WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactive stoffe im

  1. Entwicklung eines Summenparameters für potenziell bioakkumulierbare Stoffe (PBS) im Abwasser

    OpenAIRE

    Stenz, Georg

    2001-01-01

    Es wurde ein Summenparameter für potenziell bioakkumulierbare Stoffe (PBS) im Abwasser entwickelt. Der Summenparameter soll als Instrumentarium zur Überwachung von Einleitungen, Emissionen und Verlusten an anreicherungsfähigen Stoffen eingesetzt werden, da die Bioakkumulation besonders für marine Ökosysteme ein Gefährdungskriterium darstellt. Stoffe werden nach dem „Technical Guidance Document (TGD)“ als potenziell bioakkumulierbar bertrachtet, wenn deren log POW-Wert größer als drei ist. Der...

  2. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  3. Experimental drop tests in the frame of the component testing of transport casks for radioactive materials; Durchfuehrung experimenteller Fallpruefungen im Rahmen der mechanischen Bauartpruefung von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, A.; Droste, B.; Quercetti, T.; Mueller, K. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM) is the responsible German authority for component testing of packaging containers for radioactive materials in the frame of the licensing process. The tests are performed according to the national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. This includes the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal behavior under defined testing conditions and the radionuclide release in case of severe accidents. The most important test concerning the accident resistance is the experimental drop tests from 9 m height on a firm base plate and from 1 m height on a steel mandrel. The tested sample was a 1:2 model cask CASTOR {sup registered} HAW/Tb2 of the original type CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M. The tests were performed at the BAM test ground in Hortswalde. The documented test results will be part of the safety analysis in the frame of the licensing process for the transport and storage cask.

  4. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials; Mustergenehmigung zur ortsveraenderlichen Verwendung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe im Rahmen der zerstoerungsfreien Materialpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Niedersaechsisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz (Germany); Schumann, J. [Landesamt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Huhn, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  5. Application of radioactive substances in research in nuclear medicine: current trends and radiation exposure to the study subjects; Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe in der nuklearmedizinischen Forschung: aktuelle Trends und Strahlenexposition der Probanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, V.; Schwarz, E.R.; Bauer, B.; Nosske, D.; Erzberger, A.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Abt. fuer Medizinische Strahlenhygiene, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    the studies showed, for the period of evaluation, an overall trend towards reduction. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Im Rahmen dieser Studie wurde die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe am Menschen in der nuklearmedizinischen Forschung und die damit fuer die Probanden verbundene Strahlenexposition analysiert. Methodik: Hierzu wurden die zwischen 1997 und 1999 vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz zusammen mit dem Bundesinstitut fuer Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte begutachteten Antraege nach paragraph 41 Strahlenschutzverordnung ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Der Schwerpunkt der begutachteten Studien zur diagnostischen Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe hat sich seit 1998 von onkologischen auf neurologisch/psychiatrische Fragestellungen verlagert, wobei die Anzahl der PET-Studien stetig zunahm. Der Anteil der in diagnostische Studien einbezogenen gesunden Probanden ist von 7 auf 22% angestiegen. Therapeutische Anwendungen radioaktiver Stoffe nahmen seit 1997 um das Dreifache zu, wobei der Schwerpunkt im Bereich der Radioimmuntherapie und der endovaskulaeren Brachytherapie lag. Fuer bis zu 49% der untersuchten gesunden Probanden war die effektive Dosis hoeher als 5 mSv, fuer bis zu 6% dieser Probanden lag sie ueber 20 mSv. Bis zu 22% der Patienten erhielten im Rahmen diagnostischer Studien eine effektive Dosis von 20-50 mSv. Eine Ueberschreitung der 50-mSv-Grenze trat bei bis zu 3% der Patienten auf. Schlussfolgerungen: Trotz zunehmender Anwendung der PET behaelt die konventionelle Nuklearmedizin ihre Bedeutung in der medizinischen Forschung. Weiterentwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der Radiochemie und Molekularbiologie fuehrten zu einer zunehmenden Bedeutung der Radioimmuntherapie. Die Evaluierung neuer Radiopharmaka und die Erweiterung der biomedizinischen Grundlagenforschung resultierte in einem Anstieg des Anteils der in die Studien einbezogenen gesunden Probanden. Die studienbedingte Strahlenexposition der Probanden zeigte fuer den ausgewerteten Zeitraum insgesamt einen ruecklaeufigen Trend

  6. Online measurement of nitrification inhibitors in sewage received by an industrial sewage treatment plant. Development of a nitrification toximeter; Online-Messung nitrifikationshemmender Stoffe im Zulauf einer Industrieklaeranlage - Entwicklung eines Nitrifikationstoximeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, M. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    At an industrial sewage treatment plant, the ammonium freight in the effluent is to be further reduced in the future through nitrification. But constantly low effluent concentrations are only possible if the nitrification process is not inhibited. Bouts of critical concentrations of nitrification inhibitors in sewage received by treatment plant are potentially disturbing. Online measurement of nitrification inhibitors in sewage arriving at the treatment plant is to recognize such bouts and permit timely alert so that counter-measures can be taken, which may consist in routing sewage with such toxic concentrations into a storage basin, whereby a sharp slump in the nitrification process can be avoided. (orig.) [German] In einer Industrieklaeranlage soll kuenftig durch Nitrifikation die Ammoniumfracht im Auslauf weiter gesenkt werden. Konstant niedrige Ablaufwerte sind aber nur dann moeglich, wenn der Nitrifikationsprozess ungestoert ablaufen kann. Stoesse nitrifikationshemmender Stoffe in kritischen Konzentrationen im Zulauf zur Klaeranlage sind eine moegliche Stoergroesse. Mit Hilfe einer Online-Nitrifikationshemmmessung im Klaeranlagenzulauf sollen solche Stoesse erkannt und rechtzeitig alarmiert werden, damit Gegenmassnahmen, wie z.B. das Auffangen des toxischen Stosses durch eine Sicherheitsschaltung in einem Speicherbecken, eingeleitet und so signifikante Einbrueche des Nitrifikationsprozesses vermieden werden koennen. (orig.)

  7. Natural radioactive materials. We need/we use them; Natuerliche radioaktive Stoffe. Wir (ge-)brauchen sie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Flesch [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Strahlenschutz; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); and others

    2017-04-01

    The articles in this edition present a small excerpt in the field of natural radioactive materials amongst others in the building industries, in the medical field or in scientific research. Due to the new radiation protection law, the natural occuring radioactive materials become more important to protect the general public.

  8. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience; Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Rechtsvorschriften, Sicherheits- und Sicherungskonzept, Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-07-15

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  9. Determination of the potential radiation exposure of the population close to the Asse II mine caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation using the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM); Ermittlung der potenziellen Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in der Umgebung der Schachtanlage Asse II infolge Ableitung radioaktiver Stoffe mit den abwettern im bestimmungsgemaessen Betrieb mittels des ''atmospaerischen Radionuklid-Transport-Modells'' ARTM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, D.; Wittwer, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    Between 1967 and 1978 125.787 packages filled with low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste were emplaced in the mining plant Asse II. Volatile radioactive substances like H-3, C-14 and Rn-222 are released from the emplaced waste. These substances reach the ventilated parts of the mine and are released with the discharge air. The potential radiation exposure of the population caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation is determined by the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM). As result the maximal deductions of volatile radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation of the Asse II mine lead to radiation exposure of the population, which is considerably lower than the permissible values of application rate.

  10. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1996; Umweltpolitik. Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report is intended as information for the German Bundestag and Bundesrat as well as for the general population interested in issues of radiological protection. The information presented in the report shows that in 1996, the radiation dose to the population was low and amounted to an average of 4 millisievert (mSv), with 60% contributed by natural radiation sources, and 40% by artificial sources. The major natural source was the radioactive gas radon in buildings. Anthropogenic radiation exposure almost exclusively resulted from application of radioactive substances and ionizing radiation in the medical field, for diagnostic purposes. There still is a potential for reducing radiation doses due to these applications. In the reporting year, there were 340 000 persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Only 15% of these received a dose different from zero, the average dose was 1.8 mSv. The data show that the anthropogenic radiation exposure emanating from the uses of atomic energy or applications of ionizing radiation in technology is very low. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht ueber die `Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 1996` richtet sich an Bundestag und Bundesrat und darueber hinaus an alle an Fragen des Strahlenschutzes interessierte Buerger. Der Bericht belegt, dass die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung im Jahr 1996 gering war und insgesamt durchschnittlich 4 Millisievert (mSv) betrug. Dieser Wert war zu 60% auf natuerliche und zu 40% auf kuenstliche Strahlenquellen zurueckzufuehren. Den wesentlichen Beitrag zur natuerlichen Strahlenbelastung lieferte das radioaktive Gas Radon in Wohnungen. Die zivilisatorische Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung wurde fast ausschliesslich durch die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe und ionisierender Strahlen in der Medizin im Rahmen der Diagnostik hervorgerufen. Hier bestehen nach wie vor Moeglichkeiten zur Reduktion der Strahlenbelastung. Im Jahre 1996 waren 340 000 Personen beruflich

  11. Über die amorphen Stoffe in den Tonen verschiedener Böden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beutelspacher, H.; Marel, van der H.W.

    1961-01-01

    In der Feinfraktion des Bodens findet man die amorphen organischen Stoffe, die hauptsächlich aus Huminsäuren bestehen. W. Flaig und H. Beutelspacher (1950, 1951, 1954) konnten zeigen, daB sie im Elektronenmikroskop als kugelförmige Teilchen zu sehen sind.

  12. Cooperation with UNEP/IRPTC as a contribution to the implementation of the 'Agenda 21' action programme, chapter 19 in the field of information exchange on hazardous substances; Kooperation mit UNEP/IRPTC als Beitrag zur Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms 'Agenda 21', Kapitel 19 im Bereich Informationsaustausch ueber gefaehrliche Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock-Schmelzer, U.

    1999-09-01

    Informationsaustausch ueber gefaehrliche Stoffe gestaerkt werden. Ganz im Sinne dieses Handlungsauftrages leistet die im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens realisierte enge Kooperation zwischen dem Umweltbundesamt und UNEP Chemicals (bis 1995 UNEP/IRPTC (United Nations Environment Programme / International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals)) mit dem Austausch wissenschaftlicher und rechtlicher Informationen zu gefaehrlichen Chemikalien einen konkreten und erfolgreichen Beitrag zur Umsetzung von Kapitel 19 der Agenda 21. UNEP Chemicals wurde bei verschiedenen Aufgaben im Bereich der Datenarbeit unterstuetzt. Im Gegenzug hierzu wurde der international erarbeitete und angesehene Datenbestand von UNEP Chemicals dem Umweltbundesamt zur direkten Verfuegung gestellt. Diese Kooperation mit UNEP Chemicals ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil der internationale n Zusammenarbeit beim Austausch von Daten ueber die Gefaehrlichkeit von chemischen Stoffen. (orig.)

  13. Determination of radioactive materials in men. Applications and techniques, in the past and today; Bestimmung radioaktiver Stoffe im Menschen. Anwendungen und Technik, damals und heute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstmann, U.C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2016-07-01

    The development of the two main applications of the determination of radionuclides in men - diagnostic nuclear medicine and incorporation monitoring since their beginnings are reviewed. Some less known applications are presented too.

  14. Malicious release of radioactive materials in urban area. Exposure of the public and emergency staff, protective measures; Boeswillige Freisetzung radioaktiver Stoffe in urbanen Bereichen. Exposition von Bevoelkerung und Einsatzpersonal, Schutzmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany). Bereich Aerosolforschung und Analytische Chemie; Lange, Florentin

    2016-07-01

    The preparedness for hypothetical radiological scenarios is part of the tasks for governmental authorities, safety and emergency organizations and the staff in case of the incident. The EURATOM guideline for radiation protection has to be implemented into national laws. According to the guidelines it is required that emergency planning has to be prepared for hypothetical radiological scenarios including terroristic or other maliciously motivated attacks using radioactive materials. The study includes assumptions on the released respirable radioactivity, restriction of the hazardous area, wind induced re-suspension of radioactive dusts and inhalation exposure, and mitigation measures.

  15. Implementation of standards at a research institute. Storage and keeping of radioactive materials following DIN 25422; Umsetzung von Normen in einem Forschungsinstitut. Sichere Aufbewahrung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe nach DIN 25422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeble, T.; Weinand, U. [Fraunhofer-INT, Euskirchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The secure storage and keeping of radioactive materials is increasingly important especially in times of a growing threat by terrorists. Authorities and users are jointly recommended to adapt the storage and keeping of radioactive materials to increasing security requirements. Here the different possibilities to fulfil the requirements regarding fire prevention and theft prevention which in Germany are set by DIN 25422 were determined for the radioactive materials and their storage and keeping places present in a research institute. The required measures were than agreed about with the relevant authority. Difficulties which are occurring due to the demanding combination of requirements out of the areas of radiation protection, fire prevention, and theft prevention are discussed. The storage and keeping of radioactive materials especially such of high activity requires a high level of security which must be continuously adapted to rising requirements.

  16. Study on the safety during transport of radioactive materials. Pt. 4. Events during transport. Final report work package 6; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 4. Ereignisse bei der Befoerderung. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie

    2014-09-15

    This report presents the results from a data collection and an evaluation of the safety significance of events in the transportation of radioactive material by all modes on public routes in Germany. Systems for reporting and evaluation of the safety significance of events encountered in the transport of radioactive material are a central element in monitoring and judging the adequacy and effectiveness of the transport regulations and their underlying safety philosophy, this allows for revision by experience feedback (lessons learned). The nationwide survey performed covering the period from the mid 1990s through 2013 identified and analysed a total of 670 transport events varying in type and severity. The vast majority of recorded transport events relate to minor deviations from the provisions of the transport regulations (e.g. improper markings and error in transport documents) or inappropriate practices and operational procedures resulting in material damage of packages and equipment such as handling incidents. Severe traffic accidents and fires represented only a small fraction (ca. 3 percent) of the recorded transport events. Four transport events were identified in the reporting period to have given rise to environmental radioactive releases. Three transport events have reportedly resulted in minor radiation exposures to the transport personnel; in one case an exposure in excess of the statutory annual dose limit for the public seems possible. Based on the EVTRAM scale, with seven significance levels, the broad majority of transport events has been classified as ''non-incidents'' (Level 0) and ''events without affecting the safety functions of the package'' (Level 1). On the INES scale most transport events would be classified as events with ''no safety significance'' (Below Scale/Level 0). The survey results show no serious deficiencies in the transport of radioactive material, supporting the

  17. Determination and evaluation of the radiation dose to the population due to incorporation of natural radioactivity. Ermittlung und Bewertung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung, die durch Inkorporation natuerlicher radioaktiver Stoffe verursacht wird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloebel, B; Berlich, J; Keller, K D; Bauer, U; Andres, C; Zaeh, I; Malter, G; Fehrenz, K; Lehnen, H; Fehringer, F

    1989-03-01

    Of all natural radioactivity the uranium-radium and thorium decay chain each contribute essentially to the internal radiation exposure of human populations. The objective of the investigations carried out during the past years was on the one hand to determine the contents of the radionuclides {sup 3}H/uranium, radium, lead, polonium and thorium in the human body and furthermore to determine the relevant ingestion pathways as regards type and activity of the natural radioactive substances incorporated in foodstuffs and drinking water. For this purpose both human organ samples and environmental samples including foodstuffs and drinking water, essentially from the Saarland, but also from other regions of the FRG, were taken and analyzed. The methods used, as far as deviating from standard methods, are described. The measuring results are given and discussed. A concluding evaluation assigns the natural internal radiation exposure within the other risks of everyday life. The concentrations determined and the ingestion of the essential natural radionuclides are presented in tables. The radiation dose is estimated from the respective tissue concentration. (orig./HP).

  18. Computerized simulation of the mechanical behavior of wood-filled shock absorbers of radioactive materials transport casks; Rechnerische Simulation des mechanischen Verhaltens von holzgefuellten Stossdaempfern von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Martin; Wille, Frank [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In Germany the mechanical component inspection of transport containers for radioactive materials is performed by BAM (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung) under consideration of national and international standards and guidelines. Experimental and calculative (analytical and numerical) techniques combined with material and/or component testing are the basis of assessment concepts according the state of the art. The authors describe the experiences of BAM concerning assessment and description of the mechanical behavior of shock absorbing components, including modeling strategies, material models, drop tests and experiment-calculation comparison. Energy absorbing components are used to reduce the impact forces at the container in case of a transport accident. In Germany wood filled thin-walled constructions are used. The deformation behavior of the wood is a main part of the calculative simulation procedures in comparison with experimental tests.

  19. Application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal. Final report; Anwendung und Weiterentwicklung von Modellen fuer Endlagersicherheitsanalysen auf die Freigabe radioaktiver Stoffe zur Deponierung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Larue, Juergen; Seher, Holger; Weiss, Dietmar

    2014-08-15

    The project of application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal is aimed to study the long-term safety using repository-specific simulation programs with respect to radiation exposure for different scenarios. It was supposed to investigate whether the 10 micro Sv criterion can be guaranteed under consideration of human intrusion scenarios. The report covers the following issues: selection and identification of models and codes and the definition of boundary conditions; applicability of conventional repository models for long-term safety analyses; modeling results for the pollutant release and transport and calculation of radiation exposure; determination of the radiation exposure.

  20. Investigation of the behaviour of impact limiting devices of transport casks for radioactive materials in the package approval and risk analysis; Untersuchung des Verhaltens stossdaempfender Bauteile von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe in Bauartpruefung und Risikoanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Martin

    2009-08-20

    Transport casks for radioactive materials with a Type-B package certificate have to ensure that even under severe accident scenarios the radioactive content remains safely enclosed, in an undercritical arrangement and that ionising radiation is sufficiently shielded. The impact limiter absorbs in an accident scenario the major part of the impact energy and reduces the maximum force applied on the cask body. Therefore the simulation of the behaviour of impact limiting devices of transport casks for nuclear material is of great interest for the design assessment in the package approval as well as for risk analysis in the field of transport of radioactive materials. The behaviour of the impact limiter is influenced by a number of parameters like impact limiter construction, material properties and loading conditions. Uncertainties exist for the application of simplified numerical tools for calculations of impact limiting devices. Uncertainities exist when applying simplified numerical tools. A model describing the compression of wood in axial direction of wood under large deformations for simulation with complex numerical procedures like dynamic Finite Element Methods has not been developed yet. Therefore this thesis concentrates on deriving a physical model for the behaviour of wood and analysing the applicability of different modeling techniques. A model describing the compression of wood in axial direction under large deformations was developed on the basis of an analysis of impact limiter of prototypes of casks for radioactive materials after a 9-m-drop-test and impact tests with wooden specimens. The model describes the softening, which wood under large deformation exhibits, as a function of the lateral strain constraint. The larger the lateral strain restriction, the more energy wood can absorb. The energy absorption capacity of impact limiter depends therefore on the ability of the outer steel sheet structure to prevent wood from evading from the main

  1. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain; Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe ''Carry over unerwuenschter Stoffe in Futtermitteln'' beim Bundesministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (BMELV) hat in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut fuer Tierernaehrung des Friedrich-Loeffler-Instituts (FLI) am 27. und 28. Oktober 2011 in Braunschweig einen Workshop zum Thema ''Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette'' durchgefuehrt. Ziel des Workshops war es, die aktuellen Erkenntnisse der Carry over Forschung und die Empfehlungen der Carry over - Arbeitsgruppe zu unerwuenschten Stoffen in Futtermitteln und Produktionsverfahren in

  2. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  3. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  4. Experiences from the exercise ''MERLIN'' for the detection of radioactive substances with the participation of special-purpose vehicles; Erfahrungen aus der Uebung ''MERLIN'' zur Detektion radioaktiver Stoffe unter Beteiligung verschiedenen Einsatzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesbach, M. [Hessisches Ministerium des Innern und fuer Sport, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Experiences of an exercise with hazardous goods, in particular with radioactive substances (measurements and taking environmental samples) are described. Several special-purpose vehicles with equipment and specially trained crews were used together with radiation protection experts according to the concept of Hesse. It has been the greatest exercise in Hesse with regard to hazardous goods and in particular with regard to ''incidents with radioactive substances''. (orig.)

  5. Priority ranking of substances hazardous to the aquatic system according to their exposure and effects for 1993/94; Reihung gewaesserrelevanter, gefaehrlicher Stoffe aufgrund ihrer Exposition und Wirkung fuer 1993/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, U.; Storm, A.

    1997-10-01

    in einem Vorlaeufer-Vorhaben (Anwendung eines Auswahlschemas zur Identifizierung gewaesserrelevanter, gefaehrlicher Stoffe, Nr. 102 04 109) ein gestuftes Auswahlschema entwickelt und auf Anwendbarkeit hin getestet. In einer ersten Stufe wurden die Stoffe identifiziert, die in Oberflaechengewaessern auftreten, d.h. eine Gewaesserrelevanz besitzen. Diese Stoffe wurden mit vorhandenen Stofflisten aus dem internationalen Gewaesserschutzbereich verglichen. Fuer die Stoffe, die in Monitoring-Programmen zu positiven Befunden fuehren, wurde auf der zweiten Stufe eine Reihung der Gefaehrlichkeit basierend auf einem Scoring-System durchgefuehrt. Zur Expositionsabschaetzung wurden ausschliesslich Konzentrationen, wie sie in Monitoring-Programmen gefunden worden sind, eingesetzt, um die Moeglichkeit von falsch positiven (Listenstoffe sind nicht in Oberflaechengewaessern nachgewiesen) oder falsch negativen (gewaesserrelevante Stoffe stehen nicht in Listen) Aussagen zu vermindern. Zur Effektabschaetzung wurde der entsprechende Teil des IPS-Systems (entwickelt zur Priorisierung von Altstoffen) uebernommen. Dabei werden direkte und indirekte Effekte (Bioakkumulation) betrachtet. Auf der dritten Stufe erfolgte eine Identifizierung der Quellen dieser Stoffe, wobei zwischen Punktquellen und diffusen Quellen unterschieden wird. Bei den diffusen Quellen wurde weiterhin zwischen landwirtschaftlicher und nicht-landwirtschaftlicher Nutzung unterschieden. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Vorhabens wurde eine Aktualisierung der o.g. Machbarkeitsstudie vorgenommen. Die Eingabe-Daten wurden dahingehend aktualisiert, dass Monitoring-Daten aus den Jahren 1993 und 1994 herangezogen wurden; es wurden zusaetzlich Daten aus der Nordsee ausgewertet und auch Sediment-Daten beruecksichtigt. Das Gesamtsystem wurde EDV-technisch optimiert, so dass verschiedene Modi zur Auswertung genutzt werden koennen (z.B. Median oder Mittelwert der Monitoring-Daten als input in die Stufe 2; Differenzierung der Auswertung

  6. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verteilung endokriner Stoffe auf Boden/Wasser- Systeme.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohne, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Unter „endokrinen Stoffen“ (Endocrin Disruptors) versteht man synthetisch erzeugte und in die Umwelt gelangte Chemikalien, die in die hormonellen Regelkreise von Mensch und Tier eingreifen. Sie entfalten ihre Wirkung i. d. R. bereits bei geringer Konzentration. Die aus der Einwirkung solcher Stoffe resultierenden negativen Folgen (z. B. Wachstumsstörungen, sinkende Fruchtbarkeit) werden unter dem Begriff „endokrine Effekte“ zusammengefasst. Die Untersuchung endokriner Effekte von Chemikalien ...

