in Layered Fractured Media (United States)

    Moridis, G. J.


    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive solutes or colloids through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion (molecular or colloidal), (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical or combined sorption (for solutes) or filtration (for colloids), and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of daughter products of radioactive decay (or of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for pore size exclusion (straining) and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time, and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions of limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of H-3, Np-237 and Pu-239 (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems. Test problems of transport of Pu-239 colloids in multi-layered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly-sorbing solute species.

  2. Use of indium and rare-earths activable tracers for the evaluation of the hydraulic performance of wastewater treatment units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Gilmara Lucia Souza; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Pinto, Amenonia Maria Ferreira; Moreira, Rubens Martins, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Lauris Lucia da, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DQ/UFMG), Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Efforts aimed at going deeper into the understanding of the purification processes of contaminated waters and at the optimization of both the technological and economic performance of such processes have been developed following the introduction of innovative wastewater treatment processes. Among the several wastewater depuration processes, this study focuses physical aspects of systems known as artificial wetlands and a special version of the anaerobic biological reactor. This biological reactor is of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) type, which is increasingly being utilized for the processing of urban wastewater. However, its effluent eventually needs some polishing to be performed at an artificial wetland stage. The hydrodynamic performances of both a special version of the UASB and a vegetated wetland have been studied using the tracer methodology, based on the impulse response of these systems. Both radioactive and activable tracers have been employed and had their information analyzed by appropriate software. Comments are presented on the advantages of the activable tracers. The results thus obtained have demonstrated the potential of the application of activable tracers in the experimental research of either natural or artificial hydraulic systems. (author)

  3. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong


    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  4. Hybrid dynamic radioactive particle tracking (RPT) calibration technique for multiphase flow systems (United States)

    Khane, Vaibhav; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.


    The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique has been utilized to measure three-dimensional hydrodynamic parameters for multiphase flow systems. An analytical solution to the inverse problem of the RPT technique, i.e. finding the instantaneous tracer positions based upon instantaneous counts received in the detectors, is not possible. Therefore, a calibration to obtain a counts-distance map is needed. There are major shortcomings in the conventional RPT calibration method due to which it has limited applicability in practical applications. In this work, the design and development of a novel dynamic RPT calibration technique are carried out to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional RPT calibration method. The dynamic RPT calibration technique has been implemented around a test reactor with 1foot in diameter and 1 foot in height using Cobalt-60 as an isotopes tracer particle. Two sets of experiments have been carried out to test the capability of novel dynamic RPT calibration. In the first set of experiments, a manual calibration apparatus has been used to hold a tracer particle at known static locations. In the second set of experiments, the tracer particle was moved vertically downwards along a straight line path in a controlled manner. The obtained reconstruction results about the tracer particle position were compared with the actual known position and the reconstruction errors were estimated. The obtained results revealed that the dynamic RPT calibration technique is capable of identifying tracer particle positions with a reconstruction error between 1 to 5.9 mm for the conditions studied which could be improved depending on various factors outlined here.

  5. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M


    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  6. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Fission theory is used to explain α decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission. (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other mod- els, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few ...

  7. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 4, 2015 ... Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a ...

  8. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R


    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  9. High-Level Radioactive Waste. (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.


    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  10. Sensor integration in radioactive environments (United States)

    Harfensteller, Mark; Schilp, Michael; Eursch, Andreas; Zaeh, Michael F.


    Radioactive material of high activity levels has to be handled in a nuclear medicine environment. Until now most of these activities are done manually or by rudimentally automated processes. To increase radiation safety and process quality, smart automation strategies for these processes have to be developed. Especially long-term processes with radioactive materials have to be automated in early stages of development. This leads to a certain flexibility regarding requirements demanding an adjustable automation concept. The application of radiation hardened sensors is expensive but even these sensors will be destroyed by radiation effects. To allow therefore standard sensors to be used in radioactive environments, different strategies have been tested: In general, the sensors must be applied in a way to allow an easy access to sensors for replacement purposes. But this approach might not be sophisticated. An additional solution is the reduction of exposure of sensitive parts such as electronics. This means dividing the sensor in a measuring part which is placed in the radioactive environment and in a sensitive, shielded control part as it is realized by fibre optic sensors. The implementation of these approaches is demonstrated in sensor applications for radium handling systems e. g. contactless control of the needle clearance of a dispensing system via a fibre optic sensor. Further scenarios for sensor integration problems are presented in this paper.

  11. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography (United States)

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic


    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  12. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas


    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... for the perfect neuroendocrine tumor imaging tracer. (68)Ga-labeled tracers coupled to synthetic somatostatin analogs with differences in affinity for the five somatostatin receptor subtypes are now widely applied in Europe. Comparison of sensitivity between the most used tracers - (68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide...

  13. Radium and radon tracers in aquatic systems (United States)

    Moran, S. B.


    Fourth International Ra-Rn Workshop;Narragansett, Rhode Island, 3-8 June 2012 Radium (Ra) and radon (Rn) are widely recognized as important geochemical tracers in the estimation of dispersion in aquatic environments, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean, water mass residence times, and air-sea and water- sediment exchange. More than 50 scientists, including graduate students and early- career scientists from 10 countries, recently participated in a workshop on Ra and Rn in Narragansett, R. I. The workshop was hosted by the University of Rhode Island and sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program, ORTEC, Eichrom, and Durridge Company. The workshop provided a forum for presentations and open discussions regarding the latest developments and new directions in the application and measurement of isotopes 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 222Rn, as well as models used in the application of these tracers to a range of environmental problems.



    Thelma L. Ramirez; Leonardo T. Cruz,; Nida V. Alcantara


    This paper aimed to determine if the field of specialization in the different colleges of RTU graduates and their academic-acquired skills and competencies are related to their present occupations. A modified Graduate Tracer Study (GTS) instrument was utilized to gather the quantitative data. Out of 500 questionnaires administered, there were 250 graduates returned answered questionnaires representing the three Colleges: Education, Arts and Sciences, Business and Entrepreneuria...

  15. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  16. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave


    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  17. The ATLAS DDM Tracer monitoring framework (United States)

    Zang, Dongsong; Garonne, Vincent; Barisits, Martin; Lassnig, Mario; Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Molfetas, Angelos; Beermann, Thomas


    The DDM Tracer monitoring framework is aimed to trace and monitor the ATLAS file operations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The volume of traces has increased significantly since the framework was put in production in 2009. Now there are about 5 million trace messages every day and peaks can be near 250Hz, with peak rates continuing to climb, which gives the current structure a big challenge. Analysis of large datasets based on on-demand queries to the relational database management system (RDBMS), i.e. Oracle, can be problematic, and have a significant effect on the database's performance. Consequently, We have investigated some new high availability technologies like messaging infrastructure, specifically ActiveMQ, and key-value stores. The advantages of key value store technology are that they are distributed and have high scalability; also their write performances are usually much better than RDBMS, all of which are very useful for the Tracer monitoring framework. Indexes and distributed counters have been also tested to improve query performance and provided almost real time results. In this paper, the design principles, architecture and main characteristics of Tracer monitoring framework will be described and examples of its usage will be presented.

  18. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless the...

  19. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  20. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ... (United States)


    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  1. Feasibility of Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Tracer Imaging in Sentinel Node Biopsy for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Juhl, Karina; Charabi, Birgitte


    be identified in vivo using NIRF imaging, and the majority of those were located in level 1 close to the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: A combined fluorescent and radioactive tracer for SNB is feasible, and the additional use of NIRF imaging may improve the accuracy of SN identification in oral cancer patients......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is an established method in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for staging the cN0 neck and to select patients who will benefit from a neck dissection. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging has the potential to improve the SNB procedure by facilitating...

  2. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R


    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  3. Modeling surf zone tracer plumes: 2. Transport and dispersion (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Feddersen, Falk; Guza, R. T.


    Five surf zone dye tracer releases from the HB06 experiment are simulated with a tracer advection diffusion model coupled to a Boussinesq surf zone model (funwaveC). Model tracer is transported and stirred by currents and eddies and diffused with a breaking wave eddy diffusivity, set equal to the breaking wave eddy viscosity, and a small (0.01 m2 s-1) background diffusivity. Observed and modeled alongshore parallel tracer plumes, transported by the wave driven alongshore current, have qualitatively similar cross-shore structures. Although the model skill for mean tracer concentration is variable (from negative to 0.73) depending upon release, cross-shore integrated tracer moments (normalized by the cross-shore tracer integral) have consistently high skills (≈0.9). Modeled and observed bulk surf zone cross-shore diffusivity estimates are also similar, with 0.72 squared correlation and skill of 0.4. Similar to the observations, the model bulk (absolute) cross-shore diffusivity is consistent with a mixing length parameterization based on low-frequency (0.001-0.03 Hz) eddies. The model absolute cross-shore dispersion is dominated by stirring from surf zone eddies and does not depend upon the presence of the breaking wave eddy diffusivity. Given only the bathymetry and incident wave field, the coupled Boussinesq-tracer model qualitatively reproduces the observed cross-shore absolute tracer dispersion, suggesting that the model can be used to study surf zone tracer dispersion mechanisms.

  4. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A


    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  5. Radioactive Decays in Geant4 (United States)

    Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Lang, Philipp M.; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas


    The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new package, RDM-extended, and that of the existing Geant4 per-decay implementation (original RDM), which has also been refactored, are verified against the ENSDF database. The new verified package is beneficial for a wide range of experimental scenarios, as it enables researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their Geant4-based application.

  6. Radioactive Decays in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Hauf, Steffen; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Lang, Philipp M; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas


    The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new package, RDM-extended, and that of the existing Geant4 per-decay implementation (original RDM), which has also been refactored, are verified against the ENSDF database. The new verified package is beneficial for a wide range of experimental scenarios, as it enables researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their Geant4-based application.

  7. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials (United States)


    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  8. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K


    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. Radioactive substances in tap water. (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko


    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  10. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, H


    Nuclei far from stability play an important role in our understanding of astrophysical scenarios with extreme temperature and density conditions. Among these are nova explosions, accreting neutron stars, supernovae, and the site of the r-process. I will give a brief review of the important open astrophysical questions in these scenarios and discuss the radioactive beam experiments at ISOL-type and at fragmentation-type facilities that are needed to answer them.

  11. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  12. Clays in radioactive waste disposal


    DELAGE, Pierre; CUI, Yu-Jun; TANG, Anh-Minh


    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  13. Storage of liquid, radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesky, H.; Wunderer, A.


    When reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, liquid radioactive wastes are obtained and, is generated from fission within the waste, and oxyhydrogen may be set free by radiolysis. The fission heat generated within the liquid wastes is carried off by evaporation cooling and, the vapor so formed condensed and recycled into the storage vessel for the liquid wastes. The oxyhydrogen is then diluted with the vapor formed during evaporation cooling and converted catalytically.

  14. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.


    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  15. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands. (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E


    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations (United States)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.


    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  17. Accounting for pharmacokinetic differences in dual-tracer receptor density imaging


    Tichauer, K M; Diop, M.; Elliott, J. T.; Samkoe, K S; Hasan, T.; St. Lawrence, K; Pogue, B W


    Dual-tracer molecular imaging is a powerful approach to quantify receptor expression in a wide range of tissues by using an untargeted tracer to account for any nonspecific uptake of a molecular-targeted tracer. This approach has previously required the pharmacokinetics of the receptor-targeted and untargeted tracers to be identical, requiring careful selection of an ideal untargeted tracer for any given targeted tracer. In this study, methodology capable of correcting for tracer differences ...

  18. Neutrally buoyant tracers in hydrogeophysics: Field demonstration in fractured rock (United States)

    Shakas, Alexis; Linde, Niklas; Baron, Ludovic; Selker, John; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Lavenant, Nicolas; Bour, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy


    Electrical and electromagnetic methods are extensively used to map electrically conductive tracers within hydrogeologic systems. Often, the tracers used consist of dissolved salt in water, leading to a denser mixture than the ambient formation water. Density effects are often ignored and rarely modeled but can dramatically affect transport behavior and introduce dynamics that are unrepresentative of the response obtained with classical tracers (e.g., uranine). We introduce a neutrally buoyant tracer consisting of a mixture of salt, water, and ethanol and monitor its movement during push-pull experiments in a fractured rock aquifer using ground-penetrating radar. Our results indicate a largely reversible transport process and agree with uranine-based push-pull experiments at the site, which is in contrast to results obtained using dense saline tracers. We argue that a shift toward neutrally buoyant tracers in both porous and fractured media would advance hydrogeophysical research and enhance its utility in hydrogeology.

  19. Optimal design of radioactive particle tracking experiments for flow mapping in opaque multiphase reactors. (United States)

    Roy, Shantanu; Larachi, Faical; Al-Dahhan, M H; Duduković, M P


    In the past decade, radioactive particle tracking techniques have emerged in the field of chemical engineering and have become increasingly popular for non-invasive flow mapping of the hydrodynamics in multiphase reactors. Based on gamma-ray sensitization of an array of scintillation detectors, the Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique measures flow fields by monitoring the actual motion path of a single discrete radioactive flow follower which has the physical properties of the phase whose motion is being followed. A limitation to the accuracy of CARPT lies in the error associated with the reconstruction of the tracer particle position which affects the space-resolution capability of the technique. It is of interest, therefore, to minimize this error by choosing wisely the best hardware and an optimal configuration of CARPT detectors' array. Such choices are currently based on experience, without firm scientific basis. In this paper, through theoretical modeling and simulation, we describe how the accuracy of a radioactive particle tracking setup may be assessed a priori. Through an example of a proposed implementation of CARPT on a gas-solids riser, we demonstrate how this knowledge can be used for choosing the hardware required for the experiment. Finally, we show how the optimal arrangement of detectors can be effected for maximum accuracy for a given amount of monetary investment for the experiment.

  20. Compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune; Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB (Sweden))


    Radionuclide transport in hydrogeological formations is one of the key factors for the safety analysis of a future repository of nuclear waste. Tracer tests have therefore been an important field method within the SKB investigation programmes at several sites since the late 1970's. This report presents a compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers performed within various SKB investigations. The objectives of the study are to facilitate, improve and reduce uncertainties in predictive tracer modelling and to provide supporting information for SKB's safety assessment of a final repository of nuclear waste. More specifically, the focus of the report is the relationship between the tracer mean residence time and fracture hydraulic parameters, i.e. the relationship between mass balance aperture and fracture transmissivity, hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity. For 74 different combinations of pumping and injection section at six different test sites (Studsvik, Stripa, Finnsjoen, Aespoe, Forsmark, Laxemar), estimates of mass balance aperture from cross-hole tracer tests as well as transmissivity were extracted from reports or in the SKB database Sicada. For 28 of these combinations of pumping and injection section, estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity from hydraulic interference tests were also found. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was estimated, although some uncertainties for individual data exist. The empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity presented in this study deviates considerably from other previously suggested relationships, such as the cubic law and transport aperture as suggested by /Dershowitz and Klise 2002/, /Dershowitz et al. 2002/ and /Dershowitz et al. 2003/, which also is discussed in this report. No clear and direct empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and hydraulic

  1. Tracer Migration in a Radially Divergent Flow Field: Longitudinal Dispersivity and Anionic Tracer Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, J.C., P.M. Bertsch, M. Wilson, J. Singer, F. Majs and S.A. Aburime


    Hydrodynamic dispersion, the combined effects of chemical diffusion and differences in solute path length and flow velocity, is an important factor controlling contaminant migration in the subsurface environment. However, few comprehensive three-dimensional datasets exist for critically evaluating the impact of travel distance and site heterogeneity on solute dispersion, and the conservative nature of several commonly used groundwater tracers is still in question. Therefore, we conducted a series of field-scale experiments using tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sup 1}HO), bromide (Br{sup -}), and two fluorobenzoates (2,4 Di-FBA, 2,6 Di-FBA) as tracers in the water-table aquifer on the USDOE's Savannah River Site (SRS), located on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain. For each experiment, tracer-free groundwater was injected for approximately 24 h (56.7 L min{sup -1}) to establish a steady-state forced radial gradient before the introduction of a tracer pulse. After the tracer pulse, which lasted from 256 to 560 min, the forced gradient was maintained throughout the experiment using nonlabeled groundwater. Tracer migration was monitored using six multilevel monitoring wells, radially spaced at approximate distances of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.5 m from the central injection well. Each sampling well was further divided into three discrete sampling depths that were pumped continuously ({approx}0.1 L min{sup -1}) throughout the course of the experiments. Longitudinal dispersivity ({alpha}{sub L}) and travel times for {sup 3}H{sup 1}HO breakthrough were estimated by fitting the field data to analytical approximations of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) for uniform and radial flow conditions. Dispersivity varied greatly between wells located at similar transport distances and even between zones within a given well, which we attributed to variability in the hydraulic conductivity at the study site. The radial flow equation generally described tritium breakthrough better than the

  2. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim M Al-Naiema; Elizabeth A Stone


    ...) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1...

  3. Effects of fasting on plasma glucose and prolonged tracer measurement of hepatic glucose output in NIDDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauber, H.; Wallace, P.; Brechtel, G.


    We studied the measurement of hepatic glucose output (HGO) with prolonged (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion in 14 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Over the course of 10.5 h, plasma glucose concentration fell with fasting by one-third, from 234 +/- 21 to 152 +/- 12 mg/dl, and HGO fell from 2.35 +/- 0.18 to 1.36 +/- 0.07 mg . kg-1 . min-1 (P less than .001). In the basal state, HGO and glucose were significantly correlated (r = 0.68, P = .03), and in individual patients, HGO and glucose were closely correlated as both fell with fasting (mean r = 0.79, P less than .01). Plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose radioactivity approached a steady state only 5-6 h after initiation of the primed continuous infusion, and a 20% overestimate of HGO was demonstrated by not allowing sufficient time for tracer labeling of the glucose pool. Assumption of steady-state instead of non-steady-state kinetics in using Steele's equations to calculate glucose turnover resulted in a 9-24% overestimate of HGO. Stimulation of glycogenolysis by glucagon injection demonstrated no incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H)glucose in hepatic glycogen during the prolonged tracer infusion. In a separate study, plasma glucose was maintained at fasting levels (207 +/- 17 mg/dl) for 8 h with the glucose-clamp technique. Total glucose turnover rates remained constant during this prolonged tracer infusion. However, HGO fell to 30% of the basal value simply by maintaining fasting hyperglycemia in the presence of basal insulin levels.

  4. Performance Testing of Tracer Gas and Tracer Aerosol Detectors for use in Radionuclide NESHAP Compliance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lattin, Rebecca Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Rad-NESHAP program, part of the Air Quality Compliance team of LANL’s Compliance Programs group (EPC-CP), and the Radiation Instrumentation & Calibration team, part of the Radiation Protection Services group (RP-SVS), frequently partner on issues relating to characterizing air flow streams. This memo documents the most recent example of this partnership, involving performance testing of sulfur hexafluoride detectors for use in stack gas mixing tests. Additionally, members of the Rad-NESHAP program performed a functional trending test on a pair of optical particle counters, comparing results from a non-calibrated instrument to a calibrated instrument. Prior to commissioning a new stack sampling system, the ANSI Standard for stack sampling requires that the stack sample location must meet several criteria, including uniformity of tracer gas and aerosol mixing in the air stream. For these mix tests, tracer media (sulfur hexafluoride gas or liquid oil aerosol particles) are injected into the stack air stream and the resulting air concentrations are measured across the plane of the stack at the proposed sampling location. The coefficient of variation of these media concentrations must be under 20% when evaluated over the central 2/3 area of the stack or duct. The instruments which measure these air concentrations must be tested prior to the stack tests in order to ensure their linear response to varying air concentrations of either tracer gas or tracer aerosol. The instruments used in tracer gas and aerosol mix testing cannot be calibrated by the LANL Standards and Calibration Laboratory, so they would normally be sent off-site for factory calibration by the vendor. Operational requirements can prevent formal factory calibration of some instruments after they have been used in hazardous settings, e.g., within a radiological facility with potential airborne contamination. The performance tests described in this document are intended to demonstrate the reliable

  5. The ATLAS DDM Tracer monitoring framework

    CERN Document Server



    The DDM Tracer Service is aimed to trace and monitor the atlas file operations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The volume of traces has increased significantly since the service started in 2009. Now there are about ~5 million trace messages every day and peaks of greater than 250Hz, with peak rates continuing to climb, which gives the current service structure a big challenge. Analysis of large datasets based on on-demand queries to the relational database management system (RDBMS), i.e. Oracle, can be problematic, and have a significant effect on the database's performance. Consequently, We have investigated some new high availability technologies like messaging infrastructure, specifically ActiveMQ, and key-value stores. The advantages of key value store technology are that they are distributed and have high scalability; also their write performances are usually much better than RDBMS, all of which are very useful for the Tracer service. Indexes and distributed counters have been also tested to improve...

  6. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit


    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email:

  7. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server


    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  8. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital


    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA


    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance w...

  9. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids (United States)

    Pollina, Giorgia; Hamaus, Nico; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro


    The large-scale structure of the Universe can be observed only via luminous tracers of the dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties, such as their host-halo mass and assembly history. On very large scales, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centred on cosmic voids, i.e. depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the Universe. We consider three types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on auto-correlations of tracers, we find that void-tracer cross-correlations are successfully described by a linear bias relation. The tracer-density profile of voids can thus be related to their matter-density profile by a single number. We show that it coincides with the linear tracer bias extracted from the large-scale auto-correlation function and expectations from theory, if sufficiently large voids are considered. For smaller voids we observe a shift towards higher values. This has important consequences on cosmological parameter inference, as the problem of unknown tracer bias is alleviated up to a constant number. The smallest scales in existing data sets become accessible to simpler models, providing numerous modes of the density field that have been disregarded so far, but may help to further reduce statistical errors in constraining cosmology.

  10. Super parameterization of ocean dynamics for tracer transport models (United States)

    Le Sommer, J.; Bricaud, C.; Madec, G.; Calone, C.; Chanut, J.; Ethe, C.; Perruche, C.


    Ocean mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence contribute to ocean tracer transport and to shaping ocean biogeochemical tracers distribution. Representing adequately tracer transport in ocean models therefore requires to increase model resolution so that the impact of ocean turbulence is adequately accounted for. But due to supercomputers power and storage limitations, global biogeochemical models are not yet run routinely at eddying resolution. Still, because the "effective resolution" of eddying ocean models is much coarser than the physical model grid resolution, tracer transport can be reconstructed to a large extent by computing tracer transport and diffusion with a model grid resolution close to the effective resolution of the physical model. This observation has motivated the implementation of a new capability in NEMO ocean model ( that allows to run the physical model and the tracer transport model at different grid resolutions. Here, we present results obtained with this new capability applied to a synthetic age tracer in a global eddying model configuration. In this model configuration, ocean dynamic is computed at ¼° resolution but tracer transport is computed at 3/4° resolution. The solution obtained is compared to a reference setup, where age tracer is computed at the same grid resolution as ocean dynamics. We discuss possible options for defining the vertical diffusivity coefficient for the tracer transport model based on information from the high resolution grid. We describe the impact of this choice on the distribution and one the penetration of the age tracer. The method described here can found applications in ocean forecasting, such as the Copernicus Marine service operated by Mercator-Ocean, and in Earth System Models for climate applications.

  11. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage]. (United States)

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N


    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  12. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  13. Tracer Dispersion Within an Urban Environment. (United States)

    Martin, D.; Shallcross, D.; Price, C.; Nickless, G.; Simmonds, P.


    The transport and dispersion of pollutants has extremely important implications for the environment on urban, regional and global scales. At the urban level localised emissions of both biogenic and anthropogenic pollutants can directly impact the health of the inhabitants. The DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollutants and their Penetration into the Local Environment) project is a consortium of six universities, which involves a multidisciplinary approach to characterise relatively small-scale urban atmospheric dispersion including wind tunnel modelling, computer simulations, fieldwork and analysis. This work describes the tracer technology used to characterise atmospheric dispersion as well as preliminary results from the first tracer release experiment in Central London. A steady state finite duration release of both perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6 ) was performed as part of the first DAPPLE campaign. These compounds were released over a fifteen-minute integrated time period with the SF6 release staggered one and a half minutes behind the PMCH. The low background concentrations of PMCH (~ 5 x 10-3 pptv) and SF6 (~5pptv) along with non-depositing and non-reactive characteristics allow for the implementation of near ideal fluid dynamic experiments. Sampling consists of a multiport ladder fitting with solenoid valves onto which a succession of sampling bags is attached. These are electrically actuated in sequential order with an integrated sampling time of three minutes. The samplers are placed at various receptor positions in the DAPPLE zone in predefined positions designed to best validate these model simulated meteorological dispersion processes. Analysis of PMCH is carried out using sample enrichment on carbon based adsorbents, separation by capillary Gas Chromatography and Negative Ion Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry detection (GC-MS-NICI). SF6 concentrations are determined using fixed volume loop injections with Gas

  14. Tracer transport in the Martian atmosphere (United States)

    Lian, Y.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Lee, C.; Toigo, A. D.; Campin, J.


    Transport is crucial to understanding and reproducing the Martian dust and water cycles, and to interpreting putative methane and other trace gas (e.g. Argon) observations. However, as quantified by comparing model predictions with Argon measurements made by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer [e.g. Sprague et al., 2004, 2007], current Mars general circulation models (GCM's) appear to do a poor job at tracer transport [e.g. Nelli et al., 2007]. This invalidates a core assumption of GCM modeling in the last decade - that transport is sufficiently well treated in models that we need focus only on improving physical parameterizations, and that differences between results from different GCM's stem purely from their treatment of physical processes. If instead it is the simulated dynamical processes that need better treatment we need to move towards higher-quality numerics, e.g. based on the finite volume formulation, and introduce a more sophisticated approach to advection following work done for terrestrial chemical transport modeling. Here we present the results of non-condensable tracer transport simulations using our newly developed Mars MITgcm, which has both of the aforementioned desirable attributes: a finite volume core and access to a range of sophisticated advection schemes. Our results are encouraging in that we are able to reproduce the observed peak polar Argon enhancement factor of six (about double that attainable with most other Mars GCMs). Our diagnostics show that the time-averaged zonal-mean advection produces net increases of Argon at the winter poles, while stationary and transient eddies transport Argon away from the poles. Using less diffusive nonlinear advection schemes with flux limiters tends to produce more advective fluxes of tracers into the southern winter pole than the more diffusive linear advection schemes, resulting in a greater net increase of polar Argon abundance. We further utilize a more realistic k-distribution radiative transfer model, an

  15. Recent Transport History of Fukushima Radioactivity in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Smith, John N; Rossi, Vincent; Buesseler, Ken O; Cullen, Jay T; Cornett, Jack; Nelson, Richard; Macdonald, Alison M; Robert, Marie; Kellogg, Jonathan


    The large inventory of radioactivity released during the March, 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident in Japan spread rapidly across the North Pacific Ocean and was first observed at the westernmost station on Line P, an oceanographic sampling line extending 1500 km westward of British Columbia (BC), Canada in June 2012. Here, time series measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs in seawater on Line P and on the CLIVAR-P16N 152°W line reveal the recent transport history of the Fukushima radioactivity tracer plume through the northeast Pacific Ocean. During 2013 and 2014 the Fukushima plume spread onto the Canadian continental shelf and by 2015 and early 2016 it reached 137Cs values of 6-8 Bq/m3 in surface water along Line P. Ocean circulation model simulations that are consistent with the time series measurements of Fukushima 137Cs indicate that the 2015-2016 results represent maximum tracer levels on Line P and that they will begin to decline in 2017-2018. The current elevated Fukushima 137Cs levels in seawater in the eastern North Pacific are equivalent to fallout background levels of 137Cs that prevailed during the 1970s and do not represent a radiological threat to human health or the environment.

  16. WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.; Ekstrom, L. P.; Chu, S. Y. F.


    An electronic sequel to the Table of Radioactive Isotopes (John Wiley, 1986) is being developed for use on the WWW. Updated adopted and decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Decay File (ENSDF) and other sources have been combined and edited. Decay scheme normalizations are revised when necessary. Gamma-ray and alpha-particle energies can be searched interactively by energy or parent half-life, mass, and atomic or neutron number. Summary data including half-lives, Q-values, production mode(s), genetic feedings, and a list of references published since the last full evaluation are available. Users can display energy or intensity ordered tables of gamma-rays, K and L x-rays, alpha-particles, and beta endpoints. Spectra of betas and bremsstrahlung, and Auger/conversion electrons can be viewed with an interactive JAVA applet. Decay schemes can be displayed with the JAVA version of Isotope Explorer 3.0. The URL for the Table of Radioactive Isotopes is

  17. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C


    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  18. Radioactivity in the galactic plane (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.


    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  19. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Roland [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Excellence Cluster Origin and Evolution of the Universe' , D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ∼My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  20. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material ( - e-mail : and the Radioactive Sources Service ( - e-mail : at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  1. The diagnostic role of radioactivity in sentinel nodes in oral and oropharyngeal cancer. (United States)

    Kovács, Adorján F; Döbert, Natascha; Walendzik, Hartmut; Zaplatnikov, Konstantin; Landes, Constantin A


    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB), using radioactive tracers, is a novel, interesting tool in the staging of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (OOSCC), which could lead to a reduced rate of elective neck dissections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ranking of measured radioactivity in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and to correlate these findings with histopathological results to assess the number of SLN being sufficient for exact staging of the neck. In 77 consecutive patients with T1-4 OOSCC clinically and positron emission tomography-staged N0, between 15 and 55 MBq of Tc- 99m-labeled albumin-microcolloids were injected peritumorally and 213 SLNs were excised by small skin incisions using a gamma probe 2-3 hours later. The counts per second (cps) were measured ex vivo and excised SLNs were ranked according to their cps defining the LN with the highest activity as primary SLN, followed by a 2nd, 3rd, and so forth, SLN. Elective neck dissections were not performed. Median activity was 213 cps. All levels harbored SLNs with a maximum (43%) in level II and a minimum in level V (1%). SLNs in level II had significantly higher tracer accumulation (median, 289 cps) than those in levels I (144 cps) and IV (149 cps), but distant levels did not have significantly lower counts, compared to proximal. Eight (8) pathologically positive SLNs in 7 patients (7/77 = 9%; median activity, 157 cps) were detected. The median counts of the positive SLNs were not significantly different from those of the 205 negative SLNs (235 cps). The positive SLN was the one with the highest tracer accumulation in 4 cases, with the second highest in 1 case, and with the third highest tracer accumulation in 2 cases. Three (3) positive SLN were in level IB, 4 in level IIA, and 1 in level III. One (1) patient had 2 positive SLNs: a SLN with the third highest activity in level IIB and a SLN with the fifth highest activity in level III. In OOSCC, excision of only 1 SLN

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de


    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 to 738 +- 38{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6{sup -1} to 638 +- 232{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. Calculation of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index showed two distinct groups. In the first one, for the majority of the beaches, the radium equivalent activities are in the range from 15 +- 6{sup -1} to 257 +- 18{sup -1}, below the lower limit of 370{sup -1} recommended by OECD for the safe use of building materials and external hazard index was below the acceptable limit of 1 suggested by UNSCEAR. In the second one, for Setibinha, Curva da Jurema, South and Central locations of Camburi and Areia Preta beaches, the radium equivalent results are in the range from 820 +- 40{sup -1} to 11200 +- 580{sup -1}, exceeding 2 to 30 times the recommended minimum value for safe application in the civil construction industry and the external hazard index surpassed almost 3 to 40 times the UNSCEAR suggested limit. (author)

  3. Urban Pollutant Transport and Infiltration into Buildings Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (United States)

    Matthews, James C.; Bacak, Asan; Khan, M. Anwar H.; Wright, Matthew D.; Priestley, Michael; Martin, Damien; Percival, Carl J.; Shallcross, Dudley E.


    People spend the majority of their time indoors and therefore the quality of indoor air is worthy of investigation; indoor air quality is affected by indoor sources of pollutants and from pollutants entering buildings from outdoors. In this study, unique perfluorocarbon tracers were released in five experiments at a 100 m and ~2 km distance from a large university building in Manchester, UK and tracer was also released inside the building to measure the amount of outdoor material penetrating into buildings and the flow of material within the building itself. Air samples of the tracer were taken in several rooms within the building, and a CO2 tracer was used within the building to estimate air-exchange rates. Air-exchange rates were found to vary between 0.57 and 10.90 per hour. Indoor perfluorocarbon tracer concentrations were paired to outdoor tracer concentrations, and in-out ratios were found to vary between 0.01 and 3.6. The largest room with the lowest air-exchange rate exhibited elevated tracer concentrations for over 60 min after the release had finished, but generally had the lowest concentrations, the room with the highest ventilation rates had the highest concentration over 30 min, but the peak decayed more rapidly. Tracer concentrations indoors compared to outdoors imply that pollutants remain within buildings after they have cleared outside, which must be considered when evaluating human exposure to outdoor pollutants. PMID:28230812

  4. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives. (United States)

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A; van Swol, Frank; Truskett, Thomas M


    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083-4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer's enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics.

  5. Spatiotemporal distribution modeling of PET tracer uptake in solid tumors. (United States)

    Soltani, Madjid; Sefidgar, Mostafa; Bazmara, Hossein; Casey, Michael E; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman


    Distribution of PET tracer uptake is elaborately modeled via a general equation used for solute transport modeling. This model can be used to incorporate various transport parameters of a solid tumor such as hydraulic conductivity of the microvessel wall, transvascular permeability as well as interstitial space parameters. This is especially significant because tracer delivery and drug delivery to solid tumors are determined by similar underlying tumor transport phenomena, and quantifying the former can enable enhanced prediction of the latter. We focused on the commonly utilized FDG PET tracer. First, based on a mathematical model of angiogenesis, the capillary network of a solid tumor and normal tissues around it were generated. The coupling mathematical method, which simultaneously solves for blood flow in the capillary network as well as fluid flow in the interstitium, is used to calculate pressure and velocity distributions. Subsequently, a comprehensive spatiotemporal distribution model (SDM) is applied to accurately model distribution of PET tracer uptake, specifically FDG in this work, within solid tumors. The different transport mechanisms, namely convention and diffusion from vessel to tissue and in tissue, are elaborately calculated across the domain of interest and effect of each parameter on tracer distribution is investigated. The results show the convection terms to have negligible effect on tracer transport and the SDM can be solved after eliminating these terms. The proposed framework of spatiotemporal modeling for PET tracers can be utilized to comprehensively assess the impact of various parameters on the spatiotemporal distribution of PET tracers.

  6. Environmental tracers as a tool in groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Wachniew


    Full Text Available Environmental tracers are physical properties and chemical components of water whose spatial and temporal differentiation is used to infer information on the pathways and dynamics of water and solutes movement through the environment. The quantitative and qualitative insights into the functioning of groundwater systems derived from tracer observations is useful for the physically based and operational assessments of vulnerability of groundwater quality to human pressures. This tracer-based information concerns identification of the hydraulic connections between the source areas of pollution and groundwater receptors and evaluation of the ability of the unsaturated and saturated zones to delay and attenuate spreading of pollutants. Particularly important are distributions of water transit times which can be inferred from tracer observations by use of the lumped parameter models. The transit time distributions contain information on the lag-times, attenuation and persistence of pollutants in groundwater systems and are a basis for designing various indexes of vulnerability. Despite the advantages of environmental tracers in vulnerability assessment and despite the advances in analytical techniques application of tracers in this field is limited. This work presents the understanding of groundwater vulnerability in the context of risk assessments, explains the basic concepts of the application of the environmental tracers, discusses potential applications of tracers in assessing the intrinsic groundwater vulnerability and briefly presents examples of such applications.

  7. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.


    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  8. An ELISA DYRK1A non-radioactive assay suitable for the characterization of inhibitors [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu


    Full Text Available The DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A gene encodes a proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase. Elevated expression and/or altered distribution of the kinase have been implicated in the neurological impairments associated with Down syndrome (DS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Consequently, DYRK1A inhibition has been of significant interest as a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention of DS and AD. Many classes of novel inhibitors have been described in the past decade. Although non-radioactive methods for analyzing DYRK1A inhibition have been developed, methods employing radioactive tracers are still commonly used for quantitative characterization of DYRK1A inhibitors. Here, we present a non-radioactive ELISA assay based on the detection of DYRK1A-phosphorylated dynamin 1a fragment using a phosphorylation site-specific antibody. The assay was verified by the use of two well-characterized DYRK1A inhibitors, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and harmine. The IC50s for EGCG and harmine determined by the ELISA method were found to be comparable to those previously measured by radioactive tracing methods.  Furthermore, we determined the mode of inhibition for EGCG and harmine by a modification of the ELISA assay. This assay confirms the mode of inhibition of EGCG (non-ATP-competitive and harmine (ATP-competitive, as previously determined. We conclude that the ELISA platform demonstrated here is a viable alternative to the traditional radioactive tracer assays for analyzing DYRK1A inhibitors.