  7. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act; ''Transportare necesse est''. Zu den Versuchen in Deutschland, den Transport radioaktiver Stoffe zu unterbinden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des bremischen Hafenbetriebsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, U. [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  8. The stuff of enlightening diagnoses; Stoff fuer erhellende Diagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Doctors today already frequently rely on positron emission tomography - PET for short - in cancer diagnostics. However, in order to use this method for other diseases, too, they need suitable tracer substances containing radioactive fluorine-18 - a challenge for Tobias Ritter and his team at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kohlenforschung in Muelheim an der Ruhr. The chemists are searching for ways to label diverse molecules with fluorine-18 and thus expand the range of possibilities for medical specialists.

  9. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  10. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  11. Muriithi, IM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muriithi, IM. Vol 8, No 2 (2014) - Articles Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with arthroscopy in the evaluation of rotator cuff pathology. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 2 (2014) - Articles Patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis in Kenyatta National Hospital Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1994-1072. AJOL African ...

  12. Quick scan IMS vendors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norp, A.H.J.; Pals, H.; Walraven, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    IMS is gaining momentum in the market. First operators are deploying IMS, while other operators are considering buying IMS. Operators have two approaches for introducing IMS and building an IMS eco-system: • Buying IMS from a large vendor or system integrator. Vendors like Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson

  13. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners; Strahlenschutz und Umweltradioaktivitaet im Internet. Eine Reise in das World Wide Web fuer Anfaenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, S [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Referat ' ' Umweltradioaktivitaet, Strahlenschutz' ' (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.) [German] Mit dem rasanten Wachstum des Internet-Dienstes 'World Wide Web' ist auch das Angebot von Web-Seiten im Bereich Strahlenschutz stark gewachsen. Es wird eine Einfuehrung in die wichtigsten praktischen Grundlagen des WWW gegeben. Es wird der Aufbau der WWW-Adressen erklaert und das Navigieren mit Hyperlinks. Ausserdem werden einige Suchmaschinen vorgestellt. Der Beitrag stellt eine groessere Zahl an WWW-Adressen zu interessanten Seiten mit Strahlenschutzinformationen zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  14. Safety aspects in handling naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at geothermal usage; Arbeitssicherheitstechnische Aspekte im Umgang mit NORM bei der Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettler, John; Havenith, Andreas [Aachen Institute for Nuclear Training GmbH (Germany); Hirsch, Marius

    2015-06-01

    This article describes potential radiological hazards, which originate through the mobilization of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from deep geological deposits. The process of geothermal usage requires the artifical lift of injected fluids, which may also transport undesired by-products to the surface. As a result these by-products may precipitate, form residues and require radiation protection measures to cope with this task.

  15. The role of normative aspects in questions of justice and equity in radioactive waste governance; Die Rolle von normativen Aspekten bei Gerechtigkeitsfragen im Umgang mit radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, P. [Inst. fuer Mensch-Umwelt-Systeme, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Until now the nuclear waste problem has not been solved and the issue is still contentious in most societies. Up to the 1990s research focused mainly on technical aspects. In the meanwhile there is international consensus that an extended multidimensional approach is needed, e. g., based on the concept of sustainability. Radioactive waste is characterised by technical and institutional longevity. The associated risks may have consequences far into the future. With respect to future generations both precautionary and responsibility principles are crucial. There is an asymmetry of benefits and burdens within our generation as well as between our and the following generations. This issue of justice and equity might not be solved in the case of future generations. Along with distributional questions procedural questions are part of the problem. There is a severe lack of concise research activities in this field even though there exist ethical concepts and theories which - in general - are broadly accepted as guidelines or principles. Their concrete application, however, is methodically delicate and demanding. To develop a normative framework including a set of specific and assessable criteria will be the focus of further research activities. (orig.)

  16. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  17. Phytotoxic substances in soils of polluted beech forest stands; Phytotoxische Stoffe in Boeden immissionsbelasteter Buchenwaelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavac, V.; Parlar, H.; Michalas, F.; Droefke, P.

    1992-12-31

    Extensive germination experiments and growth experiments were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions with garden cress (Lepidium sativum ssp. sativum). The experiments show that the germination capacity ability of the plants in soil areas under old beech trees which are influenced by the trunk runoff water is impaired considerably. The investigations with nutrient solutions permit the following conclusion: The absence or occurrence of germinating plant species in the tree foot area is not influenced by the minerals alone but above all by organic compounds. In this investigation, the growth-inhibiting effect of several phenolic acids occurring in beech forests is recognized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die umfangreichen Keim- und Wachstumsversuche mit der Gartenkresse (Lepidium sativum ssp.sativum), die unter kontrollierten Laborbedingungen durchgefuehrt wurden, zeigen, dass die Keimfaehigkeit der Pflanzen in den vom Stammablaufwasser beeinflussten Bodenbereichen der Altbuchen deutlich gehemmt wird. Die Untersuchungen mit Naehrloesungen lassen die Schlussfolgerung zu, dass nicht die Mineralstoffe allein, sondern vor allem organische Verbindungen das Fehlen oder Vorkommen aufkeimender Pflanzenarten im Baumflussbereich weitgehend bedingen. In dieser Untersuchung wird die wachstumshemmende Wirkung von mehreren im Oekosystem Buchenwald vorkommenden phenolischen Saeuren nachgewiesen. (orig.)

  18. GesprächsStoff Farbe Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Kunst und Gesellschaft

    CERN Document Server

    Karliczek, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Die Gegenwart eröffnet eine völlig neue Bedeutung und Funktionsaufladung von Farbe. Diese hat in zahlreiche Lebensbereiche Einzug gehalten und reagiert ebenso intelligent auf individuelle Kommunikations- und Unterhaltungsbedürfnisse wie auf hochspezialisierte technologische Anforderungen in Gefahrensituationen. Farbe präsentiert sich als Partner der Energiegewinnung wie als künstlerisches, gestaltendes, gar therapeutisches Medium. Im Rahmen des interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts „Farbe als Akteur und Speicher“ (FARBAKS) haben in Rückbindung an den Verlauf der Farbgeschichte der vergangenen 200 Jahre zahlreiche Geistes- und Naturwissenschaftler sowie Künstlerinnen und Künstlern den fundamentalen Wandel, dem Farbe seit Beginn der Industrialisierung durch neue technologische Produktions- und Anwendungsformen, durch theoretisch-wissenschaftliche Bewertung und durch neue Bedeutungszuweisungen unterworfen wurde, in den Blick genommen. Der reich bebilderte Band präsentiert Analysen und Ergebnisse un...

  19. Bremssysteme im Personenkraftwagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Konrad

    Für die ersten drei Punkte ist die Betriebsbremsanlage ("Fußbremse“) zuständig. Der Fahrer aktiviert sie durch Betätigen des Bremspedals. Die Feststellbremsanlage ("Handbremse“) hält das Fahrzeug im Stillstand.

  20. Geschlechterstereotype im Einsatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kegyes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Die umfangreiche Monographie gehört zum Forschungsbereich der kritischen angewandten Linguistik (Critical Applied Linguistics und liegt sowohl theoretisch als auch praktisch im Schnittpunkt der gender- und werbesprachlichen Untersuchungen.

  1. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. 2. ed.; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Derakshani, Nahid; Drobig, Matthias; Koenig, Mario; Mentfewitz, Joachim; Prast, Hartmut; Uelpenich, Gerhard; Vidmayer, Marc; Wilbert, Stefan; Wolf, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    The recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense (analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations) cover the following topics: Requirements for sampling, description of the materials (chemical, biological and radioactive contaminated materials), decontamination, sample transport and protocol documents.

  2. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    ) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  3. Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenau, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen. - In: Tıpta işbirliği ve hukuksal sorunlar = Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen / ed.: Hakan Hakeri ... - Samsun : Adalet, 2010. - S. 7-18

  4. Mechanik deformierbarer fester Stoffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Joachim

    In Bd. I/I haben wir die Mechanik des Massenpunkts und des starren Körpers behandelt; wir wollen nun berücksichtigen, dass sich alle Körper unter dem Einfluss der einwirkenden Kräfte deformieren können.

  5. Organisationsprobleme im Ökomarketing

    OpenAIRE

    Dienel, Wolfram

    2000-01-01

    Organisationsprobleme im Ökomarketing - eine transaktionskostentheoretische Analyse im Absatzkanal konventioneller Lebensmittelhandel Die im Vergleich zum großen Nachfragepotential zögerliche Entwicklung des Ökomarkts in Deutschland ist auf Organisationsprobleme zurückzuführen. Die Organisationsprobleme behindern insbesondere die großskalige Ökomarkterschließung über die konventionellen Supermarktketten, erschweren aber auch die Effizienzsteigerung im kleiner strukturierten alternativen N...

  6. IMS Application Developer's Handbook Creating and Deploying Innovative IMS Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noldus, Rogier; Mulligan, Catherine; Fikouras, Ioannis; Ryde, Anders; Stille, Mats

    2011-01-01

    IMS Application Developer Handbook will give a hands-on view of exactly what needs to be done by IMS application developers to write an application and take it "live" on an operator's network. It will offer practical guidance on building innovative applications using the features and capabilities of the IMS network, show how the rapidly changing development environment is impacting on the business models employed in the industry and how existing network solutions can be moved towards IMS. The book will also elaborate on how IMS applies basic VoIP principles and techniques to realise a true mul

  7. Sexting im Schulumfeld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Buchegger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wir wollten es einfach wissen. Wie steht es nun mit diesem "Sexting" – also der Übermittlung von Nacktaufnahmen, die Jugendliche untereinander teilen? Stimmt unser Eindruck aus den Workshops in Schulen, dass es bereits ein "übliches Verhalten" der Jugendlichen geworden ist? Saferinternet.at hat im November/Dezember 2014 eine Studie durch das Institut für Jugendkulturforschung rund um das Thema "Sexting" in Auftrag gegeben.

  8. Final storage of radioactive waste in Germany. Waste arisings and availability of a repository as seen by an electricity utility; Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland. Abfallaufkommen und Endlagerverfuegbarkeit aus EVU-Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeskamp, H.; Brammer, K.J.; Graf, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearservice, Essen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland an beruecksichtigt. Bereits 1957 wird in einem Memorandum der Deutschen Atomkommission der Hinweis auf die Notwendigkeit der sicheren Beseitigung der radioaktiven Abfaelle formuliert. Der Gesetzgeber hat diese Anregung aufgegriffen und schon im Atomgesetz vom 23.12.1959 Vorschriften zur schadlosen Verwertung radioaktiver Stoffe angelegt. Von der Bundesrepublik wurde in Zusammenhang mit dem Nuklearen Entsorgungszentrum auch nach einem geeigneten Endlagerstandort gesucht. Nach einer intensiven Standortsuche durch die Bundesregierung und das Land Niedersachsen benannte die Niedersaechsische Landesregierung 1977 Gorleben als Standort. Vorausgegangen war ein 3-stufiges Auswahlverfahren, in dem mehr als 140 Standorte betrachtet wurden. Die Arbeiten zur Erkundung des Standortes Gorleben begannen 1979 und wurden am 01.10.2000 zur Klaerung von konzeptionellen und sicherheitstechnischen Zweifeln der Bundesregierung unterbrochen. Vom BMU wird die Verfuegbarkeit eines (Hochaktiv-)Endlagers im Jahr 2030 angestrebt. Aus technischer Sicht ist eine Inbetriebnahme eines Endlagers fuer waermeentwickelnde Abfaelle in Gorleben ab dem Jahr 2025 noch erreichbar, sofern sich der Salzstock nach zuegigem Abschluss der Erkundungsarbeiten als geeignet erweist. Auf die absehbaren Problemfelder wird hingewiesen. Ein weiteres Projekt der Bundesregierung ist die Nutzung der Schachtanlage Konrad als Endlager fuer schwach- und mittelradioaktive Abfaelle. Der Planfeststellungsbeschluss wurde nach gut 20 Jahren im Mai 2002 erteilt und ist zurzeit noch beklagt. Aus den dargestellten Angaben zum erwarteten Abfallvolumen der nicht-waermeentwickelnden EVU-Abfaelle in Verbindung mit dem moeglichen Beginn des Einlagerungsbetriebs Konrad 2013 werden detaillierte Ergebnisse vorgestellt. (orig.)

  9. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd); Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AKEnd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost.

  10. The anti NPP movement in change. New challenges due to the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive waste; Die Anti-AKW-Bewegung im Wandel. Neue Herausforderungen durch die Endlagersuche fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (FFU)

    2013-07-01

    The German Bundestag has decided on June 28th, 2013 the law on the site selection (StandAG) has been enacted as ''national consensus'' for ''social peace''. The compromise is considered to solve the polarized conflict with respect to the site for an final repository for high-level radioactive waste. New challenges result for the government and the civil society.

  11. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - selected organic trace pollutants in the Elbe and its tributaries 1994-1999; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Ausgewaehlte organische Spurenverunreinigungen in der Elbe und Elbenebenfluessen im Zeitraum 1994 - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooken, C.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    Stoffe noch Defizite im Hinblick auf die Reinigungsleistung industrieller und kommunaler Klaeranlagen existieren. Wie ubiquitaer vorhandene Schadstoffe ueber ein kleines und weitverzweigtes Fliesssystem in die Elbe gelangen koennen, wird beispielhaft an der Stoffklasse der Chloralkylphosphate aufgezeigt. Diese finden hauptsaechlich Verwendung als Flammschutzmittel und Weichmacher in Polyurethanen. Ergebnisse einer Auswahl von 28 Stoffen aus der Richtlinie 76/464/EWG werden ebenfalls vorgestellt. Sie sind eine Entscheidungshilfe fuer die Planung zukuenftiger Messkonzepte auf der Grundlage der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie. Mit dem Messprogramm der ARGE ELBE werden organische Schadstoffe routinemaessig erfasst und veroeffentlicht. Dabei handelt es sich ueberwiegend um unpolare Stoffe wie die hinlaenglich bekannten polychlorierten Biphenyle oder die schwerfluechtigen chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe mit insektizider Wirkung (z.B. DDT). Neuere Analysenergebnisse zeigen, dass diese Stoffgruppe nach wie vor relevant ist und auch in den kommenden Jahren nicht an Bedeutung verlieren wird. Eine andere Stoffgruppe, die polaren und im allgemeinen gut wasserloeslichen Substanzen, werden im Rahmen von Sonderuntersuchungen in der waessrigen Phase bestimmt. Die in diesem Bericht hauptsaechlich behandelten Stoffe stammen aus unterschiedlichen Quellen: industrielle und kommunale Abwaesser, diffuse Eintraege aus der Agrarwirtschaft und aus atmosphaerischen Depositionen. In vielen Faellen sind sie biologisch schwer abbaubar und koennen Bedeutung erlangen, wenn Flusswasser als Uferfiltrat fuer die Trinkwasserherstellung genutzt wird. Wegen der aufwendigen und wirkungsvollen Aufbereitungstechnologie gelangen sie allerdings nur selten bis ins Trinkwasser. (orig.)

  12. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen. Kurzanleitung fuer die CBRN-Probenahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  13. Non-medical application of radioactive materials or ionizing radiation. German legal regulations; Die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung ausserhalb der Medizin. Deutsche Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-medical imaging is regulated in Germany since the 2011 radiation protection law amendment and the simultaneous X-ray regulation amendment based on the Euratom guideline 96/29. The regulations contain lists with justified and non-justified activities.

  14. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  15. IMS applications analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  16. Development of the probabilistic exposure modeling in the frame of the radioactive residues final repository long-term safety analysis; Weiterentwicklung der probabilistischen Expositionsmodellierung im Rahmen der Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse von Endlagern fuer radioaktive Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecior, Willy

    2017-04-28

    The long-term safety analysis of repositories for radioactive waste is based on the modeling of the releases of nuclides from the waste matrix and the subsequent transport through the near and far field of the repository system to the living part of the environment (biosphere). For the conversion of the nuclide release into a potential hazard (e. g. into an effective dose), a conceptual biosphere model and a mathematical exposure model is used. The parametrization of the mathematical model can be carried out deterministic as well as probabilistic using distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. However, to date, particularly in the context of the probabilistic safety analysis for deep-geological repositories, there is no uniform procedure for the derivation of the distributions to be used. The distributions used by the analyst are mostly chosen according to personal conviction and often illogical with respect to the underlying nature of the actual model parameter, but model results are in part very dependent on the type of the selected distributions of the input parameters. Furthermore, there less studies available on the influence of interactions and correlations or other dependencies between the radiological input parameters of the model. Therefore, the impact of different types of distributions (empirical, parametric) for different input parameters as well as the influence of interactions and correlations between input parameters on the results of the mathematical exposure modeling were analyzed in the present study. The influence of the type of distribution for the representation of the variability of the physical input parameter as well as their interactions and dependencies could be identified as less relevant. However, by means of Monte Carlo simulation of the second order, the composition of the corresponding samples or the condition of the sample moments to be used for the construction of parametric distributions were determined as the essential factors for

  17. Jung und Alt im Dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Baetge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rezension zu: Kupser, Thomas, und Ida Pöttinger, Hrsg. 2011. Mediale Brücken: Generationen im Dialog durch aktive Medienarbeit. Gesellschaft - Altern - Medien 3. München: kopaed.

  18. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  19. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  20. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  1. Organic micropollutants in seapage and groundwater after agricultural use of sewage sludge; Organische Spurenstoffe im Sicker- und Grundwasser bei landwirtschaftlicher Nutzung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liesegang, W.; Zullei-Seibert, N.; Lenze, C.; Kaczmarczyk, B.; Otto, S.; Lemm, E.

    1996-07-01

    bewirkten parameterabhaengige Veraenderung der Grundwasserqualitaet. Die meisten organischen Einzelstoffe wurden unmittelbar nach der Duengermassnahme geloest oder partikulaer gebunden in das Grundwasser eingetragen. PAK wurden dagegen ueberwiegend im Filterkoerper zurueckgehalten. Zusaetzlich waren aufgrund der verstaerkten biologischen Aktivitaet gebildete Abbauprodukte nachweisbar. Andere relevante Parameter wie beispielsweise Kupfer, Ammonium und Nitrit ueberschritten reproduzierbar die Referenzwerte der Trinkwasserverordnung. Eine signifikante Erhoehung der organischen Gesamtfracht oder der Schwermetalle im Bodenkoerper fand nicht statt. Im Rahmen der analytischen Voruntersuchungen zeigte sich, dass organische Stoffe abhaengig von ihren Stoffeigenschaften im Klaerschlamm geloest, kolloidal gebunden und an den Feststoff sorbiert vorlagen. Die Konzentrationen im Kolloid ueberstiegen teilweise die im Feststoff nachweisbaren. Insgesamt konnten in landwirtschaftlich verwertbaren Schlaemmen verschiedener Klaeranlagen etwa 55 Einzelsubstanzen identifiziert werden, deren weiteres Umweltverhalten durch die Verteilung zwischen den Klaerschlammphasen gepraegt wird. (orig.)

  2. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  3. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  4. Concentrations of motor vehicle exhaust emissions and ozone in the area surrounding a motorway; Konzentrationen von Kraftfahrzeugemissionen und Ozon im Nahbereich einer Autobahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsmeier, U.; Vogel, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-01-01

    The measuring concept realized along the federal motorway BAB656, which makes use of meteorological and air-chemical measuring techniques under selected meteorological conditions, permits detecting the plume of motorway exhaust emissions beyond doubt. By simultaneous, comprehensive traffic surveys, the input parameters for numerical emission calculation models valid up to now could be verified. In part, as regards trafic density, fleet composition and driving speed, they were corrected. From the difference between the vertical profiles of the meteorological parameters and ozone concentration measured at the luff and lee sides of the motorway and from measurements of the concentrations of primarily emitted substances at ground level, the actual emissions of these substances for the motorway segment in kgh{sup 1} km{sup -}1 were calculated. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass mit dem bei BAB656 realisierten Messkonzept mit Hilfe meteorologischer und luftchemischer Messtechnik bei ausgesuchten meteorologischen Bedingungen die Abluftfahne mit den auf einer Autobahn emittierten Substanzen zweifelsfrei detektiert werden kann. Durch gleichzeitige umfangreiche Verkehrserhebungen konnten die bisher gueltigen Eingabeparameter fuer numerische Emissionsberechnungsmodelle ueberprueft und was Verkehrsdichte, Flottenzusammensetzung und Fahrgeschwindigkeit angeht, teilweise korrigiert werden. Aus der Differenz der im Luv und Lee der Autobahn gemessenen Vertikalprofile meteorologischer Parameter und der Ozonkonzentration sowie der Messung der Konzentrationen primaer emittierter Substanzen am Boden konnten die Emissionen dieser Stoffe fuer den Autobahnabschnitt in kgh{sup -1} km{sup -1} aktuell berechnet werden. (orig./KW)

  5. Teaching concepts in the field of radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleichroth, W.

    1982-01-01

    This issue of 'Naturwissenschaften im Unterricht', dealing with the subjects of physics and chemistry, gives an account of the fundamentals of radioactivity, nuclear fission, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, dosimetry, safety engineering, shielding measures to prevent the release of radioactive substances, pressure engineering, emergency core cooling systems, waste disposal and natural and artificial environmental radioactivity. Teachers will find helpful hints as to the method of instruction and the explanation of problems. (DG) [de

  6. Individualisierte Produkte im Fokus der intergrierten Produktentwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Baumberger, C.;Gahr, A.

    2017-01-01

    Individualisierte Produkte stellen neue Herausforderungen an die Produktentwicklung – vornehmlich im Bereich der Produktstrukturplanung, der kundenindividuellen Produktadaption und dem Zielkostenmanagement. Diese Themen werden am Lehrstuhl für Produktentwicklung im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereiches 582 behandelt.

  7. Application of Hadamard transform in IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Miaomiao; Liu Weihao; Chen Yong; Jiang Dazhen

    2008-01-01

    Hadamard transform can improve the SNR by increasing the ion duty cycle in IMS. In this paper, the ion spectral signals were processed by Hadamard transform based on the IMS detector hardware platform. The results showed that Hadamard transform can greatly improve the SNR of the IMS detector in contrast with traditional method. (authors)

  8. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  9. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  10. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  12. Argumentellipse in der "weichen" Nachricht im Deutschen und im Slowenischen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uršula Krevs

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Argumentellipsen werden in der sprachlichen Kommunikation ohne weiteres akzeptiert, obwohl sie allenfalls in gewissem Sinne wegen ihrer Elliptizität abweichend wirken. Im folgenden interessiert uns, wie die Argumentellipse als syntaktische Entität in den Text eingebettet wird und welche Funktionen sie ausübt. Unsere Aufmerksamkeit gilt bier der Textsorte "weiche" Nachricht, die als Abweichung des Grundmusters gilt. Um im Sprachenpaar Deutsch-Slowenisch die in dieser Textsorte realisierten Argumentellipsen vergleichen zu können, wurde die Homogenität in der Thematik angestrebt und die Texte aus dem gleichen Kommunikationsbereich gewählt. So wurden die Korpora zwei Zeitschriften, die sich mit der gleichen Sportart beschäftigen, entnommen: der deutschen Zeitschrift "Rotpunkt" und der slowenischen Zeitschrift  "Grif '.

  13. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  14. Using IMS VDEX in Agrega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Canabal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An essential element in a learning object repository is the meta-information associated with the resources housed by the repository, as this is what enables the objects to be retrieved. In many cases, the meta-information which is described consists of the classification of a resource in relation to a taxonomy or thesaurus. Agrega is a network of learning object repositories in which an LOM profile, called LOM-ES, has been used to label the objects. Part of the meta-information described corresponds to the classification of the object with respect to a group of taxonomies and a thesaurus, which have had to be described using the ims vdex standard to enable them to be managed from the federation nodes. This article describes the way in which ims vdex has been used in order to create this description and how these metadata instances are managed.