  9. Characterization of an alluvial aquifer with thermal tracer tomography (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter


    In the summer of 2015, a series of thermal tracer tests was performed at the Widen field site in northeast Switzerland. At this site numerous hydraulic, tracer, geophysical and hydrogeophysical field tests have been conducted in the past to investigate a shallow alluvial aquifer. The goals of the campaign in 2015 were to design a cost-effective thermal tracer tomography setup and to validate the concept of travel time-based thermal tracer tomography under field conditions. Thermal tracer tomography uses repeated thermal tracer injections with different injection depths and distributed temperature measurements to map the hydraulic conductivity distribution of a heterogeneous aquifer. The tracer application was designed with minimal experimental time and cost. Water was heated in inflatable swimming pools using direct sunlight of the warm summer days, and it was injected as low temperature pulses in a well. Because of the small amount of injected heat, no long recovery times were required between the repeated heat tracer injections and every test started from natural thermal conditions. At Widen, four thermal tracer tests were performed during a period of three days. Temperatures were measured in one downgradient well using a distributed temperature measurement system installed at seven depth points. Totally 12 temperature breakthrough curves were collected. Travel time based tomographic inversion assumes that thermal transport is dominated by advection and the travel time of the thermal tracer can be related to the hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer. This assumption is valid in many shallow porous aquifers where the groundwater flow is fast. In our application, the travel time problem was treated by a tomographic solver, analogous to seismic tomography, to derive the hydraulic conductivity distribution. At the test site, a two-dimensional cross-well hydraulic conductivity profile was reconstructed with the travel time based inversion. The reconstructed profile

  10. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency, 1 Method Development (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowl...

  11. Historical and contemporary stable isotope tracer approaches to studying mammalian protein metabolism (United States)


    Over a century ago, Frederick Soddy provided the first evidence for the existence of isotopes; elements that occupy the same position in the periodic table are essentially chemically identical but differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons within the atomic nucleus. Allied to the discovery of isotopes was the development of some of the first forms of mass spectrometers, driven forward by the Nobel laureates JJ Thomson and FW Aston, enabling the accurate separation, identification, and quantification of the relative abundance of these isotopes. As a result, within a few years, the number of known isotopes both stable and radioactive had greatly increased and there are now over 300 stable or radioisotopes presently known. Unknown at the time, however, was the potential utility of these isotopes within biological disciplines, it was soon discovered that these stable isotopes, particularly those of carbon (13C), nitrogen (15N), oxygen (18O), and hydrogen (2H) could be chemically introduced into organic compounds, such as fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars, and used to “trace” the metabolic fate of these compounds within biological systems. From this important breakthrough, the age of the isotope tracer was born. Over the following 80 yrs, stable isotopes would become a vital tool in not only the biological sciences, but also areas as diverse as forensics, geology, and art. This progress has been almost exclusively driven through the development of new and innovative mass spectrometry equipment from IRMS to GC‐MS to LC‐MS, which has allowed for the accurate quantitation of isotopic abundance within samples of complex matrices. This historical review details the development of stable isotope tracers as metabolic tools, with particular reference to their use in monitoring protein metabolism, highlighting the unique array of tools that are now available for the investigation of protein metabolism in vivo at a whole body down to a single protein level

  12. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  13. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department


    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  14. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  15. [Radioactive burden resulting from zirconia implants]. (United States)

    Fischer-Brandies, E; Pratzel, H; Wendt, T


    Due to its mechanical properties circonia is an interesting implantation material. However, it may contain a certain amount of radioactive isotopes. The measurement of alpha-emission reveals varying amounts of radiation. As a result, a declaration of radioactivity should be required for circonia implants and only circonia with low emission levels should be used for implantation purposes.

  16. The radioactive beam facility ALTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, Saïd, E-mail:; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Cottereau, Evelyne; Franchoo, Serge; Ibrahim, Fadi; Lau, Christophe; Roussière, Brigitte; Saïd, Abdelhakim; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Verney, David


    Highlights: • Research at the ALTO TNA-facility. • R and D on radioactive ion sources. • R and D on the lanthanide beam production by fluorination. • Recent developments on uranium carbide targets. -- Abstract: The Transnational Access facility ALTO (TNA07-ENSAR/FP7) has been commissioned and received from the French safety authorities, the operation license. It is allowed to run at nominal intensity to produce 10{sup 11} fissions/s in a thick uranium carbide target by photo-fission using a 10 μA, 50 MeV electron beam. In addition the recent success in operating the selective laser ion source broadens the physics program with neutron-rich nuclear beams possible at this facility installed at IPN Orsay. The facility also aims at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 project. In that framework an ambitious R and D program on the target ion source system is being developed.

  17. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested. (DMC)

  18. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy


    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  19. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M.


    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich


    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  1. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA (United States)


    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  2. [(18)F]FE@SNAP-a specific PET tracer for melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 imaging? (United States)

    Philippe, Cécile; Haeusler, Daniela; Scherer, Thomas; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Zeilinger, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Shanab, Karem; Spreitzer, Helmut; Hacker, Marcus; Mitterhauser, Markus


    The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), which is highly expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, plays a key role in energy homeostasis, obesity and other endocrine diseases. Hence, there is a major interest in in vivo imaging of this receptor. A PET tracer would allow non-invasive in vivo visualization and quantification of the MCHR1. The aim of the study was the ex vivo evaluation of the MCHR1 ligand [(18)F]FE@SNAP as a potential PET tracer for the MCHR1. [(18)F]FE@SNAP was injected directly into the jugular vein of awake naïve rats for ex vivo brain autoradiography, biodistribution and additional blood metabolite analysis. Blocking experiments were conducted using the unlabeled MCHR1 ligand SNAP-7941. A high uptake of [(18)F]FE@SNAP was observed in the lateral hypothalamus and the ventricular system. Both regions were significantly blocked by SNAP-7941. Biodistribution evinced the highest uptake in the kidneys, adrenals, lung and duodenum. Specific blocking with SNAP-7941 led to a significant tracer reduction in the heart and adrenals. In plasma samples, 47.73 ± 6.1 % of a hydrophilic radioactive metabolite was found 45 min after tracer injection. Since [(18)F]FE@SNAP uptake was significantly blocked in the lateral hypothalamus, there is strong evidence that [(18)F]FE@SNAP is a highly suitable agent for specific MCHR1 imaging in the central nervous system. Additionally, this finding is supported by the specific blocking in the ventricular system, where the MCHR1 is expressed in the ependymal cells. These findings suggest that [(18)F]FE@SNAP could serve as a useful imaging and therapy monitoring tool for MCHR1-related pathologies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahd, William H.; Koplowitz, Jerry M.


    Experiences in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine since 1949 are reviewed. Forty-five patients received therapeutic amounts of I/sup 131/ and were followed for more than one year. Cancer metastases were localized by means of the mechanical scintiscanner after patients had received large tracer doses of I/sup 131/ preceded by injections of thyrotropic hormone. A consistent therapeutic regimen was followed involving four basic modalities of therapy: surgical thyroidectomy, thyrotropic hormone stimulation, cancerocidal doses of I/sup 131/ and thyroid extract administration. Twenty-nine patients in the series had proved metastatic lesions; 11 died, 18 are living, and 41% have lived 5 or more years. All patients who were free of metastases after initial thyroid surgery are alive. No complications from I/sup 131/ therapy were observed. This is attributed to the conservative dosage regimen employed. The results of the use of I/sup 131/ in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer in other reported series are also reviewed. (P.C.H.)

  4. Fractal continuum model for tracer transport in a porous medium. (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Coronado, M; Hernández-Coronado, H


    A model based on the fractal continuum approach is proposed to describe tracer transport in fractal porous media. The original approach has been extended to treat tracer transport and to include systems with radial and uniform flow, which are cases of interest in geoscience. The models involve advection due to the fluid motion in the fractal continuum and dispersion whose mathematical expression is taken from percolation theory. The resulting advective-dispersive equations are numerically solved for continuous and for pulse tracer injection. The tracer profile and the tracer breakthrough curve are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the fractal parameters. It has been found in this work that anomalous transport frequently appears, and a condition on the fractal parameter values to predict when sub- or superdiffusion might be expected has been obtained. The fingerprints of fractality on the tracer breakthrough curve in the explored parameter window consist of an early tracer breakthrough and long tail curves for the spherical and uniform flow cases, and symmetric short tailed curves for the radial flow case.

  5. Microbial DNA; a possible tracer of groundwater (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ayumi; Segawa, Takuya; Furuta, Tsuyumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji


    chemical materials dissolved in groundwater. Though viral particle was employed as a tracer to chase the movement of groundwater, it doesn't tell the chemical and physical environmental condition where the particle was incorporated into groundwater. Thus, we propose microbial DNA as a new tracer to track the route of groundwater.

  6. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara


    caused by the homogenous radon concentrations measured in the Laxemar area. The radon concentrations in near surface water measured in Forsmark showed large variability with both low and high radon concentrations. This large variability in radon concentration could not be explained by the flow pattern of the groundwater since no clear correlation between radon concentration and recharge/discharge classification was found. The radon concentration was also measured at different depths in the soil profile at three locations in the Forsmark area. The results showed large differences with increasing radon concentration with increasing depth. This gradient of radon concentration can be explained largely by the radon emanation potential of the local soil type at different depths. High radon concentrations were found in wells with higher radon emanation potential like till and bedrock. These observations showed the importance of the radon emanation potential of the local soil for the radon concentration in groundwater. The main purpose of this study has been to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer for groundwater flow patterns. The method is based on the ingrowth of radon from its progenitor radium according to the law of radioactive decay. According to this law the radon concentration in groundwater will reach equilibrium conditions after approximately 30 days in contact with the surrounding soil. The equilibrium radon concentration of the near surface groundwater was measured at several location in the Forsmark area and a range of the steady state radon concentration was calculated. The measured steady state radon concentration was then used to evaluate the radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in the area. A recharge/discharge classification of the wells was done based on the range of steady state radon concentration and the measured radon concentrations in groundwater. All wells with radon concentration below the steady state radon concentration were

  7. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity (United States)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.


    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  8. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review. (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw


    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  9. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  10. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements


    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  11. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  12. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia


    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: for further information, please call 73171.

  13. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  14. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.


    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  15. The distribution of radioactivity in brains of rats given (N-methyl- sup 11 C)PK 11195 in vivo after induction of a cortical ischaemic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J.E.; Hume, S.P.; Cullen, B.M.; Myers, R.; Manjil, L.G.; Turton, D.R.; Luthra, S.K.; Bateman, D.M.; Pike, V.W. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit)


    PK 11195 is a selective ligand for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine bindings site (PTBBS). There are few sites in normal brain but their number increases in association with tissue necrosis. The time-course of appearance of PTBBS around a focally induced ischaemic lesion in frontal cortex of rat brain was established by autoradiography using (N-methyl-{sup 3} H )PK 11195. Using this information and the same experimental model of ischaemia, the distribution of radioactivity after injection of carbon-11 labelled PK 11195 was studied. The purpose was to synthesize (N-methyl-{sup 11}C)PK 11195 and to test its suitability as a tracer for depicting the presence of PTBB in ischaemic lesions. The time-profiles of distribution of radioactivity in brain regions after intravenous injection of tracer and the ratio of radioactivity in lesioned compared with unlesioned cortex were determined. Data for the temporal (days after lesion induction) and for the regional retention of radioactivity were consistent with independent evidence (autoradiographic and immunohistochemical) for the occurence of increased numbers of PTBBS, predominantly in association with macrophages, in areas undergoing necrosis. (Author).

  16. West Twin Creek Alaska Subsurface Bromide Tracer Experiment, 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data was produced as part of a subsurface tracer experiment performed on a boreal hillslope in July, 2015. The data is separated into three files: 'Well...

  17. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  18. Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu


    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a powerful noninvasive tool for acquisition of the physiological parameters in human and animals with the help of PET tracers. Among all the PET tracers, radiolabeled peptides have been widely explored for cancer-related receptor imaging due to their high affinity and specificity to receptors. But radiochemistry procedures for production of peptide-based PET tracers are usually complex, which makes large-scale clinical studies relatively challenging. New radiolabeling technologies which could simplify synthesis and purification procedures, are extremely needed. Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology have boomed as powerful tools in the field of organic chemistry, which potentially provide significant help to the PET chemistry. In this minireview, microfluidic radiolabeling technology is described and its application for synthesis of peptide-based PET tracers is summarized and discussed.

  19. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia


    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  20. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L


    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...... blood flow....

  1. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative? (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.


    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  2. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.


    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  3. DEPO-related to Radioactive Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Design and Evaluation Process Outline (DEPO) is discussed as it pertains to protection of radioactive sources. The bulk of the report describes features of various kinds of detection systems, and follows this with systems for entry control and personnel identification.

  4. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J.


    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  5. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  6. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: Tel.: 73171 E-mail: Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : Tel.: 73171 E-mail:

  7. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The Isope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique evolved from chemical techniques used to separate radioactive isotopes off-line from irradiated "targets". The ISOL targets of today, used at e.g. ISOLDE, can be of many different types and in different phases but the isotopes are always delivered at very low energies making the technique ideal for study of ground state properties and collections for other applications such as solid state physics and medical physics. The possibility of accelerating these low energy beams for nuclear structure studies, and in the long term future for neutrino physics, is now being explored at first generation radioactive beam facilities. The upgrade towards HIE-ISOLDE aim to consolidate ISOLDE's position as a world leading radioactive nuclear beam facility and it will be a pre-cursor to a future all European ISOL facility, EURISOL, with order of magnitudes higher radioactive beam intensities and energies. Prerequisite knowledge and references: None

  8. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery; Radioactivite. Centenaire de la decouverte de la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpak, G. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Tubiana, M. [Academie de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Bimbot, R. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France)


    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  9. Imaging of Enzymes in the Steroid Biosynthetic Pathway: Synthesis of 18F-Labelled Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Maria


    This thesis deals with the synthesis and development of 18F-labelled alkyl etomidate and vorozole analogues, and their use as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of the steroid enzymes 11beta-hydroxylase and aromatase. Two synthetic 18F-labelling approaches to the etomidate and vorozole analogues were developed, and the analogues were evaluated in some biological assays. The two-step labelling method was used to synthesise many compounds for biological evaluation. In the first step, a 18F-labelled intermediate based on a ditosylate or a halogenated diethyl ether was synthesised and used directly in the next alkylation step. The decay-corrected (d.c.) radiochemical yield was higher compared to other known two-step labelling methods. Once an appropriate candidate has been chosen for clinical evaluation, a one-step labelling method will be more suitable. We therefore developed a method based on precursors that had leaving groups at the end of their alkyl chains, and used these directly in the 18F-labelling synthesis. The one-step 18F-labelling synthesis required less reaction time and produced higher specific radioactivity and d.c. radiochemical yield than our two-step synthesis. With microwave heating, the reaction time was reduced to seconds and the d.c. radiochemical yield was better than that obtained with conventional heating. The one-step synthesis simplified the technical handling by allowing the tracer syntheses to be automated on the TRACERLab FX{sub FN}

  10. Studying coupled hydrological and micro-biological processes by means of tracer injections and mathematical models (United States)

    Worman, A.; Kjellin, J. P.; Lindahl, A.; Johansson, H.


    To throw light on coupled hydrological, chemical and microbiological processes in treatment wetlands, this study uses both radioactive water and reactive tracers. A tracer mixture consisting of tritiated water, P-32 in the form of PO4- and N-15 in the form of N2O was injected to the 2.6 hectare large Ekeby wetland, Sweden. From the breakthrough curves of tritium, the mean residence time of water in pond 1 can be estimated to be about 3 to 3.5 days. The total injected activity of phosphorus was 17.98 GBq and about 13.73 GBq was recovered at the outlet during the investigation period ending 10 days and 16 hours after the start of the injection. This implies that 24% of the phosphate solution was removed in the November - December period in which the experiment was performed. The total injected amount of N-15 was 42.1 grams and 29.6 grams was retained at the effluent. This means that 30% of the nitrogen was either retained in the wetland or removed due to denitrification. An analysis of regular monitoring data shows that the annual removal rate in the entire wetland (each flow line passes two ponds in series) is about 50% for total phosphorus and 25% for total nitrogen. Probably, the most important mechanism for this removal is adsorption onto particulate matter and deposition. Analyses of vegetation material indicate that a certain (minor) fraction was adsorbed to submersed and emerging macrophytes, like Elodera Canadensis, Thypa sp. (Cattail) and Glyceria sp. (Manna grass). A 2D mathematical model for both water flow and solute transport could explain the N-transport through the wetland. The model accounts for the rate-limited exchange with bed sediments and denitrification in the water and bed sediment. Independent batch tests indicate a particularly high microbiological activity in the bed sediments. The rate-limited exchange with the bed limits also the denitrification capacity of the wetland.

  11. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.


    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  12. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G


    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  13. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.


    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison. (DLC)

  14. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement


    Fernández, R


    Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are...

  15. The radioactive wastes treatment enterprises and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Pol`skij, O.G.; Verbov, V.V.; Verbova, L.F.; Puzanov, Y.V.; Paramonova, T.I. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Radioactive waste treatment is not a scientific problem only but also a social-and-economical problem. Dislike the activity of the waste treatment enterprises is a result of the population ignorance about impact level of those enterprises on environment. The results of radioecological inspection of 19 Russian enterprises for treatment of radioactive wastes are presented. Method of the impact estimation is described. No influence on the environment is displayed.

  16. Experimental and measurement issues in natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risica, S.; Bochicchio, F.; Bolzan, C.; Grisanti, G.; Nuccetelli, C


    The paper deals with some open experimental problems in the field of natural radioactivity. Its aim is to stimulate discussion on the type of research efforts needed in the field and to be planned for the future. The review, which makes no claims to completeness, analyses some issues in gamma spectrometry of natural radionuclides, and the measurement of natural radioactivity in non-nuclear industries and of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentration in air. (author)

  17. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar


    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  18. Radioactivity and Electron Acceleration in Supernova Remnants


    Zirakashvili, V. N.; Aharonian, F. A.


    We argue that the decays of radioactive nuclei related to $^{44}$Ti and $^{56}$Ni ejected during supernova explosions can provide a vast pool of mildly relativistic positrons and electrons which are further accelerated to ultrarelativistic energies by reverse and forward shocks. This interesting link between two independent processes - the radioactivity and the particle acceleration - can be a clue for solution of the well known theoretical problem of electron injection in supernova remnants....

  19. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.


    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  20. Postmortem Examination After Exposure to Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Özsoy


    Full Text Available Radioactivity is used for diagnostic and treatment purposes, but it can also be used in criminal activity. Further evaluation of radioactivity use in criminal offenses by forensic medicine is necessary. According to the Turkish Criminal law, the severity of destruction caused on the body by any agent carries importance in the decision making process by the court for final penalty. Homicide by chemical, biologic or nuclear weapons are considered to be purposeful homicide and punished with life sentence. In that regard, autopsy and post-mortem examinations can be requested from physicians to determine the cause of death after homicide cases in which radioactive material has been used. During the autopsy, additional safety precautions should be taken and continued during morgue and funeral processes. The methods of protection from radioactive material depend on the type of radiation and the half life of the agent. Therefore, radiation quantity should be measured prior to autopsy and a risk assessment should be made. When necessary, help needs to be requested from the radiation safety specialists. In this article, topics that need special attention during the post-mortem examinations of corpses that hold radioactivity are discussed. Key words: Radioactive elements, autopsy, safety, occupational health

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian


    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  2. Electrochemistry and Radioactive Wastes: A Scientific Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abed Elaziz


    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are arising from nuclear applications such as nuclear medicine and nuclear power plants. Radioactive wastes should be managed in a safe manner to protect human beings and the environment now and in the future. The management strategy depends on collection, segregation, treatment, immobilization, and disposal. The treatment process is a very important step in which the hazardous materials were converted to a more concentrated, less volume and less movable materials. Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry in which the passage of electric current was producing a chemical change. Electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes is widely used all over the world. It has a number of advantages and hence benefits. Electrochemistry can lead to remote, automatic control and increasing safety. The present work is focusing on the role of electrochemistry in the treatment of radioactive wastes worldwide. It contains the fundamentals of electrochemistry, the brief story of radioactive wastes, and the modern trends in the electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes. An overview of electrochemical decomposition of organic wastes, electrochemical reduction of nitrates, electro- precipitation, electro- ion exchange, and electrochemical remediation of soil are outlined. The main operating factors, the mechanism of decontamination, energy consumption and examples of field trials are considered.

  3. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  4. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is responsible for monitoring and tracking all radioactive materials imported, stored or exported. The profile of radioactive sources in active use are also presented, in addition to spent radioactive sources currently in the custody of the NRWMC as part of the inventory for creating databases on radioactive wastes in Ghana.

  5. Only Successful Graduates Respond to Tracer Studies: A Myth? Results from the German Corporation Project Tracer Studies


    Lutz Heidemann


    INCHER-Kassel and 58 German Higher Education Institutions conducted together the biggest tracer studies campaign in Germany so far. Up to date, more than 100.000 graduates of the cohorts 2006 – 2009 were surveyed in the years 2007 – 2011. During this project it was often claimed that graduate tracer studies cannot be representative. This doubt is based on the assumption that only particularly successful or satisfied persons participate in these surveys. This hypothesis will be discussed in th...

  6. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)


    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  7. Sistem Pre Kompilasi Data Tracer Studi Online Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti (Studi Kasus: Politeknik Harapan Bersama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Very Kurnia Bakti


    Full Text Available Tracer studi merupakan salah satu upaya yang diharapkan dapat menyediakan informasi untuk mengevaluasi hasil pendidikan di Politeknik Harapan Bersama dari kuisioner yang diberikan kepada alumni. Kegiatan tracer studi ini sudah dilaksanakan secara online, namun masih terdapat kendala pada bagian sistem yang digunakan saat ini, hal tersebut menyebabkan Politeknik Harapan Bersama tidak dapat melaporkan / mengunggah hasil tracer studi kepada Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti, dimana form kuisioner dan data export tracer studi yang dihasilkan berbeda dengan kebutuhan seperti yang tercantum pada surat edaran No. 313/B/SE/2016 tentang pelaksanaan tracer studi di tingkat perguruan tinggi. Mengingat pentingnya tracer studi sebagai umpan balik bagi Politeknik Harapan Bersama, maka perlu solusi untuk mengatasi kekurangan sistem ini. Dengan merubah sistem yang ada dengan sistem tracer studi yang baru merupakan solusi yang tepat dalam permasalahan ini. Sistem tracer studi yang baru mampu menghasilkan data tracer studi alumni dan pengisian form kuisioner sesuai dengan standar Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti yang dapat diunggah sistem tracer studi ristekdikti.

  8. Wear measurement using radioactive tracer technique based on proton, deuteron and {alpha}-particle induced nuclear reactions on molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditroi, F., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton, deuteron, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle activation of Mo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TLA (thin layer activation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral production yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear curves (specific activity versus penetration depth). - Abstract: Excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for various applications. Excitation functions of {sup 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m}Tc, {sup 90,93m,99}Mo, {sup 90,91m,92m,95m,95g,96}Nb and {sup 88,89}Zr were measured up to 50 MeV deuteron energy Tarkanyi et al., 2012 [1], {sup 93m,93g,94m,94g,95m,95g,96g,99m}Tc, {sup 90,93m,99}Mo, {sup 90,92m,95m,95g,96}Nb and {sup 88,89}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV proton energy Tarkanyi et al., 2012 [2] and {sup 93m,93g,94m,94g,95m,95g,96g,99m}Tc, {sup 93m,99}Mo, {sup 90}Nb, {sup 94,95,97,103}Ru and {sup 88}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy Ditroi et al., 2012 [3] by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. The results for {sup 3}He induced reactions on natural Mo were taken from the literature Comparetto and Qaim, 1980 [4]. According to their half-lives, from the above listed radionuclides the {sup 95m,96}Tc, {sup 91m,92m,95m,95g}Nb, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 103,97}Ru and {sup 88}Zr are suitable candidates for wear measurement by using thin layer activation (TLA) method. The goal of this work was to determine the necessary nuclear data for TLA of the above radionuclides and to prove their applicability for wear measurements.

  9. Evaluation of air pollution due to natural radioactive elements; Evaluacion de contaminacion del aire debido a elementos radiactivos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, B. A.; Lopez, M. E., E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel, Lima (Peru)


    The presence of radioactive materials in the crustal and as consequence present in the surface, originate the natural radioactive contamination in the different solid, liquid and gaseous materials; particularly in the air that we breathe. Among these radioactive materials that contribute to the environmental pollution are the presences of uranium, radio, thorium and their respective disintegration chains, as the gas radon (Rn-222) that spreads in the air; whose presence increases in areas where the seismic activity is notorious or other natural events take place, case of the Lima (Peru) City. In this work we show the measurements realized during two consecutive years in the roof of a building of three floors in the Lima City, with the purpose of establishing the fluctuations of this gassy pollutant in the surrounding air. The measurements were made using nitrocellulose detectors (Lr-115 type 2) applying the nuclear prints technique. The obtained results allowing to have an indicator of the Rn-222 presence in the air during different seasons of the year and also the presence of other possible radioactive pollutants. The use of this technique allows obtaining and studying the prints that generate the alpha particles that are emitted during the Rn-222 disintegration or by means of their descendants or predecessors; also allowing to discriminate between the short-range tracers or lineal type prints and other very different prints obtained during some of the measurements. The results analyzed according to proposed models are presented in this work. (author)

  10. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G.J.


    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed {open_quotes}lithogenic{close_quotes} solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing {open_quotes}cosmogenic{close_quotes} nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing {open_quotes}thermonuclear{close_quotes} nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading {open_quotes}cosmogenic nuclides{close_quotes}, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system.

  11. Optimization of measurement of {sup 63}Ni in reactor waste samples using {sup 65}Ni as a tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul; Martin, J.E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Industrial Health; Griffin, H.C. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Consistent, clean, and high chemical recovery is important for {sup 63}Ni analysis of low-level radioactive waste samples from nuclear power reactors. These samples generally contain numerous radionuclides in high concentrations which can interfere with nickel measurements. Chemical recovery of approx. 90% can be achieved consistently using an optimized procedure. The use of {sup 65}Ni as a chemical tracer was incorporated into such a procedure to provide sample-specific chemical recovery, eliminating error associated with using the average recovery value of several standards. Methods were also used to correct the contaminants of {sup 55}Fe, {sup 58}Co, and {sup 60}Co should they be present in separated fractions for measurement of {sup 63}Ni activity. (author).

  12. [Precarious matters. The radium economy, episteme of risk and the emergence of tracer technique in national socialism]. (United States)

    von Schwerin, Alexander


    Following the traces of radioactive material is--as scholars have recently shown--a valuable historical approach in order to evaluate the material 'factor' of science in action. Even though the origins of materials like radium and artificial isotopes are quite different, their circulation is interconnected. A material pathway can be drawn from the radium industry to the scientific rise of artificial isotopes as indicator substances in the 1930s, continuing to the building of networks by German scientists working for the war efforts. Also, this pathway reveals the role of radiation protection in establishing that material culture. Finally, the dynamics of material traces and institutional linkages is shown by the tracer work of biophysicists and radiation biologists working at the Genetic Department of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin and at the Institut de Chimie Nucléaire at Paris, which at that time was occupied by German troops.

  13. Copper Ion as a New Leakage Tracer (United States)

    Modaresi, J; Baharizade, M; Shareghi, A; Ahmadi, M; Daneshkazemi, A


    Statement of Problem: Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal. Purpose: Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method. Materials and Method: The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope. Results: The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods. Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye

  14. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.


    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  15. Biodistribution of [{sup 11}C] methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutinen, E.; Jyrkkioe, S. [Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Groenroos, T.; Haaparanta, M.; Lehikoinen, P.; Naagren, K. [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland)


    [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{alpha}-Methylaminoisobutyric acid ({sup 11}C-MeAIB) is a potentially useful tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) studies on hormonally regulated system A amino acid transport. {sup 11}C-MeAIB is a metabolically stable amino acid analogue specific for system A amino acid transport. We evaluated the biodistribution of {sup 11}C-MeAIB in rats and humans to estimate the usefulness of the tracer for in vivo human PET studies, for example, on regulation of system A amino acid transport and on tumour imaging. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were killed 5, 20, 40 or 60 min after the injection of {sup 11}C-MeAIB, and the tissue samples were weighed and counted for {sup 11}C radioactivity. Ten lymphoma patients with relatively limited tumour burden underwent whole-body (WB) PET imaging with {sup 11}C-MeAIB. In addition, three other patients had dynamic PET scanning of the head and neck area, and the tracer uptake was quantitated by calculating the kinetic influx constants (K{sub i} values) for the tracer. In animal studies, the highest activity was detected in the kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland and intestines. In humans, the highest activity was found in the salivary glands, and after that in the kidney and pancreas, similar to the results in animal studies. Rapid uptake was also detected in the skeletal muscle. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were obtained, and the mean fractional tracer uptake values (K{sub i}) of the parotid glands (n=3) and cervical muscles (n=3) were 0.039{+-}0.008 min{sup -1} and 0.013{+-}0.006 min{sup -1}, respectively. The K{sub i} value of the tumour (n=1) was 0.064 min{sup -1}. Higher uptake of {sup 11}C-MeAIB into the tumour tissue was encountered. These results encourage further {sup 11}C-MeAIB PET studies in humans on the physiology and pathology of system A amino acid transport and on tumour detection. (orig.)

  16. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.


    A large-scale natural gradient tracer experiment was conducted on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to examine the transport and dispersion of solutes in a sand and gravel aquifer. The nonreactive tracer, bromide, and the reactive tracers, lithium and molybdate, were injected as a pulse i...

  18. Undiagnosed illnesses and radioactive warfare. (United States)

    Duraković, Asaf


    The internal contamination with depleted uranium (DU) isotopes was detected in British, Canadian, and United States Gulf War veterans as late as nine years after inhalational exposure to radioactive dust in the Persian Gulf War I. DU isotopes were also identified in a Canadian veteran's autopsy samples of lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In soil samples from Kosovo, hundreds of particles, mostly less than 5 microm in size, were found in milligram quantities. Gulf War I in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of DU deposited in the environment and 3-6 million grams of DU aerosol released into the atmosphere. Its legacy, Gulf War disease, is a complex, progressive, incapacitating multiorgan system disorder. The symptoms include incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletel and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affect changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lymphadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. Current understanding of its etiology seems far from being adequate. After the Afghanistan Operation Anaconda (2002), our team studied the population of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas, and identified civilians with the symptoms similar to those of Gulf War syndrome. Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 8 symptomatic subjects were collected by the following criteria: 1) the onset of symptoms relative to the bombing raids; 2) physical presence in the area of the bombing; and 3) clinical manifestations. Control subjects were selected among the sympotom-free residents in non-targeted areas. All samples were analyzed for the concentration and ratio of four uranium isotopes, (234)U, (235)U, (236)U and (238)U, by using a multicollector, inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry. The first results from the Jalalabad province revealed urinary excretion of total uranium in all subjects significantly exceeding the values in the nonexposed population


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.


    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  20. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.


    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one

  1. Radioactive Ion Beam Development at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, Dan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Blackmon, Jeff C; Carter, Ken; Dowling, Darryl; Juras, Raymond; Kawai, Yoko; Kronenberg, Andreas; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha; Müller, Paul; Spejewski, Eugene H; Tatum, A


    Radioactive beams are produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) technique. Radioactive nuclei are produced in a thick target via irradiation with energetic light ions (protons, deuterons, helium isotopes) and then post-accelerated to a few MeV/nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. An overview of radioactive beam development at the HRIBF will be presented, including ion source development, improvements in the ISOL production targets, and a description of techniques to improve the quality (intensity and purity) of the beams. Facilities for radioactive ion beam development include two ion source test facilities, a target/ion source preparation and quality assurance facility, and an in-beam test facility where low intensity production beams are used. A new test facility, the High Power Target Laboratory, will be available later this year. At this facility, high intensity production beams will be available t...

  2. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others


    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  3. Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

  4. Cosmological constraints from multiple tracers in spectroscopic surveys (United States)

    Alarcon, Alex; Eriksen, Martin; Gaztanaga, Enrique


    We use the Fisher matrix formalism to study the expansion and growth history of the Universe using galaxy clustering with 2D angular cross-correlation tomography in spectroscopic or high-resolution photometric redshift surveys. The radial information is contained in the cross-correlations between narrow redshift bins. We show how multiple tracers with redshift space distortions cancel sample variance and arbitrarily improve the constraints on the dark energy equation of state ω(z) and the growth parameter γ in the noiseless limit. The improvement for multiple tracers quickly increases with the bias difference between the tracers, up to a factor ∼4 in FoMγω. We model a magnitude limited survey with realistic density and bias using a conditional luminosity function, finding a factor 1.3-9.0 improvement in FoMγω - depending on global density - with a split in a halo mass proxy. Partly overlapping redshift bins improve the constraints in multiple tracer surveys a factor ∼1.3 in FoMγω. This finding also applies to photometric surveys, where the effect of using multiple tracers is magnified. We also show large improvement on the FoM with increasing density, which could be used as a trade-off to compensate some possible loss with radial resolution.

  5. Chemical tracers of particulate emissions from commercial shipping. (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; Dos Santos, Saúl García; Herce, María Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía


    Despite the increase of commercial shipping around the world, data are yet relatively scarce on the contribution of these emissions to ambient air particulates. One of the reasons is the complexity in the detection and estimation of shipping contributions to ambient particulates in harbor and urban environments, given the similarity with tracers of other combustion sources. This study aimed to identify specific tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean city with an important harbor (Melilla, Spain). Results showed that for 24 h PM10 and PM2.5 samples, valid tracers of commercial shipping emissions were ratios of V/Ni = 4-5 and V/EC 8 excluded the influence of shipping emissions. Other ratios (V/ S, La/Ce, Zn/Ni, Pb/Zn, OC/EC) and tracers (Pb, Zn) were also tested but did not correlate with this source. Due to the changing composition of diesel fuels, tracers in the Mediterranean Sea may not be representative in other regions of the world and vice versa. The contribution of shipping emissions to ambient particulate matter (PM) urban background levels was quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), resulting in 2% and 4% of mean annual PM10 levels (0.8 microg/m3 primary particles and 1.7 microg/m3 secondary particles, with 20% uncertainty) and 14% of mean annual PM2.5 levels (2.6 microg/m3).

  6. Nuclear medicine and coronary artery disease: evaluation of tracers of myocardial perfusion and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque; Medecine nucleaire et maladie coronarienne: evaluation de traceurs de la perfusion myocardique et de la plaque d'atherome vulnerable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisat, A


    Coronary artery disease is one of the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine is the major imaging technique for diagnosis and following of this disease. perfusion: nowadays, major radioactive agents used in clinical practice are myocardial perfusion tracers. The reference tracer is thallium-201. However, {sup 201}Tl presents some drawbacks. {sup 99m}Tcn-noet has been proposed for its replacement. This study shows that in contrast with previous studies realized in vitro on cardio myocytes, verapamil, an l-type calcium channel inhibitor, does not inhibit myocardial fixation of {sup 99m}Tcn-noet in vivo in dog. This data is in agreement with the hypothesis of a non specific endothelial fixation of this tracer. Moreover, this study shows that as a pure tracer of myocardial perfusion, {sup 99m}Tcn-noet can also be used to assess myocardial viability on a model of myocardial chronic infarction in rat. atherosclerosis: disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the main event leading to coronary accidents. The second part of this study concerns the evaluation of new potential tracers of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in an experimental model of rabbit with an inheritable hypercholesterolemia. The four tracers evaluated (b2702(r), b2702-I, b2702-Tc and Tc-raft-b2702) are synthetic peptides comprising the residues 75-84 of hla-b2702, a molecule known to link vcam-1, an adhesion molecule expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The autoradiography studies show that all tracers accumulate within atherosclerotic plaque expressing vcam- and that. i-b2702 shows the best plaque/control fixation ratio. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste management in a hospital. (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa


    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations.

  8. The Effect of Soil Radioactivity in Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the sources of natural occurring radiation was soils. The purpose of article was to determine soil pollution by radiation absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual gonad dose equivalent and annual effective dose equivalent. Methods & Materials: The soil samples was located in Chahbahar city in Blouchestan of Iran, was chosen for studying of radioactivity. It was collected from twenty five points, each one in three separate places with 100 meter distance (twelve in western and thirteen in eastern sites in the region. Then, each three soil samples were mixed and dried as one sample. The radioactivity concentration was measured in soil samples by gamma spectrometer. Results: The natural radioactivity doses of soil in studied samples resulted in average absorbed dose rate, 42.92 ±4.03 nGy h-1; radium equivalent activity, 86.79±8.26 Raeq per Bqkg- the external hazard index, 1:8231.86±327.76; the annual gonad dose equivalent, 322.9±31.6 μSvh-1; and the annual effective dose equivalent 193.15μSvh-1.The results of study were compared with the international recommended values and radioactivity measurements in soils of different countries. Conclusion: The contribution of natural radioactivity in pollution of area in comparison to ICRP was low.