  15. Professionalisierung und Doping im Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Wüterich, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Der Beitrag untersucht Zusammenhänge zwischen der zunehmenden Professionalisierung des Sports und dem Anstieg von Dopingvergehen. Er zeigt, dass im historischen Vergleich beide Phänomene nicht neu sind, dass sich die Probleme aufgrund der steigenden Bedeutung des Leistungssports aber zugespitzt haben. Ausgehend von einer juristischen und sozioökonomischen Analyse der Anreize zu Doping werden Lösungsvorschläge entwickelt. The author analyzes the interdependencies between a growing commercia...

  16. The IMS Software Integration Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-12

    products to incorporate all data shared by the IMS applications. Some entities (time-series, images, a algorithm -specific parameters) must be managed...dbwhoanii, dbcancel Transaction Management: dbcommit, dbrollback Key Counter Assignment: dbgetcounter String Handling: cstr ~to~pad, pad-to- cstr Error...increment *value; String Maniputation: int cstr topad (array, string, arraylength) char *array, *string; int arrayjlength; int pad tocstr (string

  17. Modelling of the reactive transport of organic pollutants in ground water; Modellierung des reaktiven Transports organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    1999-07-01

    ausfuehrlicheres Kapitel ueber organische Schadstoffe im Grundwasser. Dabei liegt der Schwerpunkt auf den chlorierten organischen Verbindungen und den Mineraloelprodukten. Dargestellt werden die Ausbreitungsmechanismen fuer diese Stoffe im Untergrund und vor allem deren Abbaubarkeit im Grundwasser. Ein eigenes Kapitel ist dann den Moeglichkeiten zur Reinigung belasteter Grundwasserleiter gewidmet. Die wichtigsten Sanierungsverfahren werden vorgestellt, wobei besonders die in situ Verfahren mit hydraulischen Komponenten hervorgehoben werden. Diskutiert wird in diesem Kapitel ausserdem die Selbstreinigungsfaehigkeit von Aquiferen und der Nutzen von Modellanwendungen bei der Grundwassersanierung. Im vierten Kapitel werden die einzelnen Komponenten von Reaktions-Transportmodellen aufgefuehrt. Dabei wird u.a. auf die unterschiedlichen Formulierungen von Reaktionsmodellen hinsichtlich ihrer Komplexitaet eingegangen und die Kopplung zwischen Stofftransport und Reaktionsprozessen erlaeutert. Am Ende dieses Kapitels steht ein umfangreicher Literaturueberblick zur Anwendung von Stofftransportmodellen auf konkrete Grundwasserschadensfaelle. Das fuenfte Kapitel besteht aus einer Beschreibung der Faehigkeiten und der Funktionsweise des Reaktions-Transportmodells TBC (Transport-Biochemie-Chemie). Dieses Modell wird in den beiden folgenden Anwendungsfaellen zum reaktiven Transport organischer Schadstoffe im Grundwasser eingesetzt. (orig.)

  18. New radioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.; Sandulescu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Some atomic nuclei reorganize their structure by ejection of big protons and neutrons aggregates. The observation of these new radioactivities specifies the theories of the nuclear dynamics. (authors)

  19. Radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of radioactivity in the ocean with marine life are various. Activities in this field, especially the measurements of the radioactivity in sea water and marine life are described. The works first started in Japan concerning nuclear weapon tests. Then the port call to Japan by U.S. nuclear-powered naval ships began. On the other hand, nuclear power generation is advancing with its discharge of warm water. The radioactive pollution of sea water, and hence the contamination of marine life are now major problems. Surveys of the sea areas concerned and study of the radioactivity intake by fishes and others are carried out extensively in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  20. Radioactivity Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Browne, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Radioactivity Handbook will be published in 1985. This handbook is intended primarily for applied users of nuclear data. It will contain recommended radiation data for all radioactive isotopes. Pages from the Radioactivity Handbook for A = 221 are shown as examples. These have been produced from the LBL Isotopes Project extended ENDSF data-base. The skeleton schemes have been manually updated from the Table of Isotopes and the tabular data are prepared using UNIX with a phototypesetter. Some of the features of the Radioactivity Handbook are discussed here

  1. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review meeting in May 2018; Gemeinsames Uebereinkommen ueber die Sicherheit der Behandlung abgebrannter Brennelemente und ueber die Sicherheit der Behandlung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Bericht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die sechste Ueberpruefungskonferenz im Mai 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-15

    The joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management covers the following topics: historical development and actual status of the civil use of nuclear power, politics and the spent fuel management, inventories and listing, legislation and executive systems, other safeguard regulations, safety during spent fuel handling, safety during radioactive waste processing, transport across national borders, disused enclosed radioactive sources, general regulations for safety enhancement.

  2. Water quality objectives for priority substances aiming at the protection of the aquatic community. Final report; Ableitung von Zielvorgaben fuer prioritaere Stoffe zum Schutz von Oberflaechengewaessern. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, A.

    2000-03-15

    Beside the emission principle operationalized as best available technology (BAT) the derivation of water quality criteria is a main approach to protect surface waters. Water quality criteria are defined as not legally binding objectives of protection and are no limit values. The quality objectives are derived for pre-defined objectives namely the aquatic community, fishery, sediments and drinking water. It was aim of the project to derive quality objectives for the aquatic community. In principle, the lowest NOEC-value for the most sensitive species out of four trophic levels of the biocenose was used as the basis. In case the entire data set was not available factors were applied with their figures depending on test duration, biological endpoint and size of the data ensemble. The current report mainly presents water quality objectives for plant protection products, but also gives some figures for halogenated compounds as well as the currently discussed nonylphenols and tributyltin compounds. The acquired data allows for a derivation of quality objectives for 11 out of 27 compounds/groups of compounds. Results of the data acquistion as well as of the evaluation are documented in both, an electronic data base with a link to the oekotoxikologische Schnellauskunft (OESA)' and data reports. (orig.) [German] Neben dem Emissionsansatz ist das Prinzip der Formulierung von Gewaessergueteanforderungen - im Sinne eines Immissionsminimierungsprinzips - ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Schutzes der Oberflaechengewaesser. Waehrend die Gewaessergueteanforderungen zunaechst als Qualitaetsziele beschrieben wurden, wurde dieser Terminus zur Vermeidung des Eindrucks einer rechtlichen Verbindlichkeit - im Sinne von Grenzwerten - in Zielvorgaben umformuliert. Die Zielvorgaben werden schutzzielbezogen abgeleitet, wobei es sich um die Schutzgueter aquatische Lebensgemeinschaft, Berufs- und Sportfischerei und Sedimente sowie Trinkwasserversorgung handelt. Zur Ableitung der

  3. Suchverhalten im Web: Empirische Ergebnisse

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Mänz, Nadine

    2005-01-01

    Nadine Schmidt-Mänz vom Institut für Entscheidungstheorie u. Unternehmensforschung, Universität Karlsruhe, berichtete über „Suchverhalten im Web: Empirische Ergebnisse“. Rund 6000 Benutzer von Suchmaschinen füllten den von ihr hergestellten Online-Fragebogen aus. Einige ihrer Erkenntnisse: Als Suchmaschine wurde mit 91,3 % Google benutzt. Die Monopolstellung von Google war den Suchenden nicht bewußt. Einer der Schlüsse der Referentin: Es mangelt nicht an Suchmaschinen, sondern an der „Weitere...

  4. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  5. Digital Medien im Naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht

    CERN Document Server

    Meßinger-Koppelt, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    „Morgens, 8 Uhr: Kurz vor der Schultür werden noch die neuesten Posts auf Facebook geliked, ein Selfie in die Whats-App-Gruppe hochgeladen oder auf YouTube noch ein #LOL-Video gestreamed. Dann klingelt es und die Digital Natives greifen wieder zu Stift, Papier und werden frontal mit Fakten gefüttert“ (A. Spang). Für Schüler sind Internet, Smartphone und Tablet-PC heute selbstverständlicher Teil ihrer Lernwelt. Und auch die Alltags- und Berufswelt ist ohne Informationstechnologien nicht mehr vorstellbar. Doch was bedeutet das für den Schulunterricht, insbesondere für die techniknahen Naturwissenschaften? Wie gelingt im Schulalltag die Balance zwischen Kreidezeit und interaktivem Whiteboard nach mittlerweile 30 Jahren Erfahrung mit Schulcomputern? Der vorliegende Sammelband präsentiert zahlreiche Praxisbeispiele aus dem Schulalltag zum sinnvollen Einsatz digitaler Medien im Biologie-, Chemie- und Physik-Unterricht sowie den aktuellen Stand der fachdidaktischen Forschung. Zu Wort kommen Hochschullehr...

  6. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - endocrineously active substances in the Elbe, its tributaries and the North Sea; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Endokrin wirksame Stoffe in der Elbe, in Nebenfluessen und in der Nordsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemken, O.P. [GALAB, Geesthacht (Germany); Theobald, N. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany); Hebbel, H. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Endocrineously active substances are discharged into surface bodies of water with communal and industrial effluents. Especially estrogenic substances like Bisphenol A, alkyl phenols and alkyl phenol ethoxylates in the Elbe and its tributaries have been neglected so far. In the context of an interdisciplinary project, chemists, biologists and mathematicians investigated the concentrations and fate of these xenoestrogens, relative potential effects of unknown water constituents and quantitative statistical mechanisms based on the available analytical findings. The contribution intends to contribute information on the pollutant situation of selected endocrineously active substances in the Elbe and its tributaries. [German] Ein relevanter Eintragspfad fuer endokrin wirksame Stoffe in die Oberflaechengewaesser sind die Abwaesser kommunaler und industrieller Klaeranlagen. Insbesondere das Vorkommen und der Verbleib von oestrogen wirkenden Stoffen wie Bisphenol A, den Alkylphenolen und Alkylphenolethoxylaten in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen wurde bisher zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. In einem interdisziplinaeren Projekt, an dem sich Chemiker, Biologen und Mathematiker beteiligten, wird versucht, eine erste Antwort zu geben ueber das Vorkommen und den Verbleib dieser Xenooestrogene, ueber relative Wirkpotenzen von unbekannten Wasserinhaltsstoffen durch die Anwendung von In-vitro-Tests und ueber quantitative statistische Zusammenhaenge, die auf vorhandenen Analysenergebnissen basieren. Dieser Bericht soll einen Beitrag leisten zur Immissionssituation von ausgewaehlten endokrin wirksamen Stoffen in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen. (orig.)

  7. Transport of the reactive substances eosin, uranium and lithium in a heterogeneous aquifer; Transport der reaktiven Stoffe Eosin, Uranin und Lithium in einem heterogenen Grundwasserleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, U.

    1997-02-01

    To predict the movement of a contaminant plume in an aquifer is still a task of great uncertainty. This uncertainty is generally attributed to an insufficient understanding of the chemical reaction processes and/or to the natural aquifer heterogeneities. In an integrated approach of field experiments, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, the transport of the weakly reactive solutes eosin, uranin and lithium was investigated at a test site near the Research Center in Juelich. The field scale transport behavior of the solutes was studied by large scale tracer tests. To characterize aquifer heterogeneities, in-situ and laboratory measurements were performed. In-situ measurements covered about 1500 flowmeter measurements and 90 determinations of the groundwater flow velocity by the borehole method. The spatial variability of hydraulic and physico-chemical parameters was further determined on 400 sediment samples. These parameters included: Grain size distribution, calculated hydraulic conductivity, unconformity and as physico-chemical parameters the organic carbon content, specific surface and the cation exchange capacity. Furthermore sorption coefficients were measured on 75 sediment samples for uranium and lithium. The statistical evaluation of these data showed that the hydraulic heterogeneity was larger but in the same order of magnitude as the physico-chemical parameters. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Eine Schadstoff-Ausbreitung im Grundwasser vorherzusagen, ist noch immer eine Aufgabe mit unsicherem Ergebnis. Diese Prognose-Unsicherheiten werden im Allgemeinen auf ein unzureichendes Verstaendnis der chemischen Reaktionsprozesse und/oder auf die natuerliche Heterogenitaet des Grundwasserleiters zurueckgefuehrt. In dem hier beschriebenen Forschungsprojekt, das Feldversuche, Laborversuche und numerische Simulationen integriert, wurde der Transport der schwach reaktiven Substanzen Eosin, Uranin und Lithium auf einem Versuchsgelaende nahe des Forschungszentrums

  8. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  9. Guideline for the assessment of radioactive substances in drinking water in the frame of the implementation of the drinking water regulation. Recommendation by BMUB, BfS, UBA and the responsible state authorities and DVGW and BDFW; Leitfaden zur Untersuchung und Bewertung von radioaktiven Stoffen im Trinkwasser bei der Umsetzung der Trinkwasserverordnung. Empfehlung von BMUB, BMG, BfS, UBA und den zustaendigen Landesbehoerden sowie DVGW und BDEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The guidelines on the assessment of radioactive substances in drinking water cover the following issues: terms, symbols and units concerning radioactivity, radioactivity in the drinking water and radiation exposure, requirements for drinking water with respect to radioactive substances, fundamentals of the assessment concept according to the drinking water regulation, practical application of the assessment concept, analytical determination of radioactivity related parameters.

  10. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  13. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  14. E2eUberIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Cummings, Mark; Dey, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    , high-quality services, we propose an innovative end-to-end service management framework called e2eUberIM. This framework contains a scalable, flexible, and volatile information model (UberIM) and a real-time, "organic" communication and storage process (e2eUber). It leverages the proprietary interfaces...... of different vendors, enabling the resulting enhanced operations system environment to automatically and in real-time optimize operational overhead while maximizing the user experience, and quickly field new innovative, composed "any-services" (XaaS). We document the e2eUberIM requirements and its design...

  15. Imágenes e identidades

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrini, Sebastión

    2013-01-01

    Las identidades se estructuran en un proceso de identificación continua con imágenes. Esto afecta no solo a las identidades de las personas, sino también a las de las instituciones, organizaciones y empresas. En este sentido, el rol de ser del Diseño en Comunicación Visual es intentar afectar a las identidades de los espectadores de sus imágenes. Por esta razón, primero es importante definir qué son las imágenes. Facultad de Bellas Artes

  16. I'm a Map, I'm a Green Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    I'm talking about the ways we represent ourselves and our world. I've put some thoughts on the topic together here--a gathering that enacts new media creating and takes up conceptual layers like metaphors, models, and composing. The primary sources are videos from the Get a Mac campaign, aka I'm a Mac; I'm a PC ads. Posthuman concepts blending…

  17. Innovationsmanagement im Marketing: Anleitung zur Innovations-Sensibilisierung und deren Umsetzung im Rahmen der Neuen Lernkultur

    OpenAIRE

    Mangisch, Christian; Blatter, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Der Kurs “Innovationsmanagement im Marketing“ vermittelt den Teilnehmenden Wissen zum Innovationsmanagement, zum innovativen Team und zu innovativen Marketing Trends. Diese Kurse sind online auf dem folgenden Link www.ritzycampus.ch zu finden. Die Teilnehmer müssen für den Online-Kurs keine speziellen Kenntnisse oder Voraussetzungen mitbringen. Diese Online-Kurse im Fach Marketing sind an ein breites Publikum gerichtet. Sie ermöglichen den Studierenden im Eigenstudium die Grundlagen der Theme...

  18. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  19. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  20. [Variation im heutigen Deutsch...] / Laura Tidrike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tidrike, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Variation im heutigen Deutsch : Perspektiven für den Sprachunterricht / hrsg. v. Eva Neuland. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2006. (Sprache - Kommunikation - Kultur. Soziolinguistische Beiträge ; Vol. 4)

  1. Literatur zu Gast im Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Der deutsche Schriftsteller Thomas LEHR liest am 23. März 2006 aus seinem Roman '42', einem philosophischen Abenteuerroman über die Suche nach der Zeit, erzählt in einer funkelnden und souveränen Sprache. Eine Welt von vernichtender Schönheit und bizarren Schrecken wartet auf eine Besuchergruppe, die in der Nähe von Genf die unterirdischen Anlagen des Forschungszentrums für Teilchenphysik CERN besichtigt. Als sie um 12:47:42 wieder ans Tageslicht tritt, scheint ganz Europa in einen Dornröschenschlaf gefallen. Allein die 70 Besucher können sich noch bewegen. Monate und Jahre verharrt die Welt wie in einer riesigen dreidimensionalen Fotografie, bis ein wiederum schockierendes Ereignis die 'Chronifizierten' aus ihren physikalischen Spekulationen und seltsamen Lebensformen reisst. Zu dieser literarischen Veranstaltung im 'Globe of Science and Innovation' laden gemeinsam das Generalkonsulat der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Genf und CERN ein. Vor Beginn der Lesung wird eine Führung in deutscher Sprac...

  2. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  3. Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im Sport in Brandenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Delto, Hannes; Tzschoppe, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Querschnittsstudie "Wir und die Anderen – Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport in Brandenburg" wurde das Syndrom Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport untersucht. Das Konzept der Gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit – ausgehend von einer Ideologie der Ungleichwertigkeit – wurde von Prof. Wilhelm Heitmeyer (Universität Bielefeld) entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen explizite Aussagen über Ausmaß und Ursachen Gruppenbezogener Menschen...

  4. Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im Sport in Sachsen

    OpenAIRE

    Delto, Hannes; Tzschoppe, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Mit der Querschnittsstudie „Wir und die Anderen – Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport in Sachsen“ wurde erstmals das Syndrom Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport untersucht. Das Konzept der Gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit – ausgehend von einer Ideologie der Ungleichwertigkeit – wurde von Prof. Wilhelm Heitmeyer (Universität Bielefeld) entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen explizite Aussagen über Ausmaß und Ursachen Gruppenbezogener Men...

  5. Verletzungen und Fehlbeanspruchungen im leistungsorientierten Rudersport

    OpenAIRE

    Bussian, Marc Robert

    2004-01-01

    Die Stellung der Breitensportart Rudern als gesundheitsfördernde Sportform ist in der Literatur gleichlautend positiv beschrieben. Im leistungsorientierten Rudersport müssen neben den Verletzungen und Fehlbeanspruchungen der eigentlichen Sportart die unabdingbaren Nebentrainingsformen berücksichtigt werden. In den neunziger Jahren vollzog sich ein trainingsmethodischer Wandel, die Einführung eines erschwinglichen Rudersimulators und eine technische Weiterentwicklung im Boots- und Ruderbau. Ei...

  6. Cigeo. The French deep geological repository for radioactive waste. Excavation techniques and technologies tested in underground laboratory and forecasted for the future construction of the project; Cigeo. Das franzoesische Tiefenlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle. Im Untertagelabor getestete und fuer den kuenftigen Bau des Projekts vorgesehene Vortriebstechniken und -technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvet, Francois [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Chatenay-Malabry (France). Infrastructure Engineering Dept.; Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Chatenay-Malabry (France). Technological Development Program

    2015-07-01

    Cigeo is the French project for the repository of the high activity and intermediate long-lived radioactive waste. It will be situated at a depth of 500 m, In a clayish rock formation. An underground laboratory was built in the year 2000 and numerous tests are performed since 15 years, in order to know in detail the behavior of the rock and its ability to confine radioactive elements. In addition, this underground laboratory has brought and will continue to bring many lessons on the excavation methods to be chosen for the construction of Cigeo.

  7. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is an overview of radioactivity monitoring work done in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in the wake of the Chernobyl accident. It consists of air, rainwater, food and personnel monitoring. Additional services to the public are: information and development of a database and a computer code for predicting future radionuclide concentration in air, soil, water and food. (G.Q.)

  9. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  10. Integrating IMS LD and IMS QTIv2 using CopperCore Service Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    Vogten, H. (2006). Integrating IMS LD and IMS QTIv2 using CopperCore Service Integration. Presentation at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006. Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  11. CopperCore Service Integration, Integrating IMS Learning Design and IMS Question and Test Interoperability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Vogten, H., Martens, H., Nadolski, R., Tattersall, C., Rosmalen, van, P., Koper, R., (2006). CopperCore Service Integration, Integrating IMS Learning Design and IMS Question and Test Interoperability. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (pp.

  12. Integrating IMS Learning Design and IMS Question and Test Interoperability using CopperCore Service Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Nadolski, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Vogten, H., Martens, H., Nadolski, R., Tattersall, C., van Rosmalen, P., & Koper, R. (2006). Integrating IMS Learning Design and IMS Question and Test Interoperability using CopperCore Service Integration. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  14. Consumer exposure. Basic considerations for regulatory exposure estimations; Exposition des Verbrauchers. Grundlegende Ueberlegungen fuer die Expositionsabschaetzung im regulatorischen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, G. [Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    ) or LOAEL (low observed adverse effect level). A small hazard/exposure ratio can be attributed to a probability of high risk, whereas a large ratio indicates a small risk of health hazards. The following article discusses the main principles of exposure estimation. (orig.) [German] Die Bewertung von Verbraucherexpositionen umschliesst alle Quellen und Pfade, ueber die Personen im privaten und haeuslichen Umfeld mit Chemikalien in Kontakt kommen. Dabei sind Verbraucher nicht nur diejenigen, die selbst Verbraucherprodukte anwenden, sondern auch alle weiteren Personen, die sekundaer (indirekt) mit dem Produkt Kontakt haben, z.B. Familienangehoerige. Eine Verbraucherexposition kann gemessen oder geschaetzt werden. Beide Verfahren haben Vor- und Nachteile. Waehrend sich Messungen meistens auf individuelle Expositionssituationen beziehen, beschreiben Modelle eher eine verallgemeinerte Expositionssituation (Szenario). Messungen haben daher ihren Platz, wo Quellen von Schadstoffen aufgespuert werden muessen, Modelle eher dort, wo systematisierte Betrachtungen von Risiken durchgefuehrt werden. Zur Expositionsschaetzung gehoeren 3 Abschnitte, erstens die Charakterisierung der Expositionsquelle (z.B. eine Haushaltschemikalie) mit Beschreibung der Anwendungsmodalitaeten (Haeufigkeit, Dauer); zweitens die Beschreibung des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Konzentration des Stoffes im Kontaktmedium, vor allem in der Luft und auf der Haut. Die Exposition wird darueber hinaus durch das Verhalten der exponierten Person selbst bestimmt. Hier ist die Kontaktdauer, auch Zeitbudget genannt, von grosser Bedeutung. Besondere Verhaltensmuster koennen auch fuer bestimmte Populationen von Bedeutung sein. Man nimmt an, dass z.B. im Kindesalter die orale Aufnahme durch das sog. Mouthing (Hand-in-den-Mund-Stecken) eine besondere Rolle spielt. Die Risikocharakterisierung erfolgt durch einen Vergleich der Exposition, ausgedrueckt als Konzentration oder Dosis, mit dem NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level

  15. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  16. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  17. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  18. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  19. Radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.; Hyslop, C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how to assess the detriment resulting from the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The minimum information required for the assessments is given for seven radionuclides of interest from the point of view of environmental contamination. The seven radionuclides are tritium, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, radium-226 and plutonium-239. Information is given on the radiation doses and the radiation effects on man due to these radioisotopes. (AN)

  20. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  1. Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınok, Hıfsı; Et, Mikail; Işık, Mahmut

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the concepts of Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α and lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α. We establish some connections between lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α and Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-summable of order α then it is Δim-lacunary statistically convergent of order α.