  9. Radioactive ion beam development in Berkeley

    CERN Document Server

    Wutte, D C; Leitner, M A; Xie, Z Q


    Two radioactive ion beam projects are under development at the 88" Cyclotron, BEARS (Berkeley Experiment with accelerated radioactive species) and the 14O experiment. The projects are initially focused on the production of 11C and 14O, but it is planned to expand the program to 17F, 18F, 13N and 76Kr. For the BEARS project, the radioactivity is produced in form of either CO2 or N2O in a small medical 10 MeV proton cyclotron. The activity is then transported through a 300 m long He-jet line to the 88" cyclotron building, injected into the AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the 88" cyclotron to energies between 1 to 30 MeV/ nucleon. The 14O experiment is a new experiment at the 88" cyclotron to measure the energy-shape of the beta decay spectrum. For this purpose, a target transfer line and a radioactive ion beam test stand has been constructed. The radioactivity is produced in form of CO in a hot carbon target with a 20 MeV 3He from the 88" Cyclotron. The activity diffuses through an 8m long stainless s...

  10. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (M.N.)

  11. Fluorine-18 labelled building blocks for PET tracer synthesis. (United States)

    van der Born, Dion; Pees, Anna; Poot, Alex J; Orru, Romano V A; Windhorst, Albert D; Vugts, Danielle J


    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important driver for present day healthcare. Fluorine-18 is the most widely used radioisotope for PET imaging and a thorough overview of the available radiochemistry methodology is a prerequisite for selection of a synthetic approach for new fluorine-18 labelled PET tracers. These PET tracers can be synthesised either by late-stage radiofluorination, introducing fluorine-18 in the last step of the synthesis, or by a building block approach (also called modular build-up approach), introducing fluorine-18 in a fast and efficient manner in a building block, which is reacted further in one or multiple reaction steps to form the PET tracer. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and application of fluorine-18 labelled building blocks since 2010.

  12. Assessment of myocardial pathogenesis with new radioisotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    In the field of nuclear cardiology, various new radioisotopic tracers have been commercially available since 1993 in Japan. These tracers can be divided into (1) [sup 99m]Tc-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents ([sup 99m]Tc-MIBI, [sup 99m]Tc-tetrofosimin, and [sup 99m]Tc-teboroxime); (2) [sup 123]I-labeled myocardial fatty acid imaging agents ([sup 123]-BMIPP and [sup 123]I-IPPA); (3) [sup 123]I-labeled myocardial sympathetic imaging agent ([sup 123]I-MIBG); (4) [sup 111]In-labeled imaging agents for myocardial cell damage ([sup 111]In-monoclonal antimyosin antibody); and (5) [sup 67]Ga thrombosis imaging agent ([sup 67]Ga-fibrinogen). This article outlines these new tracers, focussing on their potential in assessing myocardial pathogenesis. (N.K.) 64 refs.

  13. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples : vegetables, fishes/shellfishes, fruits, starch and starch roots and drinking waters. Among the all 2001 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  14. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.


    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  15. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: Tel.: 73171 E-mail: Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : Tel.: 73171 E-mail:

  16. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  17. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  18. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment (United States)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.


    The paper deals with some problems concerning reduction of radioactivity of liquid low-level nuclear waste streams (LLLW). The membrane processes as ultrafiltration (UF), seeded ultrafiltration (SUF), reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD) were examined. Ultrafiltration enables the removal of particles with molecular weight above cut-off of UF membranes and can be only used as a pre-treatment stage. The improvement of removal is achieved by SUF, employing macromolecular ligands binding radioactive ions. The reduction of radioactivity in LLLW to very low level were achieved with RO membranes. The results of experiments led the authors to the design and construction of UF+2RO pilot plant. The development of membrane distillation improve the selectivity of membrane process in some cases. The possibility of utilisation of waste heat from cooling system of nuclear reactors as a preferable energy source can significantly reduce the cost of operation.

  19. Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland; Beratungsstelle Radioaktivitaet Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, N.; Balsiger, B.; Burger, M. [Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (Switzerland). LABOR SPIEZ


    The Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland is meant to assess the radiological condition and serves for psychological-medical care of affected members of the Swiss public following an event of increased radioactivity in the environment. The Centre is structured in a modular way consisting of the following modules: ''Entry Measurement'': The visitors are registered and measured for contamination, ''Decontamination'': Contaminated visitors are decontaminated, ''Additional Measurements'': If required, thyroid and whole body measurements are performed, ''Information'': The visitors are informed about radioactivity, radiation protection, the current situation and their individual next steps, ''Exit'': Administrative release from the Information Centre.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  1. Application of radioactivity to subterranean hydraulic engineering (1961); Application de la radioactivite a l'hydraulique souterraine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The search for radioactive tracers for water capable of percolating through permeable grounds without significant absorption has led to the choosing of two isotopes, bromine 82 (half-life 36 hours) and iodine (half-life 8 days), both {gamma} emitters; various combinations of other {gamma} emitters with longer half-lives have been tried but with only partial success. The recent progress in the dosage of tritium should make it possible to widen the field of application of this tracer which is unique in its kind. Being detectable at concentrations of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -8} curies per cubic meter, the radioactive tracers are suitable for all the usual applications of conventional tracers; furthermore, some original techniques have been devised for measurements of flow, of reservoir capacity, of porosity and of permeability. Techniques based on the absorption and scattering of {gamma}-rays have also been developed for the measurement of the density, the humidity and the porosity of soils, and also for their analysis. Up to the present, radioactivity has been mainly applied to the study of oil-bearing formations. Furthermore, the study of the distribution of natural of thermonuclear tritium has contributed greatly to the study of the hydrological cycle. (author) [French] La recherche de traceurs radioactifs de l'eau susceptibles de circuler a travers les terrains permeables sans retention notable a abouti a la selection de deux isotopes, le brome 82 (periodes 36 heures) et l'iode (periode 8 jours), tous deux emetteurs {gamma}; diverses combinaisons mettant en jeu des emetteurs {gamma} de periode plus longue ont ete essayees, mais avec un succes partiel. Les progres recemment accomplis dans le dosage du tritium doivent permettre une rapide extension de l'emploi de ce traceur unique en son genre. Decelables a des concentrations de 10{sup -6} a 10{sup -8} curies par metre cube, les traceurs radioactifs se pretent a toutes les applications des traceurs

  2. Optimizing the mercury mass measurement in industrial electrolytic cells by the radio-tracer method at ININ; Optimizacion de la medicion de masa de mercurio en celdas electroliticas industriales por el metodo de radiotrazado en el ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle R, J.; Angeles C, A., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    One method used in the production of chlorine and sodium is the use of electrolytic cells for the separation of chlorine and sodium from the brine; the industries apply very intense electromagnetic fields in this process. The electrolytic cells use mercury as electrode. In a chlorine production plant inventories are determined by total amount of mercury in the plant annually, since mercury losses are large and a very important parameter is to control the mass of mercury for it is necessary to measure with great precision the losses made. There are several methods to determine the mass of mercury ranging from take samples and weigh, but this involves continuous interruption of the process creating downtimes which in turn represent economic losses giving a result delimiting productivity for the industrial sector. An alternative and attractive method is to use a radioactive tracer whose principle has a similar behavior to study objective. The inert mercury has to be neutron activated in a nuclear reactor to having the characteristics of a tracer; the result makes one of the isotopes of mercury. The tracer is transported taking into account the recommendations of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico), then it is injected into the electrolytic cells mixing with the mercury in the system. By a relative radioactivity measurement and one sample by gamma spectrometry per interest cell, the mass of mercury without stopping the process is obtained. For optimal use of radio-tracer method must be taken into account as important features: irradiation time of mercury, counting conditions, vial geometry, sample volume, sample cells, mixing time and half-life of the tracer. (Author)

  3. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel


    , associated with U-Zr matrix fuel particles [5] and/or that migration of U is limited due to redox processes and/or microbial activity. The above described experience of post-Chernobyl studies shows that a combined analysis of radionuclides, natural and anthropogenic tracers provides an efficient research tool to better understand and quantify contaminant transport processes in the geo-sphere. Similar approaches can be applied to the study transport of RN in the subsurface, issued from both, diffuse (contaminated watersheds) and point (damaged NPP and fuel storage units) radioactive sources produced by the Fukushima accident. References [1] Dzhepo S. P., Skalskyy A., 2002, In Chernobyl disaster and groundwater, Shestopalov, V., Ed. A.A. Balkema: Lisse, pp 25-70. [2] Dewiere L., Bugai D. et al., 2004, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 74, (1-3), 139-150. [3] Van Meir N., Bugaï, et al., 2009, in: Oughton, D.H., Kashparov, V. (Eds.), Radioactive Particles in the Environment. Springer Science+Business Media B.V., pp.197-208. [4] Le Gal La Salle C., Aquilina L., et al., 2012, Appl. Geochem., 27 1304-1319. [5] Kashparov V.A., Ahamdach N., et. al., 2004, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 72, 335-353.

  4. Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers (United States)

    Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut


    Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the

  5. Key aspects of stratospheric tracer modeling using assimilated winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bregman


    Full Text Available This study describes key aspects of global chemistry-transport models and their impact on stratospheric tracer transport. We concentrate on global models that use assimilated winds from numerical weather predictions, but the results also apply to tracer transport in general circulation models. We examined grid resolution, numerical diffusion, air parcel dispersion, the wind or mass flux update frequency, and time interpolation. The evaluation is performed with assimilated meteorology from the "operational analyses or operational data" (OD from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. We also show the effect of the mass flux update frequency using the ECMWF 40-year re-analyses (ERA40. We applied the three-dimensional chemistry-transport Tracer Model version 5 (TM5 and a trajectory model and performed several diagnoses focusing on different transport regimes. Covering different time and spatial scales, we examined (1 polar vortex dynamics during the Arctic winter, (2 the large-scale stratospheric meridional circulation, and (3 air parcel dispersion in the tropical lower stratosphere. Tracer distributions inside the Arctic polar vortex show considerably worse agreement with observations when the model grid resolution in the polar region is reduced to avoid numerical instability. The results are sensitive to the diffusivity of the advection. Nevertheless, the use of a computational cheaper but diffusive advection scheme is feasible for tracer transport when the horizontal grid resolution is equal or smaller than 1 degree. The use of time interpolated winds improves the tracer distributions, particularly in the middle and upper stratosphere. Considerable improvement is found both in the large-scale tracer distribution and in the polar regions when the update frequency of the assimilated winds is increased from 6 to 3 h. It considerably reduces the vertical dispersion of air parcels in the tropical lower stratosphere. Strong

  6. Relation of plasma flow structures to passive particle tracer orbits (United States)

    García, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Llerena, I.


    The properties of plasma flow topological structures are compared with those of passive tracer particles within a framework of the continuous random walk (CTRW) approach. Vortices may cause some of the trapping of particles, while large scale flows may carry them from vortex to vortex. The results indicate that most of the trappings that are completed during the calculation correspond to tracers trapped on broken filaments, including possible multiple trappings. The probability distribution function of the trapping times is then a function of the filament length, and has a lognormal character, like the distribution of filament lengths.

  7. Biocytin as a retrograde tracer in the mammalian visual system. (United States)

    Picanço-Diniz, C W; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Martin, K A


    We have successfully used biocytin as a retrograde tracer in the mammalian visual system. Retinal ganglion cells, pyramidal and stellate cortical neurons were labelled. Both pressure injections and gel implants were used successfully for retrograde labelling. Biocytin was detected using avidin conjugates and horseradish peroxidase histochemistry. Retrograde filling with biocytin proved to be more reliable and to allow better morphological resolution than other commonly used neurotracers such as horseradish peroxidase. The fine details of cell morphology observable by this method are comparable in many cases to the results obtained with intracellular tracer injections. The morphological resolution obtained with this method allows the study of brain microcircuits using extracellular deposits of biocytin.

  8. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro


    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  9. Radioactivity and Environment. Radioactividad y Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Leon, J.G. (Jefe de Seguridad Nuclear de la Fabrica de Juzbado. Empresa Nacional de Uranio. (Spain))


    Radioactivity is one of the most studied natural phenomena. Most of irradiation suffered by the human being is produced by natural sources. The second source in order of importance is nuclear medicine. The average level of radiation received by the man is 2.4 mSv/year and this value can be modified naturally in 20-30%. The author provides a review on radioactivity sources like natural (cosmic rays, extraterrestrial radiation, internal earth radiation, radon) and artificial (Nuclear explosions, professional exposure, nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and accidents).

  10. Container and vehicle for transporting radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Reese Stanton (United States)


    The invention deals with a container or tank or a packing unit designed to transport radioactive material and a vehicle for transporting this container. More specifically the invention relates to a container or a packing unit designed for transporting radioactive materials which generate heat. This container has improved heat dissipation properties and because of its particular structure, has a reduced weight. The invention also deals with the construction mode of a vehicle which permits the transport of such a container while presenting maximum resistance properties and a minimum weight.

  11. NKS 1999 intercomparison of measurements of radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange Fogh, C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    34 laboratories have returned radioactivity measurements on six different environmental samples. The samples were analysed for their content of gamma emitters, Sr-90, transuranics and Tc-99. The samples materials are described and the results presented. Some scatter was observed in measurements of Cs-137 in low-level samples such as dry milk, meat and hay. The scatter was less pronounced for sediments and seaweed material that had higher levels of radioactivity. In general, the most of the results were consistent with a few laboratories reporting outlying values. An exception was seawater where no clear agreement could be found for the activity of Cs-137. (au)

  12. Natural radiation and radioactivity in education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu [Kanazawa Univ., Takarazuka, Hyogo (Japan)


    To understand radiation and radioactivity, it is important to recall the history of their investigation. At first, the works made by Elster and Geitel with a leaf electroscope about 100 years age are introduced. Then the variations of environmental radiation level are shown by the results obtained with a large volume NaI(Tl) detector on my car travelling all over Japan and the data with a pocket dosimeter during my tours in Europe. Among environmental radioactivity, radon and tritium are specially remarked from the historical and educational points of view, with various methods for their measurements. (author)

  13. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)


    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  14. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heredia, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Logue, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This report documents experiments performed in three homes to assess the methodology used to determine air exchange rates using passive tracer techniques. The experiments used four different tracer gases emitted simultaneously but implemented with different spatial coverage in the home. Two different tracer gas sampling methods were used. The results characterize the factors of the execution and analysis of the passive tracer technique that affect the uncertainty in the calculated air exchange rates. These factors include uncertainties in tracer gas emission rates, differences in measured concentrations for different tracer gases, temporal and spatial variability of the concentrations, the comparison between different gas sampling methods, and the effect of different ventilation conditions.

  15. An ELISA DYRK1A non-radioactive kinase assay suitable for the characterization of inhibitors [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu


    Full Text Available The DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A gene encodes a proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase. Elevated expression and/or altered distribution of the kinase have been implicated in the neurological impairments associated with Down syndrome (DS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Consequently, DYRK1A inhibition has been of significant interest as a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention of DS and AD. Many classes of novel inhibitors have been described in the past decade. Although non-radioactive methods for analyzing DYRK1A inhibition have been developed, methods employing radioactive tracers are still commonly used for quantitative characterization of DYRK1A inhibitors. Here, we present a non-radioactive ELISA assay based on the detection of DYRK1A-phosphorylated dynamin 1a fragment using a phosphorylation site-specific antibody. The assay was verified by the use of two well-characterized DYRK1A inhibitors, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and harmine. The IC50s for EGCG and harmine determined by the ELISA method were found to be comparable to those previously measured by radioactive tracing methods.  Furthermore, we determined the mode of inhibition for EGCG and harmine by a modification of the ELISA assay. This assay confirms the mode of inhibition of EGCG (non-ATP-competitive and harmine (ATP-competitive, as previously determined. We conclude that the ELISA platform demonstrated here is a viable alternative to the traditional radioactive tracer assays for analyzing DYRK1A inhibitors.

  16. The role of the synovial fluid and tendon sheath for flexor tendon nutrition. An experimental tracer study on diffusional pathways in dogs. (United States)

    Lundborg, G; Holm, S; Myrhage, R


    Radioactive tracers were used to analyse nutritional mechanisms of flexor tendons of dogs during various experimental conditions. The transport and distribution of methyl glucose in the tendon was analysed 15 min after intravenous injection during the following experimental conditions: (1) normal state--rest; (2) passive mobilization of the tendon; (3) active mobilization of the tendon; (4) exclusion of exposure to synovial fluid-preservation of vascular supply; (5) exclusion of vascular supply--preservation of exposure to synovial fluid. The results indicate that active mobilization gives a significant increase in tracer concentration in the volar part of the tendon, while passive mobilization has no such effect. Diffusional pathways from the synovial fluid plays a major role for transport of tracer into the tendon, while the intrinsic vascular system apparently is of no or minor importance in this respect. The main mechanism for solute transport within the tendon is passive diffusion. Transport of sulphate in the volar part follows a similar pattern as in other avascular tissues and the incorporation of sulphate by the cells is low and comparable to that in articular cartilage. The results support our previous hypothesis that the flexor tendon system physiologically corresponds to a joint, and that the synovial fluid plays an important role for flexor tendon nutrition.

  17. [18F]FDG Labeling of Neural Stem Cells for in Vivo Cell Tracking with Positron Emission Tomography: Inhibition of Tracer Release by Phloretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katica Stojanov


    Full Text Available The introduction of neural stem cells into the brain has promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. To monitor the cellular replacement therapy, that is, to determine stem cell migration, survival, and differentiation, in vivo tracking methods are needed. Ideally, these tracking methods are noninvasive. Noninvasive tracking methods that have been successfully used for the visualization of blood-derived progenitor cells include magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET. The SPECT tracer In-111-oxine is suitable for stem cell labeling, but for studies in small animals, the higher sensitivity and facile quantification that can be obtained with PET are preferred. Here the potential of 2′-[18F]fluoro-2′-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG, a PET tracer, for tracking of neural stem cell (NSCs trafficking toward an inflammation site was investigated. [18F]-FDG turns out to be a poor radiopharmaceutical to label NSCs owing to the low labeling efficiency and substantial release of radioactivity from these cells. Efflux of [18F]-FDG from NSCs can be effectively reduced by phloretin in vitro, but inhibition of tracer release is insufficient in vivo for accurate monitoring of stem cell trafficking.