  2. Radiological information management system (RadIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterling, R.G.; Marko, S.A.; Tschaeche, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is developing and implementing an information management system, known as RadIMS, to track and record personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. RadIMS has been designed to fulfill all the requirements of US Department of Energy (USDOE) Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.'' This Order requires the contractor to maintain detailed radiation exposure records on all individuals who work at the facility. These records must be retrievable for the entire working life of the individual and be available to other USDOE contractors on request. To meet these general needs, RadIMS provides for retrieval of detailed, comprehensive individual exposure histories as well as the usual online interactions to accomplish day-today radiation protection operations. These two extremes of functionality require different approaches in the WINCO computing environment. The exposure histories include database text, paper, microfilm, and electronic bitmaps

  3. Radiological information management system (RadIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterling, R.G.; Marko, S.A.; Tschaeche, A.N.

    1991-08-19

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is developing and implementing an information management system, known as RadIMS, to track and record personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. RadIMS has been designed to fulfill all the requirements of US Department of Energy (USDOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.'' This Order requires the contractor to maintain detailed radiation exposure records on all individuals who work at the facility. These records must be retrievable for the entire working life of the individual and be available to other USDOE contractors on request. To meet these general needs, RadIMS provides for retrieval of detailed, comprehensive individual exposure histories as well as the usual online interactions to accomplish day-today radiation protection operations. These two extremes of functionality require different approaches in the WINCO computing environment. The exposure histories include database text, paper, microfilm, and electronic bitmaps.

  4. Radiological information management system (RadIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterling, R.G.; Marko, S.A.; Tschaeche, A.N.

    1991-08-19

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is developing and implementing an information management system, known as RadIMS, to track and record personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. RadIMS has been designed to fulfill all the requirements of US Department of Energy (USDOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.`` This Order requires the contractor to maintain detailed radiation exposure records on all individuals who work at the facility. These records must be retrievable for the entire working life of the individual and be available to other USDOE contractors on request. To meet these general needs, RadIMS provides for retrieval of detailed, comprehensive individual exposure histories as well as the usual online interactions to accomplish day-today radiation protection operations. These two extremes of functionality require different approaches in the WINCO computing environment. The exposure histories include database text, paper, microfilm, and electronic bitmaps.

  5. Midlatitude magnetometer chains during the IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpherron, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) is an international program to study global problems of magnetospheric dynamics. A key element of the U.S. participation in this program was the establishment of a ground magnetometer network. This network included a number of arrays at high and low latitudes. This report describes three chains established at midlatitudes, including the IMS Midlatitude Chain, the AFGL Magnetometer Network, and the Bell Lab Conjugate Array. Descriptions of the type of equipment, station locations, types of data display, and availability of data for each chain are presented in this report. A major problem of the data analysis phase of the IMS will be reducing selected subsets of these data to a common format. Currently, there are no plans to do this in a systematic manner

  6. Developing an effective IM/IT strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Sarah; Walker, Joanne; Falk, Will

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare organizations and systems around the world lag far behind banking, manufacturing, travel and other industries in their use of information management/information technology (IM/IT) to deliver high-quality products and services. Across Canada, healthcare organizations, as well as governments, understand that information and information technology are needed to deliver quality care and to sustain our publicly funded health system. However, insufficient funding, few experienced resources, lack of strong leadership and absence of clear business/clinical rationale have restricted innovation and advancement in the use of IM/IT to improve healthcare delivery and patient outcomes.

  7. Environmental policy plans in comparison. Main focus: emission; Umweltplaene im Vergleich. Schwerpunkt: Emissionen/Immissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochte-Clemens, B.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2000-07-01

    den Umweltplaenen 92 verschiedene Stoffe als Emissionen thematisiert. Die meisten davon werden im Umweltplan der Niederlande und im deutschen Entwurf, gefolgt vvom Umweltplan-Oesterreichs, aufgefuehrt. Die Umweltziele und daraus abgeleiteten Massnahmen zur Reduktion von Kohlendioxid (Minimierung des Treibhauseffekts), ozonschichtzerstoerende Substanzen (FCKW-Problematik), Schwefeldioxid (Versauerung, Eutrophierung), Stickstoffoxid (Versauerung, Ozonvorlaeufer), fluechtige organische Verbindungen (VOC) (Ozonvorlaeufer), Stickstoff- und Phosphoreintraege in Boden und Wasser (Eutrophierung), sowie Vorschlaege zu Massnahmen im Bereich Verkehr- und Transport werden miteinander verglichen. Im niederlaendischen Plan werden fast durchweg quantitative Angaben, bzw. konkrete zeitliche Vorgaben fuer die Reduktion von Schadstoffemissionen gemacht. Entsprechend genaue Angaben zu Reduktionszielen finden sich in den Plaenen Daenemarks, Oesterreichs, Suedkoreas und Deutschlands nur fuer etwa die Haelfte der angegebenen Substanzen. (orig.)(abstract truncated)

  8. Radioactivity telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouras, Florent; Legrand, Bernard; Montigaud, Jean-Marie; Grandin, Marc

    1969-05-01

    The authors present an assembly which aims at radio-transmitting from mobile stations information on radioactivity. It comprises 20 mobile stations which can be located within the Cadarache Centre or outside of it within a 10 km radius, and a central station which centralises information. The report proposes a general presentation of these stations, their characteristics and principles of operation. It describes operation sequences, central station functions (call programmer, address and memory management, recording, peripherals) and its energy supply, and mobile station functions. The last part presents the installation, its start-up and exploitation, its threshold devices and its safety device

  9. Lagrangian Stochastic Dispersion Model IMS Model Suite and its Validation against Experimental Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartok, J.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation presents IMS Lagrangian Dispersion Model, which is a 'new generation' Slovak dispersion model of long-range transport, developed by MicroStep-MIS. It solves trajectory equation for a vast number of Lagrangian 'particles' and stochastic equation that simulates the effects of turbulence. Model contains simulation of radioactive decay (full decay chains of more than 300 nuclides), and dry and wet deposition. Model was integrated into IMS Model Suite, a system in which several models and modules can run and cooperate, e.g. LAM model WRF preparing fine resolution meteorological data for dispersion. The main theme of the work is validation of dispersion model against large scale international campaigns CAPTEX and ETEX, which are two of the largest tracer experiments. Validation addressed treatment of missing data, data interpolation into comparable temporal and spatial representation. The best model results were observed for ETEX I, standard results for CAPTEXes and worst results for ETEX II, known in modelling community for its meteorological conditions that can be hardly resolved by models. The IMS Lagrangian Dispersion Model was identified as capable long range dispersion model for slowly- or nonreacting chemicals and radioactive matter. Influence of input data on simulation quality is discussed within the work. Additional modules were prepared according to praxis requirement: a) Recalculation of concentrations of radioactive pollutant into effective doses form inhalation, immersion in the plume and deposition. b) Dispersion of mineral dust was added and tested in desert locality, where wind and soil moisture were firstly analysed and forecast by WRF. The result was qualitatively verified in case study against satellite observations. (author)

  10. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  12. Systeme im Einsatz. Lernmanagement, Kompetenzmanagement und PLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Schön, Sandra; Lindner, Martin; Roth, Detlev; Baumgartner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Kalz, M., Schön, S., Lindner, M., Roth, D., & Baumgartner, P. (2011). Systeme im Einsatz. Lernmanagement, Kompetenzmanagement und PLE. In M. Ebner, & S. Schön (Eds.), L3T - Lerhbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologie (pp. 111-118). Graz, Austria: Uni Graz. Available at

  13. IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C. & Manderveld, J. (2004) IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken In: Gorissen, P., Manderveld, J., Benneker, F. & Cordewener, B. Leertechnologie in de Lage Landen (pp. 31-33). Utrecht, Stichting Surf. Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/270

  14. An IMS testbed for SIP applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the design and implementation of an emulation platform for the IP Multimedia Subsystem. The SIP Servlet API v1.1 has been used to implement the final system. The purpose of the emulation is to offer to IMS service developers an environment where they can integrate development...

  15. Managing P2P services via the IMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Lin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The key aim of our work was to illustrate the benefits and means to deploy P2P services via the IMS. Having demonstrated the technical viability of P2P-IMS we have also found a way to add a new management dimension to existing P2P systems. P2P-IMS comes with a natural "data management" mechanism,

  16. [Kriegsland im Osten Eroberung, Kolonisierung und Militärherrschaft im Ersten Weltkrieg] / Markus Pöhlmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pöhlmann, Markus

    2003-01-01

    Rets.: Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius. Kriegsland im Osten Eroberung, Kolonisierung und Militärherrschaft im Ersten Weltkrieg. Aus dem Amerikanischen von Jürgen Bauer, Edith Nerke und Fee Engemann. Hamburg : 2002

  17. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.

    1987-01-01

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  18. The Application of Internal Marketing (IM in a Service Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Findings and Strategic Implications. To complement earlier theoretical proposition on IM, the findings indicate that there are several empirical aspects such as “costs, people and concept” which hinder successful implementation of IM. This study proposes several strategic HR recommendations to reduce the “implementation gap” in IM such as to conduct continuous staff training on IM knowledge on regular time intervals, to reduce excessive work load and pressure and engaging staff members in continuous personal development sessions. In addition, the findings reveal that IM training should be given priority to solve “people-oriented” issues.

  19. λ (Δim) -statistical convergence of order α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Rifat; Et, Mikail; Altin, Yavuz

    2017-09-01

    In this study, using the generalized difference operator Δim and a sequence λ = (λn) which is a non-decreasing sequence of positive numbers tending to ∞ such that λn+1 ≤ λn+1, λ1 = 1, we introduce the concepts of λ (Δim) -statistical convergence of order α (α ∈ (0, 1]) and strong λ (Δim) -Cesàro summablility of order α (α > 0). We establish some connections between λ (Δim) -statistical convergence of order α and strong λ (Δim) -Cesàro summablility of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is strongly λ (Δim) -Cesàro summable of order α, then it is λ (Δim) -statistically convergent of order β in case 0 < α ≤ β ≤ 1.

  20. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  1. Integrating the radioactive waste management system into other management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Cristina Lourenco da; Nunes Neto, Carlos Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is to be included in the Integrated Management System (IMS) which pursues the continuous improvement of the company's quality, occupational safety and health, and environment protection processes. Radioactive waste management is based on the following aspects: optimization of human and material resources for execution of tasks, including the provision of a radiation protection supervisor to watch over the management of radioactive waste; improved documentation (management plan and procedures); optimization of operational levels for waste classification and release; maintenance of generation records and history through a database that facilitates traceability of information; implementation of radioactive waste segregation at source (source identification, monitoring and decontamination) activities intended to reduce the amount of radioactive waste; licensing of initial storage site for radioactive waste control and storage; employee awareness training on radioactive waste generation; identification and evaluation of emergency situations and response planning; implementation of preventive maintenance program for safety related items; development and application of new, advanced treatment methodologies or systems. These aspects are inherent in the concepts underlying quality management (establishment of administrative controls and performance indicators), environment protection (establishment of operational levels and controls for release), occupational health and safety (establishment of operational controls for exposure in emergency and routine situations and compliance with strict legal requirements and standards). It is noted that optimizing the addressed aspects of a radioactive waste management system further enhances the efficiency of the Integrated Management System for Quality, Environment, and Occupational Safety and Health. (author)

  2. Emotionsregulationsstrategien und aggressives Verhalten im Kindergartenalter

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsen, Johanna; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Studie (N = 193) wurde untersucht, ob sich körperlich und relational aggressive Kinder im Kindergartenalter (mittleres Alter: 55 Monate) in ihren Emotionsregulationsstrategien von ihren unauffälligen Altersgenossen unterscheiden. Zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation wurde eine strukturierte, videografierte Verhaltensbeobachtung durchgeführt, in der gezielt Frustration ausgelöst wurde. Anschließend wurden Regulationsstrategien in sieben verschiedenen Kategorien ausgewertet. ...

  3. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  4. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur sonographischen Frakturdiagnostik im Kinderalter

    OpenAIRE

    Meuser, Stefan Heinrich Peter

    2010-01-01

    Falsch diagnostiziert und nicht korrekt therapiert können Frakturen im Kindesalter zu Wachstumsstörungen und damit verbundenen lebenslangen Problemen führen. Nach einem Trauma ist die klinische Untersuchung und Bestimmung des Schmerzmaximums gerade bei Kindern oft sehr schwierig. So müssen häufig mehrere Röntgenaufnahmen getätigt werden, ehe eine Fraktur sicher diagnostiziert oder ausgeschlossen werden kann. Die hierbei auftretende ionisierende Strahlung geht jedoch besonder...

  5. Professionelle Literaturrecherche und -verwaltung im Web [Praxisbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffert, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden Hinweise für eine professionelle Literaturrecherche und -verwaltung im World Wide Web gegeben. Dazu werden für die pädagogische Ausbildung und Forschung einschlägige Literaturdatenbanken genannt, insbesondere solche, die kostenlos zu nutzen sind. Außerdem werden Tipps für clevere Recherchen sowie eine kurze Übersicht über Web-Werkzeuge zur Verwaltung von bibliografischen Angaben gegeben. (DIPF/Orig.)

  6. Dynamik des Kaufverhaltens im Bio-Sortiment

    OpenAIRE

    Buder, Fabian; Hamm, Ulrich; Bickel, Malte; Bien, Barbara; Michels, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Das Gesamtziel des vorliegenden Forschungsprojekts war es, eine detaillierte Informationsgrundlage zum tatsächlichen Kaufverhalten von deutschen Haushalten bei ökologischen Lebensmitteln auf der Basis von Haushaltspaneldaten zu erstellen. Dazu sollten zum einen relevante Aspekte des Kaufverhaltens von Haushalten bei Öko-Lebensmitteln im Zeitverlauf von 2004 bis 2008 analysiert und zum anderen die Einflussfaktoren des Kaufverhaltens bei Öko-Lebensmitteln für das Jahr 2008 identifiziert werden....

  7. Gewerbsmässigkeit im schweizerischen Luftrecht

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Der Begriff der Gewerbsmässigkeit hat im schweizerischen Luftrecht eine grosse Bedeutung. Werden gewerbsmässige Flüge ohne die entsprechenden Bewilligungen und Voraussetzungen durchgeführt, so resultieren gravierende zivilrechtliche, strafrechtliche und administrative Konsequenzen. In den massgebenden internationalen Luftfahrtabkommen findet sich keine Definition der Gewerbsmässigkeit, dies wird den einzelnen Staaten überlassen. Nur in den Joint Aviation Requirements und in der EU-Zollver...

  8. Environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Outline summary of a report prepared under contract to the DOE: Research Priorities and UK Estuaries: An Overview identifying Research Requirements. Topics considered include the study of radionuclides released into the NE Irish Sea from BNFL, Sellafields, differences in the isotopic composition of stable lead in various sediments, the concentration and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from BNFL in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas, together with attempts to separate hot particles from sediments, and the composition and properties of marine surfaces in relation to uptake and loss of radionuclides, particularly in relation to the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. The problem of the presence of transuranic radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the NE Irish Sea is considered. Profiles of radioactivity are being developed at the shelf-break in order to determine the transfer of radionuclides from the sea surface to the deep sea and to coastal waters; organisms examined include phytoplankton, zooplankton and crustacea (shrimps). Organisms such as Acantharia have been examined to determine transfer of elements and radionuclides to skeletal structures eg Sr, Ba and Si. (U.K.)

  9. Toward an Intelligent Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Scott, Jill R.; Miller, Carla J.

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal is to design and build a very smart ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) that can operate autonomously. To accomplish this, software capable of interpreting spectra so that it can be used in control loops for data interpretation as well as adjusting instrument parameters is being developed. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers are used in this IMS spectra classification scheme. Fuzzy logic provides a straight forward method for developing a classification/detection system, whenever rules for classifying the spectra can be described linguistically. Instead of using 'max' and 'min' values, the product of the truth values is used to determine class membership. Using the product allows rule-bases that utilize the AND function to allow each condition to discount truth value in determining membership, while rule-bases with an OR function are allowed to accumulate membership. Fuzzy numbers allow encapsulation of the uncertainties due to ion mobility peak widths as well as measured instrumental parameters, such as pressure and temperature. Associating a peak with a value of uncertainty, in addition to making adjustments to the mobility calculation based on variations in measured parameters, enables unexpected shifts to be more reliably detected and accounted for; thereby, reducing the opportunity for 'false negative' results. The measure of uncertainty is anticipated to serve the additional purpose of diagnosing the operational conditions of the IMS instrument.

  10. Grand Prix Eurovision: Eine Fankultur im Medienzeitalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Moser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Grand Prix Eurovision ist seit Jahrzehnten eine der bekanntesten Unterhaltungssendungen im europäischen Raum. Dennoch erregte es Verwunderung, wenn der Schreibende Bekannten darüber berichtete, daß dies ein Forschungsgegenstand sei. Wurde von Interviews mit Grand Prix-Fans erzählt, so fielen schnell Aussagen wie: „Wie kann man sich nur für so etwas Abseitiges und Triviales wie den Grand Prix interessieren“. Dennoch bin ich der Meinung, daß Fankulturen für die entstehende Mediengesellschaft ein nicht unwichtiges Forschungsthema darstellen. Zwar geht es nicht um eine medienpädagogische Fragestellung im engeren Sinne; die Fans des Grand Prix Eurovision sind dem Jugendalter längst entwachsen. Dennoch handelt es sich bei Fangemeinschaften um Phänomene, die im Rahmen von Jugend- und Kinderkulturen von besonderer Relevanz sind. So meint Winter (1997, daß jugendliche Fanwelten eine bedeutende Rolle als Kristallisationspunkte kultureller Differenzierung spielen: ,Die Zugehörigkeit zu einer Fan weit ist Teil der jugendlichen Lebensbewältigung in der Postmoderne, denn in der Gemeinschaft der Fans können Jugendliche emotionale Allianzen eingehen, außeralltäglichen Beschäftigungen nachgehen, expressive Identitätsmuster gemeinschaftlich realisieren und sich mit ihrer Lebenssituation als Heranwachsende auseinandersetzen“ (Winter 1997, S. 51f..

  11. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  12. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  13. Project CHRISTA. Feasibility study on the development of a safety demonstration methodology for a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes in crystalline rock formations in Germany; Projekt CHRISTA. Machbarkeitsuntersuchung zur Entwicklung einer Sicherheits- und Nachweismethodik fuer ein Endlager fuer Waerme entwickelnde radioaktive Abfaelle im Kristallingestein in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, Michael (ed.)

    2016-10-24

    In the frame of CHRISTA several options with different safety concepts for the final disposal of heat generating radioactive wastes were studied. The German safety requirements and the demonstration of the geological barrier integrity are based on an enclosure concept (ewG) that was developed primarily for salt and clay formations. The applicability of these requirements for crystalline host rocks had to be investigated. The enclosure functio0n is based on low hydraulic permeability of the host rock in combination with geotechnical barriers closing the access. With respect to the transferability of the Swedish/Finnish KBS-3 concept it has to be remarked, that the national standards in Sweden and Finland require the safety demonstration for 100.000 years (in Germany 1 million years). The Swedish/Finish container concept is based on a copper sheathed container with adjacent buffer; MOX fuel elements are not foreseen. The report concludes that the actual German safety concept based on geological barriers is to be preferred compared to technical barriers.

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  15. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  16. Cyberbullying und Empathie : affektive, kognitive und medienbasierte Empathie im Kontext von Cyberbullying im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Jan; Müller, Christin R.; Ittel, Angela

    2014-01-01

    "Bei medial vermittelter Kommunikation sinkt sowohl die Hemmschwelle für aggressive Verhaltensweisen wie Cyberbullying als auch die Wahrscheinlichkeit empathischer Reaktionen. Im Fokus der vorliegenden Studie mit 979 Schülerinnen und Schülern der 4.-8. Klassen (M=12.01, SD=1.68 Jahre, 55% weiblich) stand die Frage, ob Cyberbullies geringere Ausprägungen für affektive, kognitive und medienbasierte Empathie aufweisen als Unbeteiligte. Empathie wurde im Selbst- und Peerbericht erhoben. Hypothese...

  17. Der Stoff, aus dem Atome sind

    CERN Multimedia

    Butscher, R

    2004-01-01

    Quarks are hidden in protons and neutrinos - in the heart of atoms. 40 years before, they were only a elegant trick to put in order the chaos of particles. Nowadays, researchers came up with different model and also questions to answer like: Why do we never see quarks alone? (6 pages)

  18. Security in the internet; Sicherheitsaspekte im Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibel, R.M.M.; Kocher, K.; Landsberg, P. [Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2000-04-01

    Aim of the study: Is it possible to use the Internet as a secure media for transport of telemedicine? Which risks exist for routine use? In this article state of the art methods of security were analysed. Telemedicine in the Internet has severe risks, because patient data and hospital data of a secure Intranet can be manipulated by connecting it to the Web. Conclusions: Establishing of a firewall and the introduction of HPC (Health Professional Card) are minimizing the risk of un-authorized access to the hospital server. HPC allows good safety with digital signature and authentication of host and client of medical data. For secure e-mail PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is easy to use as a standard protocol. Planning all activities exactly as well as following legal regulations are important requisites for reduction of safety risks in Internet. (orig.) [German] Ziele der Studie und Analyse: Es sollten die Fragen beantwortet werden, ob es moeglich ist, das Internet als sicheres Uebermittlungsmedium fuer Telemedizin zu nutzen und welche Sicherheitsrisiken bestehen. Dazu wurden die gaengigen Sicherheitsmethoden analysiert. Telemedizin im Internet ist mit Sicherheitsrisiken behaftet, die durch die Oeffnung eines Intranets mit der Moeglichkeit zur unberechtigten Manipulation von aussen bedingt sind. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Sicherheitsrisiken koennen durch eine Firewall weitgehend unterbunden werden. Chipkarten wie die Health professional card ermoeglichen eine hohe Sicherheit bei digitaler Signatur und sicherer Authentifikation der Sender und Empfaenger von Daten im Internet. Auch Standards wie Pretty good privacy sind inzwischen fuer sichere e-mails einfach einzusetzen. Wichtige Voraussetzung fuer die Reduktion von Sicherheitsrisiken ist unter Beruecksichtigung der gesetzlichen Vorgaben die exakte Planung aller Aktivitaeten im Internet, bei denen medizinische Patientendaten versandt werden sollen, in einem Team aus Aerzten und Informatikern. (orig.)

  19. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka, Deborah E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Austin, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).

  20. [Bernt Ahrenholz : Verweise mit Demonstrativa im Gesprochenen Deutsch...] / Klaus Geyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Geyer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Ahrenholz, Bernt. Verweise mit Demonstrativa im gesprochenen Deutsch : Grammatik, Zweitspracherwerb und Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin ; New York : de Gruyter, 2007. (Linguistik - Impulse & Tendenzen ; 17)

  1. Kriminologie und Kriminalistik im Zugriff der Geschichtswissenschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Alexis Albrecht

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rezensierte Werke:Silviana Galassi, Kriminologie im Deutschen Kaiserreich. Geschichte einer gebrochenen Verwissen­schaftlichung, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2004, 452 S., ISBN 3-515-08352-9; Peter Becker, Dem Täter auf der Spur. Eine Geschichte der Kriminalistik, Darmstadt: Primus Verlag 2005, 287 S., ISBN 3-89678-275-4; Peter Becker, Richard F. Wetzell (Hg., Criminals and their Scientists. The History of Criminology in International Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006, 492 S., ISBN 0-521-81012-4

  2. Im Bild sprechen: Cixous Visual Instruction: Cixous

    OpenAIRE

    Jens E. Sennewald

    2006-01-01

    Gemeinsam von Künstlern und Wissenschaftlern/Philosophen erstellte Bücher sind selten und nicht immer erfolgreich. Eines der Fährnisse ist das Verhältnis zwischen bildlichen und schriftlichen Anteilen: Nicht selten wird der künstlerische Anteil zur Illustration der dominierenden Schrift. Eine Neupositionierung des Bildes im Buch ist nun der amerikanischen Künstlerin Roni Horn gelungen. Mehr als „sujet“ ihres Buches, ist die französische Philosophin Hélène Cixous gleichsam instruierende „Stimm...

  3. Corporate Venture Capital im Bankensektor: Eine Fallstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Maxin, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Die Digitalisierung der Gesellschaft beeinflusst zunehmend das klassische Bankgeschäft, was durch die Erfolge vieler junger FinTech-Unternehmen verdeutlicht wird. Der damit verbundene Innovationsdruck führte dazu, dass die Commerzbank AG im Oktober 2013 die Main Incubator GmbH gründete. Mithilfe dieser Corporate Venture Capital-Gesellschaft (CVC-Gesellschaft) versucht die Frankfurter Großbank, eine Kooperation mit den neuen Wettbewerbern einzugehen, um mögliche Synergiepotenziale für das eige...

  4. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  5. Politische Inhalte im Internet: Angebot und Nachfrage politischer Inhalte im World Wide Web am Beispiel von Volksabstimmungen in der Schweiz

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Patrick Horst Josef

    2010-01-01

    Welche Bedeutung kommt dem Internet in der Politikvermittlung zu? Dieser Frage geht Patrick Rademacher nach, indem er untersucht, welche Anbieter politische Inhalte im Internet zur Verfügung stellen, wie sie dabei vorgehen und wie die Struktur der Inhalte beschaffen ist. Darüber hinaus analysiert er, inwiefern die online angebotenen Inhalte auf eine Nachfrage durch die Bürger treffen. Im Untersuchungskontext von Volksabstimmungen in der Schweiz hat der Autor hierfür im Jahr 2008 umfangreiche ...

  6. bildbild – visuelle Kompetenz im Unterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Grube

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel stellt das Webseiten-Projekt bildbild vor. Der Webseite liegt die Motivation zugrunde, Schülerinnen und Schüler für ein Nachdenken über globale Themen zu sensibilisieren. Ein solches Nachdenken ist immer auch eines über bildlich vermittelte Wirklichkeit. Es ist mit bildbild ein Anliegen, angesichts einer allseits konstatierten «Bilderflut» ein didaktisches Medium zu entwickeln, das einen Fundus an historischen und aktuellen Fotografien zur Verfügung stellt und diese so aufbereitet, dass sie gerade nicht hinter ihrer illustrativen Funktion verschwinden. Dadurch sollen die Bilder für ein selbständiges Lernen auf dem Weg hin zu einer visuellen Kompetenz einsetzbar gemacht werden. Der Beitrag beleuchtet die Entwicklung der Webseite vor dem Hintergrund kulturkritischer Haltungen zum Bild seit der Moderne sowie im Rahmen dessen, was seit den 1970er Jahren im pädagogischen Kontext als Visual Literacy diskutiert und gefördert wird. Dabei wird auch auf die medialen Potenziale einer Webseite für die Bildlesekompetenz von Jugendlichen eingegangen.

  7. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  9. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  10. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  11. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  12. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  13. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  14. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  15. Focus on radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1989-01-01

    Written for children, this book looks at the nature of radioactive materials, how they were discovered, what they are used for and how they affect the environment around us. The emphasis is on the benefits of radioactive materials, particularly in nuclear power stations, in medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, in industry and in agriculture. Nuclear fission and fusion are explained, how radioactive materials are handled and naturally occurring radioactivity are included. (UK).

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  17. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  18. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  19. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  20. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  1. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by drawings, this publication briefly describes radioactive exposure modalities (external or internal irradiation), the ways they are measured and assessed (doses, units), the different natural radioactivity origins, the different radioactivity origins related to human activity, the share of each origin in population exposures

  2. Thermal Degradation Study of IM7/DMBZ-15 High Temperature Composite by TGA/FTIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadler, Melvin

    2003-01-01

    (U) High temperature graphite composites such as IM7/8552 epoxy, IM7/5250 BMI, and IM7/DMBZ-15 polyimide show blistering and/or "catastrophic" delamination when rapidly heated to temperatures above...

  3. The future of the IMS Learning Design specification: a critical look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    P. B. Sloep (2009). The future of the IMS Learning Design specification: a critical look. Presentation at the IMS Learning Design seminar 'The future of IMS Learning Design'. December, 10, 2009, Wollongong, Australia: University of Wollongong.

  4. Digitalisierung im Verteilnetz: Evolution oder Revolution anhand konkreter Beispiele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Oliver; Bachmann, Maurus

    Durch die Integration der neuen erneuerbaren Energien steht das Stromnetz vor großen Herausforderungen. Das Energiesystem als Gesamtes und die Verteilnetze im Speziellen werden smart. Anhand konkreter Beispiele wird aufgezeigt, wie die Digitalisierung im Elektrizitätsnetz voranschreitet. Diese Entwicklung ist eine Evolution, nicht aber eine Revolution.

  5. [Einheit und Vielfalt in der Rechtsgeschichte im Ostseeraum] / Marelle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Marelle

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Einheit und Vielfalt in der Rechtsgeschichte im Ostseeraum. Unity and plurality in the legal history of the Baltic Sea area Sechster Rechtshistorikertag im Ostseeraum, 3.-5. Juni 2010 Tartu (Estland) / Riga (Lettland9. Hrsg. von Marju Luts-Sootak, Sanita Osipova und Frank L. Schäfer. (Rechtshistorische Reihe, Bd. 428.) Land. Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  6. Information Management System (Ims) For Gender Mainstreaming In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Management System (IMS) is an essential tool in supporting the provision of information needed for planning and decision making in any organization. Proper IMS facilitates the smooth flow of information both vertical and horizontal. This paper presents the findings of a survey on information needs of the Gender ...

  7. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  8. Support interoperability and reusability of emerging forms of assessment: Some issues on integrating IMS LD with IMS QTI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2011). Support interoperability and reusability of emerging forms of assessment: Some issues on integrating IMS LD with IMS QTI. In F. Lazarinis, S. Green, & E. Pearson (Eds.), E-Learning Standards and Interoperability: Frameworks

  9. Die Rule of Law im Völker- und im Europarecht – aktuelle Probleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tichy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diese am 5. März 2015 in Graz gehaltene Antrittsvorlesung eines Praxisprofessors, der im Hauptberuf Leiter des Völkerrechtsbüros im österreichischen Außenministerium ist, beschäftigt sich mit dem Begriff der Herrschaft des Rechts in den internationalen Beziehungen (Rule of Law und mit den Möglichkeiten Österreichs, zur Stärkung der Rule of Law und zur Lösung aktueller Probleme beizutragen. Dabei werden insbesondere die Mitwirkung an Kodifikationsbemühungen und an der Verbesserung der Einhaltung des humanitären Völkerrechts, die Umsetzung der Menschenrechte (auch in Österreich und Fragen der internationalen Gerichtsbarkeit angesprochen.

  10. Detection limit improvements forecasted at CTBTO IMS radionuclide stations based on size separation of aerosols by aerodynamic diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegalski, S.; Ezekoye, O.A.; Pena, J.M.; Waye, S.; Pickering, M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies show that aerosols with natural activity have an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.1 to 1 μm. In contrast, nuclear explosions generally produce radioactive aerosols with aerodynamic diameters less than 0.1 μm and greater than 1 μm. These differences in aerosol sizes are quite fortuitous because they allow aerosol aerodynamic diameter to be utilized as a physical property to separate aerosols of natural origin from those produced in a nuclear explosion. Data collected in Austin, TX and at U.S. CTBT IMS radionuclide stations have been utilized to forecast detection limit improvements possible given an aerosol size separation capability. (author)

  11. Antarctic observations available for IMS correlative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rycroft, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is provided of the wide-ranging observational programs of 25 stations operating on and around the continent of Antarctica during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Attention is given to observations of geomagnetism, short period fluctuations of the earth's electromagnetic field, observations of the ionosphere and of whistler mode signals, observational programs in ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics observations, details of magnetospheric programs conducted at Kerguelen, H-component magnetograms, magnetic field line oscillations, dynamic spectra of whistlers, and the variation of plasmapause position derived from recorded whistlers. The considered studies suggest that, in principle, if the level of magnetic activity is known, predictions can be made concerning the time at which the trough occurs, and the shape and the movement of the main trough

  12. FUNKTIONSLOGIK TERRORISTISCHER PROPAGANDA IM BEWEGTEN BILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Medienfront ist heute ein wichtiger Kriegsschauplatz, den viele neben Land, Wasser und Luft für gleich wichtig halten. Terroristen fühlen sich in sozialen Medien wohler als man denken könnte. Im Netz können sie die asymmetrische Kräfteverteilung überwinden, die sie in der offenen Feldschlacht unterlegen sein ließe. Terroristen machen sich das Bild zur Waffe und produzieren erst durch die Positionierung an der Medienfront Sinn in ihren Taten. Ohne ein Bekennerschreiben, ein Abschiedsvideo des Attentäters oder ein letztes Posting im sozialen Netzwerk wäre ein Bombenanschlag nichts als ein Kapitalverbrechen. Durch die terroristische Kommunikationsstrategie wird das Verbrechen erst zum terroristischen Akt. Das ist die theoretische Grundannahme dieses Aufsatzes. Ohne Medienberichterstattung könnten terroristische Organisationen nicht existieren. Durch die Entwicklung des Web 2.0 und insbesondere sozialer Medien kommen terroristische Organisationen heutzutage aber ganz ohne das Verschicken von Videotapes an Fernsehsender aus. Durch YouTube und andere Kanäle, können sie die Adressaten ihrer Botschaften direkt und ohne zwischengeschaltete Journalistinnen und Journalisten erreichen. So ist es nicht erstaunlich, dass terroristische Organisationen sich eine gewisse Expertise im Umgang mit sozialen Medien zugelegt haben. Al-Qaida hat seine eigene Medienabteilung, auch die kolumbianischen FARC arbeiten sehr professionell und welchen Einfluss der Islamische Staat im Internet ausübt ist inzwischen bereits Gegenstand einiger Reportagen und Untersuchungen geworden. Die diesem Aufsatz zugrundeliegende Arbeit hat sich mit neun verschiedenen Videos aus dem Umfeld von al-Qaida, der IRA und der FARC beschäftigt und versucht, aus dem analytischen Vergleich dieser Videos Rückschlüsse über terroristische Medienmacher und die terroristischen Organisationen selbst zu ziehen. Wie schnell und suggestiv die Videos arbeiten, ist etwa davon abh

  13. Die Pluralbildung im Deutschen - ein Versuch im Rahmen der Optimalitätstheorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegener, Heide

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Pluralbildung im Deutschen ist nicht chaotisch, aber komplex. Unabhängig davon, ob man für die Pluralbildung Regeln, Schemata oder die Wortstruktur als Erklärungsmodell benutzt, bleibt die Tatsache einer beachtlichen Zahl miteinander konkurrierender Formen zu erklären. Dies gilt schon deshalb, weil die Variation unter den Pluralformen wohl mit dazu beiträgt, dass trotz der Arbeiten von Mugdan 1977 und Köpcke 1987, 1993, der klaren Darstellung des Pluralsystems in vielen Grammatiken, z.B. Eisenberg 1986, 1989, 1998 noch immer bisweilen die Meinung besteht, die Pluralbildung im Deutschen sei arbiträr.Es soll gezeigt werden, dass das Pluralsystem des Deutschen nach Beschränkungen aufgebaut ist, die morphologischer und silbenphonologischer Natur sind und sich im Rahmen der Optimalitätstheorie (OT beschreiben lassen. Die OT nimmt an, dass Wortformen universalen Beschränkungen (Constraints unterliegen, und dass diese prinzipiell verletzbar sind. Ich werde zunächst die für die Pluralbildung relevanten Beschränkungen definieren, dann an heimischen Pluralformen und -varianten ihr Zusammenwirken zeigen und schließlich den Assimilationsprozess von Fremdwörtern mit Hilfe dieser Beschränkungen und der Beschränkungshierarchien zu erklären versuchen. Daran werden schließlich Überlegungen zu Verarbeitung und Lernbarkeit der Pluralformen geknüpft.

  14. Water quality and management - the use of models for the estimation of the hazard potential for groundwater by organic pollutants in solid waste; Gewaesserguete und Wasserwirtschaft - Anwendung von Modellen zur Abschaetzung der Grundwassergefaehrdung durch organische Stoffe aus Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.

    2000-08-31

    In this study the deterministic leaching model PELMO was extended in order to consider two additional transport processes (fast transport via the macro porous flow system without equilibrium conditions with respect to sorption, and transport of pollutants in the soil water bound to humic substances). The extended model was implemented into the stochastic estimation model MCPELMO 2.0. The new development has built in 22 leaching scenarios based on a combination of the German soil regions map (12 soil regions) and 9 representative weather stations. As daily temperature and precipitation data over a period of 30 years were available the influence of climatic fluctuations on the percaloate concentrations could be considered. In parallel to the model development nomograms were calculated based on the algorithms of MCPELMO 2.0 making it possible to estimate concentrations in leachate also graphically. The results of the MCPELMO 2.0 simulations were compared with comprehensive simulations over a period of 1000 years performed with the computer model PELMO. The analysis showed that the screening model MCPELMO 2.0 that was orders of magnitude faster than PELMO was nevertheless able to estimate concentrations close to PELMO for most of the substances. It was additionally concluded that the results of the estimation model behave conservative compared to the comprehensive simulations: MCPELMO is often slightly overestimating pollutant concentrations in the percolate. Only for pollutants having KOC values above 5000 L/kg and DT50 numbers above 2000 days MCPELMO was estimating lower concentrations in the percolate than PELMO. (orig.) [German] In diesem Vorhaben wurde das deterministische Versickerungsmodell PELMO um zwei zusaetzliche Transportprozesse erweitert (schneller Stofftransport ueber das Makroporensystem ohne Einstellung von Sorptionsgleichgewichten, sowie Transport von Stoffen im Bodenwasser gebunden an Huminsaeuren) und das erweiterte Modell in das stochastische

  15. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  16. Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 2 (Ergänzungen 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieve, M.; Lenarz, Thomas

    In Deutschland leben ca. 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung hinsichtlich des Schädigungsortes im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. eine Schalleitungsschwerhörigkeit, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, d. h. eine Schallempfindungsschwerhörigkeit, wobei hier der Schädigungsort auch am Hörnerven oder in den zentralen Hörabschnitten liegen kann. Therapeutisch lassen sich sowohl Schwerhörigkeiten im Bereich des Mittelohres als auch im Innenohr und sogar im Hirnstammbereich (Hirnstammimplantat) behandeln. 1,9 Millionen Schwerhörige haben eine Erkrankung im Mittelohrbereich, d. h. der Schall kann nur ungenügend auf das Innenohr übertragen werden. Die Ursache besteht meist in einer chronischen Mittelohrentzündung, die zu einer Zerstörung des Trommelfells und der Gehörknöchelchenkette geführt haben. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluß des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen. Mittelohroperationen werden mikrochirurgisch unter dem Operationsmikroskop durchgeführt, wobei zunächst durch eine sanierende Operation der Entzündungsprozeß entfernt wird und nach einer Ausheilungszeit die Gehörknöchelchenkette durch künstliche Prothesen rekonstruiert werden kann.

  17. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  18. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  19. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  20. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  1. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  2. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  3. Learning more about radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  5. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  6. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapelushnik, I.; Sheinfeld, M.; Avida, R.; Kadmon, Y.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  9. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  10. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  11. Medienerziehung im Vorschulbereich - Zum Projekt Mediengarten der Wiener Medienpädagogik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Im Zuge des Projekts Mediengarten der Wiener Medienpädagogik wurde in Kooperation mit angehenden KindergartenpädagogInnen eine Medienerziehung im Sinne einer Auseinandersetzung über Medien im Vorschulbereich anhand konkreter Angebote in Kindergärten konzipiert. Im folgenden Artikel werden die Schwerpunktsetzungen dieses Konzepts vorgestellt und durch praktische Beispiele verdeutlicht.

  12. A Management Tool for Improvement (Improving) IMS Stations Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Pantin, A.; Quintana, E.

    2011-01-01

    IMS-Maintenance is a software under development by the personnel of ARN-CTBT office, intended for the technical management of IMS stations under ARN's responsibility. This software integrates the whole control of the equipment in an IMS station, including the management of consumables used in daily or periodic operation. It permits an easy retrieval (access) of the technical features, suppliers, etc. of each item of the equipment, as well as its maintenance history and scheduled task. Although this project is still in a starting phase, a preliminary version of this software is being used in radionuclide station RN01 (Buenos Aires), having already demonstrated its usefulness and potential for the improvement of IMS station management. (authors)

  13. Implementing Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Specht, M. & Burgos, D. (2006). Implementing Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  14. CopperCore, an Open Source IMS Learning Design Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the approach of the development programme of the OTEC department towards the development of Open Source. The CopperCore IMS Learning Design engine is described as an example of this approach.

  15. [Preussen und Livland im Zeichen der Reformation] / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Preussen und Livland im Zeichen der Reformation. Hrsg. von Arno Mentzel-Reuters und Klaus Neitmann. (Tagungsberichte der Historischen Kommission für ost- und westpreussische Landesforschung, 28). Fibre Verlag. Osnabrück 2014

  16. Quantensprung Digitalisierung - Energiewirtschaft im 21. Jahrhundert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyen, Elmar

    Die Energiewende wird ohne eine umfassende Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft Stückwerk bleiben. Die historisch gewachsene, aus hunderten fossilen Großkraftwerken getriebene Energieversorgung hat sich durch den Zubau von mehr als einer Millionen dezentraler Erzeugungseinheiten innerhalb der vergangenen 15 Jahren radikal verändert. Zum Ausgleich von Last und Erzeugung, aber auch zum Aufbau neuer Geschäftsfelder ist die digitale Technik unverzichtbar. Ihre Möglichkeiten scheinen nahezu unbegrenzt, ihre Rolle wird in einer zukünftig nahezu vollständig elektrifizierten Gesellschaft zunehmend wichtiger werden. Neue Anbieter drängen auf den Markt und setzen die traditionelle Energiewirtschaft unter Druck. Energieversorger, die sich dem Wandel nicht stellen, drohen den Anschluss zu verpassen. Noch werden Verbundunternehmen und Stadtwerke von weitreichenden regulatorischen Vorgaben geschützt. Beispiele aus anderen Branchen zeigen aber, dass die Digitalisierung im Stande ist, regulatorische Mechanismen außer Kraft zu setzen. Zugleich verhindert die enge Regulierung und ein falsch verstandener Datenschutzbegriff in Deutschland die Entwicklung neuer Geschäftsmodelle, die energie- und volkswirtschaftlich sinnvoll wären.

  17. Travestie im alten Ägypten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    prof.Magda Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel möchte versuchen zu beweisen, dass den alten Ägyptern Travestie bekannt war. In verschiedenen Texten wie Märchen, Fabeln und Liebesgedichten auf Papyri und Ostraka, finden sich Belege von Travestie. Zuerst muss jedoch betont werden, dass es einen Unterschied zwischen dem Begriff der Travestie, mit anderen Worten der Verkleidung,[1] und dem der Metamorphose, dem Verwandeln der Gestalt,[2] gibt. [1] Tra.ve´stie: f. satirisch, Verspottung eines Literaturwerkes, bei der (im Unterschied zur Parodie der Inhalt beibehalten und die Form verändert wird (frz. travestie „Verkleidung“; zu lat. trans „hinüber“+vestire, „kleiden“. G. Wahrig,. Deutsches Wörterbuch, mit einem „Lexikon der deutschen Sprachlehre“( München, 1987, 1292. Es gibt auch eine moderne Definition des Begriffes Travestie aus dem 17. Jahrhundert. Hier beinhaltet diese ein Verfahren oder eine kritische Zielsetzung.w.Karrer.,Parodie Travestie, Pastiche (München, 1977, 19, 46. [2] Me.ta.mor´pho.se Umwandlung eines Gesteins in ein anderes; Wandlung des jungen Tieres durch verschiedene äußere Stadien; Verwandlung von Menschen in Tiere, Pflanzen, Quellen usw. (Deutsches Wörterbuch, 883. الإحصائيات

  18. Das Problem der Ethnogenese im antiken Griechenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welwei Karl-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprachwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen lassen darauf schließen, dass die historischen Dialekte der alten Hellenen erst auf griechischem Boden um und nach 1000 v. Chr. entstanden sind. Bei den frühen Zuwanderern kann es sich nur um kleinere Verbände gehandelt haben, so daß zweifelllos keine großen „Stämme“ nach Griechenland vorgedrungen sind, wie man in der älteren Forschung angenommen hat. In Griechenland haben die Zuwanderer die Suffixe -ss und -nth oder -nd nicht erst kennengelernt, sondern zumindest zum Teil schon mitgebracht und vermutlich im 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. die allmähliche Entwicklung des späteren Griechischen eingeleitet. Impulse für die Entwicklung der materiellen Kultur gingen um 1700 v. Chr. von Kreta aus und beeinflussten in starkem Maße die mykenische Zeit mit ihren Palastsystemen, deren Zusammenbruch um 1200 v. Chr. aber nicht schon zum Ende der mykenischen Kultur führte, wenn auch die Linear B-Schrift nicht mehr benutzt wurde und die Infrastrukturen der Machtzentren zusammenbrachen. Dies war zugleich die Voraussetzung für die Bildung kleinerer Siedlungen mit neuen Führungssystemen und Sozialstrukturen sowie mit einem jeweils eigenen Identitätsbewußtsein.

  19. CORPORATIVE MOTIVES ON IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajkovic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of management systems for quality, environment, health and risk management as well as corporative social responsibilities is workable corporative approach to reduce costs, effective use of resources, higher motivation of employees and better fulfillment of requirements of social engagements and stakeholders. This paper presents contents of literature and review of a company motives on integrated management system (IMS implementation, namely factors affecting the IMS implementation.

  20. Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im Sport in Sachsen-Anhalt

    OpenAIRE

    Delto, Hannes; Tzschoppe, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Querschnittsstudie „Wir und die Anderen – Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport in Sachsen-Anhalt“ wurde das Syndrom Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport untersucht. Das Konzept der Gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit – ausgehend von einer Ideologie der Ungleichwertigkeit – wurde von Prof. Wilhelm Heitmeyer (Universität Bielefeld) entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen explizite Aussagen über Ausmaß und Ursachen Gruppenbezogener Mensc...

  1. Ein Ausblick auf Supply-Chain-Management im Jahr 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Wie sieht Supply-Chain-Management im Jahr 2016 aus? Was erwartet uns? Vieles deutet darauf hin, dass SCM in Zukunft sogar noch mehr auf den Kunden gerichtet sein könnte als bisher.......Wie sieht Supply-Chain-Management im Jahr 2016 aus? Was erwartet uns? Vieles deutet darauf hin, dass SCM in Zukunft sogar noch mehr auf den Kunden gerichtet sein könnte als bisher....

  2. Wir und die Anderen: Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im Sport in Sachsen

    OpenAIRE

    Delto, Hannes; Tzschoppe, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Mit der Querschnittsstudie "Wir und die Anderen – Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport in Sachsen" wurde erstmals das Syndrom Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit im organisierten Sport untersucht. Das Konzept der Gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit – ausgehend von einer Ideologie der Ungleichwertigkeit – wurde von Prof. Wilhelm Heitmeyer (Universität Bielefeld) entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen explizite Aussagen über Ausmaß und Ursachen Gruppenbezogener Men...