  18. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  19. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)


    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [{sup 18}F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [{sup 18}F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  20. Non-input analysis for incomplete trapping irreversible tracer with PET. (United States)

    Ohya, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Irie, Toshiaki


    When using metabolic trapping type tracers, the tracers are not always trapped in the target tissue; i.e., some are completely trapped in the target, but others can be eliminated from the target tissue at a measurable rate. The tracers that can be eliminated are termed 'incomplete trapping irreversible tracers'. These incomplete trapping irreversible tracers may be clinically useful when the tracer β-value, the ratio of the tracer (metabolite) elimination rate to the tracer efflux rate, is under approximately 0.1. In this study, we propose a non-input analysis for incomplete trapping irreversible tracers based on the shape analysis (Shape), a non-input analysis used for irreversible tracers. A Monte Carlo simulation study based on experimental monkey data with two actual PET tracers (a complete trapping irreversible tracer [(11)C]MP4A and an incomplete trapping irreversible tracer [(18)F]FEP-4MA) was performed to examine the effects of the environmental error and the tracer elimination rate on the estimation of the k3-parameter (corresponds to metabolic rate) using Shape (original) and modified Shape (M-Shape) analysis. The simulation results were also compared with the experimental results obtained with the two PET tracers. When the tracer β-value was over 0.03, the M-Shape method was superior to the Shape method for the estimation of the k3-parameter. The simulation results were also in reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. M-Shape can be used as the non-input analysis of incomplete trapping irreversible tracers for PET study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radon-222 and beryllium-7 as natural tracer; Radon-222 und Beryllium-7 als natuerliche Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany). Radioaktivitaetsueberwachung; Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)


    The Global Atmosphere Watch Program (GAW) is intended to analyse worldwide the influence of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere. Data are continuously transferred to the ''World Data Centre for Green House Gases'' of the WMO. For the study of atmospheric transports the natural radionuclides Rn-222, Be-7, Pb-210, Pb- 214 and Bi-214 are continuously measured at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (2650 m) and at the Zugspitze (2962 m) by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Weather Service). The measurements support the classification of atmospheric transport, atmospheric dilution and dispersion models of gaseous and aerosol bond micro pollutants. Results are carried out in combination with meteorological data. It is shown the optimization and effect of a new sampling site for the measurement of Rn-222 activity at the Zugspitze. Results of Rn-222 and Be-7 concentrations are shown in relation to horizontal and vertical dispersion of air masses. The origin of natural Rn-222 and Be-7 are known, therefore both nuclides are well suited for the research of atmospheric transport. Rn-222 is an ideal tracer, because there is no influence by atmospheric processes (chemical processes, wash out effects).

  2. Standardization of a 204Tl radioactive solution. (United States)

    Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F


    The standardization of 204Tl is described. The efficiency tracing technique was applied using 134Cs as tracer. The 4(pi)beta-gamma coincidence system was used for the calibration. The (Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear) has participated in this comparison in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from Rio de Janeiro. Independent results using different techniques were developed by each of these laboratories and included in the comparison.

  3. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources (United States)

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka


    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  4. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ... (United States)


    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  5. Artificial and Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial and Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation Dose Assessment in the Vicinity of Ghana Nuclear Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) ... In the case of water samples, the average value was higher than the guidance level of 0.1 mSv y-1, as recommended by the European Union and the World ...

  6. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nejat Akar


    Jul 10, 2015 ... Neural tube defects;. Anencephaly;. Spina bifida. Abstract Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate ... Neural tube defects, are one of the common congenital mal- formations ... ent cities of Turkey (˙Izmir/Aegean Region; Trabzon/Black Sea region ...

  7. Radioactivity a history of a mysterious science

    CERN Document Server

    Malley, Marjorie C


    Beginning with an obscure discovery in 1896, radioactivity led researchers on a quest for understanding that ultimately confronted the intersection of knowledge and mystery. This book tells the story of a new science that profoundly changed physics and chemistry, as well as areas such as medicine, geology, meteorology, archaeology, industry, politics, and popular culture.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.


    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  9. Radioactive elements in Paleozoic coals of Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Volostnov, A.V.; Varlachev, V.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    The geochemistry of radioactive elements was examined in the Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, Tunguska, and Gorlovo Paleozoic coal basins in Siberia. Quantitative analytical techniques (INAA, delayed neutron analysis, and XRF) were used to study 2600 samples of coals and their host rocks. The average U and Th concentrations in the coals are 2 and 3 ppm, respectively. The lateral and vertical variability of the distribution of radioactive elements was examined on the scale of coal basins, deposits, and individual coal seams. It was determined that elevated U and Th concentrations in coals are often related to rock blocks enriched in radioactive elements in the surroundings of the basins or are correlated with volcanic activity during coal accumulation. High concentrations of these elements in coal seams are restricted to zones near the tops of the seams and the soil zones, the boundaries of partings, or to beds enriched in pyroclastic material. Using the f-radiography method, it was determined that the main mechanism of U accumulation in coals is its sorption on the organic matter. Thorium is contained in both the mineral and the organic constituents of coals. An increase in the ash contents of coals with clarke radioactivity is associated with an increase in the contents of U and Th in the mineral matter.

  10. [Loss and uncontrolled use of radioactive sources]. (United States)

    Govaerts, P


    In the course of history, exposure to radioactive sources escaping regular control, has been the main cause of fatal accidents, with the exception of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, numerous lost sources have been found, sometimes with serious physical damage. The attacks of September 11, 2001 have focussed the attention on the possibility of nuclear terrorism. Although the risks of fatal consequences are rather limited, the possible uncontrolled exposure to ionizing radiation has an important psycho-social impact on the population. After a brief survey of the types of radioactive sources for medical and industrial applications and a discussion of the risks and exposure routes, possible scenarios are illustrated by well documented case histories. The main conclusions of this analysis are: Radioactive materials are not unique as a potential threat by toxic materials. The most serious consequences for individuals occur as the result of external radiation, mostly with skin contact with medium-active sources which are relatively easily accessible. The collective impact is mostly psycho-social and is more important for a dispersed contamination of the environment. Many sources are detected via medical complaints. The knowledge of the specific symptoms is consequently very important. A dispersion of radioactive contamination has usually considerable economic consequences. Accidents occur particularly, but certainly not exclusively, in relatively unstable countries. Change of owner or final evacuation of the source constitute a critical phase in many scenarios.

  11. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto


    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  12. Accelerated radioactive beams from REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O; Emhofer, S; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Reiter, P; Thirolf, P G; Lutter, R; Habs, D; Wolf, B; Huber, G; Schmidt, P; Ostrowski, A N; Von Hahn, R; Repnow, R; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Scheit, H; Schwalm, D; Podlech, H; Schempp, A; Ratzinger, U; Forstner, O; Wenander, F; Cederkäll, J; Nilsson, T; Lindroos, M; Fynbo, H O U; Franchoo, S; Bergmann, U C; Oinonen, M; Äystö, J; Van den Berg, P; Duppen, P V; Huyse, M; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Eberth, J; Jonson, B; Nyman, G H; Pantea, M; Simon, H; Shrieder, G; Richter, A; Tengblad, O; Davinson, T; Woods, P J; Bollen, G; Weissman, L; Liljeby, L; Rensfelt, K G


    In 2001 the linear accelerator of the Radioactive beam EXperiment (REX-ISOLDE) delivered for the first time accelerated radioactive ion beams, at a beam energy of 2 MeV/u. REX-ISOLDE uses the method of charge-state breeding, in order to enhance the charge state of the ions before injection into the LINAC. Radioactive singly-charged ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are first accumulated in a Penning trap, then charge bred to an A/q<4.5 in an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and finally accelerated in a LINAC from 5 keV/u to energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV/u. Dedicated measurements with REXTRAP, the transfer line and the EBIS have been carried out in conjunction with the first commissioning of the accelerator. Thus the properties of the different elements could be determined for further optimization of the system. In two test beam times in 2001 stable and radioactive Na isotopes ( sup 2 sup 3 Na- sup 2 sup 6 Na) have been accelerated and transmitted to a preliminary target station. There sup 5 sup...

  13. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry


    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  14. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))


    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  15. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Some of the experimental techniques used will be introduced; more focus will be put on what physics questions can be answered by using radioactive beams. A brief overview is given of the present and future European developments in this rapidly evolving field. Prerequisite knowledge: none

  16. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity (United States)

    Lapp, David R.


    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  17. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been carried out to study the proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei [2]. The existing theoretical studies can be classified into two broad categories. In the first category different theoretical approaches are based on quantum mechanical foun- dation such as transmission through a potential barrier [3], distorted wave Born.


    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  19. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R


    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  20. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.J.


    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  1. Alternative PET tracers in head and neck cancer. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Halmos, Gyorgy; Langedijk, Johannes A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a standard in staging Head and Neck cancer. While F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical, glycolysis is not the only metabolic process that can be visualized. Different PET tracers can also be used to

  2. Use of dual isotope tracers in biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F

    Biomedical stable isotope studies involve administration of tracer and measurement of isotope enrichment in blood, urine, feces or breath. The aim of the studies is to gather quantitative information about a specific metabolic function. However, the measured isotope enrichment may be affected by

  3. Uptake and transport of positron-emitting tracer in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Shimazu, Masamitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others


    The transport of a positron-emitting isotope introduced into a plant was dynamically followed by a special observation apparatus called `Positron-Emitting Tracer Imaging System`. In the system, annihilation {gamma}-rays from the positron emitter are detected with two planer detectors (5 x 6 cm square). The water containing ca. 5 MBq/ml of {sup 18}F was fed to the cut stem of soybean for 2 min and then the images of tracer activity were recorded for 30 - 50 min. When the midrib of a leaf near the petiole was cut just before measurement, the activity in the injured leaf was decreased but detected even at the apex. This result suggests that the damaged leaf recovered the uptake of water through the lamina. Maximum tracer activities in leaves of unirradiated plant were observed within 10 min, whereas those of irradiated plant at 100 Gy were observed after over 25 min. The final activity of irradiated plant after 30 min was lower than that of unirradiated plant. In case of beans, there was a difference in the absorption behavior of the {sup 18}F-labeled water between unirradiated and irradiated samples. These results show that the system is effective to observe the uptake and transportation of water containing positron emitting tracer for the study of damage and recovery functions of plants. (author)

  4. Testing different tracers for stream flow monitoring with UAS (United States)

    Fortunato Dal Sasso, Silvano; Manfreda, Salvatore; Pizarro, Alonso; Mita, Leonardo


    In hydrological applications flow monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution is crucial to understand the interactions between flow dynamics and infrastructures as well as to estimate streamflow discharges during extreme events. In this context, the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) combined with particle tracking techniques provide one of the greatest potential for hydraulic monitoring allowing to measure surface 2D velocity fields based on video acquisitions. The measurement equipment consists of an action-cam installed on a low-cost quadrocopter and floating particle tracers. Particles have been distributed manually on the water surface in order to obtain an optimal spread able to cover the entire cross-section. In the present study, several experiments in laboratory and on natural streams have been carried out using different tracers in different hydraulic configurations. Thereafter, acquired videos have been processed with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) optical technique to derive free surface velocity fields. The image processing is very sensitive to the tracer characteristics, water color, river bed material, and flow velocity. The aim of the study is to describe the optimal tracer for stream flow monitoring and parameter setting for each configuration. The obtained results provide flow velocity fields with high resolution in time and space with relatively good accuracy in comparison with benchmark velocity values measured by conventional current meters and radar techniques. The tested methodology, allowing a non-intrusive monitoring of watercourses, have great potential applicability in monitoring any river system at large scale and also in difficult-to-access environments.

  5. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G. [Union Electric Company, Fulton, MO (United States); Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)


    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  7. Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G


    with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...

  8. Tracers for investigating pathogen fate and removal mechanisms in mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werker, Alan G. [AnoxKaldnes AB, Klosteraengsvaegen 11A, S226-47, Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail:; Van Loon, Wendy [University of Waterloo, Waterloo Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Legge, Raymond L. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    The purpose of the present investigation has been to develop a tracer suite that has application in in-situ assessment and optimization of physical and biological removal and elimination mechanisms of pathogens within laboratory scale biological treatment systems. The tracer suite includes three pathogen indicators, namely, a conserved non-viable particle (fluorescently labelled microspheres, FLM), a non-conserved non-viable particle (fluorescently labelled bioparticles, FLB), and a non-conserved viable particle (Nalidixic acid resistant E. coli, NAREC). The tracer triplet principles were developed with practical experiments on planted, and unplanted subsurface flow wetland mesocosms treating a synthetic domestic wastewater. The tracers monitor for physical removal mechanisms (FLM), elimination activity (FLB), and removal thresholds (NAREC). FLM enumeration was simplified by calibration of particle concentration with respect to acetone-extractable fluorescence. Similarly, FLB elimination was assessed by bulk fluorescence using two characteristic excitation-emission wavelength pairs: 494/519 and 220/319 nm. NAREC results indicated that first order removal kinetics may only proceed down to limiting threshold concentrations.

  9. Controlling parameters of fluorescent tracer sorption on soils and sediments (United States)

    Bork, Marcus; Graf-Rosenfellner, Markus; Lange, Jens; Lang, Friederike


    Fluorescent dyes like uranine (UR) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) have been widely used, especially for tracing hydrological processes. In the recent past, efforts have intensified to use fluorescent tracers also in soils, for example as proxies for organic pollutants. However, the sorption properties of both organic pollutants and fluorescent tracers have to be exactly known to succeed. Yet existing knowledge for soils is still incomplete and poorly standardized. For this reason, we carried out laboratory batch experiments to determine sorption isotherms of UR and SRB with varying pH, soil texture and organic carbon content (OC). As sorbents we used a sandy sediment with low OC, a silty loamy topsoil with 2.8 %-OC and a similar textured subsoil containing 0.6 %-OC. For both tracers six concentration steps each were prepared and shaken with the suspended sorbent for 42 h using a sorbent:solution ratio of 1:5. During the equilibration, the pH was repeatedly adjusted to 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 by adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Subsequently, the tracer-sorbent-suspension was centrifuged and the fluorescence of the tracer in the supernatant was measured. In order to examine the influence of OC and the clay fraction on the tracer sorption, batch-experiments at pH 7.5 were also conducted with manipulated sorbents: top- and subsoil samples were treated with H2O2 to remove organic matter and the clay mineral montmorillonite was added to the sandy sediment to achieve final clay contents of 0.1 %, 0.5 %, 1 %, 2 %, 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % clay. We observed a negative relationship between the linear sorption coefficient Kd and pH, which was stronger for UR than for SRB. Increasing numbers of negative sorption sites and functional groups of both tracers and sorbents with increasing pH might be the reason for this observation. Besides the pH-value, quantity and quality of clay and OC had a crucial influence on the sorption of UR and SRB in soils and sediment. As

  10. A Lagrangian particle method with remeshing for tracer transport on the sphere (United States)

    Bosler, Peter A.; Kent, James; Krasny, Robert; Jablonowski, Christiane


    A Lagrangian particle method (called LPM) based on the flow map is presented for tracer transport on the sphere. The particles carry tracer values and are located at the centers and vertices of triangular Lagrangian panels. Remeshing is applied to control particle disorder and two schemes are compared, one using direct tracer interpolation and another using inverse flow map interpolation with sampling of the initial tracer density. Test cases include a moving-vortices flow and reversing-deformational flow with both zero and nonzero divergence, as well as smooth and discontinuous tracers. We examine the accuracy of the computed tracer density and tracer integral, and preservation of nonlinear correlation in a pair of tracers. We compare results obtained using LPM and the Lin-Rood finite-volume scheme. An adaptive particle/panel refinement scheme is demonstrated.

  11. [Radioactivity in Harz area drinking water after Chernobyl]. (United States)

    Hennighausen, R H


    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26th, 1986 drinking water pollution was in Lower Saxony a problem in the Harz mountains. With the rainout of the radioactive clouds radioactivity came into the water-barrages, brooks und pools for drinking water supply. Good drinking water management supervised by the district community physician limited radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Drinking water path was approximately only 5% of the exposure to radioactive nuclides in the Harz region due to Chernobyl in 1986.

  12. Influence of natural radioactive aerosols on artificial radioactivity detection in the Spanish surveillance networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (INTE), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) Avda. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Arnold, D.; Ortega, X. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (INTE), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) Avda. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Parages, C. [Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), C. Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The device used for continuous measurements of artificial {alpha} and {beta} activity in Spanish radiological surveillance networks is the LB BAI 9850 monitor from the Berthold Company. The temporal variation of radon decay product equilibrium introduces a varying background signal in the artificial radioactivity in these monitors. This unwanted background signal can be significantly reduced by analyzing natural radioactive aerosols and their influence on the monitor.

  13. Understanding Flow and Transport in Ice Wedge Polygons Using Tracers (United States)

    Wales, N. A.; Newman, B. D.; Wilson, C. J.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.


    Ice wedge polygons are among the most prevalent landforms in lowland Arctic landscapes and are associated with high concentrations of permafrost carbon. The fate of this carbon in a warming climate is dependent on the rate of ice wedge degradation and its influence on hydrology. Most regional and pan-arctic land models focus on the representation of vertical water fluxes in the form of infiltration and evapotranspiration. Our work aims to better quantify the relative roles of vertical and subsurface horizontal water fluxes in these landscapes, providing data to revise, test, and calibrate permafrost hydrology representations in these models. We examined the controls of frost table depth, microtopography, and soil type on subsurface flow and transport within both a low centered polygon (LCP) and a high centered polygon (HCP) to better understand how topographic inversion due to ice wedge degradation will impact subsurface horizontal flow. A bromide solution was applied at both polygons in July of 2015. Macrorhizon samplers placed at various depths in the polygon centers, rims, and troughs were used to monitor tracer concentrations. Water level data and frost table depth measurements were also taken throughout the experiment. Tracer movement has been relatively slow, taking most of the first field season to arrive at a subsurface sampler, also called "breakthrough". Tracer travel times from polygon centers to rims and from surface to the frost table were shorter in the LCP than in the HCP. Preferential flow paths, influenced by topography and frost table depth, were found exist between polygon centers and troughs. Preliminary data also suggests that water typically flows downward to the frost table and then laterally. Correlations between tracer arrival time and absolute thaw depth are assessed, along with the relationships between tracer breakthough curves and polygon types and features.

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  15. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actions taken to educate the public, industrialists, health workers and other users of radioactive materials on the national system of control of radioactive wastes are presented. The roles of NRWMC as the institution responsible for collection, treatment and safe disposal of spent and disused radio-active materials are ...

  16. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David


    Organic extractants play a significant role in the selective removal of radioactive cations from waste streams. Although, literature on the selective removal of man-made radioactive material such as Americium (Am) is widespread, the selective removal of naturally occurring radioactive material such

  17. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147... the Navajo, Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3005 Radioactive waste injection... dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part 20, appendix B, table II, but not including high...

  18. Modification of Poisson Distribution in Radioactive Particle Counting. (United States)

    Drotter, Michael T.

    This paper focuses on radioactive practicle counting statistics in laboratory and field applications, intended to aid the Health Physics technician's understanding of the effect of indeterminant errors on radioactive particle counting. It indicates that although the statistical analysis of radioactive disintegration is best described by a Poisson…

  19. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  20. 40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods for radioactivity... § 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following contaminants shall be conducted to determine compliance with § 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the methods in the...