  3. Eisengehalt von Fleisch - Ermittlung des Eisengehalts im Fleisch verschiedener Tierarten

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Karsten; Klose, Ralf; Golze, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Der Bericht beinhaltet Ergebnisse von Fleischuntersuchungen auf den Eisengehalt. Untersucht wurden 308 Schweinefleischproben und etwa 300 Fleischproben der Tierarten Rind, Bison, Auerochse, Büffel, Schaf, Ziege, Kaninchen, Wildschwein, Rehwild, Rotwild und Fasan. Die sächsischen Ergebnisse bestätigen Untersuchungen anderer Bundesländer und belegen den starken Rückgang des Eisengehaltes im Schweinefleisch. Er lag im Mittel bei 4,1 mg/kg Frischmasse (FM). Vor 30 Jahren lag der Eisengehalt...

  4. Die Raumdarstellung im erzählenden Werk um 1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    In der Literatur existiert eine eigene Welt, die mit Raum und Zeit verbunden ist. Im 19. Jahrhundert gewinnen beide, Raum und Zeit, an Bedeutung als bewusst eingesetzte Gestaltungselemente. Es bilden sich zwei Grundrichtungen heraus, eine mit dem Erzählgeschehen verknüpfte Semantisierung in der Klassik und in der Romantik und eine betonte Fixierung des Geschehens in der realen Welt durch genaue Zeit- und Ortsangaben im Realismus. Die Semantisierung von Raum und Zeit führt zu einer Bedeutungss...

  5. ifo Konjunkturprognose 2015/2016: Deutsche Wirtschaft im Aufschwung

    OpenAIRE

    Wollmershäuser, Timo; Nierhaus, Wolfgang; Berg, Tim Oliver; Breuer, Christian; Garnitz, Johanna; Grimme, Christian; Henzel, Steffen; Hristov, Atanas; Hristov, Nikolay; Meister, Wolfgang; Schröter, Felix; Steiner, Andreas; Wieland, Elisabeth; Wohlrabe, Klaus; Wolf, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Die deutsche Wirtschaft befindet sich derzeit in einem kräftigen Aufschwung. Das reale Bruttoinlandsprodukt wird in diesem Jahr voraussichtlich um 1,9% expandieren und im kommenden Jahr um 1,8%. Der private Konsum bleibt die Stütze des Aufschwungs, da die Einkommensperspektiven der privaten Haushalte aufgrund der sich weiter verbessernden Arbeitsmarktlage gut sind. Allerdings entfallen allmählich die Kaufkraftgewinne durch den Ölpreisrückgang, so dass sich die Konsumdynamik im Prognosezeitrau...

  6. Coherent ambient infrasound recorded by the global IMS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Landes, M.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Brown, D.

    2011-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a global network of infrasound arrays, which is designed to detect atmospheric nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet. The infrasound network also has potential application in detection of natural hazards such as large volcanic explosions and severe weather. Ambient noise recorded by the network includes incoherent wind noise and coherent infrasound. We present a statistical analysis of coherent infrasound recorded by the IMS network. We have applied broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing systematically to the multi-year IMS historical dataset (2005-present) using an implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm in log-frequency space. We show that IMS arrays consistently record coherent ambient infrasound across the broad frequency range from 0.01 to 5 Hz when wind-noise levels permit. Multi-year averaging of PMCC detection bulletins emphasizes continuous signals such as oceanic microbaroms, as well as persistent transient signals such as repetitive volcanic, surf, or anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining or industrial activity). While many of these continuous or repetitive signals are of interest in their own right, they may dominate IMS array detection bulletins and obscure or complicate detection of specific signals of interest. The new PMCC detection bulletins have numerous further applications, including in volcano and microbarom studies, and in IMS data quality assessment.

  7. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  8. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  9. Radioactivity in cigaratte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Tanker, E.; Aksu, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Cigaratte is known to be hazardous to health due to nicotine and tar it contains.This is indicated on cigaratte packets by health warnings.However there is less known hazard of smoking due to intake of radioactive compounds by inhalation. This study dwells upon the radioactive hazard of smoking

  10. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  11. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  12. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  13. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  14. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  15. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  16. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  17. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  18. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  19. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  20. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.H.; Horrill, A.D.; Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  1. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  2. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  3. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  5. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  6. A New IMS Based Inter-working Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongwen; Brunner, Richard

    With the evolution of third generation network, more and more multimedia services are developed and deployed. Any new service to be deployed in IMS network is required to inter-work with existing Internet communities or legacy terminal users in order to appreciate the end users, who are the main drivers for the service to succeed. The challenge for Inter-working between IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) and non-IMS network is “how to handle recipient’s address”. This is because each network has its own routable address schema. For instance, the address for Google Talk user is xmpp:xyz@google.com, which is un-routable in IMS network. Hereafter a new Inter-working (IW) solution between IMS and non-IMS network is proposed for multimedia services that include Instant Messaging, Chat, and File transfer, etc. It is an end-to-end solution built on IMS infrastructure. The Public Service Identity (PSI) defined in 3GPP standard (3rd Generation Partnership Project) is used to allow terminal clients to allocate this IW service. When sending the SIP (Session Initial Protocol) request out for multimedia services, the terminal includes the recipient’s address in the payload instead of the “Request-URI” header. In the network, the proposed solution provides the mapping rules between different networks in MM-IW (Multimedia IW). The detailed technical description and the corresponding use cases are present. The comparison with other alternatives is made. The benefits of the proposed solution are highlighted.

  7. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  8. Instrumentale Spielformeln und Vokale Verzierungen im 16.Jahrhundert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göllner, Theodor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the music of the 16th century, stereotype four-note formulas are found in the instrumental as well as in the vocal idiom. Although frequently identical in appearance, their functions are very different. While indispensable in the instrumental idiom, particularly in keyboard music, where they represent the very essence of instruction in 15th-century organ treatises and fundamenta, they appear in vocal music only as additions to finished compositions or existing practices. What amounts to an absolute necessity in one case is merely an ornamental supplement in the other. In vocal music it is treated as a matter of performance carried out by a qualified soloist and limited to the musical centers of Italy. The present article raises the question as to how the genuinely instrumental and widely spread keyboard practice made its impact on the vocal ornaments of the singer, whose primary concern is the musical communication of language.

    [de] Die in der Musik des 16. Jahrhunderts im Instrumentalen wie im Vokalen vorkommenden, meist viertönigen, stereotypen Formeln sind zwar in beiden Bereichen weitgehend identisch, doch von höchst unterschiedlicher Funktion. Während sie im Instrumentalen, besonders in der Tastenmusik, unverzichtbar sind und schon im 15. Jahrhundert den Kern der Orgeltraktate und Fundamenta bilden, treten sie im Vokalen zu einer fertigen Komposition oder bestehenden Praxis hinzu. Was im einen Fall eine unbedingte Notwendigkeit ist, wird im anderen zu einem nachträglichen Ornament, das sich oft erst bei der Aufftührung einstellt, den qualifizierten Solosänger voraussetzt und auf die musikalischen Zentren Italiens konzentriert war. Der Artikel versucht zu klären, wie sich das genuin instrumentale, allgemein verbreitete Tastenspiel auf die spezielle Verzierungskunst des Sängers auswirkt, dessen primäre Aufgabe es ist, Sprache musikalisch zu vermitteln.

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  10. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  11. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  12. Atmospheric natural radioactivity outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Following a short account of natural atmospheric radioactivity, radon concentrations are given as well as their variations with time obtained by means of a original apparatus developped in Brest. The radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters is then considered, many experiments demonstrating that equilibrium is seldom reached even for 218 Po (RaA). Finally, some characteristics of natural radioactive aerosols are studied: charge, particle size distribution (demonstrating they are fine aerosols since only 30 per cent are made of particles with radii exceeding 0,1 μm) [fr

  13. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  14. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  15. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  16. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  17. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  18. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  19. Radioactive facilities classification criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso C, H.A.; Riesle W, J.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate classification of radioactive facilities into groups of comparable risk constitutes one of the problems faced by most Regulatory Bodies. Regarding the radiological risk, the main facts to be considered are the radioactive inventory and the processes to which these radionuclides are subjected. Normally, operations are ruled by strict safety procedures. Thus, the total activity of the radionuclides existing in a given facility is the varying feature that defines its risk. In order to rely on a quantitative criterion and, considering that the Annual Limits of Intake are widely accepted references, an index based on these limits, to support decisions related to radioactive facilities, is proposed. (author)

  20. Handover Based IMS Registration Scheme for Next Generation Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Tahira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation mobile networks aim to provide faster speed and more capacity along with energy efficiency to support video streaming and massive data sharing in social and communication networks. In these networks, user equipment has to register with IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS which promises quality of service to the mobile users that frequently move across different access networks. After each handover caused due to mobility, IMS provides IPSec Security Association establishment and authentication phases. The main issue is that unnecessary reregistration after every handover results in latency and communication overhead. To tackle these issues, this paper presents a lightweight Fast IMS Mobility (FIM registration scheme that avoids unnecessary conventional registration phases such as security associations, authentication, and authorization. FIM maintains a flag to avoid deregistration and sends a subsequent message to provide necessary parameters to IMS servers after mobility. It also handles the change of IP address for user equipment and transferring the security associations from old to new servers. We have validated the performance of FIM by developing a testbed consisting of IMS servers and user equipment. The experimental results demonstrate the performance supremacy of FIM. It reduces media disruption time, number of messages, and packet loss up to 67%, 100%, and 61%, respectively, as compared to preliminaries.

  1. A SURVEY ON INDIAN EXPERIENCE ON INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT STANDARDS (IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khanna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of management systems standards is a key issue in manufacturing industry in India. Following the global trend quality and environmental issues are gaining importance. However the number of ISO 14001 certified companies are much less in India as compared to ISO 9001. The integration of ISO 14001 with ISO 9001 may help companies to sustain competitive advantage and overcome disappointments with quality standards and in turn encourage companies to adopt good environmental practices. The aim of this research is to study the implementation of integrated management standards (IMS by the manufacturing organizations in India. The different aspects of integration and benefits of IMS implementation are analyzed. This r esearch is based on empirical study carried out in Indian manufacturing firms, involving the application of a questionnaire. This questionnaire was tested on 50 manufacturing companies in India. The study reveals that focus on stakeholders; top management commitment and training are critical success factors for implementation of IMS. The main benefits of integration are discussed. The small sample size is one of the major limitations of this study. The paper informs the managers in manufacturing organizations and practitioners of management system standards especially in developing countries about IMS and will enable them to adopt IMS in future so that those organizations may not implement multiple and overlapping MSS(Management System Standards.

  2. Transplantate und Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 1 (Stand 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Hans-Georg; Lenarz, Thomas; Eckert, Karl-Ludwig

    In Deutschland leben ungefähr 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung, ob die Ursache der Schwerhörigkeit im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. der Schallübertragung, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, der Hörnerven und der zentralen Hörbahnabschnitte, d. h. der Schallempfindung, liegt. 2,5 Millionen Schwerhörige haben dabei das Problem der Schallübertragung, d.h. die Störung liegt im Mittelohrbereich, und hier kann man in der Regel mit operativen, mikrochirurgisch durchgeführten Massnahmen helfen [1, 2]. Im Vordergrund steht als Ursache hier die chronische Mittelohrentzündung, die sich als Perforation des Trommelfells, als Defekt oder Unterbrechung der Gehörknöchelchen oder auch als Cholesteatom, einer sogenannte Knocheneiterung äussern kann [3]. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluss des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen an.

  3. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  4. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  5. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  6. Radioactive contamination of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytil, I.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model is discussed describing radioactivity transport between the source and the organism. The model is to be applied in assessing the effect of a nuclear installation on the organism. Fortran and Pascal appear to be the most appropriate computer languages. With respect to internal memory requirements, the program file is estimated to consist of a control program and a number of subprograms. Upon setting the radioactivity transport and the output requirements the control program should recall the necessary subprograms. The program file should allow the complete data file and the solutions of all possible radioactivity transport variants to be inputted. It is envisaged that several subprograms will be available for one type of radioactivity transport, this depending on different accuracy of the transport description. Thus, the requirements for input data will also differ. (Z.M.)

  7. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  9. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  10. Advance in radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J. A.; Farrera V, R.

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  11. Radioactive pollution, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters as well as the atmosphere is discussed. Man-rem data are compared and expected quantities for disposal by power plants in the Netherlands are tabulated

  12. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  13. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  14. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  15. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  16. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  17. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  20. Radioactive pollution in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemtland, R.

    1985-01-01

    Routine measurements of radioactivity in rainfall are carried out at the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Norway. The report discusses why the method of ion exchange was selected and gives details on how the measurements are performed

  1. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  2. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  4. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  5. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  7. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The book summarizes general concepts on radiation, nuclear structure, radioactivity and the interaction of the nuclear radiation with matter. It describes also the basic principles of radio dosimetry. Natural and artificial sources of radiation are reviewed as well as the effects of radiation in man. Medical and industrial applications of ionizing radiation and the pollution produced by the discharge of radioactive materials are outlined. A short review is made of the safety rules and the regulations concerning the protection of the environment [es

  8. Foodstuffs (radioactive contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Donald; Taylor, Teddy; Campbell-Savours, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings are given of the debate in the UK House of Commons on the maximum permitted radioactivity levels for foodstuffs, feeding stuffs and drinking water in the case of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident. The motion takes note of European Community Document no. 7183/87 and urges the Community to assure a common standard of health protection by adopting a rational set of scientifically based intervention levels for foodstuffs. (UK)

  9. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  10. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  11. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  12. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  13. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  14. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1989 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  15. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  16. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  17. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  18. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  19. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  20. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  1. Aggregation und Management von Metadaten im Kontext von Europeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Koch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem In-Beziehung-Setzen und Verlinken von Daten im Internet wird der Weg zur Umsetzung des semantischen Webs geebnet. Erst die semantische Verbindung von heterogenen Datenbeständen ermöglicht übergreifende Suchvorgänge und späteres „Machine Learning“. Im Artikel werden die Aktivitäten der Europäischen Digitalen Bibliothek im Bereich des Metadatenmanagements und der semantischen Verlinkung von Daten skizziert. Dabei wird einerseits ein kurzer Überblick zu aktuellen Forschungsschwerpunkten und Umsetzungsstrategien gegeben, und darüber hinaus werden einzelne Projekte und maßgeschneiderte Serviceangebote für naturhistorische Daten, regionale Kultureinrichtungen und Audiosammlungen beschrieben.

  2. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  3. Environmental trace analysis by means of supersensitive GC-IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The effective control of pollutants in ambient air requires their fast in situ identification and concentration determination of chemical compounds in the range of micrograms per m 3 . There are attempts to use conventional analytical techniques as portable GC and GC-MS. These systems are relatively expensive. A new supersensitive ion Mobility Sensor (IMS) was developed and checked by IUT Ltd, which meets the new demands. The use of tritium sources is an advantage in comparison with other IMS being equipped by nickel-63, the application of which is rather critical in respect of the radiation protection. On the other hand an integrated separation column allows to reduce interferences by matrix effects. The technical parameters of the IUT GC- IMS and some of its most important applications are briefly presented

  4. Wozu und wie kooperative Arbeitsformen im studienbegleitenden Deutschunterricht?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmelka Barić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend von einer Reflexion über die im Beruf und im Leben notwendigen Kompetenzen in der Kommunikation sowie von der Überzeugung, dass es notwendig ist, diese Kompetenzen schon im Studium durch geeignete Arbeitsverfahren und Themen zu entwickeln, werden Kooperation und Autonomie fördernde Arbeitsformen für den studienbegleitenden Deutsch- und Fremdsprachenunterricht (SDU/SFU vorgestellt. Diese Arbeitsformen sind auf andere Sprachen übertragbar und aus dem Lehrwerk Mit Deutsch studieren arbeiten leben A2/B1 (Lévy-Hillerich, Serena, Barić & Cickovska 2010 und der dazu gehörenden Lernplattform entnommen. Das Lehrwerk selbst ist eine Umsetzung der SDU-Rahmencurricula, die im Laufe von über zwanzig Jahren in zehn Ländern im Rahmen eines 1994 am Goethe-Institut Warschau begonnenen Hochschulprojekts und der daraus entstandenen Forschungstätigkeit entstanden sind. Grundlage des Projekts ist ein ganzheitlicher soziopädagogischer Ansatz, der LernerInnen als Menschen betrachtet, die im Präsenz- oder im virtuellen Unterricht in der Sprache und durch die Sprache fach- und sprachübergreifende Kooperationsfähigkeiten entwickeln, die sich später im Leben in der Gesellschaft auswirken. Nach der Vorstellung des Projekts und seiner wissenschaftlichen Hintergründe im ersten Teil des Beitrags werden im zweiten Teil die sich aus dem Ansatz ergebenden Arbeitsformen untersucht: Dabei werden die sich dazu eignenden Themen, die Lernhilfen für StudentInnen, die den LehrerInnen zufallenden Rollen sowie die Ansprüche an Lehrbücher/Unterrichtsmaterialien und Online-/Blended-Learning-Lernszenarien besprochen. Der abschließende Überblick im dritten Teil über die Schwierigkeiten, die beim kooperativen Lernen im SDU/SFU auftreten können, ist gleichzeitig eine offenbleibende Frage danach, wie LehrerInnen aus- und fortgebildet werden sollten, um sich den Anforderungen einer sich dauernd verändernden Lernlandschaft stellen zu können.   The paper

  5. Environmental trace analysis by means of supersensitive GC-IMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.W. [IUTLimited, Berlin, (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The effective control of pollutants in ambient air requires their fast in situ identification and concentration determination of chemical compounds in the range of micrograms per m{sup 3}. There are attempts to use conventional analytical techniques as portable GC and GC-MS. These systems are relatively expensive. A new supersensitive ion Mobility Sensor (IMS) was developed and checked by IUT Ltd, which meets the new demands. The use of tritium sources is an advantage in comparison with other IMS being equipped by nickel-63, the application of which is rather critical in respect of the radiation protection. On the other hand an integrated separation column allows to reduce interferences by matrix effects. The technical parameters of the IUT GC- IMS and some of its most important applications are briefly presented 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Minería de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Jacqueline; Miranda, Natalia Carolina; Guerrero, Roberto A.; Piccoli, María Fabiana

    2006-01-01

    Durante los últimos años, la proliferación de los medios digitales ha creado la necesidad del desarrollo de herramientas para la eficiente representación, acceso y recuperación de información visual. La minería de imágenes se ha convertido en una importante rama de investigación a causa del potencial que posee en descubrir patrones característicos a partir de un importante conjunto de imágenes. No obstante, la minería de imágenes es más que una simple extensión de la minería de datos al domin...

  7. Facebook Ethnography: The Poststructural Ontology of Transnational (Im Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joseph Piacenti PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article discusses the creative utility of Facebook as a new ethnographic tool in which to study transnational (im migration. Facebook ethnography allows the (im migration researcher to transcend the four structural dualities that constrain transnational ethnographic research: (a geographic constraints, (b travel funding constraints, (c travel time constraints, and (d the logistical constraints of entrée into new ethnographic contexts. Facebook ethnography also allows the qualitative researcher to temporarily transcend the ontological structuralist dualities of traditional research methods, producing a new poststructural epistemological and ontological methodology.

  8. IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of a number of management systems with various and sometimes divergent demands, demands for revise of optimal strategy on implementation of these standards in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the attempt on their integration into integrated management system are suggested even more. Firstly question on choice and reasons for implementation of standards is raised. Management and employees expect benefits on the implementation and they pass and minimize the implementation barriers. Basic concept on integrated management system (IMS into SMEs and analyse on reasons, advantages and barriers at IMS implementation are presented in this paper.

  9. Reconocimiento de imágenes utilizando redes neuronales artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Pedro Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo describe el proceso de extracción de patrones característicos de imágenes,mediante la ayuda de Redes Neuronales Artificiales. La información de la Red Neuronal junto con datos adicionales de las imágenes, serán almacenados en una base de datos y consumidos por un servicio web. Un teléfono móvil con sistema operativo Android consumirá la información almacenada en el servicio web. Posteriormente al realizar una captura de imagen con la cámara del teléfono, este procesará la imag...

  10. Frauen im Netz weltweit – ausgegrenzt und mittendrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Peuker

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem Global Center for Women’s Studies and Politics (GLOW ist das Feministische Institut der Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung 1998 online gegangen. Mit diesem Schritt wurden Fragen nach den Möglichkeiten und Grenzen sowie nach den Gestaltungsräumen virtueller Kommunikation für Frauen zentral. Mit feminist_spaces. Frauen im Netz. Diskurse – Communities – Visionen, legt die Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung zusammen mit dem Feministischen Institut Antworten aus internationaler Perspektive vor. Das Buch geht auf die gleichnamige zweitätige Konferenz in Berlin im November 2001 zurück.

  11. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  12. Time and environmental science. Pt. 2. Time and fundamental concepts; Die Bedeutung der Zeit. T. 2. Die Umweltwissenschaften im Kontext von Zeit: Begriffe unter dem Aspekt der Zeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmerer, K. [Inst. fuer Umweltmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Freiburg (Germany); Held, M. [Evangelische Akademie, Tutzing (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Forschungsergebnisse von grundlegender Bedeutung sind wie z.B. Persistenz von Schadstoffen, Irreversibilitaet von Veraenderungen, Schaden und Schaedigung und auch Elastizitaet oder Resilience von Oekosystemen. Insbesondere Zeitskalen und Rhythmen sowie deren Vielfalt sind dafuer von Bedeutung. Hinsichtlich ihrer Persistenz besonders kritische Stoffe zeichnen sich dadurch aus, dass ihre Reaktivitaet zwar so gering ist, dass sie fuer die Anwendung stabil genug sind, die Reaktivitaet aber noch in gewissem Mass vorhanden ist und sie eine nicht zu hohe Transportrate besitzen. Persistenz ist somit ein vom Kontext abhaengiges Kriterium. Ob Aenderungen als reversibel oder irreversibel einzustufen sind, ist von den betrachteten Zeitraeumen und jeweiligen Systemen, deren Beschreibung und den hierfuer ausgewaehlten Parametern abhaengig. Voraussetzungen fuer den Fortbestand eines Systems zu schaffen, bedeutet u.a. die systemeigene Entwicklungsgeschwindigkeit und die Verschraenktheit unterschiedlicher Zeitskalen zu beachten. Wenn Stoerungen, die zu schnellen Aenderungen und somit zu kritischen Fluktuationen fuehren, vermieden werden, koennen sich oekologische Systeme entsprechend ihrer eigenen Dynamik weiterentwickeln. Die Dauer von Stoerungen sollte moeglichst kurz sein, um anthropogene, im Vergleich zur systemeigenen Zeitskala schnelle Veraenderungen von Oekosystemen zu minimieren. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors; Diagnostik bei Tumoren im Gastrointestinaltrakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1998-07-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  14. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  15. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Ramsoey, T.

    1999-04-01

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210 Pb and progeny 210 Bi and 210 Po. These are found in combination with 226 Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226 Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222 Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  16. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  17. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  18. Im Wind / Mari Vallisoo ; tõlk. Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallisoo, Mari, 1950-2013

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Im Wind = Tuulega ; Zwei Frauen = Kaks naist ; In Gedanken an Aleksander Levin = aleksander Levinile mõteldes ; Jetzt im Dunkel = Nüüd pimedas ; Fragen = Küsimused ; Der Zwillingsbruder = Kaksikvend

  19. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  20. International Monitoring system (IMS) build-up in Africa: Current status and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, P.

    2002-01-01

    The complete IMS verification system for primary and auxiliary seismic together with that of radionuclide, hydroacoustic and infrasound is plotted on a global map and Africa in particular showing its status. IMS situation in East and Southern Africa is included

  1. Volatility study of [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C2C3im][NTf2] ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marisa A.A.; Ribeiro, Filipe M.S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A.P.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] ionic liquids are reported. • [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than expected. • The high volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] is a result from its asymmetric character. -- Abstract: Vapor pressures of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ]) and 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) ionic liquids were measured as a function of temperature using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. Enthalpies and entropies of vaporization were derived from the fitting of vapor pressure and temperature results to the Clarke and Glew equation. [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents a higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than the neighboring members of the series. The enthalpy of vaporization of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] lies in between the asymmetric and symmetric ionic liquid series, reflecting a decrease in the electrostatic interactions due to a decrease of the charge accessibility between the ionic pairs when the methyl group is replaced by an ethyl group. The obtained higher volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] arises from its asymmetric character, leading to an higher entropic contribution that compensates the enthalpic penalty. The border conditions ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ], [C 2 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 2 im][NTf 2 ]), topology ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) and symmetry/asymmetry of the ILs effect were evaluated and rationalized based on a comparative analysis of the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies and entropies of vaporization

  2. Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Dougiamas, Martin; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as follows: Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., Dougiamas, M., Vogten, H., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding. Proceedings of Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa (SIIE06), León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on

  3. Collaborative Research: Calibration for IMS Stations in Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Atomnaya Energia , Vol.87, Issue 3, 1989 (in Russian). 142 BondAr, I. Combining 1-D models for regional calibration, in Proceedings of a Workshop on IMS...Zelentsov and V.N. Mikhailov, Characteristics of 96 underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Atomaya Energia , (in Russian), Vol. 67

  4. EFEKTIVITAS MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN IM3 DITINJAU DARI MOTIVASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Handhika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan penggunaan media pembelajaran IM3 berbasis flash dan media MS. Power Point terhadap prestasi belajar IPA-Fisika. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan bahwa siswa yang diajar menggunakan media IM3 berbasis flash memberikan rata-rata prestasi lebih baik dibandingkan dengan siswa yang diajar menggunakan power point. Siswa dengan motivasi belajar tinggi menghasilkan rata-rata prestasi lebih baik daripada siswa dengan motivasi belajar rendah, serta terdapat interaksi motivasi belajar dengan media pembelajaran terhadap prestasi belajar IPA-Fisika.   This study aims to determine differences in the use of flash-based IM3 learning media and MS media. Power Point to IPA-Physics learning achievement. Results showed that students who were taught using flash-based media IM3 gives an average performance better than students who were taught using the power point. Students with high motivation to learn the average yield better performance than students with low learning motivation, and there is interaction with the medium of learning motivation toward science learning achievement-Physics.

  5. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  6. I'm Positive: Growing Up with Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document presents "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem," an informal, personal study course designed to strengthen the reader's ability to nurture self-esteem in children from birth through adolescence. Special emphasis is given to four parenting skills: acceptance, encouragement, empowerment, and love. Weekly activities are provided…

  7. Sixteenth Meeting of the IMS Study Group "Cantus Planus"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vozková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 48, 2-3 (2011), s. 310-311 ISSN 0018-7003. [Sixteenth Meeting of the IMS Study Group “Cantus Planus”. Vídeň, 21.08.2011–27.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : plainchant * annual conference * International Musicological Society Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. Ausländische Direktinvestitionen und Technologietransfer im angolanischen Energiesektor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dem Zusammenhang von ausländischen Direktinvestionen (Foreign Direct Investment, FDI und Technologietransfer wird sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der politischen Analyse große Bedeutung zugeschrieben. Zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen belegen, dass FDI den Transfer von und/oder den Zugang zu Technologien erleichtert. Allerdings gibt es zu wenige empirische Studien, die diesen Zusammenhang in Bezug auf die Wirtschaft afrikanischer Staaten untersuchen. Der Autor will diese Lücke zu einem kleinen Teil schließen, indem er die Bedeutung des Technologietransfers durch den Zufluss von FDI im Energiesektor Angolas ermittelt. Seine Analyse basiert auf qualitativer Forschung in Angola im Jahr 2014. Er zeigt auf, dass sich die Erzeugung von Energie(trägern und die Verteilungsinfrastruktur - maschinelle Ausrüstung und Qualifizierung - durch den Zufluss von FDI erheblich entwickeln konnte. Allerdings gebe es keinen Beleg dafür, dass dieser Zufluss die endogenen wissenschaftlichen und technologischen Forschungspotenziale im angolanischen Energiesektor gefördert hat. Der Autor empfiehlt politische Maßnahmen zur Förderung dieser Fähigkeiten, insbesondere im Bereich der Produktion.

  9. First inter metatarsal (IM) angles in Nigerians and their relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: No age is immune to the deformity known as Hallux valgus as it has been proven that 50% of adults developed it during adolescence, while 40% of juveniles developed it before the age of 10.5 years. Aim: To determine from radiographs the normal value of the first inter metatarsal (IM) angle and to establish if ...

  10. Using IMS Learning Design to model collaborative learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin

    2006-01-01

    IMS Learning Design provides a counter to the trend towards designing for lone-learners reading from screens. It guides staff and educational developers to start not with content, but with learning activities and the achievement of learning objectives. It recognises that learning can happen without

  11. MATTHEW'S SITZ IM LEBEN AND THE EMPHASIS ON THE TORAH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acta Theologica ... such as would be expected from letters (Bauckham 1998:48). Yet the ... it in other words; the Sitz im Leben der alten Kirche can indirectly be .... 4 Along with most scholars I assume that Matthew was written some time after.

  12. Distance tracking scheme for seamless handover in IMS-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a fast and seamless handover scheme for systems based on IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architectural framework with Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) access network. In the scheme the location, direction and movement pattern of a Mobile Node (MN) in a network cell are ...

  13. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  15. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  16. Doses from radioactive methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A possible radiation hazard arises from exposure to methane labelled with either a 3 H or a 14 C nuclide. This radioactive methane could be released from a variety of sources, e.g. land burial sites containing radioactive waste. Standard assumptions adopted for vapours would not apply to an inert alkane like methane. This paper discusses mechanisms by which radioactive methane would irradiate tissues and provides estimates of doses. Data on skin thickness and metabolism of methane are discussed with reference to these mechanisms. It is found that doses are dominated by dose from the small fraction of methane which is inhaled and metabolised. This component of dose has been calculated under rather conservative assumptions. (author)

  17. Radioactivity - superstition and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  18. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  19. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  20. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  1. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  2. Reloadable radioactive generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombetti, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    A generator system that can be reloaded with an elutable radioactive material, such as 99 molybdenum, a multiple number of times is described. The system basically comprises a column filled with alumina, a loading vial containing a predetermined amount of the elutable radioactive material, and a rinsing vial containing a sterile solution. The two vials are connected by a conduit so that when communication is achieved between the column and loading vial and an evacuated vial is placed in communication with the bottom of the column, the predetermined amount of the radioactive material in the loading vial will be transferred to the column. The procedure can be repeated as the elutable material in the column is dissipated

  3. Radioactive waste removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  5. Radioactivity leakage monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takuichiro; Noguchi, Noboru.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for detecting the leakage ratio of a primary coolant by utilizing the variation in the radioactivity concentration in a reactor container when the coolant is leaked. Constitution: A measurement signal is produced from a radioactivity measuring instrument, and is continuously input to a malfunction discriminator. The discriminator inputs a measurement signal to a concentration variation discriminator when the malfunction is recognized and simultaneously inputs a measurement starting time from the inputting time to a concentration measuring instrument. On the other hand, reactor water radioactivity concentration data obtained by sampling the primary coolant is input to a concentration variation computing device. A comparator obtains the ratio of the measurement signal from the measuring instrument and the computed data signal from the computing device at the same time and hence the leakage rate, indicates the average leakage rate by averaging the leakage rate signals and also indicates the total leakage amount. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book. refs

  7. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  8. Handling of radioactive sources in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the following aspects: sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, radiation detectors, personnel and area monitoring, surface pollution, radioactive wastes control and radioactive sources transferring. (The author)

  9. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  10. Choosing the Right Free IM Providers and Clients for Your Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenstark, Amanda K.

    2009-01-01

    With virtual library services increasing, public services librarians may find themselves with questions such as: What instant messaging services (IM) are available? Which IM service would best suit my patrons' needs? Which IM service best suits my library's technology profile? This column describes the features and functionality of major instant…

  11. Radioactivity and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Leon, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactivity is one of the most studied natural phenomena. Most of irradiation suffered by the human being is produced by natural sources. The second source in order of importance is nuclear medicine. The average level of radiation received by the man is 2.4 mSv/year and this value can be modified naturally in 20-30%. The author provides a review on radioactivity sources like natural (cosmic rays, extraterrestrial radiation, internal earth radiation, radon) and artificial (Nuclear explosions, professional exposure, nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and accidents)

  12. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  13. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  14. Radioactive material generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplinski, T.V.; Bolter, B.J.; Heyer, R.E.; Bruno, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive material generator includes radioactive material in a column, which column is connected to inlet and outlet conduits, the generator being embedded in a lead casing. The inlet and outlet conduits extend through the casing and are topped by pierceable closure caps. A fitting, containing means to connect an eluent supply and an eluate container, is adapted to pierce the closure caps. The lead casing and the fitting are compatibly contoured such that they will fit only if properly aligned with respect to each other

  15. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  16. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Amersham's high radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulkin, S

    1984-11-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples.

  18. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  19. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  1. Your radioactive garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The booklet on radiation risks from nuclear waste is based on lectures given by the author at Westminster School (United Kingdom) and elsewhere during 1986. A description is given of naturally-occurring radioactivity, and the health risks due to this radiation. The types of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry are described, including low-level wastes, short-lived and long-lived intermediate-level wastes, and high level wastes. These wastes are discussed with respect to their potential health risks and their disposal underground. (U.K.)

  2. Amersham's high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulkin, S.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples. (U.K.)

  3. Materials and energy balance of a university - development of an environmental management concept for universities based on the example of Osnabrueck university. Final report; Stoff- und Energieflussanalyse einer Universitaet - Erstellung eines Umweltmanagementkonzepts fuer Hochschulen am Beispiel der Universitaet Osnabrueck. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, M.; Viebahn, P.

    1999-04-01

    Teilbilanzen zur Sachbilanz der Universitaet sowie ihre Wirkungsabschaetzung. In Abschnitt IV werden die weiteren Teile des Umweltmanagement-Modells vorgestellt. In Kapitel 18 werden die im Projekt entwickelten Umweltziele und das vorgeschlagene Umweltprogramm der Universitaet (Bausteine 5 und 6) beschrieben. Kapitel 19 geht kurz auf Umweltberichte ein. Kapitel 20 enthaelt einen Ueberblick ueber das Konzept eines Umweltinformationssystems der Universitaet (Baustein UM 8). Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt des Projektes war die Entwicklung von Instrumenten zur Umsetzung von Umweltschutzmassnahmen. In Kapitel 21 werden Motivations- und Informationsmassnahmen beschrieben, die zur Umsetzung eines neuen Abfallkonzeptes entwickelt wurden (Bausteine 9 und 10). In Kapitel 22 werden weitere Instrumente aus dem Energie- und dem Verkehrsbereich vorgestellt, die jedoch noch nicht umgesetzt werden konnten. Ausgehend von diesem Projekt wurde ein neues Projekt entwickelt, das 'Netzwerk fuer eine umweltgerechte Entwicklung der Hochschulen', eco-campus.net, auf das in Kapitel 23 eingegangen wird. In Kapitel 24 erfolgt ein Resumee ueber die drei Jahre Projektarbeit. Kapitel 25 fasst schliesslich die gesamte Literatur zusammen, die vorher getrennt nach den einzelnen Kapiteln angegeben wurde. (orig.)

  4. Pengaruh Intensitas Mengakses Twitter Duta Im3 terhadap Kepuasan Pengalaman Adopsi dan Kepuasan Pengalaman Adopsi terhadap Keputusan Penggunaan Program Im3

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Kinasih, Diyan Hafdinovianti; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Setiabudi, Djoko

    2014-01-01

    Nama : Diyan H Ayu KinasihNIM : D2C009029Judul : Pengaruh Intensitas Mengakses Twitter Duta IM3 terhadapKepuasan Pengalaman Adopsi dan Kepuasan PengalamanAdopsi terhadap Keputusan Penggunaan Program IM3ABSTRAKTwitter sebagai salah satu promotion tools yang digunakan oleh PTIndosat Tbk, diharapkan dapat memperkenalkan program-program serta eventyang dilakukan oleh Indosat. Melalui duta IM3 sebagai brand ambassador, Indosatmencoba meraih pasar anak muda dengan melakukan kegiatan promosi.Tipe pe...

  5. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  6. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management

  8. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  10. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  11. Radioactivity and you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    What does it mean when radiation levels are said to have risen? How do we measure radioactivity? Where do we get our exposure to radiation from? This programme, examines the risks we incur through radiation exposure, explains the basic science of radiation measurement, looks at the contributions of natural and man made sources. (author)

  12. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  13. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  14. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  15. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    This part of the bibliography series, which has changed its name with issue no. 24 (formerly: 'Contamination and decontamination of foods') lists 208 pieces of literature, mainly of the last two years. The literature is classified according to the following main fields. General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foods. (MG) [de

  16. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  17. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  18. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  19. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  20. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The average intake of radioactivity via foodstuffs remained relatively constant at about 10000 Bq per annum during the entire period elapsing since the Chernobyl accident. However, the dose received by especially exposed population groups has been considerably higher. In particular, the intake of radioactivity through the consumption of reindeer meat and freshwater fish has been high among certain groups (hunters and angler, and Sami reindeer herdsmen in southern and mid-Norway). Studies show that their dietary radionuclide exposure was highest during the second year post Cernobyl. The existing intervention levels were also applied in 1989. These are, with the exception of the limit of 6000 Bq/kg for reindeer meat, game meat and freshwater fish, identical with the maximum levels laid down by the EC. The present report reviews the data concerning radioactivity levels in dairy products, meat and fish recorded during 1989. Overall, it may be concluded that levels were considerable lower than the previous year. An important reason for this was the almost complete absence, in outlying pastures, of various types of fungi eaten by grazing livestock, such fungi being a major source of radioactivity. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Radioactive substance removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Jun; Tayama, Ryuichi; Teruyama, Hidehiko; Hikichi, Takayoshi.

    1992-01-01

    If inert gases are jetted from a jetting device to liquid metals in a capturing vessel, the inert gases are impinged on the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel, to reduce the thickness of a boundary layer as a diffusion region of radioactive materials formed between the inner wall surface of the capturing vessel and the liquid metals. Further, a portion of the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the adsorption amount of radioactive materials by the capturing vessel. When the inert gases are jetted on the inner or outer circumference of the capturing vessel to rotate the capturing vessel, the flow of the liquid metals is formed along with the rotation, and the thickness of the boundary layer is reduced or the boundary layer is peeled off to increase the absorption amount of the radioactive materials. If gas bubbles are formed in the liquid metals by the inert gases, the liquid metals are stirred by the gas bubbles to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer or peel it off, thereby enabling to increase the adsorption amount of the radioactive materials. Since it is not necessary to pass through the rotational member to the wall surface of the vessel, safety and reliability can be improved. (N.H.)

  2. Sampling airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive contaminants have historically been considered apart from chemical contaminants because it is their radiological properties that determine their biological and environmental impact. Additionally they have been regulated by special government agencies concerned with radiological protection. Radioactive contaminants are also distinguished by the specialized and very sensitive methods available for the detection of radioactivity. Measurements of a few thousand atoms per liter are not uncommon. Radiation detectors in common use are gas filled chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, and the more recently developed thermoluminescent and etched track detectors. Solid-state nuclear track detectors consist of a large group of inorganic and organic dielectrics which register tracks when traversed by heavy charged particles. They do not respond to light, beta particles or gamma ray photons and thus provide a very low background system for the detection of extremely low levels of radioactivity. In addition, no power source or electronic equipment is required. Cellulose nitrate detectors are currently in use for long term integrated sampling of environmental radon. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TID's) are crystalline materials, in which electrons which have been displaced by an interaction with ionizing radiation become trapped at an elevated energy level and emit visible light when released from that energy level. As which etched-track detectors no power or electronic equipment is needed for the TID's at a measurement site, but they respond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are useful for long term environmental monitoring, and have also been newly incorporated into integrating radon detection systems

  3. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  4. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  5. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  6. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  7. The radioactive paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussler, H.

    1980-01-01

    Most of us will still remember with horror: In March 1954, a US H-bomb exploded directly over Bikini atoll. What has become of this island that used to be so romantic. And what has become of Eniwetok and all the small Robinson islands which are radioactive today. Can people live there again. A scientific investigation now destroys all illusions. (orig.) [de

  8. Radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Kuczera, B.

    2001-05-01

    The terms radioactivity and nuclear energy, which have become words causing irritation in the political sphere, actually represent nothing but a large potential for innovative exploitation of natural resources. The contributions to this publication of the Karlsruhe Research Center examine more closely three major aspects of radioactivity and nuclear energy. The first paper highlights steps in the history of the discovery of radioactivity in the natural environment and presents the state of the art in health physics and research into the effects of exposure of the population to natural or artificial radionuclides. Following contributions focus on: Radiochemical methods applied in the medical sciences (diagnostic methods and devices, therapy). Nuclear energy and electricity generation, and the related safety policies, are an important subject. In this context, the approaches and pathways taken in the field of nuclear science and technology are reported and discussed from the angle of nuclear safety science, and current trends are shown in the elaboration of advanced safety standards relating to nuclear power plant operation and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Finally, beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in the context of a sustainable energy policy are emphasized. In particular, the credentials of nuclear energy in the process of building an energy economy based on a balanced energy mix which combines economic and ecologic advantages are shown. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  10. Radii of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.; Plagnol, E.; Schutz, Y.

    1989-11-01

    A new simple direct method for the measurement of the total reaction cross section (σ R ) for several light radioactive nuclei (A≤40) is developed. From that, the reduced strong absorption radii (r o 2 ) are obtained. A comparison is made with data obtained by other techniques. A strong isospin dependence of the nuclear radii is observed. (L.C.) [pt

  11. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  12. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. Out of 1700 known isotopes of 104 chemical elements, only about 16 per cent are stable. Seventy-three radioactive isotopes of 39 elements occur naturally in the terrestrial environment. The significance of environmental radioactivity lies in the contribution to the annual exposure of the general population to ionising radiation. This exposure results largely from natural sources of radioactivity and radiation together with applications of radiation in medicine. Minor contributions are from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear power production and the nuclear fuel cycle, and consumer products including luminous clocks and watches, television receivers and smoke detectors. The natural background radiation level varies substantially with altitude and geographic location. Although no satisfactory evidence is available that natural variations in background radiation levels are detrimental to humans, upper limits of risk have been estimated for possible somatic and genetic effects from these levels of radiation. Contributory sources of and variability in the radiation background are reviewed and the relation between effective dose equivalent and associated detriment outlined. The risk from exposure to an average level of background radiation is compared with risks from other human activities

  13. Radioactivity in foodstuffs 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The average radioactivity dose level to which the Norwegian population was exposed through the ingestion of food in 1988 was between 0.10 and 0.15 mSv. This was about the same as in 1987. The radioactivity dose to which individuals with certain special dietary habits (large proportions of freshwater fish and reindeer meat in the diet) were exposed, was, however, up to three times higher in 1988 than in 1987. This was due firstly to the fact that reindeer meat which had been produced prior to the Chernobyl accident was no longer available, and secondly, to dietary advice not being followed as closely as before. The cost-benefit ratio of the measures introduced to reduce radioactivity levels in food, i.e. resources employed compared with the actual reduction in radioactivity levels achieved, has proved to be reasonably satisfactory, both in 1987 and 1988. Action levels and dietary advice remained unchanged in 1988. The present report summarizes results of analyses performed in 1988, and describes the measures introduced concerning various categorites of foods. Measures introduced were, as in 1987, primarily focused on the production of sheep meat (mutton/lamb) and on reindeer farming. 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Lower fungi and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, M.

    1989-01-01

    Sorption activities for radioactive elements were observed in molds Penicillinum muszynsky, Aspergillus versicolor and Alternaria tenius. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were isolated in laboratory and cultivated on a modified substrate containing uranyl nitrate and uranyl acetate. They were found to be capable of absorbing in the biomass some members of the uranium decay series. (E.J.). 4 tabs., 11 refs

  15. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  16. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  17. Examination of imaging detectors for combined radiography procedures in the ACCIS joint project. Automatic cargo container inspection system. Final report; Untersuchung von bildgebenden Detektoren fuer kombinierte Radiographieverfahren im Verbundprojekt ACCIS. Automatisches Cargo-Container Inspektionssystem. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangendorf, Volker

    2014-06-09

    Currently used screening systems of air cargo are based on X-ray radiation from bremsstrahlung generators. Thus, different substances from light elements of approximately the same density are difficult to distinguish, e.g. the image contrast between explosives and drugs is low compared to harmless organic substances, such as plastic parts or foodstuffs, and requires extensive follow-up investigations. On the other hand, the image contrast is also low in the case of heavy elements with X-ray methods, e.g. Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) such as Pu and.U, which are also transported in a container of lead for camouflage and mixed with goods from other heavy metals, makes it very difficult. Within the framework of the ACCIS Collaborative Project, a new inspection system for airfreight based on neutron and gamma irradiation was researched. Within this framework, the PTB subproject covered the following tasks: 1. Research and development of laboratory prototypes of imaging radiation detectors; 2. Development of a measuring station for the evaluation of the screening method at the PTB accelerator system, 3. Cooperation in the development of a concept for a pulsed radiation source, in particular design and investigation of the beam-producing target. 4. Determination of the physical and dosimetric parameters relevant to radiation protection. Examination of the conditions of application, requirement of operational facility, end user contacts; 6. Coordination of the German partners, in particular organization of the project meetings of the German and Israeli partners. [German] Derzeitig eingesetzte Durchleuchtungssysteme von Luftfrachtcontainern basieren auf Roentgenstrahlung aus Bremsstrahlungsgeneratoren. Damit lassen sich unterschiedliche Stoffe aus leichten Elementen annaehernd gleicher Dichte nur schwer unterscheiden, z.B. ist der Bildkontrast zwischen Sprengstoffen und Drogen gegenueber harmlosen organischen Stoffen wie Kunststoffteilen oder Lebensmitteln gering und

  18. Usability test of the ImPRO, computer-based procedure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.; Lee, J.

    2006-01-01

    ImPRO is a computer based procedure in both flowchart and success logic tree. It is evaluated on the basis of computer based procedure guidelines. It satisfies most requirements such as presentations and functionalities. Besides, SGTR has been performed with ImPRO to evaluate reading comprehension and situation awareness. ImPRO is a software engine which can interpret procedure script language, so that ImPRO is reliable by nature and verified with formal method. One bug, however, had hidden one year after release, but it was fixed. Finally backup paper procedures can be prepared on the same format as VDU in case of ImPRO failure. (authors)

  19. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  20. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  1. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  2. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  3. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  4. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix

  6. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Natural radioactivity and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The radioactivity have been existing everywhere in the nature for the night of times. The most radioactive places such Guarapari in Brazil or Ramsar in Iran or springs of Bad Gastein in Austria do not reveal more cancers linked to radioactivity than everywhere else. Only the important radiation doses over 100 MSv received in one time are dangerous for health. (N.C.)