  1. In-situ tracer tests and models developed to understand flow paths in a shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland (United States)

    Blechschmidt, I.; Martin, A. J.


    The Grimsel Test Site ( is an international underground research laboratory excavated at a depth of 450m below the surface in the crystalline Aare Massif of southern Switzerland in 1984. It is operated and owned by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland (NAGRA) which is the organization responsible for managing and researching the geological disposal of all types of radioactive wastes originating in Switzerland. One experiment, the Colloid Formation and Migration test (CFM*), is an ongoing in-situ migration test started in 2004 to study colloid facilitated transport behavior of radionuclides through a shear zone. The importance of colloid transport in the context of a radioactive waste repository is that it provides a mechanism for potentially enhancing the advective transport of radionuclides. The montmorillonite clays that are planned to be used as an engineered barrier around the radioactive waste in many repository concepts may be a source of such colloids under specific hydraulic and/or chemical boundary conditions. The CFM project includes an integrated programme of field testing, laboratory studies and modelling/interpretation. The field tests are performed in a shear zone where the natural outflow has been controlled by a tunnel packer system and flow is monitored with an array of boreholes drilled for CFM and previous experiments at the site. The flow field is controlled by a low-rate extraction from a surface packer. The controlled low-rate extraction creates a region of low hydraulic gradients and fluid velocity within the shear zone, suitable for study under repository-relevant or other geo-resource relevant conditions. Here we present a summary of the migration tracer tests carried out so far to understand the hydraulic properties and transport characteristics of the shear zone using both stable and radioactive (Na-22, Cs-137, Ba-133, Th-232, Np-237, Am-243, Pu-242) tracers as well as colloids, and

  2. Pre-clinical evaluation of a 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole analogue of [18F]FMISO as hypoxia-selective tracer for PET. (United States)

    Bejot, Romain; Kersemans, Veerle; Kelly, Catherine; Carroll, Laurence; King, Robert C; Gouverneur, Véronique; Elizarov, Arkadij M; Ball, Carroll; Zhang, Jianzhong; Miraghaie, Reza; Kolb, Hartmuth C; Smart, Sean; Hill, Sally


    Hypoxia in solid tumours is associated with the promotion of various metabolic mechanisms and induces resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography by use of selective biomarkers has emerged as valuable tools for the detection of hypoxic areas within tumours so treatment can be modified accordingly. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate [(18)F]3-NTR, a 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole analogue (N(1) substituted) of [(18)F]FMISO as a potential hypoxia selective tracer. 3-NTR and its (18)F-radiolabelled isotopic isomer were synthesised and compared with FMISO in vitro and in vivo. Their physicochemical properties were measured, the enzymatic reduction was evaluated, and the reactivity of their metabolites was investigated. Biodistribution and PET scans were performed on CBA mice bearing hypoxic CaNT tumour cells, using (18)F-labelled versions of the tracers. [(18)F]3-NTR uptake within hypoxic cells was lower than [(18)F]FMISO and [(18)F]3-NTR did not exhibit any better selectivity than FMISO as a PET tracer in vivo. Both (18)F-radiolabelled compounds are relatively evenly distributed within the whole body and the radioactive uptake within hypoxic tumours reaches a maximum at 30 min post injection and decreases thereafter. Xanthine oxidase exhibited a nitroreductase activity toward 3-NTR under anaerobic conditions, but reduced metabolites did not bind covalently. It is confirmed that 3-NTR is an electron acceptor. It is postulated that radiolabelled metabolites and fragments of [(18)F]3-NTR are freely diffusing due to their poor binding capacities. Thus [(18)F]3-NTR cannot be used as a hypoxia selective tracer for PET. The investigation provides insights into the importance of the propensity to form covalent adducts for such biomarkers. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudjord, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Brungot, A.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Helldal, H.E.; Brown, J.; Iosjpe, M.; Christensen, G.


    A new, comprehensive national programme for monitoring of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment (RAME) was established in 1999. This program is based on a proposal developed by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), the Directorate for Nature Conservation (DN) and the State pollution authorities (SFT) on behalf of the Ministry of Environment. NRPA, as the responsible authority on radiation protection, co-ordinates the programme whilst sampling at sea is conducted in close co-operation with IMR as part of the regular monitoring of the marine environment and its living resources. The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and along the Norwegian coast. The programme also collects updated information on both Norwegian and other sources of radioactive contamination, and carries out assessments of radiation exposures of humans and biota. This new national monitoring programme has been co-ordinated with existing programmes funded by the Ministry of Fisheries. The monitoring programme for Marine Fish and Seafood was established in 1994. In previous reports from the programme established in 1994, (Sickel et al, 1995; Brungot et al, 1997, 1999) information regarding radioactivity in sea water, sediments and seaweed was included. However, the main purpose of this program is to document levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and other seafood caught in Norwegian waters. This information is then made available to the relevant authorities, fishing industries and the general public as documentation regarding the quality of the marine products. The work in this programme is performed as a co-operation between the NRPA and the Directorate of Fisheries. In addition, results from the monitoring program conducted by the National Food Control Authority are also included

  4. Fields of View for Environmental Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki


    The gamma component of air radiation dose rates is a function of the amount and spread of radioactive nuclides in the environment. These radionuclides can be natural or anthropogenic in origin. The field of view describes the area of radionuclides on, or below, the ground that is responsible for determining the air dose rate, and hence correspondingly the external radiation exposure. This work describes Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations for the field of view under a variety of situations. Presented first are results for natural 40K and thorium and uranium series radionuclides distributed homogeneously within the ground. Results are then described for atmospheric radioactive caesium fallout, such as from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Various stages of fallout evolution are considered through the depth distribution of 134Cs and 137Cs in soil. The fields of view for the natural radionuclides and radiocaesium are different. This can affect the responses of radiation monitors to th...

  5. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.


    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR (United States)

    Reifarth, R.; Altstadt, S.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Koloczek, A.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Adachi, T.; Aksouh, F.; Al-Khalili, J.; AlGarawi, M.; AlGhamdi, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alkhomashi, N.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Andreev, V.; Andrei, B.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bacri, C.; Bagchi, S.; Barbieri, C.; Beceiro, S.; Beck, C.; Beinrucker, C.; Belier, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Berjillos, R.; Bertini, D.; Bertulani, C.; Bishop, S.; Blasi, N.; Bloch, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Bonaccorso, A.; Boretzky, K.; Botvina, A.; Boudard, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Boztosun, I.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Briz Monago, J.; Caamano, M.; Caesar, C.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Cederwall, B.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Coleman-Smith, P.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespi, F.; Crespo, R.; Cresswell, J.; Csatlós, M.; Déchery, F.; Davids, B.; Davinson, T.; Derya, V.; Detistov, P.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; DiJulio, D.; Dmitry, S.; Doré, D.; Dueñas, J.; Dupont, E.; Egelhof, P.; Egorova, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Endres, J.; Ershov, S.; Ershova, O.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Fetisov, A.; Fiori, E.; Fomichev, A.; Fonseca, M.; Fraile, L.; Freer, M.; Friese, J.; Borge, M. G.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Gannon, S.; Garg, U.; Gasparic, I.; Gasques, L.; Gastineau, B.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, M.; Glorius, J.; Golubev, P.; Gorshkov, A.; Gourishetty, A.; Grigorenko, L.; Gulyas, J.; Haiduc, M.; Hammache, F.; Harakeh, M.; Hass, M.; Heine, M.; Hennig, A.; Henriques, A.; Herzberg, R.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ilieva, S.; Ivanov, M.; Iwasa, N.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Joshi, P.; Junghans, A.; Jurado, B.; Körner, G.; Kalantar, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kezzar, K.; Khan, E.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kiselev, O.; Kogimtzis, M.; Körper, D.; Kräckmann, S.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kratz, J.; Kresan, D.; Krings, T.; Krumbholz, A.; Krupko, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kumar, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuzmin, E.; Labiche, M.; Langanke, K.; Lazarus, I.; Le Bleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Lemmon, R.; Liberati, V.; Litvinov, Y.; Löher, B.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Machado, J.; Maev, E.; Mahata, K.; Mancusi, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez Perez, M.; Marusov, V.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Morcelle, V.; Moreno, O.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, M.; Nakamura, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nikolski, E.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nolan, P.; Novatsky, B.; Nyman, G.; Ornelas, A.; Palit, R.; Pandit, S.; Panin, V.; Paradela, C.; Parkar, V.; Paschalis, S.; Pawłowski, P.; Perea, A.; Pereira, J.; Petrache, C.; Petri, M.; Pickstone, S.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Pivovarov, Y.; Potlog, P.; Prokofiev, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Rauscher, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M.; Richter, A.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Rios, A.; Ritter, C.; Rodriguez Frutos, T.; Rodriguez Vignote, J.; Röder, M.; Romig, C.; Rossi, D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rout, P.; Roy, S.; Söderström, P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sakuta, S.; Salsac, M.; Sampson, J.; Sanchez, J.; Rio Saez, del; Sanchez Rosado, J.; Sanjari, S.; Sarriguren, P.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Scheit, H.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Schrock, P.; Schwengner, R.; Seddon, D.; Sherrill, B.; Shrivastava, A.; Sidorchuk, S.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Simpson, E.; Singh, P.; Slobodan, D.; Sohler, D.; Spieker, M.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Stanoiu, M.; Stepantsov, S.; Stevenson, P.; Strieder, F.; Stuhl, L.; Suda, T.; Sümmerer, K.; Streicher, B.; Taieb, J.; Takechi, M.; Tanihata, I.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Terashima, S.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Thoennessen, M.; Thomas, T.; Thornhill, J.; Thungstrom, G.; Timar, J.; Togano, Y.; Tomohiro, U.; Tornyi, T.; Tostevin, J.; Townsley, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trivedi, T.; Typel, S.; Uberseder, E.; Udias, J.; Uesaka, T.; Uvarov, L.; Vajta, Z.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V.; Volknandt, M.; Volkov, V.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; von Schmid, M.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wells, D.; Westerberg, L.; Wieland, O.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.; Wimmer, K.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkel, M.; Woods, P.; Wyss, R.; Yakorev, D.; Yavor, M.; Zamora Cardona, J.; Zartova, I.; Zerguerras, T.; Zgura, M.; Zhdanov, A.; Zhukov, M.; Zieblinski, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.


    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process, β-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  7. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste (United States)

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  8. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Rangel, J.I. E-mail:; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E


    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters.

  9. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites (United States)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.


    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  10. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)


    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  11. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.


    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  12. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 1. in vivo labelling of monoclonal antibodies with radio-lanthanides and $^{225}$Ac

    CERN Multimedia


    % IS330 \\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate} \\item The aim of this study was to contribute to developments of new radiopharmaceuticals for tumour diagnosis and therapy. CERN-ISOLDE is the leading facility in the world to provide radioactive ion beams with high selectivity, purity and intensity. Radioisotope production by spallation makes available a complete range of rare earth isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. The availability of exotic nuclei, e.g. radionuclides of rare earth elements and $^{225}$Ac, opens new possibilities for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy.\\\\ \\\\ \\item Two approaches were followed within the experimental program. The radioactive metal ions are bound either to bio-specific ligands (monoclonal antibodies or peptides) or to unspecific low molecular weight form. The aim of the experimental program is to evaluate relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the tracer m...

  13. Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.


    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. A Simple Example of Radioactive Dating (United States)

    Brown, Todd


    Although nuclear half-life is vital to physics and physical science, and to sensitive societal issues from nuclear waste to the age of the Earth, a true lab on half-life is almost never done at the college or high school level. Seldom are students able to use radioactivity to actually date when an object came into being, as is done in this…

  15. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y


    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  16. Natural radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Mcginnity, P.; Ciara, M. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (Ireland); Craig, M. [Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)


    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in collaboration with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) undertook a national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources for compliance with parameters set out in the European Communities Drinking Water Directive. The Directive outlines the minimum requirements for the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption. Over two hundred samples were screened for radioactivity. Where indicated, analysis for individual radionuclide activity was undertaken and the radiation dose arising calculated. Furthermore, samples were analysed for radon concentration. This survey is the first comprehensive national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland. Approximately 18 per cent of drinking water in Ireland originates from groundwater and springs with the remainder from surface water. Between 2007 and 2011, water samples from a representative network of groundwater sources were analysed and assessed for compliance with the radioactivity parameters set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The assessment was carried out using the methodology for screening drinking water set out by the WHO. For practical purposes the WHO recommended screening levels for drinking water below which no further action is required of 100 mBq/l for gross alpha activity and 1000 mBq/l for gross beta activity were applied. Of the 203 groundwater sources screened for gross alpha and gross beta all met the gross beta activity criteria of less than 1000 mBq/l and 175 supplies had gross alpha activity concentrations of less than 100 mBq/l. For these sources no further analysis was required. The remaining 28 sources required further (radionuclide-specific) analysis from an alpha activity perspective. Results on ranges and distributions of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater as well as ingestion doses estimated for consumers of these water supplies will be presented. Document available in abstract

  17. Metastasic bone pain management with radioactive isotopes


    Juan Coya Viña


    Pain is the commonest clinical manifestation of bone metastases. Its treatment is palliative in nature, and consists of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonotherapy, diphosphonates, and drug therapy (i. e., opiates). Radioactive isotopes represent an appealing alternative to conventional treatment modalities. Among the different types of isotopes, wide clinical experience with 153Sm has been obtained in this laboratory. In the present study, 94 patients (mean age = 65 years), who had been diagn...

  18. The management of radioactive waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; An, Sum Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Sohn, Young Jun; Yim, Kil Sung; Kim, Tae Kuk; Jeong, Kyeong Hwan; Wi, Keum San; Park, Young Yoong; Park, Seung Chul; Lee, Chul Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The radioactive wastes generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1994 are about 56 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 323 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. The solid wastes were treated in 1994 are about 87 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 81 drums of solid waste, respectively. 2 tabs., 26 figs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  19. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida


    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  20. Method for storage of liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesky, H.; Wunderer, A.


    When nuclear fuel is reprocessed, apart from liquid radioactive wastes in certain cases also oxyhydrogen, i.e. a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, is formed by radiolysis. It is proposed to remove the decay heat that will be formed by means of boiling cooling, to condense the steam and to recycle the condensate to the liquid waste store. The oxyhydrogen is to be rarefied by means of the steam and then catalytically recombined. The most advantageous process steps are discussed.

  1. Radioactive Beam Measurements to Probe Stellar Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL


    Unique beams of unstable nuclei from the Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are being used to measure the thermonuclear reactions that occur in novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. The astrophysical impact of these measurements is determined by synergistic nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Results of recent measurements and explosion simulations are brie y described, along with future plans and software research tools for the community.

  2. Radon assay and radioactivity database in Kamioka (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Shigeki; Nakano, Yuuki


    A new cooperative program among underground experiments, theorists, and low-background researchers was started in 2014 in Japan. The purpose of this program is to achieve technical and scientific synergies among underground researchers. In this report, the R&D of radon assay technique as an activity in this program is shown. The current status of the radioactivity database system in Kamioka is also shown.

  3. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)


    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  4. Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O


    The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of existi...

  5. Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical imaging (OI techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging have been widely used to track diseases in a non-invasive manner within living subjects. These techniques generally require bioluminescent and fluorescent probes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using radioactive probes for in vivo molecular OI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By taking the advantages of low energy window of light (1.2-3.1 eV, 400-1000 nm resulting from radiation, radionuclides that emit charged particles such as beta(+ and beta(- can be successfully imaged with an OI instrument. In vivo optical images can be obtained for several radioactive probes including 2-deoxy-2-[(18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18F]FDG, Na(18F, Na(131I, (90YCl(3 and a (90Y labeled peptide that specifically target tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate generalizability of radioactive OI technique. It provides a new molecular imaging strategy and will likely have significant impact on both small animal and clinical imaging.

  6. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos


    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  7. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.


    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  8. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Simpson, J. [Class 7 Limited, 9 Irk Vale Drive, Chadderton, Oldham OL1 2TW (United Kingdom); Ghobril, C. N. [Governo de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Economia Agricola, 04301-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, C. F., E-mail: [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2468, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sau Paulo (Brazil)


    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  9. Radioactivity of buildings materials available in Slovakia (United States)

    Singovszka, E.; Estokova, A.; Mitterpach, J.


    In the last decades building materials, both of natural origin and containing industrial by-products, have been shown to significantly contribute to the exposure of the population to natural radioactivity. As a matter of fact, neither the absorbed dose rate in air due to gamma radiation nor the radon activity concentration are negligible in closed environments. The soil and rocks of the earth contains substances which are naturally radioactive and provide natural radiation exposures. The most important radioactive elements which occur in the soil and in rocks are the long lived primordial isotopes of potassium (40K), uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th). Therefore, additional exposures have to be measured and compared with respect to the natural radiation exposure. Further, it is important to estimate the potential risk from radiation from the environment. The paper presents the results of mass activities of 226Ra, 232Th a 40K radionuclides in cement mortars with addition of silica fume. The gamma index was calculated as well.

  10. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  11. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)


    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Literature in focus: The history of radioactivity

    CERN Multimedia


    René Bimbot, an expert in nuclear physics, will be coming to present his book - The History of Radioactivity. The work provides a summary of our accumulated knowledge of radioactivity and its applications, from its discovery to the present day. Presented in layman's terms, and backed by plenty of illustrations, the work creates the link between the rudimentary knowledge available in the times of Becquerel and the Curies and contemporary physics. It takes us on a great physics adventure, from the nucleus to the quark, from artificial radioactivity to radiotherapy, from the discovery of fission to nuclear reactors, not forgetting dating methods. Finally, the work provides a wealth of practical information on radiation and on matters relating to nuclear waste. A former Research Director at the CNRS, a heavy-ion physicist at the Orsay Nuclear Physics Institute, René Bimbot is no stranger to CERN. At the beginning of the 1980s, he worked on the CERN Synchrocyclotron, before joining the GANIL experiment in 1985...

  13. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.


    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  14. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.


    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  15. Radioactive source security: the cultural challenges. (United States)

    Englefield, Chris


    Radioactive source security is an essential part of radiation protection. Sources can be abandoned, lost or stolen. If they are stolen, they could be used to cause deliberate harm and the risks are varied and significant. There is a need for a global security protection system and enhanced capability to achieve this. The establishment of radioactive source security requires 'cultural exchanges'. These exchanges include collaboration between: radiation protection specialists and security specialists; the nuclear industry and users of radioactive sources; training providers and regulators/users. This collaboration will facilitate knowledge and experience exchange for the various stakeholder groups, beyond those already provided. This will promote best practice in both physical and information security and heighten security awareness generally. Only if all groups involved are prepared to open their minds to listen to and learn from, each other will a suitable global level of control be achieved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Accurate assessment of exposure using tracer gas measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, Wojciech; Bivolarova, Mariya; Zavrl, Eva


    Room airflow interaction, particularly in the breathing zone, is important to assess exposure to indoor air pollution. A breathing thermal manikin was used to simulate a room occupant with the convective boundary layer (CBL) generated around the body and the respiratory flow. Local airflow against...... the face of the manikin was applied to increase the complexity of the airflow interaction. CO2 was released at the armpits and N2O at the groin to simulate the respective bio-effluents generated at these two body sites. The tracer gas concentration at the mouth/nose of the manikin was measured with gas...... with a decrease in the response time of the gas analyzer. When only CBL was present, shorter measurement time was needed for the accurate concentration measurement of the tracer gas released close to the breathing zone. For more complex flow, as a result of CBL interaction with the exhalation flow, the needed...

  17. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  18. Pyrolyzable Nanoparticle Tracers for Environmental Interrogation and Monitoring. (United States)

    Cox, Jason R; Alsenani, Mohammed; Miller, Scott E; Roush, James A; Shi, Rena; Ow, Hooisweng; Chang, Sehoon; Kmetz, Anthony A; Eichmann, Shannon L; Poitzsch, Martin E


    Environmental tracing applications require materials that can be detected in complex fluids composed of multiple phases and contaminants. Moreover, large libraries of tracers are necessary in order to mitigate memory effects and to deploy multiple tracers simultaneously in complex oil fields. Herein, we disclose a novel approach based on the thermal decomposition of polymeric nanoparticles comprised of styrenic and methacrylic monomers. Polymeric nanoparticles derived from these monomers cleanly decompose into their constituent monomers at elevated temperatures, thereby maximizing atom economy wherein the entire nanoparticle mass contributes to the generation of detectable units. A total of ten unique single monomer particles and three dual-monomer particles were synthesized using semicontinuous monomer starved addition polymerization. The pyrolysis gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) behavior of these particles was studied using high-pressure mass spectrometry. The programmable nature of our methodology permits simultaneous removal of contaminants and subsequent identification and quantification in a single analytical step.

  19. Analysis of 129I and its Application as Environmental Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Hou, Yingkun


    as an environmental tracer has highly increased in the past 10 years. Neutron activation analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry are the only techniques for measurement of 129I at environmental level. This article mainly compares these two analytical techniques for the determination of 129I at environmental level......Iodine-129, the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, occurs naturally, but anthropogenic generated 129I has dominated the environment in the past 60 years. Due to active chemical and environmental properties of iodine and the enhanced analytical capacity for 129I measurement, the application of 129I...... mass. The speciation analysis of 129I can also be used to investigate the geochemical cycle of stable iodine. Some representative works on the environmental tracer application of 129I are summarized....

  20. An experiment on radioactive equilibrium and its modelling using the ‘radioactive dice’ approach (United States)

    Santostasi, Davide; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Montagna, Paolo; Vitulo, Paolo


    In this article we describe an educational activity on radioactive equilibrium we performed with secondary school students (17-18 years old) in the context of a vocational guidance stage for talented students at the Department of Physics of the University of Pavia. Radioactive equilibrium is investigated experimentally by having students measure the activity of 214Bi from two different samples, obtained using different preparation procedures from an uraniferous rock. Students are guided in understanding the mathematical structure of radioactive equilibrium through a modelling activity in two parts. Before the lab measurements, a dice game, which extends the traditional ‘radioactive dice’ activity to the case of a chain of two decaying nuclides, is performed by students divided into small groups. At the end of the laboratory work, students design and run a simple spreadsheet simulation modelling the same basic radioactive chain with user defined decay constants. By setting the constants to realistic values corresponding to nuclides of the uranium decay chain, students can deepen their understanding of the meaning of the experimental data, and also explore the difference between cases of non-equilibrium, transient and secular equilibrium.

  1. Non-universal tracer diffusion in crowded media of non-inert obstacles. (United States)

    Ghosh, Surya K; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf


    We study the diffusion of a tracer particle, which moves in continuum space between a lattice of excluded volume, immobile non-inert obstacles. In particular, we analyse how the strength of the tracer-obstacle interactions and the volume occupancy of the crowders alter the diffusive motion of the tracer. From the details of partitioning of the tracer diffusion modes between trapping states when bound to obstacles and bulk diffusion, we examine the degree of localisation of the tracer in the lattice of crowders. We study the properties of the tracer diffusion in terms of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements, the trapping time distributions, the amplitude variation of the time averaged mean squared displacements, and the non-Gaussianity parameter of the diffusing tracer. We conclude that tracer-obstacle adsorption and binding triggers a transient anomalous diffusion. From a very narrow spread of recorded individual time averaged trajectories we exclude continuous type random walk processes as the underlying physical model of the tracer diffusion in our system. For moderate tracer-crowder attraction the motion is found to be fully ergodic, while at stronger attraction strength a transient disparity between ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements occurs. We also put our results into perspective with findings from experimental single-particle tracking and simulations of the diffusion of tagged tracers in dense crowded suspensions. Our results have implications for the diffusion, transport, and spreading of chemical components in highly crowded environments inside living cells and other structured liquids.

  2. Myocardial uptake of a bone tracer associated with hypercalcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, H.L.; Oster, Z.H.


    A patient with end-stage renal disease and hypercalcemia was referred for a radionuclide bone imaging study. Deposition of Tc-99m hydroxymethylenediphosphonate was apparent in the lungs and myocardium as well as in the skeleton. Renal uptake was also noted, despite anuria. Computed tomography demonstrated nephrocalcinosis but no myocardial calcification. The cause of myocardial uptake of tracer is unknown. Amyloidosis is suggested as a possibility but is not validated in this case.

  3. Implementation of a Hardware Ray Tracer for digital design education


    Eggen, Jonas Agentoft


    Digital design is a large and complex field of electronic engineering, and learning digital design requires maturing over time. The learning process can be facilitated by making use of a single learning platform throughout a whole course. A learning platform built around a hardware ray tracer can be used in illustrating many important aspects of digital design. A unified learning platform allows students to delve into intricate details of digital design while still seeing the bigger pictur...

  4. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[{sup 11}C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [{sup 123}I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol, [{sup 11}C]phenylephrine and meta-[{sup 76}Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility

  5. In-Situ Characterization of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Daene C. McKinney; Akhil Datta Gupta; Richard E. Jackson; Minquan Jin


    Majors advances have been made during the past three years in our research on interwell partitioning tracers tests (PITTs). These advances include (1) progress on the inverse problem of how to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of NAPL in aquifers from the tracer data, (2) the first ever partitioning tracer experiments in dual porosity media, (3) the first modeling of partitioning tracers in dual porosity media (4) experiments with complex NAPLs such as coal tar, (5) the development of an accurate and simple method to predict partition coefficients using the equivalent alkane carbon number approach, (6) partitioning tracer experiments in large model aquifers with permeability layers, (7) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data to estimate the change in composition of a NAPL before and after remediation (8) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data after a field demonstration of surfactant foam to remediate NAPL and (9) experiments at elevated temperatures .

  6. Tensor anisotropy as a tracer of cosmic voids (United States)

    Bustamante, Sebastian; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.


    We present a new method to find voids in cosmological simulations based on the tidal and the velocity shear tensors definitions of the cosmic web. We use the fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from the eigenvalues of each web scheme as a void tracer. We identify voids using a watershed transform based on the local minima of the FA field without making any assumption on the shape or structure of the voids. We test the method on the Bolshoi simulation and report on the abundance and radial averaged profiles for the density, velocity and FA. We find that voids in the velocity shear web are smaller than voids in the tidal web, with a particular overabundance of very small voids in the inner region of filaments/sheets. We classify voids as subcompensated/overcompensated depending on the absence/presence of an overdense matter ridge in their density profile, finding that close to 65 and 35 per cent of the total population are classified into each category, respectively. Finally, we find evidence for the existence of universal profiles from the radially averaged profiles for density, velocity and FA. This requires that the radial coordinate is normalized to the effective radius of each void. Put together, all these results show that the FA is a reliable tracer for voids, which can be used in complementarity to other existing methods and tracers.

  7. FormTracer. A mathematica tracing package using FORM (United States)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Strodthoff, Nils


    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided. Program Files doi: Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: Mathematica and FORM Nature of problem: Efficiently compute traces of large expressions Solution method: The expression to be traced is decomposed into its subspaces by a recursive Mathematica expansion algorithm. The result is subsequently translated to a FORM script that takes the traces. After FORM is executed, the final result is either imported into Mathematica or exported as optimized C/C++/Fortran code. Unusual features: The outstanding features of FormTracer are the simple interface, the capability to efficiently handle an arbitrary number of Lie groups in addition to Dirac and Lorentz tensors, and a customizable input-syntax.

  8. Studies of Tracer Dispersion and Fluid Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, T.


    This doctoral thesis explores the connection between the topology of a porous medium and its macroscopic transport properties and is based on computerized simulation. In porous media, both diffusion and convection contribute to the dispersion of a tracer and their combined effect is emphasized. The governing equations are solved numerically, using finite differences and Monte Carlo technique. The influence of finite Reynolds number on the outcome of echo-experiments is discussed. Comparing experiments and simulations it is found that nonlinear inertial forces lead to a visible deformation of a returned tracer at surprisingly small Reynolds numbers. In a study of tracer dispersion and fluid flow in periodic arrays of discs it is demonstrated that the mechanisms of mechanical dispersion in periodic media and in natural (non-periodic) porous media are essentially different. Measurements of the percolation probability distribution of a sandstone sample is presented. Local porosity theory predicts that this simple geometric function of a porous medium is of dominant importance for its macroscopic transport properties. It is demonstrated that many aspects of transport through fractures can be studied by using simple but realistic models and readily available computer resources. An example may be the transport of hydrocarbon fluids from the source rock to a reservoir. 165 refs., 44 figs., 1 table

  9. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Swaney, William P; Ostlund, Richard E


    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid(®). The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Influence of residual surfactants on DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Rao, P. Suresh C.


    The partitioning tracer technique is among the DNAPL source-zone characterization methods being evaluated, while surfactant in-situ flushing is receiving attention as an innovative technology for enhanced source-zone cleanup. Here, we examine in batch and column experiments the magnitude of artifacts introduced in estimating DNAPL content when residual surfactants are present. The batch equilibrium tests, using residual surfactants ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%, showed that as the surfactant concentrations increased, the tracer partition coefficients decreased linearly for sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (DowFax 8390), increased linearly for polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (Brij 97), and decreased slightly or exhibited no observable trend for sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (AMA 80). Results from column tests using clean sand with residual DowFax 8390 and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were consistent with those of batch tests. In the presence of DowFax 8390 (less than 0.5 wt.%), the PCE saturations were underestimated by up to 20%. Adsorbed surfactants on a loamy sand with positively charged oxides showed false indications of PCE saturation based on partitioning tracers in the absence of PCE. Using no surfactant (background soil) gave a false PCE saturation of 0.0004, while soil contacted by AMA 80, Brij 97, and DowFax 8390 gave false PCE saturations of 0.0024, 0.043, and 0.23, respectively.

  11. A galaxy-halo model for multiple cosmological tracers (United States)

    Bull, Philip


    The information extracted from large galaxy surveys with the likes of DES, DESI, Euclid, LSST, SKA, and WFIRST will be greatly enhanced if the resultant galaxy catalogues can be cross-correlated with one another. Predicting the nature of the information gain, and developing the tools to realize it, depends on establishing a consistent model of how the galaxies detected by each survey trace the same underlying matter distribution. Existing analytic methods, such as halo occupation distribution modelling, are not well suited for this task, and can suffer from ambiguities and tuning issues when applied to multiple tracers. In this paper, we take the first step towards constructing an alternative that provides a common model for the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes across a wide range of wavelengths (and thus tracer populations). This is based on a chain of parametrized statistical distributions that model the connection between (I) halo mass and bulk physical properties of galaxies, such as star formation rate; and (II) those same physical properties and a variety of emission processes. The result is a flexible parametric model that allows analytic halo model calculations of one-point functions to be carried out for multiple tracers, as well as providing semi realistic galaxy properties for fast mock catalogue generation.

  12. Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas. (United States)

    Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A


    A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael


    in the October respectively February measurement. The CH4 emission from the compost area was 0.5 kg CH4 h-1, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and nitrous oxide (N2O) was quantified to be in the order of 332 kg CO2 h-1 and 0.06 kg N2O h-1 respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material......A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...... sources; a composting facility and a sewage sludge storage unit by scaling the tracer method down. Two field campaigns were performed; during October 11-12, 2006 and February 19-20, 2007. At both field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH4 emission from the old landfill section...

  14. Measuring Lipid Membrane Viscosity Using Rotational and Translational Tracer Diffusion (United States)

    Hormel, Tristan; Kurihara, Sarah; Reyer, Matthew; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer


    The two-dimensional fluidity of lipid membranes enables the motion of membrane-bound macromolecules and is therefore crucial to biological function. However, current methods of measuring membrane viscosity rely on particular membrane lipid compositions or geometries, making the comparison of different measurements difficult. We address this with a new technique for measuring lipid membrane viscosity, in which determination of both the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients of tracer particles enables quantification of viscosity as well as the effective size of the tracers. This technique is general, and can be applied to different model membrane systems to determine the effects of membrane composition and protein modulation. We present measurements of lipid membrane viscosity for two different lipids with phosphatidylcholine headgroups, finding a surprisingly wide distribution of effective tracer sizes, due presumably to a large variety of couplings to the membrane. We also compare the effective viscosity of two different structures - black lipid membranes and membrane multilayers - as well as changes in viscosity induced by peripheral protein binding.

  15. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Al-Naiema, Ibrahim M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.


    Products of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1) ambient concentrations and detectability in PM2.5 in Iowa City, IA, USA; (2) gas-particle partitioning behaviour; and (3) source specificity by way of correlations with primary and secondary source tracers and literature review. A widely used tracer for toluene-derived SOA, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid was only detected in the particle phase (Fp = 1) at low but consistently measurable ambient concentrations (averaging 0.3 ng m-3). Four aromatic dicarboxylic acids were detected at relatively higher concentrations (9.1-34.5 ng m-3), of which phthalic acid was the most abundant. Phthalic acid had a low particle-phase fraction (Fp = 0.26) likely due to quantitation interferences from phthalic anhydride, while 4-methylphthalic acid was predominantly in the particle phase (Fp = 0.82). Phthalic acid and 4-methylphthalic acid were both highly correlated with 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid (rs = 0.73, p = 0.003; rs = 0.80, p phthalic acid, 4-methylphthalic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzyl alcohol are good candidates for tracing SOA from aromatic VOCs.

  16. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)


    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through

  17. A PET Tracer for Brain α2C Adrenoceptors, (11)C-ORM-13070: Radiosynthesis and Preclinical Evaluation in Rats and Knockout Mice. (United States)

    Arponen, Eveliina; Helin, Semi; Marjamäki, Päivi; Grönroos, Tove; Holm, Patrik; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Någren, Kjell; Scheinin, Mika; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Sallinen, Jukka; Solin, Olof


    We report the development of a PET tracer for α2C adrenoceptor imaging and its preliminary preclinical evaluation. α2C adrenoceptors in the human brain may be involved in various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative diseases. PET tracers are needed for imaging of this receptor system in vivo. High-specific-activity (11)C-ORM-13070 (1-[(S)-1-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]dioxin-2-yl)methyl]-4-(3-(11)C-methoxymethylpyridin-2-yl)-piperazine) was synthesized by (11)C-methylation of O-desmethyl-ORM-13070 with (11)C-methyl triflate, which was prepared from cyclotron-produced (11)C-methane via (11)C-methyl iodide. Rats and mice were investigated in vivo with PET and ex vivo with autoradiography. The specificity of (11)C-ORM-13070 binding to α2 adrenoceptors was demonstrated in rats pretreated with atipamezole, an α2 adrenoceptor antagonist. The α2C adrenoceptor selectivity of the tracer was determined by comparing tracer binding in wild-type and α2A- and α2AC adrenoceptor knockout (KO) mice. (11)C-ORM-13070 and its radioactive metabolites in rat plasma and brain tissue were analyzed with radio-high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Human radiation dose estimates were extrapolated from rat biodistribution data. The radiochemical yield, calculated from initial cyclotron-produced (11)C-methane, was 9.6% ± 2.7% (decay-corrected to end of bombardment). The specific activity of the product was 640 ± 390 GBq/μmol (decay-corrected to end of synthesis). The radiochemical purity exceeded 99% in all syntheses. The highest levels of tracer binding were observed in the striatum and olfactory tubercle of rats and control and α2A KO mice-that is, in the brain regions known to contain the highest densities of α2C adrenoceptors. In rats pretreated with atipamezole and in α2AC KO mice, (11)C tracer binding in the striatum and olfactory tubercle was low, similar to that of the frontal cortex and thalamus, regions

  18. Interpretation of Water Tracer Simulation in the H-1 Segment of the Gullfaks Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moid, Farrukh


    This thesis describes the water tracer simulation in the H-1 segment of the Gullfaks field. Three passive water tracer slugs were injected from the two producing wells during water flooding, pressure maintenance and reservoir monitoring program in the Gullfaks field. The same program is considered in this thesis. Computer Modelling Group's (CMG) simulator STARS is used for the general reservoir simulation and a separate module for tracer flow (ITRC-SIM) which is incorporated in the STARS and developed at Institute For Energy (IFE) is used for the tracer simulation. Water cut and tracer concentration data are used in history matching of the field. History matching is performed by changing the transmissibility and permeability of different layers; also the effect of changing saturations near the well bore on history matching is examined. It is noted that water cut is sensitive to transmissibility of the layers and the saturation around the well bore. Tracers are found to be moving in the most permeable layers. The corresponding history matching of water and tracer production shows a severe loss of first tracer injected because of imbibition process. Water phase velocity and areal communication between different wells are determined. Advance numerical features of tracer module ITRC-SIM such as flux limiting scheme and grid refinement scheme are evaluated and are found to be an important tool for reducing the numerical smearing. The effects of dispersion and diffusion on tracer response curve are also evaluated. Dispersion makes the tracer concentration curve smeared. Simulation results of water cut and tracer concentration show a good history match for this reservoir. The improved simulation model and the tracer module for this reservoir can be used for the prediction of future performance of the reservoir and interpretation of the tracer behaviour in the reservoir. (author)

  19. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel


    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  20. Using (222)Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments. (United States)

    Valladares, D L; da Silva, A A R; Lacerda, T; Anjos, R M; Rizzotto, M; Velasco, H; de Rosas, J P; Tognelli, G; Yoshimura, E M; Ayub, J Juri


    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of (222)Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.