  8. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  9. A radioactive controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    During 2002, the National Congress of Argentina began discussing the 'Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and Australia on cooperation in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy'. This document has revived the debate regarding development of a national nuclear industry. The debate was spurred by a commercial contract signed in 2000 by INVAP, an Argentinean company who sold a nuclear reactor to the ANSTO, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization. More than sixty non-governmental organizations are opposed to the ratification of the agreement, because they interpret that the text leaves the door wide open for the transport and deposit of Australian nuclear waste to Argentina, to be processed in national territory. Article 41 of the Argentinean National Constitution, explicitly prohibits the generation of any income from 'radioactive residues'. Those who support the agreement say that it does not promote the deposit of nuclear waste in Argentina, and argue that environmentalists are hampering efforts of this advanced technological industry to flourish in Argentina. The point of conflict in the agreement lies in article 12, which states that Argentina will continue the process of reactor-driven irradiated fuel outside Argentina. Once the treatment is completed, the fuel conditioned and the resulting waste must return to the country of origin for their storage. The possibility of spent fuel being sent to Argentina lies in the hypothetical case that the French company Cogema, which currently holds treatment responsibility, stops treatment sometime within the next fifteen years, when the fuel must be treated. The non-ratification of the agreement on Argentina part will not imply any sort of impediment in the realization of the reactor, it will only put on hold the possibility that the Australians spent fuels will complete treatment in Argentina. The constitutionality of the agreement lies in the question of waste, but this too is not a simple question. The

  10. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  11. Becquerel and natural origin radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Becquerel as radioactivity measurement unit, this document briefly explains the origin of natural radioactivity (Earth formation and cosmic rays), gives and comments the evolution of radioactivity of some radionuclides (U 238 and descendants, Th 232 and descendants, K 40 ) between 4.5 billions yeas ago and nowadays. It also gives assessments of natural radioactivity due to radon in the atmosphere and in the soil, of natural radioactivity in building materials, coals, ashes, seawater and food. Some remarkable figures are then given

  12. Estudios por imágenes en reumatismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ch. Sara, Dra.

    2012-07-01

    Los grandes avances tecnológicos de la última década han mejorado la calidad y cantidad de información que las distintas técnicas aportan, especialmente la RM; esto hace vislumbrar un cambio significativo en el diagnóstico por imágenes, ya que en el futuro no solo estará basado en los cambios morfológicos en órganos y tejidos; las imágenes obtenidas aportarán información bioquímica, molecular y fisiológica de los procesos patológicos facilitando su diagnóstico aun más precoz.

  13. Geschichtsbezogene und rechtspolitische Polonica im Bücherbestand Gottfried Lengnichs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Imańska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gottfried Lengnich, der Historiker und Syndikus der Stadt Danzig aus dem 18. Jahrhundert, hinterließ eine Büchersammlung mit über viertausend Büchern, die nach seinem Tode in zwei Auktionen im Juli und November 1774 versteigert werden sollten. Die Auktionskataloge befinden sich in der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz und sind auch online zugänglich. Wegen wissenschaftlicher Interessen Lengnichs befanden sich in seiner Bibliothek ca. 600 Polonica-Drucke, die meisten davon waren Abhandlungen im Themenfeld Geschichte, Recht und Politik. Die Analyse dieses Fragments des Bücherbestands Lengnichs bewies, dass der Syndikus eine perfekte Arbeitswerkstatt für sich schuf, indem er die Werke der meisten wichtigsten polnischen und fremden Autoren, die über die Geschichte und die Gesetzgebung Polens und Preußens schrieben, sammelte.

  14. Synthesis of Cyclic Py-Im Polyamide Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Benjamin C.; Montgomery, David C.; Puckett, James W.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic Py-Im polyamides containing two GABA turn units exhibit enhanced DNA binding affinity, but extensive studies of their biological properties have been hindered due to synthetic inaccessibility. A facile modular approach toward cyclic polyamides has been developed via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of hairpin amino acid oligomer intermediates followed by macrocyclization. A focused library of cyclic polyamides 1–7 targeted to the androgen response element (ARE) and the estrogen...

  15. Agrupador de imágenes multimodal no supervisado

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Hernando, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Máster donde se implementa un método multimodal para la clasificación de imágenes sin etiquetar y sin intervención humana. Treball Fi de Màster on s'implementa un mètode multimodal per a la classificació d'imatges sense etiquetar i sense intervenció humana. Master thesis for the Computer Science Engineering program.

  16. Topologieoptimierung im Creo-Umfeld mit ProTopCI

    OpenAIRE

    Simmler, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia umschreibt die Topologieoptimierung als ein computerbasiertes Berechnungsverfahren, durch welches eine günstige Grundgestalt (Topologie) für Bauteile unter mechanischer Belastung ermittelt werden kann. Durch die Verwendung von 3D-Druck-Verfahren wird die Gestaltung der Komponenten revolutioniert, weil diese nicht mehr abhängig vom Fertigungsverfahren sind. Dabei werden auch optimale Gitterstrukturen innerhalb der Komponenten immer wichtiger. Diese neuen Herausforderungen können im C...

  17. Simulation von Heißrubbeln im Gesamtbremssystem

    OpenAIRE

    Könning, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Bremsenrubbeln ist eine fremderregte Schwingung des Bremssystems, die es in der Ent-wicklung zu vermeiden gilt. Eine Wirkungskette des Heißrubbelns wurde in einem Vorgängerprojekt erarbeitet und bildet die Grundlage für diese Arbeit. Die Entstehung des Heißrubbelns besteht aus verschiedenen Phasen und beginnt mit einer initialen Verwellung. Daraus resultieren im Bremssystem Bremsmomentschwankungen und die schwankende Reibleistung führt wiederum zu einem Wachstum der Bremsscheibenverformung. ...

  18. Frauen mit Eßstörungen im Ausdauersport

    OpenAIRE

    Bös, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht das Phänomen Eßstörungen bei Ausdauersportlerinnen. Auf dem Hintergrund des identitätstheoretischen Ansatzes von Stahr et al. (1995) geht es um die Frage nach den Hauptverursachungsmomenten der Eßstörungen von sieben jungen Sportlerinnen. Im Rahmen einer qualitativen Sozialforschungsarbeit wurden sieben Athletinnen in einem problemzentrierten Interview zur Phase ihrer Eßstörungserkrankung befragt. Die Arbeit setzt sich zum Ziel, einen Beitrag zur systematisch...

  19. Aufgabenbezogene Differenzierung und Entwicklung des verbalen Selbstkonzepts im Anfangsunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowsky, Frank; Kastens, Claudia; Lotz, Miriam; Faust, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, wie sich aufgabenbezogene Differenzierung im Deutschunterricht auf die Entwicklung des verbalen Selbstkonzepts von Erst- und Zweitklässlern (Lesen und Schreiben) auswirkt. Die untersuchte Stichprobe setzt sich aus 735 Schülern des ersten Schuljahres zusammen, die 38 Klassen an staatlichen und privaten Grundschulen besuchen und die bis zum Ende des zweiten Schuljahres in ihrer Entwicklung untersucht wurden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen sowohl einen indirekten als au...

  20. Mediengestaltung im interkulturellen Vergleich. Eine Studie zu Mikroaspekten der Globalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Stahl, Gilda

    2017-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem interkulturellen Vergleich von lokalen Werbespots aus Deutschland und Ecuador. Im Zentrum des Interesses steht die implizite Dimension der technisch gebundenen audiovisuellen Kommunikation, d.h. die Art und Weise, wie die Kommunikationsmedien – das Bild, die Sprache und die Musik – bei der Gestaltung der Spots verwendet werden. Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung bildet der Ansatz von Nothnagel/Vera (2004, 2005), dass Habitusformen der Face-to-Face-...

  1. Collecting Virtual Reference Statistics with an IM Chat-Bot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason R.K. Hall

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem in libraries is capturing accurate statistics. This article addresses this problem with the creative use of Web 2.0 tools: Meebo and AOL Instant Messenger. It describes the development and implementation of an instant messaging "stat-bot" that prompts staff to record virtual reference statistics via IM. Step-by-step guidelines and the perl script are provided.

  2. Business-Intelligence-Systeme im Spannungsfeld zwischen Usability und Sicherheit

    OpenAIRE

    Hinck, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Business-Intelligence-Systeme stehen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Usability und Sicherheit. Die Gefahren und Sicherheitsmaßnahmen für Informationssysteme werden ermittelt und ökonomisch in Bezug zur Gebrauchstauglichkeit gesetzt. Es entsteht ein Sicherheitsprofil für Business-Intelligence-Systeme. Business-Intelligence-Systems are in tension between Usability and IT-Security. Risks and safety measures of informationsystems are defined and set in (economic) regard to Usability. A security prof...

  3. QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR IN-MINE (IM) SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2001-01-01

    A circuit that had been earlier lab-tested to eliminate multi-antenna interference in the In-mine (IM) system was fabricated, implemented and tested successfully in a system setting. An adaptive, tracking comb-filter for the through-the-earth (TTE) communications system was designed and implemented. This resulted in noticeable noise reduction. Studies for multi-channel transmission have begun

  4. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  5. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  6. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caminade, F.; Laurent, H.

    1957-01-01

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m 3 ). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author) [fr

  7. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  9. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Radioactivity and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This book details the knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation from the discovery of radium to about 1980. Research findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them except where the work under discussion was markedly iconoclastic and obviously wrong according to the author's comments. Findings from over 100 personal interviews and literature searches including unpublished or little-known materials are summarized. The material in the book is divided into six sections. The first section deals with naturally occurring radioactive elements. The next section covers material on man-made radioisotopes. Inhalation toxicology (radioactive dusts and particles and respirable gases) is the subject of Section 3. Section 4 deals with environmental matters - radioecology, fallout from nuclear weapons tests, transport of radionuclides, testing and standard settings, and Section 5 consists of information on laboratory and field instrumentation. The development of the therapy for exposure and of nuclear medicine is traced in the final section

  12. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  14. Radioactive gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Akira; Kumagaya, Koji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a gas processing system which has hitherto been much complicated by the recyclic use of molecular sieve regeneration gas, by enabling to release the regeneration gas to outside in a once-through manner. Constitution: The system comprises a cooler for receiving and cooling gases to be processed containing radioactive rare gases, moisture-removing pipelines each connected in parallel to the exit of the cooler and having switching valves and a moisture removing column disposed between the valves and a charcoal absorber in communication with the moisture removing pipelines. Pipelines for flowing regeneration heating gases are separately connected to the moisture removing columns, and molecular sieve is charged in the moisture removing column by the amount depending on the types of the radioactive rare gases. (Aizawa, K.)

  15. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  17. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  19. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  20. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The results are described of monitoring radioactivity of atmospheric fallout, surface waters, soils, plant feeds, cereals, and other agricultural produce. The results were obtained over a long time period. Radioactivity was also measured of milk, milk products, vegetables and fruits, meat and hen eggs, flour and bakery products with a view to radionuclide migration in the food chain. The daily intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from food was determined from the values obtained and the consumption of the individual types of food. Strontium-90 distribution was studied in the bones and the teeth of the population in Slovakia. With the commissioning of nuclear power plants, emissions and liquid wastes were monitored and their environmental impact assessed. (E.S.)

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  3. Hyperthyroidism and radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The study details the results of treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism using a combination of fractionated low doses radioactive iodine and anthithyroid drug therapy. The patients studied were treated according to this regimen after August 1968 and all reached euthyroidism before March 1979. None of the patients had been treated with radioactive iodine prior to the start of the protocol. A subgroup of the patients had received an unsuccessfull course with antithyroid drug therapy and, or, surgical therapy before the start of the protocol. Patients who had never been treated for hyperthyroidism were given antithyroid drug therapy for at least 6 months in an attempt to reach euthryroidism without the use of 131 I therapy. Therefore, all patients had experienced a course of unsuccessfull therapy prior to the start of the treatment protocol using combined fractionated low doses of 131 I and antithyroid drug therapy. (Auth.)

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  5. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  6. Zur mediopassiven 2. Und 3. Person dualis im indogermanischen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Čop

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Bekanntlich gibt es in einigen seltenen idg. Sprachen (im Arischen, Griechischen, Tocharischen auch Personal - suffixe für die 2. u n d 3. P. Du. des Mediopassivs. Von diesen sind die griechischen Ausgänge – 2. und 3. Du primär, 2. Du. sekundär, Du. sekundär sicher junge Neubildungen, s. z. B. Brugmann, Grdr.2 II 3 II, 657, § 602; Schwyzer, Gr. Gr. I 670, 672. Ein voll ausgebildetes System solcher Endungen besitzt das Arische; im Tocharischen kommt nur eine einzige Form mit solcher Endung vor, die die 2. P. Du. Med. lmperativi darstellt. Unter solchen Umständen scheint es schwierig, aus diesem Material wahrscheinliche Schlüsse für da_s Urindogermanische zu machen. Und doch ist gerade die tocharische Form, die uns eine ausserordentlich grosse Hilfe leistet, wenn man sie richtig zu beurteilen vermag. Die tocharische Endung, verbunden mit den arischen, wird unter Einschluss der allgemeinen Tendenzen und Regelungen im System der indogermanischen Personalsuffixe ohne Schwierigkeit die urindogermanische Urform erscheinen lassen.

  7. Report on converging insert moulding with µ-IM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    moulding with µ-IM  Task 5.2.1 and COTECH demonstrator: guide line for 5PRC production based on the concept of Task 5.2.1 Information and results provided by this deliverable will be directly used for one of the COTECH demonstrators production which will call for convergent insert moulding with µ......Task 5.2.1 deals with the technical feasibility of converging the state-of-the-art µ IM process with insert moulding to offer a wide range of multi-material µ components. The main objective of this deliverable is to summarize state-of-the-art information and to make the guideline needed...... for the convergence. In particular the following aspects are summed up in the deliverable:  Need for converging insert moulding with µ-IM  Objectives and expected outcome from task 5.2.1  State-of-the-art micro insert moulding and different scenario of micro insert moulding  Challenges ahead of converging insert...

  8. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  9. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  10. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  11. The radioactive grasshopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-15

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  12. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  13. The radioactive grasshopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  14. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  15. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  16. Radioactive gas inhalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMon, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    An ''inhalator'', or more particularly an apparatus for permitting a patient to inhale a radioactive gas in order to provide a diagnostic test of the patient's lung area, is described. The disclosed apparatus provides a simple, trouble-free mechanism for achieving this result; and, furthermore, provides an improved testing method. Moreover, the disclosed apparatus has the capability of gradually introducing the test condition in a manner that makes it easy for the patient to become acclimated to it. (U.S.)

  17. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  18. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  19. Radioactive sources in brachytherapy:

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Janez

    2003-01-01

    Background. In modern brachytherapy, a greast step forward was made in the 1960s in France with the introduction of new radioactive isotopes and new techniques. These innovations spread rapidly across Europe, though no single dosimetry standard had been set by then. In the new millennium, the advances in brachytherapy are further stimulated by the introduction of 3-D imaging techniques and the latest after loading irradiation equipment that use point sources. The international organiyation IC...

  20. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  2. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  3. CERN: Producing radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerating radioactive beams has long been of interest at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator - the possibility was discussed at a CERN Workshop on intermediate energy physics as early as 1977. Meanwhile, as was highlighted in the 1991 report of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, widespread scientific interest in these beams has developed and a range of projects are proposed, under construction or operational throughout the world

  4. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  5. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  7. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  8. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  9. Radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrescu, M.; Milu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in Romania is based on National Regulations for Radiation Protection enforced in 1976, on other environment protection laws enforced in the last years and on the recommendations of IAEA. Accordingly two systems of radioactive monitoring are to date operational in this field: the first one is the self-control of the radioactive emissions in the environment generated by the own nuclear activities (of nuclear units like the Cernavoda NPP, the Institute of Atomic Physics at Magurele-Bucharest, the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, the R Plant at Feldioara, Uranium mining units, etc.), while the other is based on two national agencies (the National Network of Environment Radiation Monitoring of the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection and the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Health Ministry). The authors review and discuss the radiation protection legislation, the structure and the organizational operations of the national monitoring systems and the co-operation of the national monitoring systems with international authorities or programmes. 3 Figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  10. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  11. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In this report different aspects of the radioactivity in the environment of the Slovak Republic for the period of 2004 - 2006 years are reported. This report is published only on the Enviroportal.sk. The following aspects of the radioactivity in the environment are reviewed there: Electricity production in nuclear power plants and their consumption; Natural sources of ionisation radiation; Man-made sources of ionisation radiation; Safety of exploitation of the nuclear power plants on the territory of the Slovak Republic; International Nuclear Event Scale; Basic information about influence of radiation on health of population and about evaluation methods; Influence of physical risk factors (including of ionisation radiation) in the working environment on formation of occupation diseases; Collective doses of occupation in NPPs; Health state of population in the locality of the NPP Mochovce; Food contamination by ionisation radiation; Radiation monitoring network; Legislative directives about population health protection against ionisation radiation action; Decommissioning of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (EBO V-1); Conception of the back fuel cycle and treatment of spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes; Project of territorial-economic development of the Trnava region after decommissioning of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

  12. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  14. Analysis of radioactive cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, which prescribes on the analysis method for radioactive cobalt which is a typical indexing nuclide among the radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Since the released cobalt is mainly discharged to coastal region together with waste water, this manual is written for samples of sea water, sea bottom sediments and marine organisms. Radioactive cobalt includes the nuclides of 57 co, 58 Co, 60 Co, etc., the manual deals with them as a whole as 60 Co of long half life. Though 60 Co analysis has become feasible comparatively simply due to scintillation or semi-conductor spectrometry, trace 60 Co analysis is performed quantitatively by co-precipitation or collection into alumina and scintillation spectrometry. However, specific collecting operation and γ-γ coincidence measurement have been required so far. This manual employs 60 Co collection by means of ion-exchange method and measurement with low background GM counting system, to analyze quantitatively and rapidly low level 60 Co. It is primarily established as the standard analyzing method for the survey by local autonomous bodies. It is divided into 4 chapters including introduction sea water, marine organisms, and sea bottom sediments. List of required reagents is added in appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  16. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  17. Analysis of radioactive ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This manual explains the procedures of analysis of radioactive ruthenium in the drain water from atomic energy plants. The most important radioactive ruthenium is 106 Ru, and the method of measurement described in this manual is to measure the beta ray of the daughter nuclide 106 Rh. The samples to be measured are collected from seawater, marine living things, and sediment of sea bottom near atomic energy plants. In case of sea water, the ruthenium is separated by the co-precipitation with magnesium hydroxide and distillation or the extraction with carbon tetrachloride, reduction and precipitation. The beta ray of the obtained sample is measured by a gas-flow type low background β counting system. Alkali dissolution-distillation or nitric acid extraction-distillation, reduction and precipitation are applied for marine living things. The sediment of sea bottom is treated with nitric acid or strong phosphoric acid, and distilled then the ruthenium is reduced and precipitated, and the beta-counting of the precipitation is made. The method to fix radioactive ruthenium on polyethylene films after the co-precipitation is also described for reference. The detectable levels by the present methods are 0.05 pCi/l for sea water, 0.1 pCi/g for marine living things, and 20 pCi/kg for the sediment of sea bottom. (Kato, T.)

  18. [Das Bild und die Wahrnehmung der Stadt und der städtischen Gesellschaft im Hanseraum im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Das Bild und die Wahrnehmung der Stadt und der städtischen Gesellschaft im Hanseraum im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit. hrsg. v. Roman Czaja. Torun, 2004. Torunis 2002. aastal toimunud konverentsi materjalid. Projekti "Pilt ja linn" raames ilmunud publikatsioonide loendit saab näha aadressil http://www.historiaurbium.org/english/attivita_images_en.html.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  20. Medienpädagogische Aufgabenfelder hinsichtlich der Visualität im digitalen Zeitalter. Desiderate im Umgang mit visuellen Medienkulturen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Missomelius

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Die bildungskulturell leitende Funktion des Buches diffundiert im digitalen Zeitalter mobiler und transversaler Systeme von Netzwerkmedien. Zudem sind soziokulturelle Lebenswelten wie Bildungsinstitutionen, Familie und Peers durch Heterogenität gekennzeichnet. Indem auch diese Teil des Geflechts medienkultureller Architekturen werden, geraten ehemals gültige Unterscheidungsparameter wie explizites und implizites, formelles und informelles Wissen ins Wanken. Grenzziehungen und konkurrierende Auffassungen gegenüber diesen, vormals als der Bildung entgegengesetzt wahrgenommenen, Bereichen erweisen sich nunmehr als problematisch. So spielt Visualität im Kontext multimodal zusammengesetzter Bildungsmaterialien eine zunehmende Rolle und wird als Möglichkeit des Umgangs mit Komplexität eingesetzt. Wenngleich somit die Zurückhaltung gegenüber (Bewegt-Bildmedien in der pädagogischen Praxis schwindet, so haben sich mit der Digitalisierung medienkulturell bedeutsame Felder eröffnet, welche erziehungswissenschaftlicher Beachtung bedürfen. Eine sich der Komplexität digitaler Medienkulturen stellende Medienpädagogik bringt mit sich, dass auch Funktion und Gebrauch visueller Medien im Kontext von Bildungsprozessen reflektiert stattfinden. Medienpädagogisch informiertes Agieren in visuellen Medienkulturen ist darüber hinaus heute gerade deshalb essentiell, da es sich bei digital generierter Visualität um eine neue Qualität im Unterschied zu traditionellen Bildmedien handelt, welche der Logik der Repräsentation entsprachen. Der Beitrag thematisiert Desiderate, die sich hinsichtlich des Visuellen datenbasierter Medien für die Medienpädagogik ergeben, und geht dabei auf kommunikative Bildlichkeit, auf paradigmatische mediale Formen und auf datengestützte Wissensgenerierung ein.

  1. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  3. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  6. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  7. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  8. The control of water radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Graubey, A.

    1962-01-01

    This report presents the different apparatuses and devices used to control and adjust routine releases, to detect accidental pollutions, and to identify the origins of an increased radioactivity. The objective is to perform permanent and continuous sampling and measurement. Samplers and measurement devices (Geiger probes, resin-based integrators, dry aerosol radioactivity recorders and dry sample radioactivity recorders) are presented. Water control stations are presented: these stations are either fixed, or mobile or floating

  9. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-01-01

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of ∼11,600 km 2 and a population of ∼600,000

  10. Radioactive wastes - inventories and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de

  11. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  13. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  14. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  15. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  16. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  17. Radioactive waste processing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Suzuki, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a vessel of a reduced weight and with no external leaching of radioactive materials. Constitution: The vessel main body is constituted, for example, with light weight concretes or foamed concretes, particularly, foamed concretes containing fine closed bubbles in the inside. Then, layers having dense texture made of synthetic resin such as polystylene, vinylchloride resin, etc. or metal plate such as stainless plate are integrally disposed to the inner surface of the vessel main body. The cover member also has the same structure. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  19. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    The present volume is a continuation of the earlier bibliographie series 'Contamination and decontamination of foods'. The reduced importance of nuclear weapons tests and decontamination problems in foodstuffs and the increasing amount of literature on environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities and on radioecology made a change of title and a new classification of contents necessary. The main subjects are now: General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The present volume contains 208 citations on these subjects, mainly from the last two years. (orig.) [de